Phases of Curr Design: Design by vRSYrP

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									Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training



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                  Medicine & Surgery

       Phases of Curriculum Design:

                                Design

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Education & Training Standards Division    Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Complete “MODEL” and “ANALYZE” BEFORE starting this module.

IN THIS MODULE:
1. Questions addressed in the design phase of instructional systems
design.
2. Processes used in the design phase of instructional systems design.
3. Designating units and lessons in the curriculum.
4. Introduction to learning objectives.
5. Assigning contact hours.
6. Introduction to student:instructor ratios.


As with the other modules covering phases of instructional systems
design, watch for differences between new program development
and revision/review of existing programs.


Education & Training Standards Division         Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

DESIGN                                                        Analysis
In the design phase for new program
development, you build the skeleton of                         Design

the course, based on the elements in the                    Development
training requirements inventory
                                                           Implementation
developed in the analysis phase.

                                                      Evaluation / Maintenance
Remember that you may need to make
some adjustments to the products of the analysis phase as you complete
the design phase. Note, however, that if you need to change the training
requirements inventory, you need to validate the changes with the jury of
experts before making the change.




Education & Training Standards Division             Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training


                    DESIGN
                    The following questions are addressed in the design
                    phase of instructional systems design for new program
                    development:

1. STRUCTURE: How will you divide the course into units and lessons?

2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: How will students demonstrate mastery of the
course? How will you measure, or test, that mastery?

3. CONTACT HOURS: How much time will you give to each part of the course?

4. RATIOS: How many students per instructor will be feasible
in each part of the course?




Education & Training Standards Division           Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training


                    DESIGN
                    During a mandatory review for an existing program,
                    the questions change focus:


1. STRUCTURE: Is the current arrangement of units and lessons appropriate?

2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Are the learning objectives for the existing course
still appropriate and adequate? Do existing objectives or methods of measuring
mastery need to be revised? Do new objectives need to be added or existing
ones deleted?

3. CONTACT HOURS: Do assigned contact hours need to be increased or
decreased?

4. RATIOS: Do assigned ratios need to be increased or decreased?

Education & Training Standards Division           Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

DESIGN
                                                                 Analysis

For new and existing programs, the                                Design
inputs for the design phase are the
                                                                Development
major products of the analysis phase:
                                                            Implementation
Inputs:
                                                       Evaluation / Maintenance
    • Training requirements inventory.
    • Description of your target audience.
Outputs:
    • Outline of instruction (new or revised).
    • A preliminary student evaluation plan (new or revised).
    • Updated resource estimates.
    • Updated time line for completion of course development.

Education & Training Standards Division            Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Structure: Units and Lessons

For new program development, the first step                     UNIT
in the design phase is to assign each of the
elements on the training requirements
inventory to a unit and then assign each
of the elements assigned to the unit to a
lesson within the unit.
                                                               Lessons
A UNIT may cover:
1. A functional area or duty on the job.
2. A body of knowledge that applies across the job as a whole or across multiple
duties.
3. A skill area that applies across the job as a whole or across multiple duties.
4. Legal or ethical concerns that apply across the job as a whole or across multiple
duties.




Education & Training Standards Division              Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Structure: Units and Lessons

A LESSON within a unit covering a duty may cover:
                                                                 UNIT
1. A task or a set of related tasks
   within the duty.
2. Skills that apply across the duty.
3. Cognitive requirements that apply
   across the duty.
                                                                Lessons
4. Legal or ethical concerns that apply across the duty.


In other units, a lesson generally covers a subset of the knowledge, ethical issues,
or skills that the unit covers (e.g., a lesson on the respiratory system
in a unit on anatomy and physiology).


See pages 3-1 through 3-7 in the Curriculum Development Guide:
Technical Education and Training for more information on units
and lessons.

Education & Training Standards Division               Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Structure: Units and Lessons
For existing programs, the validated training                 UNIT
requirements inventory is compared to the
current curriculum.


• Items that are not covered in the existing
 curriculum become additions.
                                                             Lessons

• Learning objectives that do not support any item from the validated training
 requirements inventory become deletions.


Depending on the number and scope of the additions and deletions, the unit and
lesson structure may need to be revised.



Education & Training Standards Division            Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

Curriculum Abstract
For new program development, the curriculum abstract provides a framework for the
development of learning objectives. It includes:

• A brief description of the content of each unit (unit synopses)

• An overview of each lesson with

    • A list of items from the training requirements that will be covered in the lesson.

    • Estimated didactic, laboratory, and clinical contact hours needed for the lesson.

    • (Optional) A brief statement of the purpose or content of the lesson.

For existing programs, a curriculum abstract is needed only if units or lessons are
being added to the curriculum. Include only the units and lessons being added.

The format for the curriculum abstract is shown on page 3-9 of the
Curriculum Development Guide: Technical Education & Training.


Education & Training Standards Division              Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
 Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Sequence: Dependent Segments
The curriculum abstract shows the
                                                    Emergency Medical Care (Unit)
general sequence of units and lessons.
When sequencing either, make sure                              depends on
that dependent material always
                                                    Anatomy & Physiology (Unit)
follows its prerequisite material.
Example:
The unit on emergency medical
care depends on the unit on anatomy
and physiology. Students cannot
complete objectives in the unit on emergency medical care (the dependent unit) until
they know the anatomy and physiology involved (the prerequisite material). The unit
on anatomy and physiology (prerequisite) must precede the unit on
emergency medical care (dependent unit).


Education & Training Standards Division             Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Sequence: Non-Dependent Segments


Example of non-dependent
                                          Emergency Medical Care
segments:
                                             does not depend on
The unit on emergency medical                   In-patient Care
care does not depend on the unit
on inpatient care nor does the unit
on inpatient care depend on the                 OR
unit on emergency medical care.
It does not matter which unit comes
first in the curriculum.




Education & Training Standards Division   Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Learning Objectives
Once the curriculum abstract for a new program is complete, learning objectives
can be written.


Learning objectives serve two primary purposes:


             To define the
             performance students                         To maintain
             must demonstrate to                          consistency from
             successfully complete                        one iteration of the
             the segment of                               course to the next.
             instruction.

           For the student                             For the program




Education & Training Standards Division            Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training



                            IMPORTANT !
                     Learning objectives MUST
                   reflect the learning level (and
                    performance level for tasks
                     and skills) of the relevant
                    element(s) from the training
                      requirements inventory.




Education & Training Standards Division   Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Terminal vs Enabling Objectives

        Final outcome of lesson               Terminal Objective


                                                   Enabling objective

        Subordinate knowledge, skills,             Enabling objective
        attitudes needed to ENABLE the
        student to meet the terminal               Enabling objective
        objective.
                                                   Enabling objective


In the Medical Department model of instructional systems design, each lesson
includes one unique terminal objective and as many enabling objectives as needed
to support the terminal objective.



Education & Training Standards Division           Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Terminal vs Enabling Objectives


          Final outcome of lesson               Terminal Objective

The terminal objective represents the final outcome of the lesson - what the
student must do to demonstrate mastery of the lesson as a whole.


Terminal objectives typically require:
    • Demonstration of a task or procedure.
    • Demonstration of a skill, or combination of skills.
    • Application of principles, theories, rules, concepts, or standards of conduct.
    • Demonstration or application of soft skills
      (e.g., interpreting nonverbal cues in conversation).




Education & Training Standards Division              Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Terminal vs Enabling Objectives
Enabling objectives cover all of the cognitive,
                                                  Terminal Objective
affective, and skill elements students need to
master to meet the terminal objective.

Enabling objectives may require:                            Subordinate
                                                        knowledge, skills,
    • Recall or recognition of facts.                    attitudes needed
                                                          to ENABLE the
    • Explanations or descriptions of                    student to meet
      procedures.                                           the terminal
                                                              objective.
    • Paraphrasing of principles, theories,
      rules, concepts, or standards of conduct.            ENABLING
                                                          OBJECTIVES
    • Demonstration of subordinate skills.

    • Any other performance required to
      support the terminal objective.


Education & Training Standards Division           Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Characteristics
Both terminal and enabling learning objectives have the following
characteristics:

                           • Written for the student
                           • Complete
                                • Action statement
                                • Conditions
                                • Standards
                                    • Level of performance
                                    • Authority for correct performance
                           • Unambiguous
                           • Concise


Education & Training Standards Division         Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Learning Objectives
Learning objectives answer the following questions for students:

                              When I’m evaluated:
                              What do I have to do?

                              How well do I have to perform?

                              Where do I find the definition of correct performance?

                              Where will I do this?

                              What restrictions will be in place while I do this?

                              What aids can I use while I do this?



See the module “LRNGOBJ” for more information on
writing and reviewing learning objectives.


Education & Training Standards Division                    Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
 Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

Learning Objectives and Methods of Evaluation

Developing the instruments for measuring student                      Did somebody
performance at the same time that learning objectives                 say evaluation?

are developed helps keep evaluation focused on the
learning objectives rather than on content.


As a minimum, annotate the curriculum abstract to
indicate HOW student performance will be measured.
Specific test items and instruments then may be
developed in the next phase of instructional systems
design.




Education & Training Standards Division              Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Contact Hours
Once the terminal and                               +                 +
enabling objectives have been
written for each lesson, you
                                     Presentation        Practice         Evaluation
need to estimate how much
time will be needed.


For each lesson, estimate the time needed:


         - to present the material in the lesson.


         - for students to practice the behaviors in the learning objectives.


         - to evaluate student performance of the learning objectives.




Education & Training Standards Division              Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Schedule Hours and Ratios

Scheduled hours depend on the contact hours required
for each student AND the number of students who can
move concurrently through the segment of instruction.


The basic rule for student-to-instructor ratios is to use the highest ratio
(i.e., the largest number of students per instructor) that will allow effective
teaching and supervision of students and maintains safety.


During evaluation of a student performing a skill or task, a small student-
to-instructor ratio may be required. The time that needs to be scheduled
for this evaluation in the course may be decreased by providing additional
instructors and/or additional sets of equipment.


See the next slide for an example.



Education & Training Standards Division                Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Schedule Hours and Ratios
Example: Students must be evaluated on a particular skill at a
2:1 (2 students to 1 instructor) ratio. It takes 10 minutes to
evaluate each pair of students.                                         3 hours

If 2 instructors are assigned for the evaluation period with 1
instructor evaluating students and the other supervising the
balance of the class, 5 pairs of students (10 students) can be
evaluated each contact hour. With 30 students in the class,
the evaluation session will take 3 contact hours.


If 4 instructors are assigned for the evaluation period with 3
instructors evaluating students and 1 supervising the balance
of the class, 30 students can be evaluated in a contact hour.           1 hour
The evaluation can be completed in 1 contact hour.




Education & Training Standards Division                Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Student-to-Instructor Ratios
How many students can 1 instructor safely and effectively instruct, supervise, and
evaluate? Keep these factors in mind:

Presentation:

     • Type of learning required in the learning objectives and the method of
       presentation (lower ratios are usually needed for more interactive methods).
     • Safety considerations.
     • Facilities and equipment available.

Practice and evaluation:

     • Safety considerations.
     • Type of performance being practiced or evaluated (How closely does the
       instructor need to watch an individual student?).
     • Facilities and equipment available.


See the module “RATIOS” for more information on
student-to-instructor ratios.


Education & Training Standards Division             Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Curriculum Documentation - New Programs
The following documents require review and approval by
the training program manager:
     •Curriculum Outline
     •Course Schedule Summary
     •Student Evaluation Plan
                                                                     Curriculum
The curriculum outline must be submitted at the end of the           Documents
design phase before continuing with development.
The curriculum outline includes course and student data,
learning objectives arranged in units and lessons, and contact hours assigned to
each lesson and unit. Because it may undergo significant changes during the
development phase, the curriculum outline is considered a preliminary document
at this point, and approval amounts to approving a plan for developing the
course materials, based on the work completed so far. Revisions will probably
be incorporated as the development phase progresses.

The course schedule summary and student evaluation plan are roughed out at
this stage, but are generally submitted as the development phase
nears completion.


Education & Training Standards Division            Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Curriculum Documentation - Existing Programs
The same documents require review and approval by
the training program manager:
     •Curriculum Outline
     •Course Schedule Summary
     •Student Evaluation Plan
                                                                     Curriculum
For existing programs undergoing a mandatory periodic review,        Documents
all three documents are normally submitted at the end of the
design phase, particularly if only minor revisions were needed.

If contact hours were shifted from unit to unit or new segments added to the
curriculum based on the review, the curriculum outline may be submitted first.
That way, if there are any problems with the revisions, they can be corrected
before the course schedule summary and student evaluation plan are completed.

The Curriculum Development Guide: Technical Education & Training
(pages 3-39 through 3-72) includes detailed directions for completing the
curriculum outline, course schedule summary, and student evaluation
plan, along with sample formats for each document.


Education & Training Standards Division             Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Review Outputs - New and Existing Programs

Review the units and lessons with these questions in mind:

Are all items on the training requirements inventory:
     • Covered at the assigned learning level?
     • Covered at the assigned performance level?

Do all learning objectives have appropriate and adequate action statements,
standards, and conditions?

Are the learning objectives adequate for your target population? Do you need to
specify any prior training?

Is the sequence of units and lessons logical and appropriate?

Are contact hours adequate and efficient?

Are student-to-instructor ratios adequate and efficient?



Education & Training Standards Division             Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

              Summary: New Program Development

At the end of the design phase, you will have completed the following:

1. A curriculum abstract with unit and lesson titles, unit synopses, and estimated
contact hours for each lesson. All of the elements from the training requirements
inventory are listed under the lesson(s) where they will be covered. Units and
lessons are arranged in teaching sequence and methods of evaluating student
performance are indicated for each unit.

2. Terminal and enabling objectives for each lesson, with a behavior statement,
standards, and conditions in each learning objective.

3. Draft curriculum documents including a curriculum outline (submitted for
approval), course schedule summary, and student evaluation plan.




Education & Training Standards Division             Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

              Summary: Existing Programs

At the end of the design phase, you will have completed the following:

1. Compared the learning objectives in the curriculum outline to the validated
training requirements inventory to make sure that all items are covered at the
designated level.

2. Reviewed all instruments for measuring student performance to make sure that
they adequately and effectively measure the performance required by the learning
objectives covered.

3. Reviewed assigned contact hours and student-to-instructor ratios to make sure
that they are both adequate and efficient.

4. Revised curriculum documents as needed to reflect changes to or
discrepancies with the validated training requirements inventory.



Education & Training Standards Division            Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

     If you have any comments or suggestions on this or other
      Curriculum Design and Development staff development
                 modules, please forward them to:

                 Dr. Anne L. Ballard (BUMED-531)
                 Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
                 2300 E Street NW
                 Washington, DC 20372-5300

                 Phone: 202-762-3829 or DSN 762-3829
                 Email: alballard@us.med.navy.mil

                 Your input is always welcome!

Education & Training Standards Division   Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards

								
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