Phylum Porifera I. General Information • Kingdom : Animalia • Phylum : Porifera • Porifera = “pore bearer” Yellow barrel sponge Pink lumpy sponge I. General Information Size range – 1 cm to 2 meters in diameter Giant Barrel sponges II. Body Structure A. Ostia – pores – many, water IN B. Oscula – large opening(s), one or few, water OUT osculum II. Body Structure C. Choanocytes – collar cells; have flagella D. Amoebocytes – transport food to layer of cells not on the surface II. Body Structure E. Spicules – “skeleton” hard splinter-like; made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or silica (Si) F. Spongin – flexible protein III. Level of organization A. Cellular B. Eukaryotic C. No tissues Japanese Deep Sea Sponge IV. Symmetry A. Some asymetrical B. Some radial V. Habitat Aquatic - A. Marine and B. Fresh-water Purple Rope sponge Fresh-water Sponge VI. Feeding • Heterotrophic • Filter feeders • Food trapped by choanocytes • Intracellular digestion (within the cell) • No digestive tract VI. Feeding – Water & food goes in via ostia – Choanocytes trap food in spongocoel – Amoebocytes carry food to inner layer of cells – Water out osculum VII. Respiration - via diffusion VIII. Internal transport • via diffusion IX. Response • NONE ! • No Nervous System • No cephalization Pipe organ sponge X. Locomotion = movement or motility Larvae Free- swimming, use cilia Adults Sessile (do NOT move) XI. Reproduction 1. Asexual a. budding b. gemmules formed in stress conditions XI. Reproduction 2. Sexual a. Most monoecious = • both sexes in same organism (hermaphrodites) • egg & sperm produced • cross fertilization • egg + sperm => free-swimming larvae XI. Reproduction 2. Sexual b. Some dioecious • Separate sexes • Egg OR sperm produced Sponge releasing sperm XII. Ecological Roles A. Habitat for other aquatic animals B. Food for some XII. Ecological Roles C. Home use: bathing, cleaning, home improvement, other XII. Ecological Roles D. Medical research Sponges do not get cancer Why not? Maybe we can use what keeps them from getting cancer to treat humans……….. Azure Vase Sponge Giant Barrel Sponge White Cryptic Sponge Elephant Ear Sponge Stove pipe sponge Yellow Vase Sponges Yellow Barrel Sponge Red Branch Sponge How deep would the oceans be if there were no sponges?
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