Meat by ao9zW50

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									  Meat
Chapter 19
        Nutritional Value of Meat
   Protein-build and repair tissue
   Iron
   Phosphorus
   Copper
   Thiamin
   Riboflavin
   Niacin
   Fat
         Fat and Cholesterol Tips
   Ground meat usually higher in fat
   Gives meat flavor and appeal
   Choose lean cuts
   Broil or grill so fat drips away
   Nonstick pans
   Skim fat from surface of chilled soups
Servings Needed
   2-3 servings daily
   3 ounces cooked = 1 serving
Types of meat
   Beef – mature cattle
   Veal – young cattle less than 3 mos.
   Pork – meat of swine
   Lamb – meat of sheep less than 1 year
       Mutton – sheep over 2 years

       Variety Meats – liver, heart, kidney, tongue, tail,
        feet, ears and snout
Inspection and Grading
   Federal inspection if crossing state lines
       Looking for sanitary plant and processing
        conditions

       Grading – voluntary for yield and quality
            Done by USDA
            Based on marbling, maturity, texture and
             appearance
Grades of Meat
   Prime – highest grade – usually found in
    hotels and restaurants
   Choice – high quality and good marbling
   Select – leaner and cost less

   Choice and Select most common in retail
    stores
Clues to Meat Tenderness
   Location of muscle tissue
       Lazy muscles – rib and loin muscles – very
        tender
            Look for t-bones, flat bones, rib bones, wedge
             bones
       Working muscles – leg and shoulder muscles –
        less tender
            Look for blade bones, round bones (leg or arm),
             breast bones
Cost of Meat per Serving
   Tender cuts cost more than less tender
   Boneless cost more than bone-in
   Consider cost per serving
       Boneless – 3-4 serving per pound
       Small bone – 2-3 servings per pound
       Many bones – 1-1/2 servings per pound
Tenderizing Less Tender Cuts
   Connective tissue determines tenderness
       More connective tissue – less tender meat
       Two proteins
            Elastin – cooking cannot soften
               Mechanically tenderize – pound, grinding
               Chemically tenderize – commercial meat tenderizers
            Collagen – cooking can soften and tenderize
               Marinating – use a marinade with an acid to tenderize
Cooking Methods
   Dry Heat Methods – for tender or
    tenderized cuts of meat
       Roasting
       Broiling
       Grilling
       Panbroiling
       Frying
   Moist Heat Cooking Methods – less tender
    cuts of meat

       Braising – small amt. of liquid, tight cover

       Microwaving – covering holds in steam

       Cooking in Liquid – cover in liquid
             Simmer
             Stew
Basic Meat Cooking Principles
   Store meats below 40 F
   Marinate in the refrigerator, discard used
    marinade
   Do not set oven below 325 F
   Cook ground meat to internal temp. 160 F.
   Avoid too high temps - low temperatures
    create juicier, more flavorful meat
   Defrost meat in microwave or refrigerator

								
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