CHAPTER 4 POTENTIAL TEST QUESTIONS
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement
or answers the question.
1) The concept of conditioned behavior was popularized through the work of
A) Albert Bandura.
B) Hans Eysenck.
C) Hervey Cleckley.
D) Ivan Pavlov.
2) Which of the following is not a form of psychopathology?
D) All of the above are forms of psychopathology
3) According to Cleckley, one characteristic of the psychopathic personality is
A) delusions or hallucinations.
B) a distinct life plan.
C) an ability to learn from experience.
D) an inability to feel guilt or shame.
4) Which of the following is not one of the early signs or indicators of psychopathy?
B) Cruelty to animals
D) Teenage pregnancy
5) Which of the following is not a behavior pattern or characteristic of individuals
suffering from antisocial personality disorder?
A) Selfishness and impulsivity
B) A low tolerance to frustration
C) A tendency to blame others for their behavior
D) Loyalty to groups or individuals
6) The term psychoanalysis was coined by
A) Albert Bandura.
B) Sigmund Freud.
C) Hervey Cleckley.
D) Ivan Pavlov.
7) According to Freud, the ego-ideal is an element of the
8) According to Freud, which of the following is not one of the three components of the
A) The superego
B) The Thanatos
C) The ego
D) The id
9) According to Freud, the __________ develops into a moral guide to right and
10) The __________ is a largely unconscious region of the mind.
11) Individuals suffering from poor __________ development are likely to seek
immediate gratification without considering the long-term consequences of their
12) The concept of __________ holds that the human mind may choose to keep
certain aspects of itself out of consciousness.
13) __________ adaptation occurs when crime leads to stress reduction as a result of
internal changes in value systems and beliefs.
14) Which of the following is not one of the three laws in Gabriel Tarde's theory of
A) Suggestibility is a key cause of criminal behavior.
B) New acts and behaviors tend to reinforce or replace others.
C) Individuals in close intimate contact with one another tend to imitate each
D) Imitation moves from the top down.
15) __________ developed a comprehensive modeling theory of aggression.
A) Sigmund Freud
B) Hervey Cleckley
C) Albert Bandura
D) Ivan Pavlov
16) Based on Bandura's theory, which of the following events might provoke
A) An individual is verbally threatened
B) An individual is physically assaulted
C) An individual's attempts to achieve goal are obstructed
D) All of the above might provoke aggression
17) Giving a good child a toy is an example of a
A) negative punishment.
B) negative reward.
C) positive punishment.
D) positive reward.
18) Which of the following is an example of a negative punishment?
A) Giving a good child an extra piece of cake
B) Spanking a bad child
C) Allowing a good child to skip some chores
D) Taking a favorite toy away from a bad child
19) The individual best known for his work on behavior theory is
A) Albert Bandura.
B) B.F. Skinner.
C) Ivan Pavlov.
D) Michael Gottfredson.
20) Which type of self-control involves resisting temptations to eat, drink or take
A) Control over one's emotional and mood states
B) Performance control
C) Control over the contents of the mind
D) Impulse control
21) According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, self-control is acquired
A) in one's late teens.
B) early in life
C) as a young adult.
D) late in life.
22) According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, the link between self-control and crime
depends substantially upon
A) the presence of criminal models.
B) peer rejection.
C) ego development.
D) criminal opportunity.
23) According to Grasmick, which of the following would be a characteristic of a
person with low self-control?
A) A preference for physical activity
B) A preference for conversation with others
C) A preference for quiet contemplation
D) A high tolerance for frustration
24) Which of the following is a criticism of modeling theory?
A) It ignores the role cognition plays in human behavior
B) It lacks scientific support
C) The elements of the theory have not been put into a wider context for
society as a whole
D) It oversimplifies the causes of crime
25) The __________ holds that individuals cannot be held criminally responsible for
their actions if at the time of the crime they did not know what they were doing
or did not know that their actions were wrong.
A) M'Naughten rule
B) GMBI rule
C) NGRI test
D) irresistible-impulse test
26) For the purposes of the criminal law, insanity is a __________ determination.
27) A verdict of __________ means that the defendant can be held responsible for a
specific criminal act, even though a degree of mental incompetence may be
A) not guilty by reason of insanity
B) not guilty
D) guilty but mentally ill
28) Selective incapacitation is based on the concept of
A) career criminality.
B) legal insanity.
C) lack of self-control.
D) negative behavior modeling.
29) The 1984 Comprehensive Crime Control Act targeted
A) career offenders.
B) violent offenders.
C) psychotic offenders.
D) first time offenders.
30) According to the 1984 Comprehensive Crime Control Act, which of the
following is not part of the definition of a career offender?
A) The defendant was at least 18 years of age at the time of the crime
B) The offender committed a crime of violence or trafficking in a controlled
C) The offender has at least three prior arrests for a crime of violence or
trafficking in a controlled substance
D) The offender has at least two prior felony convictions of a crime of violence
or trafficking in a controlled substance
31) __________ psychology is concerned with the rehabilitation of law violators.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
32) According to Cleckley, psychopaths are chronic liars.
33) Psychopaths frequently make very poor first impressions on others.
34) Individuals suffering from antisocial personality disorder tend to be highly
35) Individuals who manifest the characteristics of an antisocial personality are likely
to violate the law.
36) The id conforms to the reality principle.
37) The ego is a moral guide to right and wrong.
38) The ego tries to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
39) The superego guides the ego to select a behavior that is in keeping with social
40) The Freudian concept of the ego-ideal is another term for the conscience.
41) Guilt may occur when the individual does not listen to the superego.
42) According to Freud, an individual with a poorly developed superego is more
likely to be led into crime.
43) Repression involves keeping aspects of the mind out of consciousness.
44) Crime may be an adaptation to life's stresses.
45) Alloplastic adaptation involves empowerment.
46) According to Gabriel Tarde, imitation moves from the bottom up to the top.
47) According to Bandura, aggressive behavior must be learned.
48) According to Bandura's modeling theory, exposure to television can affect one's
level of violent behavior.
49) Disengagement is a process by which people who devalue aggression may still
engage in it.
50) Taking away a bad child's candy is an example of a positive punishment.
51) A negative punishment increases the frequency of unwanted behavior.
52) A positive reward increases the frequency of approved behavior by giving adding
something desirable to the situation.
53) High levels of self-control may explain modern social problems such as drug
abuse, teenage pregnancy, and failure in school.
54) Gottfredson and Hirschi suggest that self-control develops in early adulthood.
55) According to Harold Grasmick, individuals with higher levels of self-control are
less likely to demand immediate gratification.
56) The legal concept of insanity is based upon claims of mental illness.
57) The M'Naughten rule is rarely used today as a test for insanity.
58) Offenders adjudicated "guilty but mentally ill" generally are sent directly to prison
to serve their sentence.
59) The best predictor of later antisocial behavior is early antisocial behavior.
60) Most crimes reported to the police are committed by only a small percentage of
61) A major concern with the selective incapacitation strategy is the high rate of false
62) One concern with the federal definition of a career offender was that it cast too
wide a net, including serial killers and minor drug traffickers in the same category.
63) Recent studies of criminal careers seem to show that involvement in crime
decreases with age.
64) Correctional psychology deals with the diagnosis and classification of offenders.
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
65) __________ is a specific personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior
and lack of affect.
66) The modern term for a sociopath is __________.
67) According to Freud, the __________ is primarily charged with reality testing.
68) The superego contains the __________, a symbolic representation of what
69) Guilt may result when the dictates of the __________ are not followed.
70) Many criminals have a sense of guilt that creates a pressing need to be __________.
71) __________ holds that the human mind may choose to keep certain aspects of
itself out of consciousness.
72) According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, the link between self-control and crime
depends on __________.
73) According to Grasmick, individuals with __________ levels of self-control seek
74) A verdict of __________ means that a person can be held responsible for a
criminal act even if a degree of mental incompetence may be present.
75) __________ are persons who repeatedly commit violations of the criminal law.