Gender and Development � Practical approaches

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					Gender and Development –
  Practical approaches

      - a presentation by Mona Dahms
  Department of Development and Planning
             Aalborg University

1.    What goes wrong?
2.    Frameworks for Gender Analysis
     a) Harvard
     b) Moser
     c) Social relations

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      Learning Objectives
After this lecture you should be able
recognise the importance of gender
 analysis for project planning,
 implementation and evaluation,
list tools for gender analysis as part of
 development interventions.

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         Summary of lesson 1
   Gender is a social construction
    depending upon time and culture.
   Therefore, gender roles are neither
    universal nor unchangeable.
   There is a global gender imbalance in
    favour of men.
   It is necessary to include gender
    planning in development
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1. What goes wrong?
    Gender and project planning
    Three levels of gender integration:

   Gender blindness – gender is not
   Gender neutrality – gender is considered
    and equal opportunities are secured,
   Gender planning – gender is considered
    and equity impacts are secured.

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                 Equal Opportunities??
  To secure a fair
selection you all get
the same exercise:
You must climb the

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(Implicit) assumptions about the household:

   The household consists of a nuclear family of
    husband, wife and 2 – 3 biological children.
   Within the household there is a clear division of
    labour based upon gender. The man is the
    breadwinner and the woman is the mother and
   Women’s work is unpaid housework, not crucial
    to the survival of the family

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       Further assumptions??
(Implicit) assumptions about data collection:
 All techniques for data collection are equally valid
  for women and for men
 Conventional conceptual categories (ex. work)
  hold the same meaning for all people.

  Also other factors, such as: Timing of interviews,
  length of the reference period and language,
  influence data collected.

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        Exercise 1: Assumptions??

   How can we as researchers ensure
    that assumptions made are in
    accordance with the reality

   Buzz with your nearest neighbours
    for a few minutes and present your
    thoughts to the plenary.
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                2. Gender Analysis

Source: UNDP Gender in Development Programme, Learning and
Information Pack; Gender Analysis
        Gender Analysis Frameworks
   Gender roles framework (Harvard)
   Triple roles framework (Carolyn Moser)
   Web of institutionalisation framework (Caren
   Gender analysis matrix (GAM)
   Equality and empowerment framework (Sara
   Capacities and vulnerabilities framework (CVA)
   People oriented planning framework (POP)
   Social relations framework (SRF)

   The multiplicity of frameworks indicates the
    activities – but also the frustrations!
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        Information provided by GA

   Specific gender disaggregated statistics
   Understanding of gender relations
   Analysis of the gendered impact of sexual
    division of labour
   Needs and interests of both women and

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        Harvard framework - 1

Three main tools:
1. The socio-economic activity profile –
  who does what, when, where and for
   how long?

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               Tool 1: Activity profile
Activities             Women/girls    Men/boys
Income generation







Cleaning and repair


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        Harvard framework - 1
Three main tools:
1. The socio-economic activity profile –
   who does what, when, where and for how
2. The access and control profile –
   who has access to resources (ex. land,
    equipment, capital etc.)?
   who has access to benefits (ex. education,
    health services, political power etc.)?
   who has control over resources and benefits?
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     Tool 2: Access and control profile
                                 Access            Control
                             Women         Men   Women   Men
Land; Equipment;
Labour; Cash;
Education; Training;

Income; Ownership;
Basic needs; Education;
Political power; prestige;

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       Tool 3: Influencing factors

3. A list of factors which determine the
  gender differences identified –
  Charts the factors (political, economic,
   cultural etc.) which affect the gender
   differentiations identified in the profiles
  Past and present influences
  Opportunities and constraints

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         Harvard framework - 2

   Strengths:

    • Collecting and organising information about
      gender division of labour,
    • Making women’s work visible
    • Distinguishes between access and control
    • Useful for projects at micro-level
    • A gender-neutral entry point for discussions
      on gender issues

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         Harvard framework - 3

   Weaknesses:

    • Focus on efficiency rather than equity
    • Focus on material resources rather than on
      social relations
    • Can be carried out in a non-participatory

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      Exercise 2: Bumpy roads
   Use the Harvard framework to
    analyse the case study (Exercise 3 –
    Bumpy roads) handed out.
   Discuss why and how the mixed
    results were achieved.
   Please present your answers to the

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           Moser framework - 1

Two main tools used:

  1. Gender roles identification - women’s triple
     role: productive, reproductive, community.

  2. Gender needs assessment: Practical gender
     needs, strategic gender needs.

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               Productive work

   Production of goods and services for
    consumption and trade (farming, fishing,
    employment, self-employment)

    Often carried out alongside the
    reproductive work. Women’s productive
    work is often less visible and less valued
    than men’s.

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            Reproductive work

   Care and maintenance of the household
    and its members (bearing and caring for
    children, food preparation, water and fuel
    collection, shopping, housekeping, family
    health care)

    Seldom considered ’real work’. Usually
    Almost always the responsibility of girls
    and women.
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               Community work

   Collective organisation of social events
    and services (ceremonies, celebrations,
    community improvement activities,
    participation in groups and organisations,
    local political activities etc.)

    Involves volunteer time. Normally unpaid.

    Men undertake community work, too but
    often at political level, giving prestige.
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Women’s Work

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              Practical gender needs
   A response to short-term, immediately perceived
    needs arising from concrete conditions
   Mainly arising from and reinforcing particular
    women’s reproductive and productive role
   Do not challenge the subordinate position of
    (Ex. Clean water, health care, housing, food provision)

    Women’s needs differ from men’s needs because of their
    different tasks and responsibilities.

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              Strategic gender needs
   Response to long-term needs arising from
    women’s subordinate position
   Challenge the nature of the gendered relationship
    between women and men
   Women involved as agents of change
   Lead to a transformation of gender division of
    labour for all women
    (Ex. access to resources (land, credit, etc.), measures
    against male violence, control over own body)

    Women’s needs differ from men’s needs because of their
    different positions in society.

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          Moser framework - 2
   Strengths:
    • Can be used for planning in a variety of settings
    • Challenges unequal gender relations
    • Supports the empowerment of women
    • Recognises institutional and political resistance to
      transforming gender relations
    • Needs concept useful for evaluating impact of
      development interventions
    • Triple roles concept useful for revealing women’s
    • Alerts planners to the interrelationship between
      productive, reproductive and community work
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             Moser framework - 3

   Weaknesses:
    • Looks at separate activities rather than
      interrelated activities of women and men
    • Other forms of inequality (race, class etc.) not
    • Strict division between practical and strategic
      needs often unhelpful in practise
    • Moser does not include strategic needs of men
      – have been included in the Levy framework

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                 Exercise 3:
               Moser framework
   Read the case study provided (case study
    one) and discuss it with your nearest
   Using the Moser framework identify:
     Roles emphasised (intended and in practise),
     Gender needs met (intended and in practise),
   Fill in the accompanying chart
   Please be prepared to present your group
    results to the plenary.

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    Social Relations Framework (SRF) - 1

     Five essential concepts:

     1.   Development as increasing human well-being
     2.   Social relations
     3.   Institutional analysis
     4.   Institutional gender policies
     5.   Underlying and structural causes

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      Concept 1: Development

   Development as increasing human
    well-being – not just economic
   Core elements:
    • Survival
    • Security
    • Autonomy

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         Concept 2: Social relations

   Social relations are understood as the way
    in which different groups of people are
    positioned in relation to material and
    intangible resources.

    • SR determine people’s roles, responsibilities,
      claims, rights and control
    • SR include gender, class, ethnicity, race etc.
    • SR change overtime, influenced by changes at
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        Concept 3: Institutional analysis
Key institution            Organisational form
State                      Legal, military, administrative

Market                     Firms, financial corporations,
                           farming enterprises,
                           multinationals etc.
Community                  Village tribunals, voluntary
                           associations, informal
                           networks, patron-client
                           relationship, NGOs
Family/kinship             Household, extended family,
                           lineage groups etc.

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         Concept 3: Institutional analysis

    Five aspects of an institution:

    1. Rules: How are things done?
    2. Activities: What is done?
    3. Resources: What is used, what is produced?
    4. People: Who is in, who is out, who does
    5. Power: Who decides, whose interests are

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Concept 4: Institutional gender policies

   Three categories of gender policies:

    • Gender- blind
    • Gender-aware
         Gender-neutral
         Gender-specific
    • Gender-redistributive

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Concept 5: Underlying and structural causes

     Examines:

      • Immediate, underlying and structural
        factors responsible for problems
      • Effects on those involved

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             Causes and effects

Long-term effects
Intermediate effects
Immediate effects

Immediate causes - 4 levels
Intermediate causes – 4
Structural causes – 4 levels
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    Social Relations Framework (SRF) - 2

   Strengths:

     • Used at different levels for planning and policy
     • Presents a broader picture of poverty
     • Focus on structural analysis and processes of
       powerlessness and marginalisation
     • Links micro- and macro-level analysis
     • Emphasises gender relations and puts gender
       at the core of the analysis

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    Social Relations Framework (SRF) - 3

   Weaknesses:

     • May give an overwhelming impression of large
     • Overlooks the potential for people to effect
     • Women may get subsumed into other social
     • Appear to be complicated

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           A word of caution!!
   Gender analysis should not be used as a
    rigid neutral technical tool imposed by
    outside ’experts’ !
   Women and men must be accorded an
    active decision-making role in their own
    development !
   Gender analysis can never replace
    empathy and sensitivity in development

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    Exercise 3: Mini-case studies
    Read the 4 mini-case studies and discuss
     the following questions:

    1. How does this project affect the workload
       and/or status of women?
    2. How, if at all, could this project be sustained?
    3. How, if at all, does this project contribute to
       the equality of women?

    Please feed back your answers to the
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   This was all for today –
thank you for your attention
  – it has been a pleasure!

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