Session 6

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					    SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY
              MBA-I

          MB0027
      HUMAN RESOURCE
        MANAGEMENT


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  UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION TO
     HUMAN RESOURCE
       MANAGEMENT




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       THE DEFINITION

Human Resource Management
is to "ensure that at all times
the business is correctly staffed
by the right number of people
with the skills relevant to the
business needs"
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      Objectives and scope of HRM
   To effective utilization of the human resources
   To establish and maintain an organizational
    structure
   To secure integration to the individuals and
    organization by reconciling individual group
    goals
   To generates maximum development of
    individuals groups
   To recognize and satisfy individual needs and
    group goals
   To maintain high morale and better human
    relations
   To develop and maintain a quality of work life
   To establish and maintain productive self-
    respecting working relationships
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         IN ABSENCE OF GOOD
          HRM, PEOPLE ARE:-
•under valued

•under trained

•under utilized

•poorly motivated

•perform       well         below           their          true
capability

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     IMPORTANT HR FUNCTIONS

   HR PLANNING
   RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
   TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
   MOTIVATION FUNCTION
   COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS
   CAREER AND SUCCESSION PLANNING
   PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
   REWARD AND RECOGNITION
   QUALITY MANAGEMENT
   HR AUDIT

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        Distinction b/w Personnel
          Management & HRM
Personnel management was the politically correct term used by
most large organizations that dealt with most of the people who
worked for that organization. Personnel departments normally did
rather routine tasks such as payroll, salaries, attendance, time
cards, employee insurance, and some big ones acted as liaisons for
management and employees and unions.
Human Resources encapsulates everything that is mentioned in the
personnel management description; however, with a bit of flare, and
a whole load of other responsibilities vis-a-vie employee counseling,
stock options, pension planning, actual interviewing for job
placement, and membership to the Society of Human Resource
Managers, there really is basically nothing different whatsoever.
Now the distinction between the two is growing wider. Personnel
management deals with a more individualized approach which
eventually leads to such positions as agents, bookers, basically,
less people but a closer relationship.
Human resources is really macro in size; although, there are more
issues to address anytime when working with people, human
resources normally refers to employee business on the bigger scale.
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   Some experts assert that there is no difference between human
    resources and personnel management. They state that the two
    terms can be used interchangeably, with no difference in
    meaning. In fact, the terms are often used interchangeably in
    help-wanted ads and job descriptions.
   For those who recognize a difference between personnel
    management and human resources, the difference can be
    described as philosophical. Personnel management is more
    administrative in nature, dealing with payroll, complying with
    employment law, and handling related tasks. Human resources,
    on the other hand, is responsible for managing a workforce as
    one of the primary resources that contributes to the success of
    an organization.
   When a difference between personnel management and human
    resources is recognized, human resources is described as much
    broader in scope than personnel management. Human
    resources is said to incorporate and develop personnel
    management tasks, while seeking to create and develop teams
    of workers for the benefit of the organization. A primary goal of
    human resources is to enable employees to work to a maximum
    level of efficiency.

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   Personnel management can include administrative tasks
    that are both traditional and routine. It can be described as
    reactive, providing a response to demands and concerns
    as they are presented. By contrast, human resources
    involves ongoing strategies to manage and develop an
    organization's workforce. It is proactive, as it involves the
    continuous development of functions and policies for the
    purposes of improving a company‟s workforce.
   Personnel management is often considered an
    independent function of an organization. Human resource
    management, on the other hand, tends to be an integral
    part of overall company function. Personnel management
    is typically the sole responsibility of an organization‟s
    personnel department. With human resources, all of an
    organization‟s managers are often involved in some
    manner, and a chief goal may be to have managers of
    various departments develop the skills necessary to
    handle personnel-related tasks.


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             Elton Mayo's
           Hawthorne Studies
   The     Hawthorne      Studies   (also   known    as
    the Hawthorne Experiments) were conducted from
    1927 to 1932 at the Western Electric Hawthorne
    Works in Cicero, Illinois (a suburb of Chicago). This
    is where professor Elton Mayo examined the impact
    of work conditions in employee productivity. Elton
    Mayo started these experiments by examining the
    physical and environmental influences of the
    workplace (e.g. brightness of lights, humidity) and
    later, moved into the psychological aspects (e.g.
    breaks, group pressure, working hours, managerial
    leadership) and their impact on employee motivation
    as it applies to productivity.


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         The Hawthorne Effect
   In essence, the Hawthorne Effect, as it applies to the
    workplace, can be summarized as "Employees are
    more productive because the employees know they
    are being studied." Elton Mayo's experiments showed
    an increase in worker productivity was produced by
    the psychological stimulus of being singled out,
    involved, and made to feel important.
   Additionally, the act of measurement, itself, impacts
    the results of the measurement. Just as dipping a
    thermometer into a vial of liquid can affect the
    temperature of the liquid being measured, the act of
    collecting data, where none was collected before
    creates a situation that didn't exist before, thereby
    affecting the results.


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             Human Relations
   Human Relations in Management is a process that
    brings workers into contact with and causes them to be
    influenced by their leaders, their jobs, and other
    aspects of the organizations which they work. It
    includes everything in the work environment that
    influences the behavior of workers. It refers to the
    interaction of people in all walks of life-in schools,
    homes, business and government. A Human Relations
    Programme represents an attempt at improving
    employee morale and motivation through employee
    participation in the decision making processes. The
    human relation approach emphasizes policies and
    techniques designed to improve employee morale and
    job satisfaction.


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            UNIT-2 HRM in India
   The managerial ideologies in Indian dates back at
    least four centuries. Arthãshastra written by the
    celebrated Indian scholar-practitioner Chanakya had
    three key areas of exploration, 1) public policy, 2)
    administration and utilization of people, and 3) taxation
    and accounting principles. Parallel to such pragmatic
    formulations, a deep rooted value system, drawn from
    the early Aryan thinking, called Vedanta, deeply
    influenced the societal and institutional values in India.
    Overall, Indian collective culture had an interesting
    individualistic core while the civilization values of duty
    to family, group and society was always very important
    while vedantic ideas nurtured an inner private sphere
    of individualism.


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   Over many centuries India has absorbed managerial
    ideas and practices from around the world. Early
    records of trade, from 4500 B.C. to 300 B.C., not only
    indicate international economic and political links, but
    also the ideas of social and public administration. The
    world‟s first management book, titled „Arlhãshastra‟,
    written three millennium before Christ, codified many
    aspects of human resource practices in Ancient India.
    This treatise presented notions of the financial
    administration of the state, guiding principles for trade
    and commerce, as well as the management of people.
    These ideas were to be embedded in organizational
    thinking for centuries. A further powerful effect on the
    managerial history of India was to be provided by the
    British system of corporate organisation for 200 years.



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   Clearly, the socio cultural roots of Indian heritage
    are diverse and have been drawn from multiple
    sources including ideas brought from other parts
    of the old world. Interestingly, these ideas were
    essentially secular even when they originated
    from religious bases.
   In the contemporary context, the Indian
    management mindscape continues to be
    influenced by the residual traces of ancient
    wisdom as it faces the complexities of global
    realities. One stream of holistic wisdom, identified
    as the Vedantic philosophy, pervades managerial
    behavior at all levels of work organizations.



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Drivers of Contemporary Indian
          HRM Trends




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               HRM in India
   The HRM practices in Indian Organizations
    are no doubt unique. The cultural impact on
    the     hiring     practices,     compensation
    standards,        benefits      and   statutory
    governance, performance linked rewards
    and payouts and the general day to day
    management practices through in-step with
    international HRM practices have a flavor
    their own. HRM in India is not structurally
    well-researched and hence a lack of
    theoretical information to track and
    document its progress, unlike in the
    emerged countries like US, UK. Research
    is yet at its infancy in India.
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           Distinction b/w India HRM
                from global HRM
   The Indian culture is one that is deeply rooted in its
    societal and collectivistic values providing for a natural
    urge to collaborate at the workplace, work in teams and
    groups and achievements.
   The diversity that is seen in the Indian society w.r.t.
    diverse religions and states are reflected in the ability of
    the Indian and the Indian corporate to tolerate diversity
    of thinking & working together without inhibition.
   Work culture wise, hard work, long working hours and
    need to earn money impact the HRM policies.
   Availability of a educated mass of different caliber of
    knowledge and skill allow the country to undertake
    different nature of work beginning with lower skilled
    activities such as BPO‟s & moving up the value curve to
    far more advanced activities as KPO‟s
   Compensation costs as still a competitive advantage for
    India making it a preffered business location the world
    over. PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
TOPIC FOR DISCUSSION



HUMAN RELATIONS
   MOVEMENT



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           SCOPE OF HR IN INDIA
   One very important trend in the recent times has been
    the growth of human resource outsourcing. HR
    outsourcing is the outsourcing of peripheral but
    necessary administrative tasks such as payroll,
    benefits, education/training, recruiting personnel,
    administration, to realize economies of scale and
    achieve standardization of services.
   Rapidly changing market dynamics and global
    competitive pressures have caused organizations to
    spend more time focusing on their core business.
    Organizations are fast realizing that they can't be all
    things to all people. So companies now, be it a
    software company, a service provider or a
    manufacturing firm, decide what they are good at and
    outsource everything else, i.e., focus on their core
    competency, and let someone else do the rest in a
    more efficient and cost-effective manner.

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   As a result, human resources outsourcing is
    becoming increasingly prevalent. The number of
    companies outsourcing HR activities continues to rise,
    and the scope of outsourced HR activities continues
    to expand. HR outsourcing can happen in HR
    functions, like payroll administration (producing
    checks, handling taxes, dealing with sick-time and
    vacations), employee benefits (Health, Medical, Life
    insurance, Cafeteria, etc), human resource
    management (hiring and firing, background
    interviews, exit interviews and wage reviews), risk
    management, etc. Outsourcing has become a
    common response to manage people and technology
    resources strategically, enhance services, and
    manage costs more effectively.

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       UNIT-3 HUMAN
    RESOURCE PLANNING

                                           FUTURE
 CURRENT               GAP                  WORK
WORKFORCE                                  FORCE




The process to determine how organization
should move from current manpower to desired
manpower position


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        Human Resource Planning
                Steps


1)Estimate future organizational structure
and manpower requirements
2)Auditing Human resources
3)Planning job requirements and job
descriptions
4)Developing a human resource plan



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              Need for HRP
1. Determining the numbers to be employed at
  a new location
2. Retaining your highly skilled staff
3. Managing an effective downsizing
  programme
4. Where will the next generation of managers
  come from?
5. In order to identify areas of surplus
  personnel or areas in which there is a
  shortage of personnel, to maintain the
  balance.
6. Required because of frequent labor turn over.

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          Process of HRP
   Deciding the goals or objectives
   Estimating     future     organizational
    structure and manpower requirements
   Auditing Human resources
   Planning job requirements and job
    descriptions
   Developing a Human resource



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       Responsibility of HRP
   To assist, counsel and pressurize the
    operating management to plan and establish
    objectives.
   To collect and summarize data in total
    organizational terms and to ensure
    consistency with long-range objectives and
    other elements of the total business plan.
   To monitor and measure performance
    against the plan and keep the top
    management informed about it.
   To provide the research necessary for
    effective manpower and organizational
    planning.
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                      HRP - WORKFORCE PLANNING
                               PROCESS

BUSINESS                                                          ANTICIPATED
                             WORK FORECAST by                     WORKFORCE
PLAN                         Quarter and by Job code              REQUIREMENTS


CURRENT
WORKFORCE                               ADJUSTED                  WORKFORCE
INVENTORY                              WORKFORCE                  ANALYSIS


                                                               WORKFORCE
HISTORICAL
                                                               CHANGE NEEDS
ANALYSIS &
PROJECTION
(attrition, training, etc)                                     WORKFORCE
                                                               CHANGE PLANS


                                                       Employee and           Workforce
                                                       Management             Acquisition
        REQUIRED WORKFORCE                             Development            (Hiring, College,
              Needed to meet                           (Training,             AAP, contract,
        ANTICIPATED WORKFORCE                          assessment, etc)       temporary, etc.)
            REQUIREMENTS
             of Business Plan




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    UNIT-4
 RECRUITMENT
AND SELECTION




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            Recruitment
    Searching for, and obtaining, potential
    job candidates in sufficient numbers and
    quality, and at the right cost, for the
    organisation to select the most
    appropriate people to fill its jobs.




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                Purposes
   Increase size of applicant pool at minimum
    cost
   Identify & prepare potential job applicants
   Increase success rate of selection process
    by reducing over/under qualified applicants
   Decrease early turnover of new hires
   Increase individual/organisational
    effectiveness




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            A Simplified Model of the
              Recruitment Process
                                 Recruitment philosophy
Recruitment planning             • Internal vs External job
• Estimated no. of                  filling
  contacts needed                • Job vs Career orientation
                                 • St-term vs long term
• Job specifications                orientation


Recruitment strategy development
• choosing reqd. applicant qualifications
• choosing recruitment sources and
  communication channels
• choosing inducements
• choosing the message : realism vs flypaper


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Recruitment Activities
• Job posting
• Ads
• Other recruitment sources
• Follow up actions
• Record keeping
                                        Screening /
                                        Selecting
                                        employees
Recruitment Evaluation
• No. of jobs filled ?
• Jobs filled in timely fashion ?
• Cost per job filled ?



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Recruiting Yield Pyramid


     50     New hires


    100         Offers made (2 : 1)

                    Candidates interviewed (3 : 2)
    150

    200                 Candidates invited (4 : 3)


   1,200                   Leads generated (6 : 1)

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             How to Recruit
                                        External
       Internal
                              Advertising
   Job Postings
                              Employment Agencies
   Newsletters
                                 Govt. employment
   Succession                    exchange
    Planning eg.
                                 Private agencies
    promotion
                                 Head-hunters

                              Campus
                              Referrals / Word of Mouth /
                               Unsolicited Applications
                              Internet

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      Advantages of Internal
           Recruiting
   Better assessment of (KSAO‟s)
   Lower cost
   Motivator for good performance
   Hire at entry-level only
   Familiarity with organisation
   Improved morale and security
   Can identify long-term interests

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          Disadvantages of
         Internal Recruiting
   Inability to find appropriate people
   Morale problems
   Political in-fighting
   Need for strong T&D programs




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    Advantages of External
         Recruiting

   Introduces new ideas and knowledge
   Reduced need for training
   Larger skilled pool available




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            Disadvantages of
           External Recruiting
   Problems of fit
   Morale problems for internals
   Adjustment period
   Relocation costs
   Decreased incentive value of
    promotions




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             Recruitment
              Evaluation
Measuring past recruitment can help
predict:
   Timeliness of recruitment
   Budget needed
   Methods that yield greatest number
   of best quality candidates
   Assess performance of recruiters



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             SELECTION

Selection is the process of gathering
information for the purposes of
evaluating and deciding who should
be hired, under legal guidelines, for
the short and long term interests of the
individual and the organisation.




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Steps in Selection Process
                     Screening of
                      applications
                     Tests
                     Interviews
                     Reference Checks
                     Medical Examination



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                       TESTS
Aptitude            Achievement                Personality
Mental          Job knowledge               Objective
Mechanical      Work sample                 Projective
                                            Situational
Guidelines for the use of TESTS
• should supplement not substitute other methods
• are a screening device
• are not precise measures
• test conditions are important
• must be conducted/assessed by competent persons


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      Types of Interviews
  Unstructured / Non-directive
 Structured / Patterned

 Panel

 Group

 Stress

 Behavioural (BDI)

 Situational (SI)

 Interviews using

other media


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        Behaviour Description
           Interview (BDI)
   Assumption: "Best predictor of future
    performance is past performance in similar
    circumstances.”
   Overcomes excellence assumption
    "Experience equals excellence" (i.e. tasks
    have been performed well.)
   Requires candidate to give specific examples
    of how they performed job duties.



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           Example BDI: Middle Manager

   “Meetings & presentations are an important
    part of a Manager's job. Tell me about your
    most successful presentation to a
    management meeting.”
       What was the topic of the presentation?
       What were your objectives for the meeting?
       When did you start preparing for the meeting?
        What did you do to prepare?
       What was your role at the meeting?


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            Situational Interview (SI)

   Hypothetical
       Questions focus on what an applicant
        would do in a hypothetical situation. e.g.
        scenario




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     Why Situational Interviewing


   Based on goal-setting theory which states
    that intentions are related to behaviour

   Job Experts Develop Questions and
    sample GOOD, AVERAGE & POOR
    answers.




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         Problems with Selection
               Interviews


The selection interview is a subjective
  process and prone to:
 bias

 stereotypes

 initial impressions

 memory capacity of interviewers




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       Decision Strategies

                        Non-
                     Compensatory

Compensatory                                Combination


                Multiple Cut-Off
                Multiple Hurdle
  Additive
                                            Mix of both
                                            approaches
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        Costs of Poor Selection
   Direct Costs
       Re-advertising costs
       Panel time and effort
       HR staff time and effort



   Hidden Costs
       Reduced productivity
       Lost productivity whilst position vacant
       Time taken for new hire to become
        productive


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        Staffing System Components
Applicant                                          Organization
(Person)                                              (Job)



                    Recruitment
            (identification & attraction)


                    Selection
             (assessment & evaluation

                 Employment
       (decision making & final match)
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   ORIENTATION or INDUCTION

a planned introduction of employees to
 their jobs, co-workers and the
 organisation




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          WHY INDUCTION

   Reduce the cost and inconvenience of
    early leavers
   Increase commitment
   Socialization
   Accelerate progress up the „learning
    curve‟



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     3 BASIC COMPONENTS

   Company / Organisational Induction
   Departmental Induction
   Follow Up




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      CHOICES IN DESIGNING
      INDUCTION PROGRAMS


   Formal or Informal

   Individual or Collective




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      PLACEMENT


                            The assignment
                             or allocation of
                             people to jobs in
                             the organization




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         2 ways Placement can
                happen


   Match 1 – looking for an individual for
    a specific job

   Match 2 – looking for a job to match
    an individual




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          UNIT-5 TRAINING &
           DEVELOPMENT
The term training refers to the acquisition
  of knowledge, skills, and competencies as
  a result of the teaching of vocational or
  practical skills and knowledge that relate
  to specific useful competencies. Training
  has specific goals of improving one's
  capability,          capacity,        and
  performance.Training is the act of
  increasing the knowledge and skill of an
  employee for doing a particular job.


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             Objectives of
               Training

   Acquiring Intellectual Knowledge
   Acquiring Manual Skills
   Acquiring Problem-Solving Skills




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     Importance of Training
Training is the corner-stone of sound
management, for it makes employees more
effective and productive. It is actively and
intimately connected with all the personnel or
managerial activities. It is an integral part of
the whole management programme, with all
its many activities functionally inter-related.
Training is a practical and vital necessity
because, it enables employees to develop and
rise within the organization, and increase
their “market value”, earning power and job
security. It moulds the employee‟s attitudes
and helps them to achieve a better co-
operation with the company and a greater
loyalty to it. Training heightens the morale of
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                Training needs
                 identification
   Training could be a useful aid in
    improving the transformation process that
    takes place in an organization in terms of
    the processing of inputs to outputs.
    Training needs have to be related both in
    terms of the organization‟s demands and
    that of the individual‟s. Diversification of
    product lines, new technology, and hence
    a new kind of job demands the
    individual‟s growth and development
    through induction, training, or training
    necessitated by job rotation due to an
    organization‟s internal mobility policies.
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    A survey conducted by A.D.
     Sinha, listed in rank order the
     following methods of identifying
     training needs:
1.   Views of the line manager
2.   Performance Appraisal
3.   Company and Departmental
     plans
4.   Views of training manager
5.   Analysis of job difficulties
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   The model we shall examine here is
    the Thayer and McGhee model. It is
    based on the following three
    factors:
   Organizational analysis
   Task analysis
   Man analysis




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             Total Organization
                  Analysis
   Total Organization Analysis is a
    systematic effort to understand
    exactly where training effort needs to
    be emphasized in an organization. It
    involves a detailed analysis of the
    organization structure, objectives,
    human resources and future plans,
    and an understanding of its culture,
    milieu(environment).
   The first step in organization analysis
    is achieving a clear understanding of
    both short-run & long-run goals.
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    For an organization analysis, there
     are three essential requirements:
1.   An adequate number of personnel
     available to ensure fulfillment of
     the business operations
2.   That personnel performance is up
     to the required standard
3.   That the working environment in
     their units/departments is
     conducive to fulfillment of tasks.
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                Task Analysis
   This activity entails a detailed examination of a
    job, its components, its various operations and
    the conditions under which it has to be
    performed. The focus here is on the “task” itself,
    rather than on the individual and the training
    required to perform it. Analysis of the job and its
    various components will indicate the skills and
    training required to perform the job at the
    required standard.The object of this exercise is to
    et as much information as possible about the
    nature of the task and its various components,
    leading to the performance standard to be set.
    This information would be useful in establishing
    the training programme for an employee.

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                Man Analysis
   Man analysis is the third component in
    identifying training needs. The focus of man
    analysis is on the individual employee, his
    abilities, and the inputs required for job
    performance, or individual growth and
    development in terms of career planning.Man
    analysis helps to identify whether the
    individual employee requires training and if so,
    what kind of training. Clues to training needs
    can come from an analysis of an individual‟s
    or a group‟s typical behavior.Job-knowledge
    tests,    work    sampling     and    diagnostic
    psychological tests also provide information
    about employees. Thus it may be stated that a
    variety of sources need to be studied.
           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
               Training Areas
   General management training, consisting
    of areas like planning organizing, directing,
    motivating, coordinating and controlling.
   Functional areas, such as marketing,
    personnel and finance.
   Specialized technique-oriented
    programmes, such as production planning,
    maintenance management, value analysis,
    work simplification and interview
    technique.
   Problem solving and decision-making.

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                 Training as
                Responsibility
   The top management, which frames
    the training policy
   The personnel department, which
    plans, establishes and evaluates
    instructional programmes
   Supervisors, who implement and
    apply developmental procedure; and
   Employees, whom provide feedback,
    revision and suggestions for
    corporate educational endeavors.
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            Levels of Training
   The training department should assume the
    primary responsibility for the instruction of
    trainees in methods of teaching; for normal
    orientation; for the training of supervisors in
    human relations; for the development of
    executives, for co-operative education in schools
    and colleges; and for the general education of
    employees.
   Line supervisors and employees should carry the
    bulk of the teaching load in the following areas:
    on-the-job instruction of employees; instruction in
    the technical and professional aspects of a
    business; daily development of superiors and
    executives through counseling; departmental
    communication and staff meetings as part of an
    overall training programme.
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Responsibilities of Top Executives

    Authorizing basic training
     policies
    Reviewing and approving the
     board outlines of training
     plans and programmes; and
    Approving training budgets




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     Techniques of Training
   Demonstration Value
    Complete     demonstration     of    job
    requirements enables the trainee to
    grasp the meaning of ideas, concepts,
    or procedures visually. Such a method
    can be used effectively as an aid to
    overcome      the     “breakdown       of
    communication”. Trainees remember
    things that they see and hear, much
    longer than they do information they
    receive through talks or reading alone.

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   Developing Interest
    One of the important factors to be kept in
    mind in choosing a method is its ability to
    hold and arouse the interest of the trainee
    in the learning situation. A trainee has to
    consider     alternative    methods       of
    presenting      training    material      to
    participants in order to stimulate their
    interest and facilitate retention of the
    matter. For instance, if traditionally the
    matter has been presented through
    lectures, perhaps audio visual methods
    could be used, or instead project work be
    assigned which would mean learning by
    doing or researching the subject oneself.
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   Appeal too many senses
    From the trainer‟s point of view, it would
    be beneficial to utilize as many of the
    trainer‟s senses as possible, in order to
    improve retention of learning. The trainer
    has to understand and identify the
    problem area. Finally, before selecting a
    training method, the trainer should keep
    in    mind    about    cost    effectiveness.
    Depending on the learning outcome, and
    the process by which it is attained, it is
    possible to categorize the various methods
    into several groups.

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             Training Procedure


   Instructor Preparation
   Training preparation
   Presenting the task
   Tryout Performance
   Follow-up




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             Vestibule Training
It is a particular type of on-the-job
training that does not interfere with
actual production. It can be expensive to
set up, so make sure there is a large
enough number of trainees to justify its
full use.
In vestibule training you set up a training
area that simulates the work space, with
equipment and operating procedures like
those found in the actual work situation,
and employ full-time instructors. For
example, a vestibule training facility
might simulate the work situation of the
cabin crew of an airliner, hotel kitchen
workers, or high-tension-wire workers.
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          Apprenticeship Programme

   Apart from the requirements under
    Apprenticeship        Act,      various
    industries      have     their     own
    apprenticeship programme where in
    the workers are employed on a small
    stipend to learn the job first and after
    satisfactorily completing the training
    they are absorbed in the industry.



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                Simulation Methods
   Simulation is the imitation of some real thing,
    state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating
    something generally entails representing certain
    key characteristics or behaviors of a selected
    physical or abstract system. It is a technique
    which duplicates, as nearly as possible, the
    actual conditions encountered on a job.




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           Knowledge-Based Method

   In it, an effort is made to expose
    participants to concepts and theories,
    basic principles, and pure and
    applied knowledge in any subject
    area. Basically, it is aimed at creating
    an awareness of the knowledge of
    fundamentals. The categories of this
    method are lectures, seminars,
    workshops, films and training, group
    discussions etc.

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                 Experiential Methods
   Experiential Learning is the process of making
    meaning from direct experience. Aristotle once
    said, "For the things we have to learn before we
    can do them, we learn by doing them.
   Experiential   learning    is  learning    through
    reflection on doing. Experiential learning focuses
    on the learning process for the individual (unlike
    experiential education, which focuses on the
    transactive process between teacher and learner).
    An example of experiential learning is going to the
    zoo and learning through observation and
    interaction with the zoo environment, as opposed
    to reading about animals from a book. Thus, one
    makes     discoveries   and    experiments     with
    knowledge firsthand, instead of hearing or reading
    about others' experiences.

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            Management Development
   Management Development is best described as
    the process from which managers learn and
    improve their skills not only to benefit
    themselves      but    also       their    employing
    organizations.
   In    organizational   development       (OD),   the
    effectiveness of management is recognized as one
    of the determinants of organizational success.
    Therefore,     investment       in      management
    development can have a direct economic benefit
    to the organization.
   Managers are exposed to learning opportunities
    whilst doing their jobs, if this informal learning is
    used as a formal process then it is regarded as
    management development.

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             Evaluation of Training
   The process of examining a training
    program      is     called    training
    evaluation.     Training   evaluation
    checks whether training has had the
    desired effect. Training evaluation
    ensures that whether candidates are
    able to implement their learning in
    their respective workplaces, or to the
    regular work routines.


        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
Purpose of Training Evaluation




PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
        Purpose of Training Evaluation
The   five   main   purposes    of   training   evaluation    are:
Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by
defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.
Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between
acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work
place,                    and                       training.
Control: It helps in controlling the training program
because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt
with                                               accordingly.
Power games: At times, the top management (higher
authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to
manipulate     it     for   their   own     benefits.
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the
actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.



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     Process of Training
         Evaluation




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               Why Training Fails?
   The benefits of training are not clear to the
    top management.
   The top management hardly rewards
    supervisors for carrying out effective
    training.
   The top management rarely plans and
    budgets systematically for training.
   The middle management, without proper
    incentives from top management, does not
    account for training in production
    scheduling.
   Behavioral objectives are often in precise.

          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Without proper scheduling from above,
    first line supervisors have difficulty
    production norms if employees are
    attending training programmes.
   Training external to employing unit
    sometimes      teaches    techniques   on
    methods contrary to practices of the
    participant‟s organization.
   Timely    information    about    external
    programmes may be difficult to obtain.
   Trainers provide limited counseling and
    consulting services to the rest of the
    organization.
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                UNIT-6 EMPLOYEE
                    GROWTH
   The Business Environment is highly
    turbulent and complex, resulting in terrible,
    ambiguous      and    contradictory    career
    signals. Individuals, perhaps in self defense
    and becoming correspondingly becoming
    ambivalent in about their desires and plans
    for career development.Contracting which
    an employee entered a firm worked hard,
    performance well, was loyal and committed,
    and thus received ever greater rewards and
    job security, has been replaced by a anew
    contract based on continuous learning and
    identity change.
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Some organizations have become more active
in implementing employee growth programs.
Companies are designing employee growth
programs to increase employee productivity,
prevent job burn out and obsolescence, and
improve the quality of employees‟ work lives.
HR department of some large companies have
taken a greater interest in employee
development and HR have never before faced
so many challenges in meeting the needs of
individual employees and organizations in
designing career systems. To cope in today‟s
turbulent times, it has become increasingly
important for both organizations & employees
to better redress employee career needs.
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           CAREER PLANNING
   Career planning is a subset of career
    management. Taking control of one's personal
    development      –  as     employers   take  less
    responsibility, employees need to take control of
    their own development in order to maintain and
    enhance their employability. Career planning is a
    deliberate attempt by an individual to become
    more aware of his or her own skills, interests,
    values      opportunities,     constraints   and
    consequences. It involves identifying career-
    related goals and establishing plans to achieving
    those goals. Career management is considered to
    be an organizational process that involves
    preparing, implementing and monitoring career
    plans undertaken by an individual alone or within
    the organizations career systems.
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A variety of career development
  activities are available for use, like:
 Self assessment tools

 Individual counseling

 Information services

 Initial employment programs

 Organizational assessment
  programs
 Developmental rpograms

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        SUCCESSION PLANNING
   Succession Planning involves having senior
    executives periodically review their top
    executives and those in the next lower level
    to determine several backups for each
    senior position. This is important because
    it often takes years of grooming to develop
    effective senior managers. There is a
    critical shortage in companies of middle
    and top leaders for the next five
    years.Organizations will need to create
    pools of candidates with high leadership
    potential.
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    A careful and considered plan of action ensures
    that the least possible disruption to the person‟s
    responsibilities and therefore the organization‟s
    effectiveness. Examples include such a person
    who is
   suddenly and unexpectedly unable or unwilling to
    continue their role within the organization;
   accepting an approach from another organization
    or external opportunity which will terminate or
    lessen their value to the current organization;
   indicating the conclusion of a contract or time-
    limited project; or
   moving to another position and different set of
    responsibilities within the organization.
           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   A succession plan clearly sets out the
    factors to be taken into account and the
    process to be followed in relation to
    retaining or replacing the person.

    There are two main options available to
    business succession planning, which are:
   1.Retention Planning: Retention of the
    business within the family circle; and
   2.Buy-sell Planning: Selling of the
    establishment to other business owners or
    key employees or interested outsiders.

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   Other Career Programs
Career development programs are
often instituted to meet the unique
needs of particular employees.
Although many different groups and
issues may be targeted for career
development, some of the more
common programs are those that
focus    on    work-family   issues,
outplacement,            entrenched
employees, late-career employee,
disadvantages employees, fast track
employees and supervisors.
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   Work Family Program: It focus on
    increasing use of flexible work schedules
    and     training    for    managers    in
    implementing the schedule,opening of
    more on-site child-care centers, and
    greater use of paid leave for fathers and
    adoptive parents, more programs that set
    goals for advancing women into senior
    management positions and increasing
    number of companies holding managers
    accountable for meeting these goals.


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   Relocation Assistance and Hiring Practices: It
    focuses on the support provided by firms in
    assisting spouse of employees during employee
    relocation. The amount & nature of support
    could vary from company to company. Some
    firms have altered their policy on nepotism to
    allow for hiring both spouses.
   Work Family Seminars and flexible HR
    practices: It allow for organizations to design
    programs to help employees manage their work-
    family     conflicts    and    coping   strategies.
    Organization are changing their practices for
    recruitment,      travel,   transfer, promotions,
    scheduling hours, and benefits to meet the needs
    of the larger number of dual career couples.
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   Flexible Work Schedules: Organizations
    need flexibility to respond to change. The
    essence of this flexibility is the ability to
    match labor needs with the existing labor
    supply, maintaining a balance between the
    well-being of the organization and that of
    employees. Flexible work schedules are
    one    response     to   changes    in    the
    composition of the work force, new life-
    styles such as single-parent and two-
    paycheck households, and changes in the
    way people perceive work and time.
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   Outplacement Program is designed to
    assist staff with the transition from their
    current or former employer to a new
    employer.        Outplacement         program
    facilitates its use with all levels of salaried
    and executive personnel. This, in
    combina-tion          with         one-on-one
    consultation, and the utilization of
    technology, provides a means to employ
    appropriate marketing strategies for each
    individual.       outplacement        program
    involves online interaction and resources,
    coupled with individual activities and
    programs.
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                The Goals of
                Outplacement
   Reducing the morale problems of
    employees who are about to be laid
    off so that they remain productive
    until they leave the firm
   Minimizing the amount of litigation
    initiated by separated employees
   Assisting separated employees in
    finding comparable jobs as quickly
    as possible.


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           Fast Track Employees
   It identified usually as „stars‟ with high
    potential for future are placed on a fast
    track program to enable them to move to
    senior positions quickly and also helps in
    retaining     this    critical   talent. The
    identification and development of these
    employees requires organizations to exert
    efforts to build and monitor special
    programs that cater to this special
    audience. Organizations must provide
    considerable      feedback,    training  and
    counseling to these employees as well as
    offer quicker job changes and more
    challenging job assignments, particularly
    during the employee‟s first few years on the
    job.
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             UNIT-7 PERFORMANCE
                  APPRAISAL

   Performance appraisal, also known
    as employee appraisal, is a method
    by which the job performance of an
    employee is evaluated (generally in
    terms of quality, quantity, cost and
    time). Performance appraisal is a part
    of career development.
   Performance appraisals are regular
    reviews of employee performance
    within organizations.
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       Performance Management

An      iterative    process   of    goal-setting,
communication, observation and evaluation to
support, retain and develop exceptional employees
for organizational success.


          Set Goals                   Communicate




           Evaluate                     Observe



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          Why Manage
           Performance?



   To reach organizational mission and goals


       Encourage and reward behaviors aligned with
        organizational mission and goals

       Curb or redirect non-productive activities


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          What do Employees Expect?
   Clear expectations
   Positive/constructive
    feedback on a regular
    basis
   Involvement in goal
    setting
   Be treated fairly and
    consistently
   Sharing of information
    and resources
   Job/career
    enrichment
    opportunities

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             It should…..

  make officials ACCOUNTABLE

        RECOGNIZE efficiency

 identify SUITABILITY for the post

REWARD competency and sincerity

facilitate continuous IMPROVEMENT


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                What to measure?
   Technical Attributes
    Knowledge and Application

    Achievement of targets

    Other quantifiable results
                                    Technical Attributes                      Soft Skills
   Soft Skills                   (Technical competence)                    (Social Skills)
    Leadership and goal clarity

    Relationship Management

    Communication
   Personal Traits
    Honesty, Integrity, Sincerity

    Morality, Ethical standing


                                                       Personal Traits
                                                     (Emotional Quotient)




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  Appropriate weightages

                     Superiors




Peers             Self Appraisal          Citizens-Clients




                   Subordinates



  PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
 Types of Appraisal Methods

The three categories used
  here are:
1. Individual evaluation
   methods
2. Multiple person
   evaluation methods
3. Other methods



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       Individual Evaluation Methods

   Graphic Rating Scale
    In this technique, the evaluator is
    presented with a graph and asked
    to rate employees on each of the
    characteristics listed. The number
    of characteristics rated varies from
    a few to several dozen. A factor
    analysis of the results indicates that
    only two traits were being rated:
    quality of performance and ability to
    do present job.
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                Forced Choice
   It was developed because other methods used at the
    time led to preponderance of higher ratings, which
    made promotion decisions difficult. In forced choice,
    the evaluator must choose from a set of descriptive
    statements about the employee. The 2, 3, 4 statement
    items are grouped in a way that the evaluator cannot
    easily judge which statements apply to the most
    effective employee. Typically personnel specialists
    prepare the items for the form, and supervisors or
    other personnel specialists rate the items for
    applicability; that is, they determine which
    statements describe effective and ineffective behavior.
    The supervisor then evaluates the employee. The
    Personnel Department adds up the number of
    statements in each category and they are summed
    into an effectiveness index.
          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
            Essay Evaluation
   In this the evaluator is asked to describe the
    strong and weak aspects of the employee‟s
    behavior. In some enterprises, the essay
    technique is the only one used; in others, the
    essay is combined with another form, such
    as a graphic rating scale. In this case, the
    essay summarizes the scale, elaborates on
    some of the ratings, or discusses added
    dimensions not on the scale. In both these
    approaches the essay can be open ended,
    but in most cases there are guidelines on the
    topics to be covered, the purpose of the
    essay, and so on.
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       Management By Objectives
   Another individual evaluation method in
    use today is MBO. In this system, the
    supervisor and employee to be evaluated
    jointly set objectives in advance for the
    employee to try to achieve during a
    specified period. The method encourages,
    if not requires, them to phrase these
    objectives primarily in quantitative
    terms. The evaluation consists of a joint
    review of the degree of achievement of the
    objectives. This approach combines the
    superior and self-evaluation systems.
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          Critical Incident Technique
   In this technique, personnel specialists and
    operating managers prepare lists of statements of
    very effective and very ineffective behavior for an
    employee. These are the critical incidents. The
    personnel specialists combine these statements into
    categories, which vary with the job. Once the
    categories are developed and statements of effective
    and ineffective behavior are provided, the evaluator
    prepares a log for each employee. During the
    evaluation period, the evaluator records the
    examples of critical (outstandingly good or bad)
    behavior in each of the categories, and the log is
    used to evaluate the employee at the end of the
    period. It is more likely to be used by superiors
    than in peer or subordinate evaluations.
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              Checklists & Weighted
                   Checklists
   In its simplest form, the checklist is a set of objectives or
    descriptive statements. If the rater believes that the
    employee possess a trait listed, the rater checks the items;
    if not, the rater leaves it blank. A rating score from the
    checklist equals the number of checks. A more recent
    variation is the weighted checklist. Supervisors or
    personnel specialists familiar with the jobs to be evaluated
    prepare a large list of descriptive statements about
    effective & ineffective behavior on jobs, similar to the
    critical incident process. Judges who have observed
    behavior on the job sort the statements into piles
    describing behavior that is scaled from excellent to
    poor(usually on a 7-11 scale). When there is reasonable
    agreement on an item, it is included in the weighted
    checklist. The weight is the average score of the raters to
    the checklist‟s use. The employee‟s evaluation is the sum
    of the scores on the items checked.
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             Behaviorally Anchored
                Rating Scales
   It is also based on the critical incident approach
    is the behaviorally anchored rating scale(BARS).
    This technique is also known as behavioral
    expectation     scale    (BES).Supervisors     give
    descriptions    of   actually    good   and    bad
    performance, and personnel specialists group
    these into categories(5 to 10 is typical). As with
    weighted checklists, the items are evaluated by
    supervisors. A procedure similar to that for
    weighted checklists is used to verify the
    evaluations with the smallest standard deviation,
    hopefully around 1.5 on a 7 point scale . These
    items are then used to construct the BARS.


          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
            Multiple person Evaluation
                     Methods
   Ranking: In it the evaluator is asked to rate employees from
    highest to lowest on some overall criterion.
   Paired comparison: It make the ranking method easier &
    reliable. The names of the persons to be evaluated are
    placed on separate cards in a predetermined order, so that
    each person is compared to all others to be evaluated. The
    evaluator than checks the person he feels is the better of the
    two on a criterion for each comparison. Typically the
    criterion is overall ability to do the present job. The number
    of times a person is preferred is tallied, and this develops an
    index of the number of preferences compared to the number
    being evaluated.
    These scores can be converted into standard scores by
    comparing the scores to the standard deviation and the
    average of all scores. This method can be used by superiors,
    peers, subordinates, or some combination of these groups.

             PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
              Forced Distribution
   The forced-distribution system is similar to
    „grading on a curve‟. The evaluator is asked to
    rate employees in some fixed distribution of
    categories, such as 10% in low, 20% in low
    average, 40% in average, 20 % in high average,
    and 10% in high. One way to do this is to type
    each employee‟s name on card and ask the
    evaluators to sort the cards into five piles
    corresponding to the ratings. This should be
    done twice for the two key criteria of job
    performance and promotability. One reason
    forced distribution was developed was to try to
    alleviate such problems as inflated ratings and
    central tendency in the graphic rating scale.

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            360 Degree Appraisal
   360-degree feedback, also known as "multi-rater
    feedback," "multisource feedback," or "multisource
    assessment," is feedback that comes from all
    around an employee. "360" refers to the 360
    degrees in a circle, with an individual figuratively
    in the centre of the circle. Feedback is provided by
    subordinates, peers, and supervisors. It also
    includes a self-assessment and, in some cases,
    feedback from external sources such as
    customers and suppliers or other interested
    stakeholders. It may be contrasted with "upward
    feedback," where managers are given feedback by
    their direct reports, or a "traditional performance
    appraisal," where the employees are most often
    reviewed only by their managers.
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   The results from 360-degree feedback
    are often used by the person receiving
    the feedback to plan their training and
    development. Results are also used by
    some     organizations     in    making
    administrative decisions, such as pay or
    promotion. When this is the case, the
    360 assessment is for evaluation
    purposes, and is sometimes called a
    "360-degree review."

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          UNIT-8 COMPENSATION
              MANAGEMENT
   The term Compensation Management, or,
    alternatively, wage & salary administration has
    come to be accepted as the designation for the
    field    of   endeavor   concerned    with    the
    establishment and implementation of sound
    policies and methods of employee compensation.
    It    includes   such   areas   job   evaluation,
    development and maintenance of wage structures,
    wage surveys, wage incentives, wage changes and
    adjustments, supplementary payments, profit
    sharing, control of compensation costs, and other
    related pay items.

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             Important Terms
   WAGE: it is commonly used for those
    employees whose pay is calculated
    according to the number of hours worked.
   SALARY: it applies to compensation that
    is uniform from one period to the next
    and does not depend upon the number of
    hours worked. It implies a status
    distinction, because those who are on
    salary     are   generally    white-collar,
    administrative, professional, executive
    employees, whereas wage-earners are
    designated as hourly or blue-collar.
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                         JOB
   JOB: A job is defined as a collection or
    aggregation     of  tasks,   duties,  and
    responsibilities that, as a whole, is
    regarded as the reasonable assignment to
    an individual employee. A job may include
    many positions, for a POSITION is a job
    performed by an individual and hence
    related to a particular employee. Thus, an
    employee has his POSITION, but many
    positions    may     involve   the   same
    assignments of duties and constitute a
    single job. The JOB is impersonal; the
    POSITION is personal.
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        Managing Compensation
   The basic purpose of wage & salary
    administration is to establish and maintain an
    equitable wage and salary structure. Its
    secondary objective is the establishment and
    maintenance of an equitable labor-cost structure
    i.e. an optimal balancing of conflicting personnel
    interests so that the satisfaction of employees
    and employers is maximized and conflicts are
    minimized. It is concerned with the financial
    aspects of needs, motivation and rewards.
    Managers, thereof, analyze and interpret the
    needs of their employees so that reward can be
    individually designed to satisfy these needs.


          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
         Theories for determination of
                    wages
   Subsistence Theory: This theory also know
    as “Iron Law of wages”, was propounded by
    Davis Ricardo. According to this theory,
    wages tend to settle at a level just
    sufficient to maintain the workers and his
    family at minimum subsistence levels. The
    theory applies only to backward countries
    where laborers are extremely poor and are
    unable to get their share from the
    employers.


          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Standard of living theory: This theory is a
    modified form of subsistence theory. According to
    this theory, wages are determined not by
    subsistence level but also by the standard of living
    to which a class of laborers become habituated.
   Residual claimant theory: Francis A. Walker
    propounded this theory. According to him, there
    were four factors of production/business activity
    viz. land, labor, capital & entrepreneurship.
    Wages represent the amount of value created in
    the production which remains after payment has
    been made for all these factors of production.
    Labor is the residual claimant.


           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Wage Fund Theory: According to
    this theory, after rent and raw
    materials are paid for, a definite
    amount remains for labor. The total
    wage fund and the number of
    workers determine the average
    worker‟s share in the form of wages.
   Demand       &    Supply      Theory:
    According to this theory, wages
    depend upon the demand and
    supply of labor.
        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Marginal productivity theory: This is an improved
    form of demand and supply theory. Wages are
    determined by the value of the net product of the
    marginal unit of labor employed.
   Purchasing power theory: According to this theory
    the prosperity, productivity and progress of
    industry depend on there being sufficient demand
    to ensure the sale of its products and pocketing of
    reasonable profits. A large pact of the products of
    industry is consumed by workers and their
    families and if wages are high, demand will be
    good. However, if wages and the purchasing power
    of the workers are low, some of the goods will
    remain unsold; output will go down, which will
    result in unemployment.
           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Bargaining theory of wages: According
    to    John     Davidson,     wages    are
    determined by the relative bargaining
    power of workers or trade unions and
    of employers. When a trade union is
    involved, basic wages, fringe benefits,
    job    differentials   and     individual
    differences tend to be determined by
    the relative strength of the organization
    and the trade union.



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      Factors for fixation of Wages

   The   degree of skill
   The   strain of work
   The   experience involved
   The   training involved
   The   responsibility undertaken
   The   mental and physical requirements
   The   disagreeableness of the task
   The   hazard attendant on the work
   The   fatigue involved

          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
     Classification of Wages
 The International Labor
  Organization (ILO) in one of its
  publications, classified wages as
  under:
1. The amount necessary for mere
   subsistence
2. The amount necessary for health
   and decency
3. The amount necessary to provide a
   standard of comfort
     PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
 In India, wages are classified as:
1. Minimum wage

2. Fair wage

3. Living wage




      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
     UNIT-9 JOB EVALUATION

   The     British    institute   of
    management has defined Job
    Evaluation as the process of
    analysis & assessment of jobs to
    ascertain reliably their relative
    worth, using the assessment as a
    basis for a balanced wage
    structure.

       PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                    Job Evaluation

   The process of determining how
    much a job should be paid,
    balancing two goals
     Internal Equity: Paying different jobs
      differently, based on what the job
      entails
     External Competitiveness: Paying
      satisfactory performers what the
      market is paying



                                                    138
        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   JOB
EVALUATION



   It is process to determine in a systematic manner the
   comparative worth of job in an organization. Job
   evaluation is a practical technique, designed to
   enable trained and experienced staff to judge the size
   of one job relative to others.
   It does not directly determine pay levels, but will
   establish the basis for an internal ranking of jobs
   It aims at “equal pay for equal work”




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              Job Evaluation is not…

   Individual
    performance is not
    evaluated in Job
    Evaluation.

   Performance is
    evaluated
    using performance
    evaluation
    tools.
        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
           Job Evaluation Methods
   Ranking Method: jobs are compared one with
    another and arranged or valued in the order of
    their importance or their difficulty or their value
    to the firm. It is highly subjective method and
    depends upon the experience of the people doing
    the ranking.
   Grade description method: This method depends
    upon recognition that there are differences in the
    levels of duties, responsibilities and skills required
    for the performance of different jobs. These
    differences, once recognized, can be expressed as
    grades or levels. These grades can then be defined
    and jobs classified by the selection of a particular
    grade or each job to correspond to its worth.
           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Point Method: Jobs show characteristics which are
    common to all or most. These characteristics,
    called factors, generally fall under the four
    headings- skill, effort, responsibility & conditions.
    To each factor is attached a number of points, the
    number varying according to the „degree‟ of the
    factor involved. The sum of all the points for a job
    permits its comparison with other jobs and thus a
    scale of pay is arrived at.
   Time-Span method: It was propounded by
    Professor Jaques that the higher in the hierarchy
    of organizational structure of jobs the longer the
    period before the results of a decision are
    scrutinized for adequacy. An analysis of time-spans
    for different jobs yields a scale of pay felt to be fair.
            PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Factor-Comparison method: This is associated
    with the name of E.J.Benge. Each factor is
    ascribed a money value. Key jobs, representing
    the various levels or grades are ranked factor by
    factor and upon this ranking, a scale of
    pay/money value is prepared. The sum of the
    values for each factor is taken to be the money
    value of job.
   Guide-chart profile method: Three factors, know-
    how (education/experience), problem-solving, and
    accountability are each divided into 8 degrees or
    levels and these, qualified by a second, or
    „breadth‟ dimension, each factor and breadth
    being concerned with some aspect of decision-
    making.
           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
          Job Satisfaction
   Job satisfaction has been defined as a
    pleasurable emotional state resulting from
    the appraisal of one‟s job; an affective
    reaction to one‟s job; and an attitude
    towards one‟s job. Weiss (2002) has argued
    that job satisfaction is an attitude but points
    out    that    researchers     should    clearly
    distinguish     the    objects    of  cognitive
    evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs
    and behaviours. This definition suggests that
    we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking
    into account our feelings, our beliefs, and
    our behaviours.
         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
            Determination of Job
                Satisfaction
   Recognition as an individual
   A meaningful task
   Job Security
   Fair Wages
   Opportunity to advance
   Avoidance of arbitrary action
   Good working conditions
   Reputation of the concern
   A voice in matters affecting him
   Competent leadership
   Congenial association

          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                   Promotion
   A promotion is the advancement of an employee's
    rank or position in an organizational hierarchy
    system. Promotion may be an employee's reward
    for good performance i.e. positive appraisal. Before
    a company promotes an employee to a particular
    position it ensures that the person is able to
    handle the added responsibilities by screening the
    employee with interviews and tests and giving
    them training or on-the-job experience. A
    promotion can involve advancement in terms of
    designation, salary and benefits, and in some
    organizations the type of job activities may change
    a great deal. The opposite of a promotion is a
    demotion.

           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                       Transfer
   Job transfers generally fall into one of two categories:
    those initiated by management or those made in
    response to an employee‟s request. Transfers initiated
    by the employer may be necessary because of
    temporary workload imbalances; the need to rotate
    employees to limit exposure to harmful conditions;
    corporate restructuring; dislocations caused by job
    elimination or reductions in force; and demotions in
    response to disciplinary or performance problems.
    Employees may initiate a transfer because they want
    new or broader experience; there is friction among co-
    workers; they want to better use their skills; or they
    need accommodation for disabilities or family care
    responsibilities. Either way, transfers may be
    temporary      or  long-term,    depending    on    the
    organization‟s business needs.
            PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
            UNIT-10 MORALE
   Morale, also known as esprit de corps when
    discussing the morale of a group, is an
    intangible term used for the capacity of people
    to maintain belief in an institution or a goal, or
    even in oneself and others.
   Edwin B.Flippo has described Morale as “ a
    mental condition or attitude of individuals and
    groups which determines their willingness to
    cooperate. Good morale is evidenced by
    employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformance
    with regulations and orders, and a willingness
    to    cooperate     with     others     in    the
    accomplishment        of    an     organization‟s
    objectives.”
           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
          Morale & Productivity
   “When morale decreases for whatever
    reason, productivity usually tumbles
    right along with it. Costly employee
    absenteeism, accidents, turnover and
    dissatisfaction increase. Without your
    concern and action to attack the
    causes of decreasing morale, the
    mood, motivation and activity levels of
    your employees may be at risk.”


         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
      How to Improve
       Staff Morale
   Encourage open communication
   Relevant and ongoing training
   Consideration of Employee Lives
    Outside the Work Environment
   Teambuilding Exercises
   Recognition Schemes


      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
     Some Tips for Better Morale
   Hold different                 Have an end-of-
    types of                        the-year retreat.
    meetings.                      Provide stress
   Communicate                     relievers in the
    your points                     office.
    effectively.                   Remember what
   Use group                       motivates you.
    activities or                  Do NOT hold all
    icebreakers to                  of your stress
    start a meeting.                inside.
   Keep an open
    mind.
      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
Positive Employee Morale
                   =
 Good Corporate Mental
        Health




  PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
     Negative effects of low employee
                  morale

Increased absenteeism/turnover

Decreased productivity

Increased injuries/accidents

Increased healthcare costs

Increased non-productive time

Increased HR issues

Increased anxiety/stress levels
      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
             Positive effects of high
                 employee morale

Decreased absenteeism

Increased productivity

Decreased injuries/accidents

Decreased healthcare costs

Decreased non-productive time

Decreased HR issues                        Management Becomes Easier


Decreased anxiety/stress levels
         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                 Necessary steps




• Self analysis

• Research

• Notice employees

• Listen

• Show appreciation

• Correct with kindness

• Ask for feedback
           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                    Self analysis


•   Are you inspired?
•   Are you inspiring to others?
•   Do you interact or just give orders?
•   Can you take criticism and see it as a positive?
•   Do you really listen?
•   Do you engage your employees?
•   Do you seek continuous improvement?
•   Are your employee‟s afraid of you?
•   Do you give up easily?
•   What can you control?




       PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
             Notice employees



• Do you know each employee‟s personality?

• Do you always wait for employees to come to you?

• Do you only notice what is wrong?

• Do you acknowledge when they do it right?




     PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
Listen


     • Listen means stop talking

     • Listen means stop preparing to talk

     • Repeat what you heard

     • Write it down

     • Little things matter

     • Should I take action or not?



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         Show appreciation & care




• Verbal acknowledgement

• Public acknowledgement

• Written praise

• Group appreciation

• Make it fun

• Show sympathy


        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
         Correct with kindness


• There is always a kind way

•   Kindness does not equal weakness

•   Use yourself as an example

•   Shoot straight

•   Put it in writing

•   Follow up


        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
     Ask for feedback




• Let employees in on morale improvement

• Ask their opinion

• Use their ideas

• No “One time speeches” or “Flavor‟s of
  the month”

• Learn “Non-defensive” responses

• Repeat often

       PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
          Morale improvement ideas

• Include spouses in major celebrations

• Employee luncheons for reaching milestones

• Spot Bonus for above & beyond work

• Circle Of Excellence Awards

• Make safety fun (play a game)

• Compete

• Safe driver plaques

• Books with a personal message from you
         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
           Circle of Excellence
                  Awards




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      Spot Bonus & Other Awards




PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
              Other ideas to consider

•    Organizing affordable daycare facilities for
    children

•    Flexible work timetables

•    Gym memberships or weight loss program
    assistance

•    Counseling/EAP

           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                   Final thoughts


• It‟s the little positives that improve morale the most

• It‟s the little negatives that damage morale the most




        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education

				
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