Chapter 19 W.C. II

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Chapter 19 W.C. II Powered By Docstoc
					               Chapter 19
• After 1850, nationalism became a real
  political force motivating practical policies
  as it pushed peoples to national unification
  and the creation of nation states, in the
  process tearing multi-national empires
  apart and even precipitating civil war.
                Chapter 19
– Nationalism
  • In the two decades after 1850, no political force
    was stronger than nationalism.
  • It pushed people toward national unity in Italy and
    Germany and threatened to tear the Habsburg and
    Ottoman Empires apart.
                Chapter 19
– Political Realism
   • Unlike in 1848, however, the nationalist political
     figures were neither revolutionaries nor idealists.
   • From positions of established power, this new
     generation of leaders molded nationalism to fit
     harsh political realities.
   • They gambled, compromised, manipulated, and
     fought to achieve their goals.
              Chapter 19
• Independent Italian states were brought
  together into a unified nation once Cavour
  became committed to the cause of Italian
  unification, laying the groundwork for the
  meeting between the Piedmontese army
  and Garibaldi’s troops in 1860.
The Drive for Italian Unification
 – Cavour
    • Cavour was born into a well-to-do, noble family living in
      Piedmont-Sardinia, a small, but relatively powerful
      independent state in northern Italy that also included the
      island of Sardinia.
 – Piedmont’s Leadership
    • Cavour’s goals were clear – modernize Peidmont
      economically and thereby win strength and respect for his
      homeland
    • Make Peidmont the central engine of the drive for national
      unification
    • Form a new Italian state as a constitutional monarchy under
      Piedmont’s king rather than a democratic republic or a
      confederation under the pope
The Drive for Italian Unification
 – War with Austria
   • Cavour and France’s emperor Napoleon III met at
     a French resort to discuss ways to move against
     Austria, a competitor of France on the Continent
     and the chief barrier to Cavour’s hopes for Italian
     unity.
   • After Austria declared war, France would help
     Piedmont drive the Austrians out of Lombardy and
     Venezia, and these two states would then be
     annexed to Piedmont-Sardinia.
The Drive for Italian Unification
 – Garibaldi
    • By early 1860, most of northern and central Italy had joined
      Piedmont voluntarily.
    • Nationalist Guiseppe Garibaldi organized people, conducted
      campaigns of guerilla warfare, and leading insurrections.
      Often in exile, he had become a well-known figure in Europe
      and the Americas.
    • In May 1860, accompanied by a thousand civilian warriors
      dressed in red shirts, he sailed for Sicily in southern Italy,
      where many peasants had already launched a revolt.
    • Garibaldi’s goal was nothing less than the conquest of the
      Kingdom of Naples, the largest and most populous of the
      Italian states, and then Rome itself.
 The Drive for Italian Unification
• Kingdom of Italy
  – Formally declared in March 1861, with Victor
    Emmanuel II as monarch and Piedmontese
    Constitution of 1848 as the national charter
  – The king, along with a parliamentary government
    elected by limited suffrage, would rule.
  – The Piedmontese flag now flew over all of Italy, from
    the Alps to Sicily, except Venetia and Rome; which
    joined the Italian state in 1866 & 1870 (excluding the
    Vatican palace
              Chapter 19
• In 1850, the Germanic Confederation,
  dominated by Austria, did not constitute a
  unified nation; a unified Germany would
  only appear in 1871 with the creation of
  the German empire unified around
  Prussian leadership thanks to Bismarck.
Germany “By Blood and Iron”
– Prussian Leadership
   • Like Italy, Germany as we understand it did not exist in 1850,
     except in the hearts of nationalists.
   • The best hope for German unity was with Prussia, which had
     strength thanks to economic expansion and leadership over
     the Zollverein.
   • Zollverein – a German customs union that fostered
     industrialization in Prussia and the Rhineland
   • When William I and his advisors proposed to double the size
     of the army, the liberals defeated the measure
   • Convinced that his royal authority was being threatened,
     William I called on Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
Germany “By Blood and Iron”
– Bismarck
  • “I was born and raised as an aristocrat,” Bismarck
    once explained. He would remain loyal to Prussia’s
    landowning aristocracy for the rest of his life.
  • He entered politics in 1847 and came to believe
    that only an alliance of conservatism and
    nationalism could preserve the aristocracy and
    strengthen Prussia.
  • He became prime minister of Prussia in 1862. He
    had the backing of the king, aristocracy, and the
    army; and he promptly defied the liberals in the
    legislature, violated the constitution, and ordered
    taxes collected for military reform.
Germany “By Blood and Iron”
– Wars for Unification
  • Like Cavour, Bismarck sought out political
    opportunities, created them when they failed to
    materialize, and did not hesitate to take calculated
    risks, including war.
  • In 1864, Denmark tried to incorporate Schleswig
    and Holstein, two small provinces lying between
    Prussia and Denmark.
Germany “By Blood and Iron”
– Austro-Prussian War
  • Bismarck stirred up trouble with Austria
  • He gained Russia’s sympathy by supporting its
    intervention against rebellious subjects in Poland.
  • In 1866, Bismarck used threats and maneuvers to
    provoke Austria into declaring war on Prussia.
  • Prussia now controlled the newly created North
    German Confederation.
Germany “By Blood and Iron”
– Franco-Prussian War
  • Bismarck confronted France in 1870 when the
    Spanish crown was offered to a Hohenzollern
    prince – related to William I.
  • Bismarck persuaded the prince to accept the
    Spanish offer, and the French immediately took
    alarm at being surrounded by Hohenzollerns.
  • The chancellor had taken his greatest risk, France
    seemed to possess enough military might and
    economic resources to humble Prussia.
  • The able Prussian troops quickly scored
    resounding successes.
            Franco-Prussian War
• Napoleon III was one of the captives
• When the news reached Paris, the liberals overthrew the
  government of the Second Empire and declared the Third French
  Republic.
• Paris surrendered in January 1871.
• On January 18, 1871, Bismarck called the heads of the German
  states to Versailles in France.
• In the Hall of Mirrors, the dignitaries proclaimed King William I,
  emperor of the new German Empire
• He ruled until 1888
• Bismarck’s constitution for the North German Confederation became
  the constitution for the new German Empire.
• The Second Reich included a large and growing population, a
  vibrant industrial economy, and a feared military.
• Bismarck remained chancellor and lived to rule over his creation for
  the next 19 years.
              Chapter 19
• Even as the United States strengthened
  politically and expanded territorially,
  growing regional differences led to a
  bloody civil war which reestablished
  national unity and government, at the
  same time as Canadian territories
  demanded to be a single nation.
 The Fight for National Unity in
        North America
– The United States
   • American culture began to free itself from European influence
– North-South Divisions
   • The South remained agricultural, dependent on plantation crops and
     based on slave labor
   • The North enjoyed a growing population and favored federal over
     state power
– Slavery
   • By the early 1800s, the northern states had eliminated slavery
   • In the North, antislavery sentiment grew
– The Civil War
   • Regional differences ignited war between the North and the South
– Canada
   • In 1867, the British North American Act united Canada into a single
     nation with its own constitution
               Chapter 19

• The political force of nationalism pulled the
  multi-ethnic Austrian empire apart and
  caused subject nations in the Ottoman
  empire to revolt.
Divided Authority in the Austrian
     and Ottoman Empires
– Austria
   • Nationalism pulled Austria’s multiethnic empire apart
   • Czechs, Serbs, Romanians, Magyars, and others wanted to form
     independent nations rather than be one with Austria (German)
– Austria-Hungary, 1867
   • In 1866, the dominant German minority in Austria compromised with
     the Magyars rather than fight over nationality issues
   • The Compromise of 1867, set up the Dual Monarchy of Austria-
     Hungary
   • Each country had its own parliament, but the two were united under
     a common ruler, the head of the House of Habsburg
   • This arrangement did not please other national groups, especially
     the Czechs, who demanded equality with the Hungarians.
Divided Authority in the Austrian
     and Ottoman Empires
– The Ottoman Empire
   • Like the Austrians, the Ottoman rulers also had to struggle
     with the divisive forces of nationalism.
– Balkan Nationalism
   • In the Balkan provinces in southeastern Europe nationalism
     rose, producing movements for independence
   • Nationalism had fueled an unsuccessful revolt by the
     Romanians in 1848
   • In 1856, the Romanians gained international support as part
     of the settlement of the Crimean War
   • They won their freedom from the Ottomans in 1878
   • Due to nationalist movements among the Bulgars, they
     revolted in 1876
   • Although each side committed atrocities, those by the Turks
     shocked the Europeans
              Chapter 19

• By channeling nationalism into
  statebuilding, French and Russian rulers
  reached out to citizens for support,
  exchanging reform, social peace, and the
  idea of national greatness for support of
  the nation and its leaders.

• Napoleon III and the Second Empire
Using Nationalism in France and
            Russia
– Napoleon III
   • In France, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte promised reform while
     creating a regime based on authoritarian nationalism
   • He was originally elected president of France’s Second
     Republic in 1848
   • He organized a coup d’etat on 12-2-1851 to seize power
     because the National Assembly refused to change the
     constitution so he could run again
   • Napoleon III tried to convince citizens that he would lead the
     nation to new heights in domestic and foreign affairs
   • Napoleon directed the building of hospitals, nurseries, and
     homes for the aged.
Using Nationalism in France and
            Russia
– Napoleon III
  • He kept bread prices low, instituted a system of
    voluntary social insurance, encouraged
    cooperatives, and partially legalized labor unions
  • In 1862, his armies marched into Mexico City and
    set up a Habsburg prince, Maximilian, as puppet
    emperor for France
  • Napoleon withdrew his troops a few years later
    leaving Maximilian to deal with the Mexican forces,
    because of threats from the U.S.
  Using Nationalism in France and
              Russia
  – Fall of Napoleon III
      • Declining prosperity weakened Napoleon’s position within
        France
      • To appease liberals and workers he made many concessions
      • By 1870 the liberal parliament had begun to gain the upper
        hand, and Napoleon III went to war with Prussia where he
        was defeated and captured
• Alexander II and Russia
  Napoleon III had stood for order, reform from above, and national
    grandeur. Until he faltered, the French gave up their liberal
    sentiments for those ends. In Russia, Tsar Alexander II made
    similar appeals in an effort to overcome that country’s troubles
Using Nationalism in France and
            Russia
– Russia’s Autocracy
   • By 1850, Russia had earned a reputation as the most
     conservative of the European powers.
   • Its government was autocratic under the tsar, its feudalistic
     society still bound serfs to the land and their lords, and its
     large army had feelings of invincibility
– Crimean War
   • In 1853, war broke out between Russia and the Ottoman
     Turks
   • The causes were comlex
   • Russia hoped to take territory from the Ottoman Empire
Using Nationalism in France and
            Russia
– Alexander II’s “Great Reforms”
   • Alexander’s “Great Reforms” came from above but proved
     much more far-reaching and dramatic
   • In 1861, Alexander freed Russia’s 22 million serfs and, a few
     years later, 25 million state-owned peasants
   • Other reforms made the judicial system more independent,
     created local political assemblies with elected officials,
     encouraged primary and secondary education by opening
     thousands of new schools, and reduced military service
   • Expectations for further reform rose too fast for Alexander
   • Alexander intended to transform Russia into a modern
     authoritarian state that could command the allegiance of its
     citizens and wield power through a reformed, supported
     military. He succeeded only partially.

				
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