_18 Ulysses S. Grant

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					#18 Ulysses S. Grant

     1869-1877
“Sam” Grant
              Born: April 27, 1822 in
                Point Pleasant, OH
              Parents: Jesse and
                Hannah (Simpson)
                Grant
              Wife: Julia Boggs Dent
              Children: Frederick,
                Ulysses, Ellen, and
                Jesse
Background
 Grant’s real name was Hiram Ulysses Grant.
 He was born to a modest family in Pt. Pleasant.
 When he was one year old, Grant’s family moved to
  nearby Georgetown, Ohio where his father opened a
  tannery.
 As a youth Grant worked on his father’s farm and in
  his tannery.
 Even as a young boy, Grant fell in love with horses,
  becoming an expert horseman.
 Grant attended local schools in Ohio and in
  Maysville, Kentucky.
Birthplace and Home
                  Grant was born in
                   neighboring
                   Clermont County,
                   and grew up in
                   Georgetown Ohio,
                   which is in Brown
                   County.
West Point
                Grant was nominated
                 for admission to West
                 Point in 1839.
                His congressman
                 mistakenly nominated
                 him as Ulysses S.
                 Grant. He didn’t
                 complain, and that
                 became his name. Sam
                 was his nickname.
                Grant graduated 21st in
                 his class of 39, and was
                 well liked and respected
                 by his classmates.
Military Service
                      Grant began his career
                       as a quartermaster.
                      He served in the
                       Mexican War, and was
                       brevetted twice for
                       bravery.
                      Grant once rode
                       through fire on
                       horseback to get
                       ammunition for his men
                       and rescued his future
                       brother-in-law.
Marriage
              Grant married Julia
               Dent in 1848, the
               daughter of a slave
               owner from St. Louis.
              The two met one
               another because Grant
               was a classmate of her
               brother at West Point.
              There marriage was
               very successful and
               they were said to truly
               love each other.
Out of the Army
 After the Mexican War Grant served in many
  places, where he was usually accompanied
  by his family.
 Grant was eventually promoted to Captain,
  and was sent to remote Fort Hombolt in
  California where he could not afford to bring
  his family. Here Grant turned to the bottle.
 Grant resigned his commission in1854, many
  say to avoid a court martial for drunkenness.
Civilian Life
 Grant struggled in civilian life, first as a
  farmer for seven years, then as a bill
  collector, and in real estate.
 Grant eventually went to work in his
  fathers store in Galena, Illinois.
 Civilian life was hard for Grant and he
  met little success.
Back in the Army
 After Ft. Sumter, Grant worked to recruit volunteers
  for the Union.
 From this, Grant was made the Colonel of a company
  of Illinois volunteers, and later Brigadier General of
  Volunteers.
 Forces under Grant quickly won victories at Ft. Henry
  and Ft. Donellson, where he told the Confederates
  that no terms would be accepted except
  “unconditional surrender”, which matched his initials
  and became a nickname.
 Grant’s superior did not like him though, and he was
  even temporarily removed from command.
Shiloh
   Grants Army of the Tennessee was attacked by the
    Confederates at Pittsburgh Landing on April 6, 1862.
    The Confederates almost won the Battle of Shiloh
    that day, but Grants forces held.
   On April 7th, Grant led his troops in driving back the
    Confederates, and the Union won the battle.
   The Union suffered over 13,000 casualties and the
    Confederates almost 11,000.
   Grant was criticized by some because his troops had
    not prepared proper defenses, but his coolness under
    fire won him respect.
Vicksburg and Chattanooga
   Grant was given command of a new Army and was
    ordered to capture the Confederate city of Vicksburg.
   The Campaign for Vicksburg was one of the most
    complex of the war, and proved that Grant had a
    good military mind.
   After a six week siege, an entire Confederate Army
    surrendered to Grant.
   Grant was hailed as a hero, and was then sent to
    rescue the Army of the Cumberland, which he did by
    winning the Battles of Chattanooga and Lookout
    Mountain.
General-in-Chief
 Impressed with his victories, Lincoln
  made Grant a Lieutenant General, the
  first since Washington.
 Grant was given command of the entire
  U.S. Army and he immediately put forth
  his anaconda plan, which blockaded the
  coasts, sent Sherman to the sea, and
  sent three separate armies to attack
  Richmond.
Victory
 The summer of 1864 Grants forces attacked
  Lee continuously at the Battles of the
  Wilderness, Spotsylvania Courthouse, and
  Cold Harbor.
 Despite the heavy losses at these battles,
  Grant kept attacking, eventually forcing Lee
  into a siege at Petersburg.
 The following spring, after months of siege
  warfare, Lee was forced to surrender to Grant
  at Appomattox Courthouse Virginia.
 Grant became the biggest hero of the Union.
Grant During the War
After the War
 Grant is commissioned “General of the
  Army”.
 He is chosen by Andrew Johnson to be
  the Secretary of War, but he refused to
  replace Edwin M. Stanton, infuriating
  Johnson, but making him a hero to the
  Radical Republicans, who nominated
  him for president.
Presidency
 Grant wins the election of 1868 in a landslide,
  and is expected to immediately begin
  reforming problems in the government.
 Grant, however, has a hands-off approach
  and allows his subordinates, mostly
  Republican political cronies, a great deal of
  freedom.
 As a result of Grants hands-off approach
  corruption is rampant in his administration.
Financial Troubles
   In 1869 there was the Black Friday financial panic,
    when the price of gold soared, threatening financial
    institutions with ruin. Grant stepped in at the last
    minute to sell government reserves (Grant’s brother-
    in-law was involved in a scandal to corner the gold
    market which caused this panic).
   The Panic of 1873 began a 5 year long depression
    that devastated the world economy. Grant’s policy
    was to do little, and he vetoed a bill that would put
    $100,000,000 in paper currency into the economy,
    because he did not want to devalue American
    currency.
Politics
   Because Grant refused to set a party platform, the
    Republicans broke into factions, with some wanting
    reform from corruption, and others wanting to build
    strength in the South, especially at the expense of
    ex-Confederates.
   The split in the Republicans hurt Grant because the
    reformers did not support his attempts to annex what
    is now the Dominican Republic, while the party
    regulars refused to accept his choice for Attorney
    General.
   He learned from this, and sided with the party
    regulars, which won him re-election but hurt his
    legacy due to corruption.
Breaking Up the Klan
   In 1871 Congress passed legislation against the Ku
    Klux Klan that allowed Grant to use Marshall Law to
    eliminate it.
   Despite his removal of the Klan, Grant reflected the
    beliefs of many in the North, by reaching out to white
    Southerners, hoping to reconcile with them. This
    proved hurtful to the black cause, and paved the way
    for whites to come back into dominance in the South.
   Grant personally felt sympathy for freed blacks, but
    could not muster enough political support to keep
    troops active to protect them.
Corruption
   Many Republicans went South, and engaged in corrupt politics
    to gain wealth and power. Reform Republicans blamed them for
    this, and Southern Whites used this as an excuse to attack
    blacks even further.
   Credit Mobilier Scandal, in which a fraudulent company was
    established to complete the construction of the Union Pacific
    Railroad. They overcharged the Federal Government by an
    enormous amount. Many congressmen were involved, and
    Grant’s personal secretary was engaged in this scandal.
   In the Whiskey Ring, Republican politicians were able to siphon
    off millions of dollars in tax money from alcohol sales. Grant’s
    personal secretary was involved in this scandal as well.
   Grant was notorious for hiring his old army buddies and family
    members for high ranking positions.
Indian Policy
 Grant made many statements against
  the confiscation of Native American
  lands and attempts to exterminate them.
 Unfortunately many massacres of
  Native Americans occurred in the West.
 The Battle of Little Big Horn occurred
  toward the end of Grant’s presidency.
Foreign Policy
 Grant signed the Treaty of Washington to
  avoid war with Great Britain based on
  damage done to U.S. shipping during the
  Civil War, by Confederate ships made in
  Britain.
 Grant sought to purchase what is now the
  Dominican Republic, but was stopped.
 Grant’s Secretary of State avoided war with
  Spain over the capture of a U.S. ship sailing
  to Cuba to aid in a rebellion.
On his way out
 The election of 1876 was widely
  disputed and the Democrats agreed to
  give the election to Rutheford B. Hayes
  in exchange for the removal of Federal
  Troops in the South.
 Grant began this process, by first
  removing troops from Florida. Hayes
  would remove the rest.
Post Presidency
 Grant went on a world tour after his
  presidency traveling throughout Europe,
  Africa and Asia.
 He met Queen Victoria, Otto Von Bismarck,
  Emperor Meiji, and many other dignitaries.
 The trip was very expensive, so Grant
  entered into an investment banking
  partnership, to make money. He was
  swindled by his partner and ended up going
  bankrupt.
Post Presidency Continued
 To help him and his destitute family,
  congress granted him a pension.
 He wrote his memoirs to get his family
  out of poverty, earning them $450,000
  dollars after his death.
 Most experts consider his memoirs to
  be among the best ever written.
Death
 Grant was
  diagnosed with
  throat cancer and
  suffered a great deal
  of pain in his last
  years.
 He pushed through
  the pain at the end
  of his life to finish
  the memoirs.
Legacy
 Grant has a mixed legacy.
 He is considered to be a solid general, and loyal
  soldier. He was the Union’s greatest hero of the Civil
  War.
 Grant was considered to be a failure as a politician,
  and despite the fact that he was never personally
  linked, he did little to stop the corruption that was
  rampant during his administration.
 In recent years historians have been more
  sympathetic to Grant, and have seen him as a victim
  of the tough times he was president in.

				
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