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					GHS Science                     Biology               UNIT 1: Cells
                            STAGE 1 – DESIRED RESULTS
   1. CT 10.1
   2. CT Core Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy A, B
   3. NSS: CONTENT STANDARD C: I. Cells: A, B, C, E, F

UNDERSTANDINGS:                                ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
   A. SCIENTISTS USE THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. What are fundamental differences between
      TO DEVELOP AN HYPOTHESIS AND                 cells?
      DESIGN A CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT TO        2. What are the fundamental differences
      TEST THAT HYPOTHESIS.                        between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
   B. LIVING THINGS DEPEND ON THE              3. What are the fundamental differences
      STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITIES THAT                between plant and animal cells?
      OCCUR INSIDE CELLS.                      4. How do cell structures relate to the survival
                                                   of the cell and to the survival of living
STUDENTS WILL KNOW:                            STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:
   A. How to use the scientific method to      1. Analyze experimental data to evaluate the
      identify and investigate complex             validity of a hypothesis.
      problems.                                2. Accurately graph data to reflect the
   B. The cell theory                              relationship between independent and
   C. The difference between prokaryotic and       dependent variable(s).
      eukaryotic cells.                        3. Explain the key understandings of the cell
   D. The differences between plant, animal        theory.
      and bacterial cells.                     4. Distinguish between major categories of
   E. Identify and describe the role of the        cells (i.e. plant vs. animal cells, eukaryotic
      following organelles:                        vs. prokaryotic cells, etc.).
          a. -Energy Production:               5. Describe the interdependency of organelles
              mitochondria & chloroplasts          within a cell, and their cooperative
          b. -Waste Disposal: Lysosomes            functions to maintain homeostasis.
          c. -Synthesis of New Molecules:      6. Identify the major parts of the cell and
              Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic         explain how these parts ensure that the cell
              Reticulum, Ribosomes                 works properly.
          d. Storage of genetic material:      7. Use a compound light microscope to
              Nucleus                              identify microscopic specimens and
   F. Semi-permeable cell membranes are            calculate total magnification. (D INQ 6)
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      responsible for materials moving into    8. Describe how materials crucial to the cell
      and out of the cells. These processes        enter and leave the cell, and explain why
      include: passive and active transport,       they are important.
      and endo and exocytosis.                 9. Distinguish between different types of cells
   G. Cells in multicellular organisms             within a human. (D INQ 4)
      specialize to form different tissues and 10. Predict how different environments will
      organs. Examples include: nerve, red         affect the size and shape of cells.
      blood cell, muscle, gland and gametes.
   H. How the processes of osmosis and
      diffusion help a cell maintain balance
   I. How to use a compound microscope to
      identify microscopic specimens and
      calculate total magnification.
   J. Define the following terms:
           o hypothesis
           o control/experimental group
           o independent/dependent variable
           o cell (plasma) membrane
           o cell wall
           o central/food vacuole
           o chloroplast
           o compound microscope
           o eukaryotic cell
           o mitochondria
           o nucleus
           o organelle
           o prokaryotic cell (bacteria)
           o ribosome
           o osmosis
           o diffusion
           o endo / exocytosis
           o semi-permeable (selective
           o passive / active transport

                       STAGE 2 – ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE

                           STAGE 3 – LEARNING PLAN
    Microscope Skills Lab
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    Cells Identification Lab
    Cells Inquiry Activity (see task 6)
    Plasmolysis w/ Red Onion Skin Cells
GHS Science                                      Biology                  UNIT 2: CellEnergy
                                                                                & Enzymes
                                     STAGE 1 – DESIRED RESULTS

   1. CT 10.1
   2. CT Core Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy, A, B, C
   3. NSS: Standard C: V. Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems: B, C
   4. NSS: Standard Science as Inquiry: A, B, D, F
UNDERSTANDINGS:                                ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
   A. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR                  1. How is energy essential to sustaining
      RESPIRATION INVOLVE THE                         life on Earth?
      TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY AND                 2. How do living organisms obtain
      MATTER.                                         energy?
   B. ENZYMES ARE NEEDED FOR THE                   3. How do enzymes regulate cell
      TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY AND                    activities?

STUDENTS WILL KNOW:                                        STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:
   1. Living things need a continuous input                1. Distinguish carbohydrates, lipids and
       of energy to sustain life.                             proteins by properties and function.
   2. The difference between carbohydrates,                2. Explain how photosynthesis and cellular
       lipids and proteins.                                   respiration are interdependent (rely on each
   3. The reactants and products of                           other) and provide the energy to sustain
       photosynthesis and cell respiration.                   life.
   4. The role of ATP for energy storage and               3. Diagram the process of photosynthesis
       transformation.                                        including reactants and products
    5. The different ways that autotrophs and                 (emphasize the change of energy forms).
          heterotrophs obtain and use energy.              4. Diagram the process of respiration
   6. How enzymes allow our body’s                            including reactants and products
       reactions to occur faster.                             (emphasize the change of energy forms).
   7. Examples of enzymes and the roles                    5. Identify organisms that undergo cellular
       they play in living organisms (Pectinase               respiration and photosynthesis.
       and Cellulase)                                      6. Describe what enzymes are and the
   8. Why an enzymes shape is related to its                  important role they play in living
       function.                                              organisms.                                     3
   9. How changes in temperature and pH                    7. Explain how the environment affects how
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       can affect an enzymes’ shape and                       enzymes work.
       function.                                           8. Design an experiment to determine how
   10. Define the following terms:                            temperature and or pH affect enzymes. (D
            o ATP                                             INQ 3,4 5, 9)
            o Energy
            o Enzyme
            o –“ase”
            o Pectinase & Cellulase
          o   Reactant / product
          o   cellular respiration
          o   glucose
          o   O2
          o   CO2
          o   autotroph
          o   chlorophyll
          o   heterotroph
          o   photosynthesis
                          STAGE 2 – ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
PERFORMANCE TASKS:                           OTHER EVIDENCES:
Lab Activity: EMBEDDED TASK: Cellulase       Lab Report: Enzyme Catalysis
vs. Pectinase
Alternative Lab: How Temp and pH affect
Apple Juice Production
                                 STAGE 3 – LEARNING PLAN
Lab Activity: BTB Lab Activity / Demo
Organic Food Lab

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GHS Science                              Biology                     UNIT 3:
                              STAGE 1 – DESIRED RESULTS
   1. CT 10.2
   2. CT Core Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy A, B, D
   3. NSS: Standard Science as Inquiry: A, B, C, D
UNDERSTANDINGS:                                ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
   C. Microorganisms have an essential role        1. What are some different types of
      in life processes and cycles on Earth.          microorganisms?
                                                   2. How are infectious diseases caused by
                                                      microorganisms transmitted, treated
                                                      and prevented?
                                                   3. How are microorganisms essential
                                                      (and/or beneficial) to other living
STUDENTS WILL KNOW:                            STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:
   A. How to distinguish between bacteria          1. Distinguish between bacteria and
      and viruses and recognize specific              viruses by traits such as size,
      examples of each.                               independence, shape, and treatment.
   B. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial      2. Describe ways in which different
      infection and can be misused.                   microorganisms are transmitted.
   C. How vaccines/immunizations stimulate         3. Distinguish between infectious & non-
      the body’s immune system to prevent             infectious disease.
      infectious disease.                          4. Describe how the immune system
   D. The role sanitation has in preventing           defends against infectious disease.
      the spread of infectious disease.            5. Develop ways in which humans can
   E. Microorganisms such as bacteria and             slow down the transmission of
      yeast are used in the production of             infectious disease.
      human foods.                                 6. Describe how bacteria and yeast are
   F. The definitions of the following terms:         used in food production and other
           a. Pathogen                                activities helpful to humans.
           b. Microorganism/Microbe                7. Investigate where bacteria grow in the
           c. Antibody
           d. Antigen
                                                      human environment and how to culture
           e. Vaccine / Immunizations                 bacteria. ( D INQ 4, 6)
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          f.   Antibiotic
          g.   Incubation
          h.   White Blood Cells
   G. Be able to identify the following as
      either bacteria, viruses or fungi:
          o    HIV / AIDS
          o    Influenza
          o    Common Cold
          o    Chicken Pox / Small Pox
           o   West Nile
           o   Staphylococcus
           o   Salmonella
           o   Streptococcus
           o   Lyme’s
           o   Tuberculosis
           o   Bubonic Plague
                         STAGE 2 – ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
PERFORMANCE TASKS:                              OTHER EVIDENCES:
Lab: Bacteria in our Environment / Sanitation   Lab Report: Bacteria in our Environment
Lab (D INQ 3, 4, 5, 9)
                                STAGE 3 – LEARNING PLAN
Microorganism Wanted Poster (D INQ 10)
Microbes in My Meal (D INQ 2)

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GHS Science                    Biology               UNIT 4: DNA
                           STAGE 1 – DESIRED RESULTS
   1. CT 10.3 (WITH D28 FROM 10.2)
   2. CT: Core Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy D, E
   3. NSS: Standard C: II. Molecular Basis of Heredity A, C
   4. NSS: Standard Science as Inquiry: V, VI

UNDERSTANDINGS:                                 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
   A. DNA is required for the production of        1. How does DNA code for the
      proteins, which have many critical roles        production of proteins?
      in all living organisms.                     2. What are some roles that proteins play
   B. Similarities in the properties of DNA           in living organisms?
      allow for the transfer of genetic            3. What are some recent, important ways
      information from one organism to                in which genes are altered and analyzed
      another.                                        in organisms?
                                                   4. What are the risks and benefits of
                                                      altering the genes of existing
STUDENTS WILL KNOW:                             STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:
   A. How a specific sequence of DNA code          1. Explain the role that DNA replication
      for a specific protein.                         and mitosis have in passing genes from
   B. How the (complementary) properties of           cell to cell.
      DNA allows for genetic continuity            2. Differentiate between DNA replication
      from parent to daughter cell through            and protein synthesis.
      mitosis                                      3. Diagram the structure of DNA,
   C. How the sequence of nucleotides in              including complimentary strands.
      DNA accounts for the diversity of            4. Diagram the process of protein
      proteins                                        production from gene to protein.
   D. The structure of DNA, mRNA, and              5. Produce a strand of amino acids using
      tRNA and how they are organized in              a strand of DNA and the genetic code.
      cells (location)                             6. Explain the source of mutations and
   E. The role of DNA, mRNA, tRNA and                 how they can affect the traits of
      ribosomes in protein synthesis (the             organisms.
      process of transcription and                 7. Explain how recombinant DNA is used       7
      translation).                                   to produce GMO’s.
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   F. That specific proteins perform most          8. Assess the risk-vs.-benefit of
      functions in cells                              genetically altered food sources.
   G. That genes (and traits) can be altered in       (D INQ 1, 2)
      organisms by mutation and genetic            9. Research & defend a position in favor
      engineering                                     of or opposed to labeling genetically
   H. That there are benefits and potential           altered foods by developing a brochure.
      risks of genetic engineering                    (D INQ 2,7, 8, 10)
   I. The following terms
     o Amino Acids
     o Chromosome
     o Codon
     o Anticodon
     o Gene
     o Mitosis
     o mRNA
     o tRNA
     o Mutation
            Gene
            Chromosomal
     o Transcription
     o Translation
     o Replication
     o Nucleotide ( Sugar, Phosphate, N Base)
     o Protein
     o Ribosome
     o Restriction Enzymes
     o Genetic Engineering
     o Recombinant DNA
                       STAGE 2 – ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
PERFORMANCE TASKS:                              OTHER EVIDENCES:
Engineering Foods Brochure

                            STAGE 3 – LEARNING PLAN

                                                                   GHS Bio 2008-09 Page
  GHS Science                     Biology            UNIT 5: Heredity
                           STAGE 1 – DESIRED RESULTS
   1. CT 10.4
   2. CT Core Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy: F
   3. NSS: Standard C: II. Molecular Basis of Herdity: B
   4. NSS: Standard Science as Inquiry:: III

UNDERSTANDINGS:                                     ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
  A. There are mechanisms that create diversity     1. How is variation created in sexually
     in living organisms                               reproducing organisms?
  B. There are patterns of inheritance that can     2. How do genetic disorders differ from
     be used to predict the traits of offspring        infectious diseases?
                                                    3. How do we predict the inheritance of
                                                       genetic traits or disorders?

STUDENTS WILL KNOW:                                 STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:
   A. How to distinguish between asexual and        1. Identify and compare sexually and
      sexual reproduction in terms of purpose,         asexually reproduction
      types of organisms, and genetic variation.    2. Explain how meiosis and fertilization
   B. How meiosis contributes to the genetic           contributes to the genetic variability of
      variability in organisms.                        organisms
   C. Most organisms have two genes for each        3. Distinguish between dominant and
      trait, one on each of the chromosomes            recessive genes and homozygous and
      inherited from their parents.                    heterozygous gene pairings
   D. How to use a Punnett Square to predict the    4. Distinguish between infectious and
      distribution of traits in single gene and        inherited disease and provide
      double gene crossings.                           examples of inherited diseases
   E. That traits can be inherited as dominant or   5. Identify the gametes and use a punnett
      recessive, and autosomal or sex-linked.          square to predict the genotypic and
   F. How to analyze a pedigree to determine           phenotypic probability of offspring in
      possible modes of inheritance.                       a. -Single dominant gene crosses
   G. Genetic disorders are inherited and are              b. -Incomplete dominant crosses
      different from infectious diseases.                  c. -Dihybrid
   H. Genetic disorders can be caused by a                 d. -Sex-Linked                          9
      change in the number of chromosomes                  e. Codominant / Multiple alleles
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      inherited.                                    6. Analyze pedigrees to determine the
   I. The following terms:                             genetic make up of individuals and
           a. Meiosis                                  modes of inheritance
           b. Gene                                  7. Analyze a karyotype to predict the
           c. Allele                                   gender and presence of chromosomal
           d. Sexual                                   syndromes in babies ( D INQ 6, 8)
           e. Asexual
           f. Diploid
         g. Haploid
         h. Heterozygous (Hybrid) /
             Homozygous (Pure Bred)
         i. Crossing Over
         j. Carrier
         k. Phenotype
         l. Genotype
         m. Phenotypic / Genotypic Ratios
         n. Monohybrid / Dihybrid Crosses
         o. Pedigree
         p. Punnett Square
         q. Trait
         r. Dominant / Recessive
         s. Autosomal / Sex Chromosomes
         t. Sex Linked Traits
         u. Incomplete Dominance
         v. Codominance / Multiple Alleles
         w. Polygenic traits
   J. The fact that the following diseases are
      genetically inherited:
         a. Sickle Cell Anemia (recessive gene
           b. Cystic Fibrosis (recessive gene
           c. Huntington’s disease (dominant gene
           d. Tay-Sach’s (recessive gene mutation)
           e. Hemophilia (recessive, sex-linked gene
           f. Down Syndrome (chromosomal
                          STAGE 2 – ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
PERFORMANCE TASKS:                                     OTHER EVIDENCES:
Human Genetics Lab
                              STAGE 3 – LEARNING PLAN
Any lab / activity demonstrating mutation
                                                                          GHS Bio 2008-09 Page
GHS Science                  Biology             UNIT 6: Evolution
                         STAGE 1 – DESIRED RESULTS
   1. CT 10.5
   2. NSS: Standard C: III. Biological Evolution: A, C, D, E
UNDERSTANDINGS:                             ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
   A. THE DIVERSITY OF LIVING               1. What forces drive evolution?
      ORGANISMS IS A RESULT OF GENETIC      2. How does the variation in populations
      AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES                 contribute to the evolution of
      THAT HAVE OCCURRED OVER TIME.             organisms?
                                            3. How does the current theory of
                                                evolution provide a scientific
                                                explanation for the fossil record?

STUDENTS WILL KNOW:                             STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:
   A. The characteristics that define a         1. Determine whether two organisms are
      population and a species                      of the same species
   B. Evidences for evolution include the       2. Analyze diagrams and charts of the
      fossil record, biochemistry,                  following and describe how they are
      embryology and structural                     used as evidence of evolution:
      adaptations.                              -Structural adaptations
   C. That similarities in structure, genetic   -Biochemical comparisons
      make-up and development among             -Geological strata and the fossil record
      different species are evidence for        -Embryological comparisons
      evolution and a shared common             3. Use evidence to determine common
      ancestor.                                     ancestry between organisms
   D. How structural and behavioral             4. Identify adaptations in living
      adaptations increase the chances for          organisms to their current environment
      organisms to survive and reproduce            and niche
      in their environment and niche            5. Relate the survival of a species to their
   E. Changes in the environment may                ability to adapt to a changing
      result in the selection of organisms          environment
      that are better able to survive and       6. Explain antibiotic resistance in
      reproduce.                                    bacteria using random mutation and the
   F. How the processes of mutation and             conditions of natural selection            11
      natural selection lead to the             7. Explain how a changing environment
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      evolution of living things                    can lead to the evolution of populations
   G. Darwin explained that the process of
      natural selection includes the
      following conditions:
   H. Variation within populations
   I. Some variations are favorable
   J. There is a struggle for survival
   K. Individuals that survive and
      reproduce are those with favorable
   L. How reproductive isolation can lead
      to speciation
   M. The following terms:
          o   Natural Selection
          o   Charles Darwin
          o   Evolution
          o   Adaptation
          o   Homologous structures
          o   Analogous structures
          o   Vestigial structures
          o   Common ancestor
          o   Niche
          o   Species
          o   Biochemistry
          o   Embryology
          o   Variation
          o   Fossils / Fossil Record
          o   Geological strata
          o   Speciation
          o   Extinction
          o   3.5 billion years

                     STAGE 2 – ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
Hide and Go Beak Lab (D INQ 3, 5,6, 9)
                           STAGE 3 – LEARNING PLAN
Evolution Cartoon (video)
Peppered Moth Lab / Activity
Evolution PBS videos (“Why Sex?”,
“Great Transformations”)
Post-It Activity
Web Activities: “Sex & the Single Guppy”,
“All in the Family”
                                                                         GHS Bio 2008-09 Page
GHS Science                   Biology              Unit 7: Populations
                           STAGE 1 – DESIRED RESULTS
CT: 10.6
CT Core Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy A, B, C
UNDERSTANDINGS:                             ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
       A. LIVING ORGANISMS HAVE THE         1. What factors affect the size of populations?
       CAPACITY OF PRODUCING                2. How has human population growth affected
       POPULATIONS OF UNLIMITED SIZE,           the Earth’s ecosystems?
   A. How does emigration, immigration,      1. Analyze population growth data to predict
      birth rate and death rate affect the      future growth in that population
      carrying capacity of populations.      2. Explain how a nations age structure affects
   B. What factors have affected the            population growth
      growth of the human population.        3. Describe what factors can affect the growth
   C. The following terms                       (positive, negative, or stable) of a population
      o Population                           4. Analyze population growth curves to
      o Carrying Capacity                       determine information about that population
      o Exponential / Logistical Growth      5. Distinguish between exponential and
      o Immigration / Emigration                logistical growth
      o Birth Rate / Death Rate              6. Describe why the human population has
      o Limiting Factors                        experienced exponential growth
                                             7. Design a lab to investigate how temperature
                                                or pH affects the growth of yeast population
                                                (D INQ 3, 4, 5, 9)

                        STAGE 2 – ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
PERFORMANCE TASKS:                                  OTHER EVIDENCES:
Embedded Task: Age Structure Diagrams /             Age Structure Diagrams
                                                                                                  GHS Bio 2008-09 Page

Population Dynamics                                 Yeast Population Lab Report
Embedded Task: Yeast Population Lab
                            STAGE 3 – LEARNING PLAN
View Human population video
GHS Science                         Biology                       UNIT 8: Humans and
                                                                   Their Environment
   1. CT 9.8 AND 9.9
   2. NSS: Standard C: IV. Interdependence of Organisms: E
UNDERSTANDINGS:                               ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
   A. THE USE OF RESOURCES BY HUMAN              1. How does the accumulation of carbon
      POPULATIONS MAY AFFECT THE                     dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere
      QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                     accelerate the greenhouse effect,
   B. NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND CHANGES IN                causing climatic changes?
      LIFESTYLE CAN HAVE POSTITIVE AND/OR        2. How pollutants effect the diversity and
      NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON THE                        size of populations?
      ENVIRONMENT                                3. How can humans improve air and water
                                                 4. How does human use of land and
                                                     natural resources affect the quality of
                                                     the environment?

STUDENTS WILL KNOW:                               STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:
   A. The chemical cycling of carbon.             8. Describe how carbon is recycled
   B. The impact of rapid human population            throughout an ecosystem.
      growth on ecosystems.                       9. Assess the impact of human population
   C. That the burning of fossil fuels increase       growth on an ecosystem.
      carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.           10. Explain how the burning of fossil fuels
   D. How the greenhouse effect may raise             affects global temperature.
      global temperatures/climate change.         11. Assess the impact on specific types of
   E. Major sources of water pollution                water pollution on biodiversity and human
      including mercury, phosphates and               health.
      nitrates.                                   12. Explain the short- and long-terms impacts
   F. The bioaccumulation of various                  of landfills and incineration of waste
      pollutants have an impact on                    materials on the quality of the environment.
      organisms.                                      (D INQ 9, 10)
   G. The environmental impacts of landfills      13. Analyze their individual impact on their
      and incineration of waste materials.            ecosystem. (Ecological Footprint)
   H. That some human transportation and                                                             14
      land usage has an impact of
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   I. Define the following terms:
      o biogeochemical cycles
      o ecosystem
      o fossil fuels
      o atmosphere
      o pollutants
      o bioaccumulation
      o   greenhouse effect
      o   global climate change
      o   mercury
      o   phosphates
      o   nitrates
      o   landfills
      o   groundwater
      o   runoff
      o   Brownfield sites

                       STAGE 2 – ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
Embedded Task: Brownfield Site
                           STAGE 3 – LEARNING PLAN
Web activity “Consumer Consequences”
Video “Ecological Footprint”

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