THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Review of related literature is as a frame of reference of data analysis in
the next chapter. It is intended to find out the theoretical frame work related to the
study. Dealing with the study, it is done in order that the writer’s study possesses
theoretical bases. Therefore, in the following section, the writer will elaborate
teaching and Learning English in Junior High School, the meaning of vocabulary,
teaching using multimedia, advantages of using multimedia in English vocabulary
teaching and teaching vocabulary at Junior High School.
A. Teaching and Learning English in Junior High School
English is one of the languages that are taught in school. In the Junior
High School, it’s learned as the first foreign language. By learning English, it
will enable students to express their ideas, opinions, suggestions, and their
feelings, and they will be able to convey meaning of various phenomena.
Therefore by mastering English, they are expected to be able to understand
themselves, the culture of their own and others and to participate in the society.
English as the first foreign language is learned to be mastered for the
purpose of absorption and science development and technology and art and
culture, as well as to gain international relations with other nations. To the
school year of 1993/1994 English is formally taught at junior and senior high
school as mandatory subject. Formally English was not taught in elementary
school. Nevertheless several elementary schools especially in the major cities
and foreign tourist area gave English language as extra curricular.
Based on the minister of National Education Regulation No. 23 of 2006
namely on competency standards for elementary and secondary education unit.
Graduates Competency Standards Unit of Education (SKLSP) was developed
based on the objectives of each educational unit. For the subjects of English as
a charge in secondary schools as follows:
Understanding the instructions, information and very simple story presented
orally in the context of the classroom, school, and the environment.
Expressing meaning orally in interpersonal and transactional discourse in
the form of very simple instructions and information in the context of the
classroom, school, and the environment.
Reading aloud and understand the meaning of the instruction, information,
short functional text, and descriptive text with the very simple picture
presented in writing within the context of the classroom, school, and the
Writing down the words, phrases, and the very simple short functional texts
with spelling and the correct punctuation.
According to Fauziati (2005: 188) English is a tool to communicate
through either spoken or written form. Many people use it in business,
industry, politics, education, and many other professions. English as the
foreign language in Indonesia, is very important for absorbing and
developing sciences, technology, and culture.
English which is taught in Indonesia as a foreign language is a
compulsory school subject that must be learnt by the students in all levels
from Elementary School to University. By the end of Junior High School
study, the students are expected to have the ability of four language skills;
they are speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Basically the process of
teaching and learning does not involve one component; here some
components are discussed one by one. They are:
In general teachers try to do their work better everyday. They have
good interest in their students and this drives them to a constant search for
motivating activities, more efficient teaching method, and better design
materials for their classes. They spend a lot time, inside and outside their
classes, thinking about how to help their students. Teachers must be having
good characteristics, so the learning process will be better.
According Robinett (1977) in Fauziati (2010: 183) states teachers
must acquire knowledge of a specific subject before they can teach it to
others. As for the qualities of good teachers she mentions some features
Effective teachers listen to students’ problems and use
inspiration to help them find solutions.
It comes from a genuine interest in the subject matter and from
the satisfaction gained from watching students learn a second or foreign
c. Professional Competence
It is knowledge of the subject matter to be taught. It includes a
linguistic awareness as what constitutes language; how language
operates; how speech and writing are related; how language compare
and contrast; how language reflects the culture of its speakers, etc.
Consider the affective development of the students
It refers to the ability to create a free and wholesome atmosphere
in the classroom where students feel secures.
d. Tolerance, patience, warmth, sensibility and open mindedness
In summary, teachers must not only have a sound knowledge of
the target language but a set of personal qualities such as sensitivity,
warmth and tolerance.
According to Richards teachers are the key factor in the
successful implementation of curriculum changes (2005: 99). In any
situations teacher has the important role, according to the following
a) Language proficiency
Teacher should have good skills. He or she must master English
b) Teaching Experience
Teaching experience means that the teacher should have
experience in teaching.
c) Skill and Expertise
To get success in learning process the teacher must have a good
skill and expertise.
d) Training and qualification
The teacher must train him or herself to know his or her ability. So,
he or she knows that the qualification of his or her teaching and
then the teacher must prepare all things for learning process from
making lesson plan until evaluation.
e) Morale and motivation
If a teacher has a good morale and motivation, he or she can lead
the students well. It makes the students get spirit in their learning.
f) Teaching Style
The teacher will vary his or her style in teaching so the students do
not feel bored.
So, from explanation above the teachers must know the key
factor in the successful implementation of curriculum changes.
Students or learners are the key participant in curriculum
development projects and it is essential to collect as much information as
possible about them before the project begins (Richards, 2005: 101). The
teacher must know about his or her students that have similarities and the
differences on characteristic, personalities, and temperaments.
Students start to learn language by listening and from listening they
learn to speak. The students’ potentials and interest and experience will
give a great effect to them. They are the factors that determine to enable
them to learn English well. Students’ experiences in learning English in
Junior High School will influence their abilities, skill or capabilities in
the grade to continue their education.
3. Method of Teaching and Learning
According to Anthony (1963: 95) in Fauziati (2008: 5) defines
method as “an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language
material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon the
selected approach. An approach is axiomatic whereas a method is
procedural”. Method is treated at the level of design in which the roles of
teachers, learners, and instructional materials are specified. Thus, method
is theoretically related to an approach and is organizationally determine by
The method and technique in learning is hoped to be flexible and
the teacher must remember that in learning implementation he or she must
attend the process in the class focuses in one aim that is getting the
discourse competence or ability in language use. In the implementation of
teaching, the teacher can choose and determine approaches and methods
that are accommodated with his ability, characteristic of teaching material,
facility, and students’ condition.
Allwrigtht (1999) argues that materials should teach students to
learn, that they should be resource books for ideas and activities for
instruction/ learning, and that they should give teachers rationales for what
they do (Fauziati, 2010: 207).
The material of teaching depends on the development of material
done by the teacher who concerned with the material of teaching and
adjusted to the situation of class being taught. The class and the school
considered superior can be given English subject material which is more
difficult than guidebook, text-book, magazine, and worksheet.
B. The meaning of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is the basis of language. It is not less important than
grammar and phonology. It appears in every language skill, whether it is in
listening, reading, speaking or writing.
There are some definitions of vocabulary that have been offered by
some experts. One of them is given by Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) who
define vocabulary refers to a list or set of words for a particular language or a
list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use since
vocabulary is a list of words that are usually arranged alphabetically in a
dictionary, methods used in vocabulary selection and in teaching vocabulary
is an important factor.
Vocabulary is more than a list of words, and although the size of
one’s vocabulary matters, it is known how to use it which matters most.
Recent research shows that vocabulary growth is largely determined by
parental practices, particularly before the age of seven, however,
considerable differences in vocabulary size among children aged seven were
Vocabulary plays an important part in learning to read. Beginning
readers must use the words they hear orally to make sense of the words they
see in print. Consider, for example, what happens when a beginning reader
cones to the word “dig” in a book. As the learner begins to figure out the
sounds represented by the letter d, i, g, the reader recognizes that the sounds
make up a very familiar word that she has heard and said many times. It is
harder for a beginning reader to figure out words that are not already part of
their speaking (oral) vocabulary.
As stated by Hatch and Brown (1995: 372) in Cameron (2001: 84)
there are five “essential steps” in vocabulary learning based on research into
1. Having sources for encountering new words;
2. Getting a clear image, whether visual or auditory or both, for the forms of
the new words;
3. Learning the meaning of the words;
4. Making a strong memory connection between the forms and meanings of
5. Using the word
We have seen that there is a lot to be learnt about a word and that
child’s capacities for learning change as they get older. So the learning of
words is a process that continues, but that change in nature as it continues.
Payne (1988: 33) in Hatch and Brown (1995: 373) states that the first
essential step for vocabulary learning is encountering new words, that is,
having a source for words. The students strategies here included “learning
new words by reading books,” “listening to TV and radio,” and “reading
newspapers and magazines”. As far as incidental learning of vocabulary
goes, this step is obviously the most vital. Because incidental learning of
vocabulary must occur if second language learners are to approach a
vocabulary that compares with that of native speakers, this step is crucial.
As stated by Cameron (2007: 94) that vocabulary has been seen as
a major resource for language use Yes, it is true that the vocabulary is the
focus of language. It is in words that sounds and meaning interlock to allow
us to communicate with one another, and it is a word that we arrange
together to make sentences, conversations, and discourse of all kinds. Thus
we have a paradox in that the most ephemeral part of language is also the
center where meaning, pronunciation and grammar come
together.Vocabulary and grammar are closely interrelated in children’s early
language, both in L1 and in a second or foreign language Read (2007: 85).
Nation (1990: 51) in Cameron (2007: 85) lists basic techniques by
which teachers can explain the