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					                                 The Civil Rights Movement
                                         Chapter 22


I. A New Beginning
      a. Background
              i. African-Americans forced into separation
             ii. Jim Crow Laws
           iii. Unequal opportunities
                     1. Housing, jobs, restaurants, and bussing
            iv. The community won several important Supreme Court decisions.
      b. Brown v The Board of Education
              i. May 1954
             ii. Linda Brown of Topeka , Kansas
                     1. Segregated schools acceptable as long as equal
                            a. Plessy v Ferguson
                            b. Separate but equal – Jim Crow Laws
                     2. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
                     3. Reversal
           iii. Governor of Virginia threatened to close state schools and send white students to
                 a private school
            iv. “Southern Manifesto” called the court’s ruling “a clear abuse of judicial power”
                     1. Pledged to use all lawful measures to reverse decision
      c. Boycotts and Demonstrations
              i. Rosa Parks
                     1. Seamstress from Montgomery, Alabama (1955)
             ii. Meeting held at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church
           iii. Leading the Boycott Dr. Martin Luther King
           iv. Results
                     1. Busses are boycotted (1yr).
                            a. Park’s convicted and fined $10
                            b. Leaders arrested for sponsoring an “illegal boycott”
                            c. Supreme Court ruled segregation of public transportation illegal
      d. Non Violence
              i. Mohandas Gandhi
             ii. Dr King
                     1. Both supporters of nonviolence.
                            a. People told to disobey unjust laws
                            b. Love your oppressors; never fight or provoke them.
           iii. Southern Christian leadership Conference (SCLC)
            iv. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
             v. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
            vi. National Urban League – establish community programs for minorities
           vii. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) – worked for economic and political
                 opportunities for African Americans
    Crisis in Little Rock
       e. Little Rock, Arkansas
                 i. Eisenhower – president
                ii. Earl Warren – Chief Justice of the Supreme Court – liberal justice
               iii. Thurgood Marshall- Lawyer for the NAACP
               iv. Argued AA were not getting fair treatment under the law Brown v the Board of
                    Education and Plessy v Ferguson
                        1. Result
                                 a. Plessy v Ferguson overturned
       f. Eisenhower
                 i. Believed the federal government should remain neutral concerning controversial
                    issues; issue for the states and local agencies
                ii. “I don’t believe you can change the hearts of men with laws and decisions.”
               iii. First civil rights law passed since reconstruction (1957).
                        1. It gave the Department of Justice the power to seek an injunction against
                            those denying any person their constitutional rights
       g. Confrontation
                 i. Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas
                ii. Governor Orval Faubus
                        1. Denied black students access to an all-white high school
                        2. Call out the National Guard
                        3. Paratroopers federalized (1,000)
                        4. National Guard federalized (10,000)
                        5. School remained open for the remainder of the year; closed 1958-59
               iii. The Little Rock Nine
               iv. Background information
                        1. Intimidation kept AA from voting along with customs
                        2. 25% of AA voting in the deep south
                        3. 5% in Mississippi
II. Success and Setbacks
       a. Sit-ins
                 i. African-Americans staged a sit-in
                        1. Greensboro, NC
       b. Kennedy – president
                 i. Big supporter of the civil rights movement
                        1. 1962 signed an executive order – ending segregation in govt housing
                        2. Appointed some judges to his administration
       c. Freedom Riders
                 i. Civil Rights’ Activitist
                        1. Attacked, fire-bombed, and jailed
                        2. President forced to use federal Marshalls
       d. Birmingham, Alabama
                 i. Police Commissioner, Eugene “Bull” Connor
                        1. Used dogs, fire hoses, and clubs against marchers
                        2. Televised march
                        3. Kennedy sent in 3,000 troops to restore order
       e. Southern Universities
                i. James Meredith (1962) 29-years old and air force veteran
               ii. Sought entrance into the University of Mississippi
             iii. Governor Ross Barnett declared
                      1. “Never, We will never surrender to the evil and illegal force of tyranny.”
              iv. Kennedy sent in federal Marshalls and the Mississippi National Guard
                      1. Meredith was able to attend the university
               v. Governor George Wallace
                      1. Stood in the doorway to prevent desegregation of Alabama’s university
                      2. Kennedy sent in troops again
                              a. Kennedy proposes new civil rights’ legislation
       f. March on Washington
                i. Anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation
               ii. March focused on Jobs and Freedom
                      1. “I Have a Dream” (Play segment of the speech to students)
                              a. 200,000 demonstrators
                              b. sang spirituals
                              c. Gathered in Lincoln Memorial
       g. New Civil Rights Act
                i. Only half of AA students in 9/11 Confederate states attended desegregated
                   schools
               ii. Some break after boycotts and sit-ins
             iii. President Johnson continued Kennedy’s Civil Rights policies
                      1. Assassinated on Nov 22, 1963
                              a. Johnson able to get legislation needed due to assassination of
                                 Kennedy
                      2. Civil Rights Act of 1964
                              a. All people have equal access to public facilities
                              b. Forbade discrimination in education and strengthened voting laws.
                      3. Civil Rights Act of 1965
                              a. Paved the way for AA to vote
                      4. Voting Rights Act of 1965
                              a. Helped minorities
                              b. Set aside laws (New York) requiring voters to be able to read
                                 English.
III. New Direction
       a. New Leadership
                i. Black Muslims
                      1. The Nation of Islam
                      2. Founded in the early 1930s
                              a. Led by Elijah Muhammad
                              b. Embraced faith and preached black nationalism
                                      i. Separation of blacks and whites and form own govt
                                     ii. Advocated self-defense
               ii. Malcolm X
                      1. Separated self from the Muslim community
                      2. Killed in February 1965
                              a. In the end, he favored integration
             iii. SNCC and CORE
                      1. Became more radicalized
       b. Black Power
              i. SNCC – headed by Stokely Carmichael
             ii. Philosophy stated, “blacks should take back control of all aspects of their lives”
                      1. By violence if necessary
                      2. They moved away from the idea of “assimilation
                      3. SNCC and CORE moved whites out of leadership positions
                             a. Blacks begin wearing “Afros”
                             b. NAACP threatened by their actions
       c. Black Panthers
              i. Huey Newton, Bobby Seale and Eldridge Cleaver Founders
                      1. Urged followers to arm themselves
                      2. And confront whites to force them to give them their equal rights
       d. Battle in the North
              i. King shifted attention to Northern cities
                      1. Chicago, Detroit etc
             ii. Riots
                      1. First riot took place in Harlem, New York City
                      2. Other followed Atlanta, Los Angeles, Chicago and Detroit
       e. Kerner Commission
              i. Johnson appoints a National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders
             ii. Coomission laid the responsibility for the ghetto at the feet of white society
       f. Death of Martin L King
              i. April 3, 1968
       g. After Civil Rights
              i. Richard Nixon becomes president
             ii. He wanted the republicans to win both Houses
                      1. He needed Southern Democrats
                      2. He supported school boards that delayed desegregation
                      3. Nixon denounced bussing to integrate
                      4. Nation resisted this measure
IV. The Impact of the Civil Rights
       a. The Women’s Rights Movement
              i. Women faced sexual and racial discrimination
       b. Status of women
       c. Less than 5 % of elective offices in US
       d. Few female senators, governors, no supreme court justices
       e. Woman make-up 1/3 of work force
       f. They earn 59 cent to a male’s 1.00
       g. 75% more pay than male
              i. Betty Friedan - feminist
                      1. The Feminine Mystique
                             a. Image of women was to work in the home and imprison them
                      2. National Organization for Women (NOW)
                             a. Feminist or women activist
                             b. Helped support the end of separate classified for women
                             c. Requirement for flight attendants to retire at 32
                             d. Increased the number of women entering professional careers
                             e. Force banks, realtors, department stores loans, grants and credit to
                                 female applicants.
ii. Equal Rights Amendment ERA
       1. 1972 submitted to states for approval
       2. Phyllis Schlafly founder of STOP ERA
              a. Advocated as a bunch of whining complaints by unmarried women
              b. Force women give up traditional role at home.
              c. The ERA failed to receive the necessary votes for passage.
       3. Women Make progress
              a. Sexism – people treated differently because of their gender
              b. Princeton opens doors to female students- all male
              c. 1984, Geraldine Farraro first women to run for the office of vice-
                  president
       4. Hispanic Activism
              a. Second largest minority in the United States
              b. Next to AA
              c. New York City 2 million Spanish-Speaking people
              d. Florida – Little Havana
                       i. Cesar Chavez
                              1. Organized a nation wide coalition
                              2. Boycott California grape growers products
                              3. Grapes picked by nonunion workers
                              4. Protest lasted 5 yrs
                      ii. League of United Latin American Citizens
                              1. Won right to serve on juries,
                              2. Attend unsegregated schools,
                              3. To be taught in Spanish – bilingualism
       5. Native Americans
              a. Life expectancy 46yrs
              b. Termination policy
                       i. Integrate NA in to white society
                      ii. Stop recognize Native American nations as a legal entity
                    iii. Forced to give up culture and accept white society’s culture
                     iv. National Congress of American Indians formed
              c. Declaration of Indian Purpose
                       i. 400 representatives of 67 tribes
                      ii. Draw up a Bill of Rights
                              1. Committed to Indian nationalism and intertribal
                                 unity
                              2. Belief in “Red Power”
                    iii. In 1968, Congress passes The Indian Civil Rights Act
                     iv. American Indian Movement
                              1. Seized the reservation at Wounded Knee, South
                                 Dakota
                              2. Demanded the Federal govt. return land taken
                                 illegally from Native Americans in years past.
                              3. Stated they wanted to manage Indian Affairs as
                                 opposed to Bureau of Indian Affairs
                              4. Gained Pueblos at Taos, New Mexico

				
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