CHAPTHER II by miminx123


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									                                  CHAPTHER II


       Review of related literature is as a frame of reference of data analysis in

the next chapter. It is intended to find out the theoretical frame work related to the

study. Dealing with the study, it is done in order that the writer’s study possesses

theoretical bases. Therefore, in the following section, the writer will elaborate

teaching and Learning English in Junior High School, the meaning of vocabulary,

teaching using multimedia, advantages of using multimedia in English vocabulary

teaching and teaching vocabulary at Junior High School.

A. Teaching and Learning English in Junior High School

          English is one of the languages that are taught in school. In the Junior

   High School, it’s learned as the first foreign language. By learning English, it

   will enable students to express their ideas, opinions, suggestions, and their

   feelings, and they will be able to convey meaning of various phenomena.

   Therefore by mastering English, they are expected to be able to understand

   themselves, the culture of their own and others and to participate in the society.

          English as the first foreign language is learned to be mastered for the

   purpose of absorption and science development and technology and art and

   culture, as well as to gain international relations with other nations. To the

   school year of 1993/1994 English is formally taught at junior and senior high

   school as mandatory subject. Formally English was not taught in elementary


school. Nevertheless several elementary schools especially in the major cities

and foreign tourist area gave English language as extra curricular.

        Based on the minister of National Education Regulation No. 23 of 2006

namely on competency standards for elementary and secondary education unit.

Graduates Competency Standards Unit of Education (SKLSP) was developed

based on the objectives of each educational unit. For the subjects of English as

a        charge        in       secondary        schools        as         follows:

1. Listening

    Understanding the instructions, information and very simple story presented

    orally in the context of the classroom, school, and the environment.

2. Speaking

    Expressing meaning orally in interpersonal and transactional discourse in

    the form of very simple instructions and information in the context of the

    classroom, school, and the environment.

3. Reading

    Reading aloud and understand the meaning of the instruction, information,

    short functional text, and descriptive text with the very simple picture

    presented in writing within the context of the classroom, school, and the


4. Writing

    Writing down the words, phrases, and the very simple short functional texts

    with spelling and the correct punctuation.

           According to Fauziati (2005: 188) English is a tool to communicate

through either spoken or written form. Many people use it in business,

industry, politics, education, and many other professions. English as the

foreign language in Indonesia, is very important for absorbing and

developing sciences, technology, and culture.

           English which is taught in Indonesia as a foreign language is a

compulsory school subject that must be learnt by the students in all levels

from Elementary School to University. By the end of Junior High School

study, the students are expected to have the ability of four language skills;

they are speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Basically the process of

teaching and learning does not involve one component; here some

components are discussed one by one. They are:

1. Teacher

           In general teachers try to do their work better everyday. They have

good interest in their students and this drives them to a constant search for

motivating activities, more efficient teaching method, and better design

materials for their classes. They spend a lot time, inside and outside their

classes, thinking about how to help their students. Teachers must be having

good characteristics, so the learning process will be better.

           According Robinett (1977) in Fauziati (2010: 183) states teachers

must acquire knowledge of a specific subject before they can teach it to

others. As for the qualities of good teachers she mentions some features

such as:

a. Inspiration

          Effective teachers listen to students’ problems and use

  inspiration to help them find solutions.

b. Enthusiasm

          It comes from a genuine interest in the subject matter and from

  the satisfaction gained from watching students learn a second or foreign


c. Professional Competence

          It is knowledge of the subject matter to be taught. It includes a

  linguistic awareness as what constitutes language; how language

  operates; how speech and writing are related; how language compare

  and contrast; how language reflects the culture of its speakers, etc.

   Consider the affective development of the students

          It refers to the ability to create a free and wholesome atmosphere

  in the classroom where students feel secures.

d. Tolerance, patience, warmth, sensibility and open mindedness

          In summary, teachers must not only have a sound knowledge of

  the target language but a set of personal qualities such as sensitivity,

  warmth and tolerance.

          According to Richards teachers are the key factor in the

  successful implementation of curriculum changes (2005: 99). In any

  situations teacher has the important role, according to the following


a)   Language proficiency

     Teacher should have good skills. He or she must master English


b) Teaching Experience

     Teaching experience means that the teacher should have

     experience in teaching.

c) Skill and Expertise

     To get success in learning process the teacher must have a good

     skill and expertise.

d) Training and qualification

     The teacher must train him or herself to know his or her ability. So,

     he or she knows that the qualification of his or her teaching and

     then the teacher must prepare all things for learning process from

     making lesson plan until evaluation.

e) Morale and motivation

     If a teacher has a good morale and motivation, he or she can lead

     the students well. It makes the students get spirit in their learning.

f) Teaching Style

     The teacher will vary his or her style in teaching so the students do

     not feel bored.

             So, from explanation above the teachers must know the key

     factor in the successful implementation of curriculum changes.

2. Students

           Students or learners are the key participant in curriculum

  development projects and it is essential to collect as much information as

  possible about them before the project begins (Richards, 2005: 101). The

  teacher must know about his or her students that have similarities and the

  differences on characteristic, personalities, and temperaments.

           Students start to learn language by listening and from listening they

  learn to speak. The students’ potentials and interest and experience will

  give a great effect to them. They are the factors that determine to enable

  them to learn English well. Students’ experiences in learning English in

  Junior High School will influence their abilities, skill or capabilities in

  the grade to continue their education.

3. Method of Teaching and Learning

           According to Anthony (1963: 95) in Fauziati (2008: 5) defines

 method as “an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language

 material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon the

 selected approach. An approach is axiomatic whereas a method is

 procedural”. Method is treated at the level of design in which the roles of

 teachers, learners, and instructional materials are specified. Thus, method

 is theoretically related to an approach and is organizationally determine by


           The method and technique in learning is hoped to be flexible and

 the teacher must remember that in learning implementation he or she must

      attend the process in the class focuses in one aim that is getting the

      discourse competence or ability in language use. In the implementation of

      teaching, the teacher can choose and determine approaches and methods

      that are accommodated with his ability, characteristic of teaching material,

      facility, and students’ condition.

     4. Material

             Allwrigtht (1999) argues that materials should teach students to

      learn, that they should be resource books for ideas and activities for

      instruction/ learning, and that they should give teachers rationales for what

      they do (Fauziati, 2010: 207).

             The material of teaching depends on the development of material

      done by the teacher who concerned with the material of teaching and

      adjusted to the situation of class being taught. The class and the school

      considered superior can be given English subject material which is more

      difficult than guidebook, text-book, magazine, and worksheet.

B. The meaning of Vocabulary

              Vocabulary is the basis of language. It is not less important than

    grammar and phonology. It appears in every language skill, whether it is in

    listening, reading, speaking or writing.

           There are some definitions of vocabulary that have been offered by

    some experts. One of them is given by Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) who

    define vocabulary refers to a list or set of words for a particular language or a

list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use since

vocabulary is a list of words that are usually arranged alphabetically in a

dictionary, methods used in vocabulary selection and in teaching vocabulary

is an important factor.

        Vocabulary is more than a list of words, and although the size of

one’s vocabulary matters, it is known how to use it which matters most.

Recent research shows that vocabulary growth is largely determined by

parental practices, particularly before the age of seven, however,

considerable differences in vocabulary size among children aged seven were


        Vocabulary plays an important part in learning to read. Beginning

readers must use the words they hear orally to make sense of the words they

see in print. Consider, for example, what happens when a beginning reader

cones to the word “dig” in a book. As the learner begins to figure out the

sounds represented by the letter d, i, g, the reader recognizes that the sounds

make up a very familiar word that she has heard and said many times. It is

harder for a beginning reader to figure out words that are not already part of

their speaking (oral) vocabulary.

        As stated by Hatch and Brown (1995: 372) in Cameron (2001: 84)

there are five “essential steps” in vocabulary learning based on research into

learners’ strategies:

1. Having sources for encountering new words;

2. Getting a clear image, whether visual or auditory or both, for the forms of

  the new words;

3. Learning the meaning of the words;

4. Making a strong memory connection between the forms and meanings of

  the words;

5. Using the word

       We have seen that there is a lot to be learnt about a word and that

child’s capacities for learning change as they get older. So the learning of

words is a process that continues, but that change in nature as it continues.

       Payne (1988: 33) in Hatch and Brown (1995: 373) states that the first

essential step for vocabulary learning is encountering new words, that is,

having a source for words. The students strategies here included “learning

new words by reading books,” “listening to TV and radio,” and “reading

newspapers and magazines”. As far as incidental learning of vocabulary

goes, this step is obviously the most vital. Because incidental learning of

vocabulary must occur if second language learners are to approach a

vocabulary that compares with that of native speakers, this step is crucial.

          As stated by Cameron (2007: 94) that vocabulary has been seen as

a major resource for language use Yes, it is true that the vocabulary is the

focus of language. It is in words that sounds and meaning interlock to allow

us to communicate with one another, and it is a word that we arrange

together to make sentences, conversations, and discourse of all kinds. Thus

we have a paradox in that the most ephemeral part of language is also the

center     where     meaning,     pronunciation    and     grammar     come

together.Vocabulary and grammar are closely interrelated in children’s early

language, both in L1 and in a second or foreign language Read (2007: 85).

           Nation (1990: 51) in Cameron (2007: 85) lists basic techniques by

which teachers can explain the 
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