Mock Exam 2

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					                                      Mock Exam 2
                              Chapters 8 – 10, 12, and 13
                                      Anthony Todd

1. The energy used on Earth originates from:
       a. The Sun
       b. ATP
       c. Photoautotrophs
       d. Free Energy

2. How can the cell make reactions more efficient?
      a. Energy coupling
      b. Use more ATP
      c. Exergonic reactions
      d. Endergonic reactions
      e. Anabolic reactions

3. ______________ reactions make compounds. ______________ break up compounds.
      a. Metabolic; catabolic
      b. Metabolic; anabolic
      c. Catabolic; anabolic
      d. Anabolic; catabolic

4. Catalysts do all of the following EXCEPT:
       a. Speed up a chemical reaction
       b. Lower activation energy
       c. Change ΔG of the reaction
       d. Are not consumed by a reaction

5. All of the following are coenzymes EXCEPT:
        a. NADH
        b. Vitamin B
        c. CoA
        d. FADH2
        e. Magnesium

6. Substrate A is a substrate for Enzyme A. A solution of just Substrate A and Enzyme A has a
   reaction time of 1 hour. However, when B is added, that time increases to 2 hours. When C is
   added, the time increases to only 1 hour and 30 minutes. B is a(n) ______________ and C is a(n)
       a. Activator; competitive inhibitor
       b. Activator; activator
       c. Competitive inhibitor; noncompetitive inhibitor
       d. Noncompetitive inhibitor; competitive inhibitor
       e. Competitive inhibitor; activator
7. Most of the electrons removed from glucose by cellular respiration are used for which of the
   following processes?
        a. Reducing NAD+ to NADH in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
        b. Driving substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis
        c. Producing a proton gradient for ATP synthesis in the mitochondria
        d. A and C
        e. A, B, and C

8. How much ATP is created from 6 glucose molecules during cellular respiration if the isomerase
   enzyme for G3P stops working? Assume NADH produces 3 ATP and FADH2 produces 2 ATP.
      a. 228 ATP
      b. 216 ATP
      c. 114 ATP
      d. 108 ATP

9. Yeasts are very complex creatures. When deprived of oxygen, they use alcoholic fermentation to
   get energy. However, when they are in the presence of oxygen, they undergo cellular
   respiration. Yeast is an example of a(n):
       a. Facultative aerobe
       b. Obligate anaerobe
       c. Obligate aerobe
       d. A protest
       e. Facultative anaerobe

10. The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used in
    which of the following process?
        a. The breakdown of glucose
        b. The production of NADH and FADH2
        c. Pumping H+ across a membrane
        d. The oxidation of water

11. Phosphofructokinase is a very important control enzyme during cellular respiration. It turns
    ____________ in the presence of ATP and ____________ in the presence of citrate.
       a. Off; off
       b. Off; on
       c. On; off
       d. On; on

12. When a poison such as cyanide blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the citric acid
    cycle soon grind to a halt as well. Which of the following is the best explanation for this?
        a. A high level of NADH is present in the cell
        b. NAD+ and FAD are not available for glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to continue.
        c. They run out of ADP
        d. The uptake of oxygen stops because electron transport was inhibited.
        e. Electrons are no longer available from the electron transport chain to power glycolysis
            and the citric acid cycle
13. T/F: The Calvin cycle uses the energy from ATP and NADH created in the light reactions to help
    create sugars.

14. What did Englemann’s experiment do?
      a. It determined that all the oxygen in glucose came from CO2 rather than from H2O
      b. It determined the pathways of lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation
      c. It determined which wavelengths of light were most effective for photosynthesis
      d. It determined the function of the Centrioles during mitosis
      e. It determined the mechanism for DNA replication during mitosis and meiosis

15. The light reactions and the Calvin cycle are both ___________ reactions.
        a. Spontaneous
        b. Nonspontaneous
        c. Endergonic
        d. Exergonic
        e. Solar-powered

16. When the Calvin cycle required more ATP, where does it come from?
      a. Alcoholic fermentation
      b. Glycolysis
      c. Cyclic photophosphorylation in Photosystem I
      d. Cyclic photophosphorylation in Photosystem II
      e. Cellular respiration

17. In cellular respiration, H+ is pumped into the _____________. In photosynthesis, H+ is pumped
    into the ___________.
        a. Intermembrane space; stroma
        b. Intermembrane space; thylakoid space
        c. Mitochondrial matrix; stroma
        d. Mitochondrial matrix; thylakoid space
        e. Cytosol; cytosol

18. Why are C4 plants more suited to hot climates than C3 plants?
      a. They do not close their stroma in hot, dry weather
      b. The same cells that bind carbon dioxide perform the Calvin cycle
      c. They fix carbon dioxide into a 4 carbon organic compound during the day and do the
           Calvin cycle at night
      d. They fix carbon dioxide into a 4 carbon organic compound during the night and do the
           Calvin cycle during the day
      e. They have separate cells for fixing carbon dioxide and for the Calvin cycle

19. T/F: C4 plants use rubisco

20. T/F: A bacteria will make 2 daughter cells through mitosis.

21. A human cell has _________ chromosomes during the metaphase and __________
    chromosomes during anaphase.
        a. 23; 46
        b.   23; 23
        c.   46; 46
        d.   46; 92
        e.   92; 92

22. If a cell contains 60 chromatids at the start of mitosis, how many chromosomes will be found in
    each daughter cell at the completion of the cell cycle?
         a. 15
         b. 30
         c. 45
         d. 60
         e. 120

23. An exchange of genetic material is seen during:
        a. Mitosis
        b. Prophase I
        c. Prophase II
        d. Independent assortment

24. The diploid number of chromosomes in a certain animal is 8 (2n = 8). How do the four pairs of
    homologous chromosomes align and separate during meiosis?
        a. All of the maternal chromosomes always move to one pole, and all the paternal
            chromosomes always move to other pole
        b. Exactly two maternal and two paternal chromosomes always move to each of the two
        c. They align and assort independently to form any of 16 different combinations
        d. All 16 chromatids move together
        e. The first to move influences all the others

25. Which event occurs only during prophase I of the first meiotic division?
       a. Homologous chromosomes line up at the center of the cell
       b. The nuclear membrane breaks down
       c. A spindle of microtubules forms
       d. Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs
       e. Replication of DNA takes place

26. The Calvin cycle differs from the citric acid cycle in that it
        a. Produces ATP
        b. Directly requires light to run
        c. Depends on the products of an electron transport chain
        d. Occurs in a double-membrane bound organelle
        e. Regenerates with three molecules of NADPH

27. All of the following would likely accelerate glycolysis EXCEPT:
         a. An increase in the production of AMP
         b. Increased activity of isomerase
         c. Overconsumption of ATP
         d. Increase in kinase activity
           e. An increase in the levels of citrate

   28. All of the following are oxidizing agents EXCEPT:
            a. NADP+
            b. NADH
            c. FAD
            d. O2
            e. Cytochromes

   29. How many molecules of NADH would be required to produce one molecule of glucose during
          a. 6
          b. 9
          c. 12
          d. 18
          e. None of the above

For questions 30-34, choose from one of the answer choices below. Each answer choice may be used
once, more than once, or not at all.
            A. Prophase
            B. Metaphase
            C. Anaphase
            D. Telophase
            E. Interphase

   30. Sister chromatids are separated

   31. Dyads are first visible

   32. Nuclear envelope disintegrates

   33. Nuclear envelope reforms

   34. Nonkinetochore fibers elongate

   35. All of the following are true of cancer cells are EXCEPT:
            a. They do not exhibit anchorage dependency
            b. They can reproduce in many types of tissues
            c. They are detected by the immune system because of surface proteins
            d. They exhibit density-dependent inhibition
            e. They can divide more than 50 times

   36. Cyclic photophosphorylation
           a. Involves NADP+ reductase
           b. Absorbs light at the 700 nm wavelength
           c. Requires two electron transport chains
           d. Requires the splitting of water
           e. Involves photosystem II
37. In order for proteins to be used for energy by the cell, they must
        a. Replace glucose at the beginning of glycolysis
        b. Enter at the beginning of the citric acid cycle
        c. Be deaminated
        d. Go directly to the electron transport chain
        e. Be fermented

38. Under which of the following conditions would cellular respiration occur most rapidly?
       a. Oxygen present, AMP levels high, citric acid levels high
       b. Oxygen absent, AMP levels high, citric acid levels low
       c. Oxygen present, AMP levels high, citric acid levels high
       d. Oxygen absent, AMP levels low, citric acid levels low
       e. Oxygen present, AMP levels high, citric acid levels low

39. What is the sum of the number of molecules of ATP and carbon dioxide consumed by the Calvin
    cycle in order to produce a twelve carbon sugar?
        a. 9
        b. 12
        c. 18
        d. 24
        e. 48

40. The types of light most useful for photosynthesis are
        a. Green, yellow, and orange visible light
        b. Red, blue, and violet visible light
        c. Red and blue visible light, and UV rays
        d. Green visible light and UV rays
        e. Red visible light and infrared light

41. During cell cycle regulation, Cdk
        a. Binds to MPF
        b. Binds to cyclins
        c. Degrades during G1
        d. Multiplies quickly before mitosis
        e. Binds o the mitotic spindle

42. Which of the following are most similar?
       a. Anaphase I, anaphase II
       b. Anaphase I, anaphase of mitosis
       c. Anaphase II, anaphase of mitosis
       d. Metaphase I, metaphase II
       e. Metaphase I, metaphase of mitosis

43. How many molecules of ATP could be produced from one molecule of glucose by oxidative
    phosphorylation if NADH were unable to cross the mitochondrial membrane?
       a. 14
       b. 28
           c. 30
           d. 32
           e. 36

   44. If acetyl CoA were unable to cross the mitochondrial membrane, how many net molecules of
       ATP could be produced from one molecule of glucose by oxidative phosphorylation?
            a. 24
            b. 28
            c. 34
            d. 36
            e. 38

   45. In cooperativity
           a. The binding of an activator molecule to allosteric site stabilizes the enzyme in its active
           b. A molecule similar to the substrate acts as an agonist by increasing enzyme activity
           c. The activation energy of the enzyme decreases
           d. The binding of one substrate to the active site enhances the binding of subsequent
               substrate molecules
           e. The binding of an activator molecule to an allosteric site increases the rate of enzymatic

For questions 46-49, choose from one of the following answer choices. An answer choice may be used
once, more than once, or not at all.
            A. Prophase I
            B. Anaphase I
            C. Prophase II
            D. Anaphase II
            E. Telophase II

   46. Sister chromatids separate

   47. Homologous chromosomes separate

   48. Formation of tetrads

   49. Identical to anaphase of mitosis

   50. Which of the following contains an electron transport chain?
          a. Intermembrane of the mitochondria
          b. Thylakoid membrane
          c. Stroma
          d. A and B
          e. A, B, and C

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