Listening by pB9GwF8

VIEWS: 56 PAGES: 8

									P-12 Curriculum Framework ─ Curriculum Guidelines for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners




Bandscales of English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners

Early Phase

Listening

              New to Standard Australian                      Beginning to comprehend familiar              Beginning to comprehend classroom SAE                   Developing comprehension of SAE                  Consolidating comprehension of                   Becoming competent in
              English (SAE)                                   SAE                                                                                                                                                    SAE                                              SAE

              Level 1 student understands isolated key        Level 2 student is beginning to               Level 3 student understands some classroom              Level 4 student undertakes some learning         Level 5 student expands their                    Level 6 student comprehends
              words in context.                               understand familiar talk.                     talk.                                                   through SAE.                                     comprehension of SAE.                            extended talk in SAE.
Descriptors




              The student:                                    The student:                                  The student:                                            The student:                                     The student:                                     The student:
               Recognises a few key familiar words            Comprehends and responds to high             Picks out some key words and phrases from              Comprehends with ease social SAE in             Comprehends social SAE in a range of            Comprehends easily in most
                supported by context, gestures, real            frequency greetings, courtesy phrases         teacher talk on familiar topics and where               familiar contexts (e.g. in general school        social contexts pertinent to their age level     social and learning contexts
                objects, visuals.                               and simple directions.                        contextual support (pictures, gestures, etc) is         context: in classroom interaction around         with little dependence on extra help from        relevant to their own age and
                                                                                                              provided. Comprehends best in face to face              activities, in playground interactions, on       the speaker, especially if the topic is          phase of schooling.
               Comprehends through non-verbal cues            Depends on face-to-face contact with          contact, and when repetition, simplification and        excursions), with only occasional help           familiar
                which match own culture or are visually         accompanying body language.                   paraphrasing are provided by the teacher.               given by the speaker.                                                                            Understands extended teacher
                supported.                                                                                                                                                                                            Comprehends main points and most detail          talk at normal speed including
                                                               Responds physically to simple directions     Comprehends and responds (e.g. Yes/No) to              Follows instructions within the classroom        in learning activities on taught familiar        new topics, however lapses
               Watches carefully what others are doing,        and instructions with extra support (e.g.     routine enquiries with little difficulty.               learning activity if explained and presented     topics if activities are language focussed.      which sometimes occur
                often following their actions, and              gestures, repetition and rephrasing as                                                                clearly (i.e. with clear steps, modelling of                                                      generally do not affect overall
                interpreting what is meant by gestures and      needed) from the speaker.                    Follows a short sequence of instructions related to     the task, logical sequencing of steps) but      Gains general sense of new topic-specific        comprehension.
                intonation.                                                                                   familiar classroom procedures, (e.g. Teacher says       will often rely on further repetition of         language if contextual and language
                                                               Needs time to process what is heard           „bring your book to me and show me your story’ ).                                                        support is given, and time allowed for          Sustains understanding of main
               Joins in an activity but may not speak.                                                                                                               instructions on a one-to-one or small
                                                               Does not perceive certain sounds in SAE                                                               groups basis.                                    processing.                                      ideas in group and whole class
                                                                                                             Continues to need time to process what is heard                                                                                                           discussions involving more than
               May experience a social and emotional           or certain combinations of sounds due to                                                                                                              Misses some specific details of new
                „orientation phase‟ (overwhelmed with new       HL consonant/vowel configurations (e.g.      Has difficulty following simple interactions at SAE    Misses precise details of teacher talk                                                            one interaction.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       learning because of lack of „depth‟ of
                learning situation, impact of trauma, need      not hearing consonants at the ends of         speaker speed, or with background noise.               Continues to need time to process what is        language e.g. lack of understanding of
                to develop trust in classroom relationships     words, not hearing middle vowel sounds                                                                heard.                                           relationships such as problem/solution
                with teachers and peers), which can be          for rhyming words).                          Has limited comprehension of a range of
                                                                                                              grammatical features such as prepositions, verb                                                          (if…then), compare/contrast (similar to;
                prolonged.                                                                                                                                           Misses basic information due to levels of        different from), limited range of
                                                               May appear to understand SAE, but may         tenses, pronouns and adverbs in addition to             background noise.
               May spend a period (few days to a few           use non-standard forms of taught              content words.                                                                                           vocabulary.
                months) acquiring language through              formulaic SAE which provide evidence of                                                              Benefits from HL helper.                        Continues to have some difficulty
                listening but is not yet ready to speak         being an ESL learner (e.g. says              Needs one-on-one assistance after teacher
                                                                                                              instruction to clarify the task when commencing        Requires constant scaffolding to process         comprehending extended teacher talk at
                („silent period‟). This is a normal but not     „Goldilocks an da tree bear‟).                                                                                                                         normal speed.
                necessary phase of „active‟ language                                                          learning activity (e.g. writing tasks, group            classroom learning, even though surface
                learning.                                                                                     activities).                                            social spoken fluency suggests that such        Experiences difficulty comprehending
                                                                                                                                                                      scaffolding is not necessary.                    complex ideas in learning activities when
                                                                                                             May rely on HL with peers for clarification around
                                                                                                              classroom tasks.                                       May use strategies which give the                they are expressed through complex SAE
                                                                                                                                                                      impression that comprehension has taken          language.
                                                                                                             Relies on teacher knowing they speak another            place eg. nodding, smiling.
                                                                                                              language.                                                                                               Has difficulty distinguishing relevant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       information due to background noise (e.g.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       in a school assembly).




Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners Early Phase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1
P-12 Curriculum Framework ─ Curriculum Guidelines for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners




Speaking

               New to Standard Australian English (SAE)                           Beginning to use familiar SAE                                                     Beginning to participate          Developing use of SAE                         Consolidating use of             Becoming competent in
                                                                                                                                                                    in SAE                                                                          SAE                              SAE

               Pre-Level 1 student uses          Level 1 student uses             Pre-Level 2 student starting to    Level 2 student tries short utterances         Level 3 student participates      Level 4 student undertakes some               Level 5 student expands          Level 6 student expresses
               home language exclusively.        isolated SAE words.              use rehearsed SAE phrases.         on their own.                                  in some classroom talk.           learning through SAE.                         their range of SAE.              more complex ideas in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SAE.
 Descriptors




               The student:                      The student:                     The student:                       The student:                                   The student:                      The student:                                  The student:                     The student:
                May use home language            Uses single SAE words           Uses some routine and             Uses routine and rehearsed social SAE         Joins in routine exchanges       Communicates in a growing range of           Sustains participation in       Uses SAE with fluency in all
                 (HL) – spoken and „body           occasionally (e.g. when          rehearsed social SAE (e.g.         (e.g. everyday polite requests such as         (e.g. greeting, simple            familiar social and learning situations        small group discussions         social and learning
                 language‟ – even with SAE         naming or labelling              familiar courtesies such as        „can I get a drink, please?‟).                 routine classroom                 with some support from listener and            on familiar learnt topics.      activities.
                 speakers (particularly creole     some objects).                   „good morning Miss’).                                                             responses) without great          context.
                 speakers)                                                                                            Begins combining words into a few (i.e.        difficulty.                                                                    Contributes own ideas           Can participate in an
                                                  Uses words that express         Is developing a larger set of      not rehearsed) 2-3 word utterances                                              Attempts to express complex                   and opinions in SAE in           interaction expressing own
                May talk spontaneously in         immediate needs.                 single words.                      linked by sequence (i.e. not                  Needs to rely heavily on          thoughts and feelings in English but          one-to-one conversation          ideas and opinions with little
                 HL (e.g. during classroom                                                                             connectives) but needs supportive              the context and on the            relies on attentive conversation              and with encouragement           help from teachers or peers
                 activities).                     Uses gestures to                Uses rehearsed, memorised          listener and environment.                      conversation partner for          partner to follow meaning.                    with supportive                  though with some
                                                   indicate meanings,               or formulaic taught utterances                                                    support (e.g. allowing time                                                     classroom context.               difficulties with precision of
                may answer SAE questions          needs, likes and dislikes.       (e.g. repeating memorised         Makes slight deviations in routine             for the learner to process       Prefers to express themselves                                                  meaning.
                 in HL.                                                             phrases/sentences from a           formulaic SAE which indicate that SAE          what they want to say,            without interruption or corrections.         Is fluent in familiar areas,
                                                  Needs an attentive               shared reading book; utilising     is not first language.                                                                                                          though may still               Expresses more complex
                Needs an attentive listener       listener to predict                                                                                                giving supportive gestures       Sustains a conversation with an
                                                                                    routine memorised sentences                                                       and facial expressions,                                                          approximate SAE forms.          ideas on both familiar and
                 to predict meaning (e.g.          meaning (e.g. from               from well rehearsed               Is developing confidence to take risks                                           attentive adult on a familiar topic (e.g.                                      new topics as long as the
                 from gestures and context).       gestures and context).                                              with their beginning SAE at school.            rephrasing questions,             describing classroom activities,             Participates in regular
                                                                                    classroom topic).                                                                 using objects/pictures,                                                                                          content is well grounded.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        retelling stories, describing past and        classroom activities on
                May expect all listeners to      May „echo‟ SAE words            Produces accurate                 May use some SAE to exert influence            retelling a story).               present events) but may not provide           familiar topics, but does
                 understand HL (i.e. even          and phrases.                     memorised SAE which may            on a situation (e.g. directing others:                                           explicit details .                            not have the „depth‟ of
                 SAE speakers).                                                                                        says „sit on the mat’ as part of morning      Participates in and initiates
                                                  May talk spontaneously           misleadingly suggest a higher                                                     face-to-face interaction on                                                     language needed to
                                                                                    level.                             routine).                                                                       Has confidence to give a short                relate more complex
                Requires an interpreter for       in HL (e.g. during                                                                                                 familiar classroom topics         morning talk but has fragmented
                 important communication           classroom activities).                                             Joins in repetitive language of stories,       with familiar people in a                                                       ideas needed in learning
                                                                                   Makes meaning only when                                                                                             language when attempting longer               through SAE.
                 within school or between                                           listener has prior                 poems and songs.                               classroom situation but           discourses.
                 school and family (up to         May spend a period (few                                                                                            relies on support from
                                                   days to a few months)            understanding of the context.     May repeat questions or statements of
                 level 5).                                                                                                                                            listener and context.            Explores more complex ideas in HL
                                                   acquiring language but          May talk spontaneously in HL       others.                                                                          with HL-speaking peers and adults.
                                                   is not yet ready to speak        (e.g. during classroom                                                           Constructs own language
                                                   („silent period‟). This is a                                       Talks spontaneously in HL (e.g. during         beyond formulae and 2-3          Can give short answers to who, what,
                                                                                    activities).                       classroom activities) and will continue to
                                                   normal but not                                                                                                     word utterances                   where, when, why and how single-
                                                   necessary phase of                                                  do so.                                                                           clause questions about
                                                   language learning.                                                                                                Gives short responses to          contextualised classroom activities.
                                                                                                                      Will rely on attentive speaker (gestures,      teacher‟s guiding questions
                                                  May experience a social                                             context, object and pictures to help           about classroom activities       Requires time to process thoughts
                                                   and emotional                                                       communication).                                (e.g. teacher asks ‟what          and formulate SAE utterances.
                                                   „orientation phase‟                                                                                                have you got there?‟).
                                                   (overwhelmed with new                                                                                                                               Makes approximations to SAE forms
                                                   learning situation, impact                                                                                        May need or prefer a long         and so speaking and writing will
                                                   of trauma, need to                                                                                                 wait time before                  contain errors (which are a sign of
                                                   develop trust in                                                                                                   responding in SAE.                language development) but meaning
                                                   classroom relationships                                                                                                                              is generally unimpeded.
                                                                                                                                                                     Uses HL for social
                                                   with teachers and                                                                                                  interaction.
                                                   peers), which can be
                                                   prolonged.




Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners Early Phase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2
P-12 Curriculum Framework ─ Curriculum Guidelines for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners




Reading/Viewing

              New to reading & to SAE                                                 Beginning to recognise words and word clusters                  Beginning to comprehend short             Applying developing reading                 Consolidating reading                 Becoming competent
                                                                                                                                                      familiar texts                            skills                                      skills                                readers

              Pre-Level 1 student is new      Level 1 student is new to reading       Pre-Level 2 student begins to      Level 2 student begins to    Level 3 student begins to                 Level 4 student applies reading skills      Level 5 student is becoming           Level 6 student
              to reading and to SAE.          in SAE.                                 recognise familiar words &         recognise words & short      comprehend short familiar texts in        in familiar contexts & topics.              confident reader within their         comprehends most
                                                                                      memorised word clusters.           word clusters.               SAE with contextual support.                                                          limited language proficiency.         texts.
Descriptors




              The student:                    The student:                            The student:                       The student:                 The student:                              The student:                                The student:                          The student:
               Makes meaning from             Recognises and names some              Recognises memorised              Begins to see               Reads short familiar texts (words        Gains meaning from texts around            Reads most texts (within level       Reads competently in
                visual cues in their            letters and words within visual         words and short word clusters      themselves as readers,       and phrases in passages, short            which language activities have been         ranges expected at their              SAE within the range of
                environment (e.g. finding       context, which they encounter           in SAE if these have been          and displays „one to one     passages) with contextual support         based and for which contextual cues         phase of schooling) on                ability expected at their
                items in the local shop or      frequently and for which meaning        recycled often in a variety of     correspondence‟              which uses language that has been         are provided (e.g. short repetitive         familiar/taught topics but            phase of schooling
                supermarket, McDonalds          is given (e.g. signs and labels,        language activities (e.g.          confidently.                 recycled in a variety of ways.            narratives, simple procedures               using less complex language           though still need more
                logo)                           brand names, police, school).           words on the weather chart).                                                                              including recipes, simple invitations,      and contextual cues.                  time than their
                                                                                                                          Attempts to read simple     Is limited by their developing spoken     letters, email).                                                                  mainstream peers to
               May demonstrate well-          Recognises their name or part of       Recognises memorised               and short texts with         proficiency in SAE.                                                                  Lacks „depth‟ of                      process information to
                developed observational         it in print.                            words in context (e.g. may         repetitive sentence                                                   Gains a „sense‟ of texts (which may         comprehension and                     gain meaning from texts
                skills (e.g. reading tracks                                             know a word on a chart but         patterns on own.            Reads own written stories to peers        be on classroom topics) based on            predicting ability in narratives,
                                               Exhibits reading-like behaviour,                                                                        and teachers (using both memory                                                                                             and to internalise the
                in the environment)                                                     may not be able to recognise                                                                              class experience and jointly                and in informational texts on         content.
                                                (e.g. when choosing a book, sitting     it in a storybook/computer        Begins to use contextual     and word recognition).                    constructed by the teacher and              unfamiliar topics and
               Shows familiarity with          and looking at a book, turning          game).                             and visual cues to gain                                                students; however comprehension             procedures.                          Comprehends most
                multimedia, (e.g. DVDs,         pages, studying pictures).                                                 meaning from text (e.g.     Retells stories in HL with guided
                                                                                                                                                        questioning and prompting from the        may be sporadic.                                                                  texts (within the range of
                television programs).                                                  Shows signs of responding to       whole word shape, using                                                                                           Reads at the literal level but        ability expected at their
                                               Begins to develop concepts of           known text „read‟                  a letter shape in words      teacher (e.g. Teacher asks „what         Independently reads within the range        not at inferential and
               Have little experience          classroom literacy.                                                                                     happened then? Oh they… did them!                                                                                           phase of schooling),
                                                                                        independently, e.g. laughter,      to recognise the word,                                                 of these types of texts, and within the     evaluative levels.                    with the support
                with books and their                                                    surprise and disappointment        using cues from              What did they do then?’)                  range of their overall proficiency in
                purposes.                      Relies heavily on memory,                                                                                                                                                                    Comprehends straight                  normally provided to
                                                teacher, visual and contextual          and verbal responses in HL.        pictures).                  Begins to expect what is read in SAE      SAE.                                                                              learners at their phase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              forward texts which relate to
               Looks at pictures in            support to make meaning in             Makes meanings and                Is developing phonemic       to make sense.                           Draws on a growing but still limited        oral language and which are           of schooling (e.g.
                books.                          shared texts.                           predictions in HL and begins       awareness skills and                                                   overall proficiency in SAE;                 not overloaded with new               introduction of new
                                                                                                                                                       Indicates full meaning not achieved                                                                                         vocabulary and
               Uses HL in any attempts        Progresses more rapidly through         to understand SAE in texts         sound symbol                 (e.g. says „That make no sense!‟) and     comprehension in unfamiliar topics is       language, concepts and
                                                                                        read to them with teacher          relationships                                                          restricted.                                 culturally specific information.      concepts, talking around
                to communicate their            this level if they have first                                                                           needs assistance to move from                                                                                               the topic).
                ideas.                          language print literacy background      support.                                                        decoding to comprehension.
                                                                                                                          Has a limited range of                                                Benefits from intensive vocabulary         Needs teacher and
                                                (up to level 4).                       Can „read‟ short and very          reading                                                                building as they encounter new texts.       contextual support for new           Is able to read to
                                                                                                                                                       Needs explicit language teaching                                                                                            acquire new learning.
                                                                                        familiar SAE texts from            vocabulary/phrases until     (word order, grammar, unfamiliar                                                      language and concepts on
                                                                                        memory.                            they have acquired the                                                Requires extra processing time,             informational texts on
                                                                                                                                                        vocabulary) and literacy teaching         especially when operating under test                                             Needs support with
                                                                                                                           relevant spoken              (phonemic awareness,                                                                  unfamiliar topics.                    cultural references and
                                                                                       Links spoken SAE words and         language.                                                              conditions up until level 6.
                                                                                        phrases with pictures.                                          graphophonics, word attack skills) or                                                                                       idiomatic language,
                                                                                                                          Requires ability to hear     may plateau at decoding level.                                                                                              patterns of poetry and
                                                                                                                           SAE sounds before they                                                                                                                                   rhymes in SAE..
                                                                                                                                                       Requires support and explicit
                                                                                                                           can be identified in         teaching if creole/dialect speaker in
                                                                                                                           reading.                     understanding the differences in
                                                                                                                                                        vocabulary and grammar.




Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners Early Phase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3
P-12 Curriculum Framework ─ Curriculum Guidelines for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners




Writing

               New to writing                                                 Beginning to                   Beginning to write own short simple texts                               Applying understanding of texts to own               Developing control over            Becoming competent
                                                                              experiment with writing                                                                                writing                                              language and text                  writers
                                                                              in SAE

               Pre-Level 1 student is newly       Level 1 student is new to   Level 2 student attaches       Pre-Level 3 student begins to write    Level 3 student begins to        Level 4 student produces small range of              Level 5 student writes longer,     Level 6 student writes
               introduced to concept of           writing.                    meaning to their writing in    with simple sentence structures.       write own very short texts.      simple, short texts.                                 familiar text types.               most text types in
               writing.                                                       an approximation of SAE.                                                                                                                                                                       proficient SAE.
Descriptors




               The student:                       The student:                The student:                   The student:                           The student:                     The student:                                         The student:                       The student:
                Plays as initial form of self-    Uses drawing as an         Draws pictures as the         Begins to write to accompany          Begins to write their own       Writes simple short versions of an expanding        Writes with some fluency some  Writes most texts at the
                 expression.                        initial form of self-       context for their writing.     drawings, formulaic simple             very short texts (e.g. early     range of text types on familiar topics (e.g.         familiar written text types (e.g. level expected at the later
                                                    expression.                                                sentence/s or own telegraphic          recounts).                       simple letters, simple descriptions, simple          personal letters, descriptions,   stages of junior primary,
                Prefers to use construction                                   Responds to prompts from       captions.                                                               recounts, simple information reports, simple         recounts, information reports,    e.g. narratives, recounts,
                 materials and objects to          May have little spoken      teacher about their own                                              Is consigning a consistent       procedures).                                         narratives) on familiarised       procedures, information
                 represent ideas rather than        SAE for talking about       pictures for teacher to       Draws on personally significant        message to their writing in                                                           classroom topics.                 reports.
                 draw.                              their drawings and          expand and scribe.             events and people, usually written     SAE.                            Writes with early text structure but ESL
                                                    writing.                                                   in first person (e.g. I/We).                                            features are clearly present and meaning will       Needs support (e.g. pre task-     Is now supported by a
                May have well-developed                                       Experiments with writing                                             Is affected in writing by        sometimes break down.                                talk, modelling, joint             well-developed overall
                 fine motor skills, spatial        Makes approximations        letters and words.            Assigns a consistent message to        limited proficiency in                                                                construction of texts,             proficiency in SAE that is
                 awareness and gross motor          of letters and symbols                                     their memorised simple SAE             speaking & listening in         Needs strong support (e.g. pre-task talk,            conferencing by teachers,          reflected in their writing.
                 skills.                            (role-play writing).       Copies from environmental      structures (which are often            SAE.                             modelling, joint construction of texts,
                                                                                print (day and date on                                                                                                                                      provision of vocabulary) and
                                                                                                               repeated to ensure success in                                           conferencing by teacher, provision of                more time than their SAE-         Writes with occasional
                Uses HL when                      Begins to develop           whiteboard) to label           their writing attempts).              Writes with ESL features         vocabulary) and needs more time than their                                              ESL features.
                 communicating ideas.               concepts of classroom       pictures.                                                             (e.g. inappropriate                                                                   speaking peers.
                                                                                                                                                                                       SAE-speaking peers.
                Is new to literacy
                                                    literacy.
                                                                               Writes own name.
                                                                                                                                                      prepositions, missing                                                                Writes with some ESL features,  Writes with increasing
                                                                                                                                                      endings, non-SAE word           Writing is influenced by overall proficiency in      however these generally do not   fluency and speed and
                 implements: paper, pencils,                                                                                                          order) as they experiment        SAE.                                                                                  this influences the length
                 crayons.                                                                                                                                                                                                                   impede meaning.Expresses
                                                                                                                                                      with writing.                                                                         own ideas in writing with        of text learners are able
                                                                                                                                                                                      Begins to write texts containing related ideas                                        to produce.
                                                                                                                                                     Are less accurate than           around central topic or theme.                       encouragement.
                                                                                                                                                      previous level due to
                                                                                                                                                      writing own language.           May be limited by writing only what is „correct‟
                                                                                                                                                                                       according to generic and language models and
                                                                                                                                                     Needs one-on-one                 therefore plateau in their writing from lack of
                                                                                                                                                      assistance after teacher         experimentation (reproducing to a formula
                                                                                                                                                      instruction to clarify the       rather than learning).
                                                                                                                                                      task when commencing
                                                                                                                                                      learning activity (e.g.         May be innovative with genre and language
                                                                                                                                                      writing tasks, group             models and/or follow own socio-cultural text
                                                                                                                                                      activities) because of ESL       structures which should be valued as a sign of
                                                                                                                                                      listening level (up to Level     language and literacy development.
                                                                                                                                                      5).



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students at this level need        Students at this level need
implications




               ESL students at these levels of listening, speaking, reading/ viewing and writing will require specialist, intensive support. Where this is not possible, the teaching and learning program at the mainstream              specialist support. Where this     support with tasks that
               school should provide extra scaffolding to meet these students’ needs and additional support should be provided. Some students, e.g. students who speak creoles, may plateau at level 3 in listening                       is not possible, the teaching      are culturally overloaded.
               because of the lack of understanding that the language they speak is not SAE. That is, it may be erroneously assumed by both students and teachers that the students are SAE users and therefore they                      and learning program at the        They may need individual
               ‘should’ be able to understand what is being said in the classroom.                                                                                                                                                        mainstream school should           support to understand the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          provide extra scaffolding to       cultural demands of tasks,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          meet these students’ needs         and will benefit from more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and additional support should      time for the reading and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          be provided. Students will         writing required in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          benefit from more time for the     assessment tasks.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          reading and writing required in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          assessment tasks.




Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners Early Phase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4
P-12 Curriculum Framework ─ Curriculum Guidelines for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners




Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners
Middle Phase

Listening

                New to Standard Australian English              Beginning to comprehend familiar                 Beginning to comprehend classroom                Developing comprehension of SAE                   Consolidating comprehension of                   Becoming competent in SAE
                (SAE)                                           SAE                                              SAE                                                                                                SAE

                 Level 1 student is new to SAE and draws        Level 2 student is beginning to                  Level 3 student is developing listening          Level 4 student is extending their range          Level 5 student is consolidating SAE in          Level 6 student is becoming a competent
                 on knowledge of their world in HL.             comprehend routine social language in            competence in SAE for a range of social          of language beyond their own immediate            an expanding range of social contexts but        user of SAE in most social contexts and a
                                                                their immediate, familiar environment and        and classroom events and moving into             social environment and is experimenting           is limited in ability to comprehend              sound user of SAE in learning contexts
                                                                to explore learning in SAE.                      learning through SAE.                            with learning through SAE.                        complex ideas in SAE learning activities.        but with gaps that need filling.
  Descriptors




                The student:                                    The student:                                     The student:                                     The student:                                      The student:                                     The student:
                 Recognises a few key familiar words            Comprehends and responds to high                Begins to comprehend and use a range of         Understands social SAE in most familiar          Comprehends SAE in most social                  Comprehends social SAE with ease.
                  supported by context, gestures, real            frequency greetings, courtesy phrases and        social and classroom spoken interactions         contexts but still needs additional help from     situations.
                  objects, visuals.                               simple directions.                               which are short, simple and on familiar          SAE speakers (e.g. gestures, modified                                                             Understands extended teacher talk on
                                                                                                                   topics.                                          speech, provision of wait-time).                 Comprehends most extended teacher and            familiar and new curriculum topics (within
                 Watches carefully what others are doing,       Relies heavily on face-to-face contact and                                                                                                          peer talk in academic learning activities on     the range of ability expected at their phase
                  often following their actions, and              accompanying body language, with                Comprehends best in face-to-face contact,       Begins to comprehend in academic                  familiar topics, if contextual support is        of schooling) with only occasional lapses of
                  interpreting what is meant by gestures and      repetition and/or simplification on the part     and when repetition, simplification and          learning activities if help is given by the       available, however will lack „depth‟ of          understanding, though lapses will generally
                  intonation.                                     of the speaker.                                  paraphrasing are provided by the teacher.        SAE speakers (as above) and if contextual         comprehension of more complex                    not affect overall comprehension.
                                                                                                                                                                    support (e.g. reference to pictures,              discourse.
                 Comprehends through non-verbal cues            Responds physically and verbally to simple      Continues to need time to process what is        diagrams, materials, and so on) is                                                                Sustains understanding of main ideas in
                  given by the speaker which match own            directions and instructions if supported by      heard.                                           provided.                                        Gains the sense of new topics delivered          group discussions involving an increasing
                  culture or when visually supported,             gestures, repetition and rephrasing as                                                                                                              with extensive contextual and teacher            number of interactions, but will have
                  particularly in a face-to-face situation.       needed.                                         Comprehends and responds (e.g. yes/no)          Follows instructions within the classroom         support though will lack precision, and          some gaps in comprehension where
                                                                                                                   to routine enquiries with little difficulty.     learning activity if explained and presented      need paraphrasing and explanation.               there is quick interaction of ideas.
                 Joins in an activity but may not speak.        Needs time to process what is heard.                                                              clearly (i.e. with clear steps, modelling of
                                                                                                                  Has difficulty following interactions at SAE                                                      Grasps the connection of ideas, and             Has difficulty comprehending culturally
                 May tune out easily and avoid tasks that       Has very limited understanding of                speaker speed, or if there is noise.             the task, logical sequencing of steps) but
                                                                                                                                                                    will often rely on further repetition of          details within an extended spoken                overladen texts, humour, puns and
                  require a response.                             interactions amongst SAE speakers in                                                                                                                discourse on a new topic only if extensive       idioms.
                                                                  class activities and amongst peers.             Follows a short and familiar sequence of         instructions on a one-to-one or small
                 May be unable to sustain concentration                                                           instructions (e.g. Teacher says „open            groups basis.                                     support and time to process are provided
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (e.g. viewing „Behind the News‟ with            Needs support to evaluate cultural
                  and may be very tired in early stages of       Does not perceive certain sounds in SAE          your English books and write these                                                                                                                  attitudes, assumptions and beliefs in
                  learning.                                       or certain combinations of sounds due to         sentences‟).                                    Continues to need processing time.                teacher introduction, pre-listening focus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      activities and multiple viewings broken          spoken texts.
                                                                  HL consonant/vowel configurations (e.g.                                                          Requires intensive scaffolding and bilingual
                 May experience a social and emotional           not hearing consonants at the ends of           Has limited comprehension of a range of                                                            into sections).
                  „orientation phase‟ (overwhelmed with new                                                        grammatical features such as                     assistance to comprehend spoken input in
                                                                  words, not hearing middle vowel sounds                                                            tasks containing an abstract level (e.g.         Requires extensive vocabulary support
                  learning situation, impact of trauma, need      for rhyming words).                              prepositions, verb tenses, pronouns and
                  to develop trust in classroom relationships                                                      adverbs in addition to content words.            comparison, classification; science               for new topics.
                  with teachers and peers ), which can be        May cue into classroom activity (e.g.                                                             concepts such as magnetism, strength,
                                                                                                                  Needs one-on-one assistance after                force, orbit; maths concepts such as maths       Continues to have some difficulty
                  prolonged.                                      song) by following words on a page with                                                                                                             comprehending extended teacher talk at
                                                                  finger, though comprehension should not          teacher instruction to clarify the task          formula, algebra and trigonometry; history
                 May spend a period (few days to a few                                                            when commencing learning activity (e.g.          concepts such as exploration, distance            normal speed.
                                                                  be assumed.
                  months) acquiring language through                                                               writing tasks, group activities).                travelled).                                      Experiences difficulty comprehending
                  listening but is not yet ready to speak        May appear to understand SAE, but may                                                                                                               complex ideas in learning activities when
                  („silent period‟). This is a normal but not     use non-standard forms of taught                May rely on HL with peers for clarification     Misses details of teacher talk (e.g.
                                                                                                                   around classroom tasks.                          part/whole vocabulary such as collar, cuff,       they are expressed through complex SAE
                  necessary phase of „active‟ language            formulaic SAE which provide evidence of                                                                                                             language.
                  learning.                                       being an ESL learner (e.g. says „where                                                            seam as parts of shirt).
                                                                                                                  Relies on teacher knowing they speak
                                                                  da fores’ meet da sea’).                         another language.                               Misses basic information due to levels of        Has difficulty distinguishing relevant
                 Needs respect for age and HL socio-                                                                                                                                                                 information due to background noise (e.g.
                  linguistic competence.                         Is developing awareness (if creole                                                                background noise.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in a school assembly).
                                                                  speaker) of differences in language                                                              Requires constant scaffolding to process
                                                                  varieties (i.e. SAE v Home Languages)                                                             classroom learning, even though surface
                                                                  and needs assistance from teachers to                                                             social spoken fluency suggests that such
                                                                  expand these early understandings to                                                              scaffolding is not necessary.
                                                                  avoid the student adapting HL rather than
                                                                  learning SAE.                                                                                    May use strategies which give the
                                                                                                                                                                    impression that comprehension has taken
                                                                                                                                                                    place eg. nodding, smiling.




Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners Middle Phase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5
P-12 Curriculum Framework ─ Curriculum Guidelines for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners




 Speaking

                New to Standard                      Beginning to use familiar SAE                                       Beginning to participate in SAE                           Developing use of SAE                                   Consolidating use of SAE                    Becoming competent in
                Australian English (SAE)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SAE

                 Level 1 student uses                 Pre-Level 2 student is            Level 2 student is beginning     Level 3 student is developing a range of social           Level 4 student is extending the range of               Level 5 student is consolidating            Level 6 student is becoming a
                 occasional single SAE                beginning to understand           to experiment with own           and classroom language and is moving into                 language beyond own immediate social                    SAE language use in an expanding            competent user of SAE in
                 words                                and use some familiar             short SAE utterances.            learning through SAE .                                    environment and experimenting with learning             range of contexts and able to take a        most social contexts. Use of
                                                      SAE words and phrases.                                                                                                       through SAE.                                            collaborative role in academic              SAE in learning contexts is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           learning activities.                        sound but gaps need filling.
  Descriptors




                The student:                         The student:                       The student:                     The student:                                              The student:                                            The student:                                The student:
                 Labels some objects and uses        Begins to use parts of            Uses routine and rehearsed      Participates in face-to-face interactions in SAE on      Interacts socially with familiar SAE-speaking          Sustains participation in interactions     Takes an active and
                  occasional words related to          routine and formulaic social       social SAE (e.g. everyday        familiar classroom or personal interest topics but        adults and peers in most informal contexts (e.g.        in SAE in an expanding range of             productive part in all social
                  classroom needs (e.g. pencil;        language (e.g. says „Good          polite requests such as „Can     with frequent breakdowns in fluency and meaning           discussing events with the teacher and peers in         contexts expected at their phase of         and academic learning
                  Miss).                               morning‟).                         I get a drink, please?‟).        due to limited SAE resources.                             the school vehicle/at the shop; on an excursion         schooling.                                  activities (within the range of
                                                                                                                                                                                     with teachers/adults).                                                                              ability expected at their phase
                 May use HL to express               Uses single words or taught       Participates in guided face-    Generates own language beyond formulae and 2-                                                                    Is fluent in social speech with few         of schooling).
                  immediate needs.                     2-3 word formulae to convey        to-face interactions with a      3 word utterances. This creative use of SAE is an        Attempts to express complex thoughts and                breakdowns in communication.
                                                       basic needs.                       familiar, supportive adult.      expected developmental phase.                             feelings in English but relies on attentive                                                        Expresses more complex
                 Uses HL gestures to indicate                                                                                                                                       conversation partner to follow meaning.                Participates and collaborates in            ideas (at their level of
                  meaning, particular needs,          Is developing a larger set of     Begins combining words                  Relies heavily on the context and on the                                                                  class and group learning activities         cognitive development) on
                  likes and dislikes.                  single words.                      into a few, (i.e. not                    conversation partner for support (e.g. .         Prefers to express themselves without interruption      with other SAE-speaking learners,           both familiar and new
                                                                                          rehearsed), 2-3 word                     allowing time for the learner to process          or corrections.                                         but does not have the „depth‟ of            curriculum topics as long as
                 May work through an HL-             Relies on attentive speaker        statements linked by                     what they want to say, giving supportive                                                                  language required to relate complex
                  speaking peer or adult to            (gestures, context, object                                                                                                   Uses words and phrases in strings to participate in                                                 the content is well grounded.
                                                                                          sequence (i.e. not                       gestures and facial expressions,                                                                          ideas which are needed in certain
                  communicate needs.                   and pictures) to help              connectives) but needs                   rephrasing questions).                            longer speaking turns.                                  academic learning activities in SAE        Has some difficulties in
                                                       communication.                     supportive listener and                                                                                                                            (e.g. in a persuasive text in Studies       expressing precision of
                 May echo words and phrases                                                                                                                                        Recounts an event or a series of events orally
                  of other children and adults..      Participates in group reciting     environment.                                                                               (e.g. recount of shared learning experience).           of Society and Environment; in an           meaning in academic
                                                       of learnt classroom                                                Participates in class interaction on familiar topics                                                              explanation of a science process).          language.
                 May spend a period (few days                                           Relies on gestures and/or                                                                 Participates in academic learning activities on
                                                       vocabulary, alphabet,              peers and help from the          where teacher directs questions towards them                                                                     Is less dependent on the                   Takes an active and
                  to a few months) acquiring           numbers and so on.                                                  individually, using contextual support, repeating         familiar topics if supported by teacher and context
                  language but is not yet ready                                           listener.                                                                                  (modelling, scaffolding, recycling of language) and     conversation partner for repetition or      productive part in group
                                                                                                                           and rephrasing and elaborating, but will have                                                                     reformulation, especially if the topic      activities around academic
                  to speak („silent period‟). This    Repeats simple formulaic          Relies heavily on learned        difficulty participating in discussions between           if sufficient time is provided (e.g. can describe
                  is a normal but not necessary        SAE sentences following                                                                                                       processes such as „The Water Cycle‟ in simple           is familiar but will have difficulty if     topics.
                                                                                          formulaic language and           teacher and learners at SAE-speaker speed.                                                                        topics are unfamiliar and cultural
                  phase of language learning.          model provided by teacher          routine phrases that are                                                                   terms).                                                                                            Has a particular strength in
                                                       and supported by                                                   Participates in group learning activities with SAE-                                                               references are frequent and if
                 May experience a social and                                             comprehensible and                                                                        Explores more complex ideas in HL with HL-              specific details are required.              fluency.
                                                       sympathetic speaker who            substitutes new words or         speaker peers only with a clear role definition (e.g.
                  emotional „orientation phase‟        provides prompts as                                                 as the time keeper), which does not require much          speaking peers and adults.                                                                         Has some difficulties
                  (overwhelmed with new                                                   phrases as they are                                                                                                                               Contributes to new topic-specific
                                                       required.                                                           speaking in SAE.                                                                                                                                              contributing to discussions
                  learning situation, impact of                                           acquired.                                                                                 Gives a short prepared formal spoken report with        discussions if teachers and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             contextual support is given and if          involving evaluation of cultural
                  trauma, need to develop trust                                          May make slight deviations      May need or prefer a long wait time before                heavy word-for-word reliance on their written text
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         attitudes, assumptions and
                  in classroom relationships                                                                               responding in SAE.                                        and with little ability to respond to questions         time is allowed for processing
                                                                                          in routine formulaic SAE                                                                   beyond giving yes/no answers.                           before a response is expected.              beliefs expressed in written
                  with teachers and peers ),                                              which indicate that SAE is                                                                                                                                                                     texts because of the
                  which can be prolonged.                                                                                 Makes errors when approximating SAE and these
                                                                                          not first language.              should be valued as a sign of language acquisition       Gives short responses to open-ended questions.                                                      complexity of language
                 Requires an interpreter for                                                                              and ongoing development.                                                                                                                                      needed.
                                                                                         Constructs (says aloud)                                                                   Makes approximations to SAE forms and so
                  important communication                                                 simple formulaic SAE
                  within school or between                                                                                Relies on teacher knowing they speak another              speaking and writing will contain errors (which are
                                                                                          sentences, guided by             language (creole speakers).                               a sign of language development) but meaning is
                  school and family (up to level                                          teacher modelling.                                                                         generally unimpeded.
                  5).
                                                                                                                                                                                    Requires time to process thoughts and formulate
                                                                                                                                                                                     SAE utterances.




Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners Middle Phase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             6
P-12 Curriculum Framework ─ Curriculum Guidelines for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners




Reading/Viewing

               New to reading                                                        Beginning to recognise words & word clusters                                   Beginning to                      Applying developing reading              Consolidating reading skills          Becoming competent
                                                                                                                                                                    comprehend short                  skills                                                                         readers
                                                                                                                                                                    familiar texts

               Pre-Level 1 learner is new to       Level 1 learner is beginning      Pre-Level 2 learner is           Level 2 learner is beginning to               Level 3 learner is                Level 4 learner has an expanding         Level 5 learner is reading a          Level 6 learner is
               reading print in SAE.               to develop early emergent         beginning to recognise           recognise words and short word                beginning to comprehend           reading range based on their             range of texts but with the           becoming a competent
                                                   print literacy skills.            familiar words & short           clusters in SAE in a variety of texts.        short texts in SAE on             growing proficiency in SAE.              ‘depth’ of understanding limited      reader in SAE.
                                                                                     clusters in known                                                              familiar topics with                                                       by overall proficiency in SAE.
                                                                                     contexts.                                                                      contextual support.
 Descriptors




               The student:                        The student:                      The student:                     The student:                                  The student:                      The student:                             The student:                          The student:
               Limited Schooling                    Recognises and names             Recognises familiar words       Recognises and gains meaning                 Comprehends short texts          Acquires factual information from       Comprehends a wide range of          Comprehends most texts
                                                     some letters and words            and short word clusters in       from short texts, i.e. familiar words         in SAE on familiar topics         a growing range of texts on              texts which are related to            at the level and within the
                Has visual literacies from real     (within visual context) which     SAE if these have been           and chunks of texts in SAE, using             (e.g. short recounts) with        familiar topics but still needs          personal, social & general            range of ability expected
                 life settings (e.g. can             they encounter frequently         recycled often in variety of     contextual and visual cues (e.g.              contextual support.               visually supported texts which           school contexts which are not         at their phase of schooling
                 recognise different CD/DVD          and for which meaning is          language activities (e.g.        whole word shape, picture clues,                                                avoid density of information and         culturally over-laden (e.g. self-     but has difficulty with
                 covers and artists, television      given (e.g. commercial            word bank charts).               recent experiences) which use                Reads, with support (e.g.         language complexity.                     chosen stories, popular               highly culture-specific
                 programs; ordering a fast food      logos, signs and labels,                                           language that has been recycled in            scaffolding the text,                                                      magazines, instructions for           content.
                 meal).                              brand names, Schools,            Recognises memorised             a variety of ways.                            introduction to new              Understands texts (as above) that        games, school notices, class-
                                                     Police.)                          words in context but is not                                                    vocabulary and concepts)          do not require significant cultural      constructed and individual           Uses information acquired
                Gains meaning from visual                                             able to transfer this           Joins in with key words and                   short teacher-selected,           knowledge specific to the text.                                                through reading to find
                 cues in their environment and                                                                                                                                                                                                   books & texts).
                                                    Is becoming familiar with         knowledge to a different         repetitive phrases in familiar text           information texts (e.g.                                                                                          relationships, make
                 may demonstrate well-               Roman script                      context (e.g. may know a         (e.g. pictures, stories, written chants       animal report) on a              Skims, scans and „gets the sense        Reads subject-specific texts and      inferences and draw
                 developed observational                                               word on a chart but may          and rhymes) in shared reading                 familiar topic on                 of‟ mainstream texts at cohort           more complex learning                 conclusions (at the level
                 skills.                            May have literacy                 not be able to recognise it      sessions, but is unaware of the               information geared to the         level, only with ESL-informed            materials, but „depth‟ of             and within the range of
                                                     understandings and                in a book).                      meaning carried by structural words           mainstream curriculum             support including mapping of             understanding is limited by their     ability expected at the
                Needs early literacy support in     strategies from first                                                                                                                              reference, drawing on HL,
                 order to understand the                                                                                such as „the‟, „and‟, „in‟, „of‟, „what‟.     but at a less complex                                                      overall proficiency in SAE            phase of schooling).
                                                     language.                        „Reads‟ familiar SAE texts                                                     language level.                   eliciting/supplying vocabulary.          (knowledge of complex
                 different varieties of print                                          from memory.                    Uses some decoding skills when                                                                                                                                Needs more time than
                 (including fonts), the purposes   Limited Schooling                                                                                                                                   Repeats content of short, teacher-       structures, breadth of
                                                                                                                        reading unfamiliar SAE but is                Reads simple instructions                                                  vocabulary, cultural references)      SAE-speaking peers to
                 of reading, how to handle and                                        Has a limited range of           restricted in their ability to gain           (e.g. Cut the circle in half)     selected fairly simple and explicit                                            process information.
                 orientate books, how to read       Is continuing to develop an       sight vocabulary                                                                                                 factual mainstream school texts          and therefore their ability to
                                                     understanding of print                                             meaning from words and text (even             but will require HL                                                        predict meaning from semantic
                 pictures and how to use visual                                        (words/phrases).                 if they are able to decode) until their       assistance for                    which contain some argument and                                               Has difficulties at the
                 cues to help gain                   literacy to varying degrees,                                                                                                                       persuasion (e.g. texts on pollution,     and syntactic cues.                   middle schooling level if
                                                     based on prior experiences       Participates in beginning        proficiency in SAE language and               instructions.
                 understanding: this can be                                                                             culture develops.                                                               whaling) with ESL-informed              Identifies main idea and some         texts are very complex,
                 achieved through modelling          and are progressing through       literacy activities (e.g.                                                     May have difficulty               support.                                                                       dense, culturally
                                                     a range of steps in early         matches beginning and                                                                                                                                     supporting details from
                 reading and choosing                                                                                  Is unable to read or predict meaning          comprehending even                                                         argument texts on familiar            overladen or totally non-
                 language level appropriate          literacy (depending upon          ending sounds in words           in texts because of overload of new           specifically selected            May read for pleasure simply                                                   contextualised.
                                                     prior literacy experiences)       with alphabet letters („t‟,                                                                                      structured longer personal               subject-specific topics.
                 reading materials.                                                                                     language.                                     narrative texts because
                                                     and so may stay at this level     „s‟) but has difficulty                                                        they do not follow own            recounts, which do not contain too      Needs texts to be context-
                Communicates in their HL and        for some considerable time.       identifying middle sounds       Has difficulty because their spoken           cultural oral narrative           many unfamiliar cultural                 enhanced (e.g. with supporting
                 may have some oral                                                    in one syllable words;           language is different from that met           genres and because of             references or complex language           pictures) and supported by
                 proficiency and                    Brings to their learning          matches alphabet letters         in the text (i.e. pronunciation,                                                structures.
                                                     levels of maturity and a                                                                                         difficulty of language and                                                 teacher explanations of
                 comprehension in SAE.                                                 in different fonts.)             sentence structure will be different).        cultural references (up to                                                 concepts, cultural references,
                                                     range of knowledge, visual                                                                                                                        Includes all details rather than
                May have a conceptualization        literacies, understanding,                                        Can express lack of understanding             Level 5).                         selecting pivotal points when            text structure and language
                 of school print literacy based      skills and attitudes which                                         in SAE when reading                                                             recalling information.                   used.
                                                                                                                                                                     Needs explicit language
                 on previous school-based            will affect their approach to                                      comprehension has broken down                 teaching (word order,
                 experience and may be               learning.                                                          (e.g. „what “escalator”?‟), however,                                           Has limited comprehension of
                                                                                                                                                                      grammar, unfamiliar               self-selected texts appropriate for
                 reluctant to engage in reading                                                                         may not always be able to express             vocabulary) and literacy
                 and viewing activities.                                                                                their lack of understanding                                                     SAE-speaking peers, which are
                                                                                                                                                                      teaching (phonemic                expected to be read within a set
                                                                                                                        precisely.                                    awareness,                        time frame.
                                                                                                                                                                      graphophonics, word
                                                                                                                                                                      attack skills) or may            Retells, in HL, a story read in
                                                                                                                                                                      plateau at decoding level.        SAE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Requires extra processing time,
                                                                                                                                                                                                        especially when operating under
                                                                                                                                                                                                        test conditions, up until Level 6.




Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners Middle Phase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7
P-12 Curriculum Framework ─ Curriculum Guidelines for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners




Writing

               New to writing in SAE                                          Beginning to experiment with writing in SAE                            Beginning to write own              Applying understanding of              Developing control over                   Becoming competent
                                                                                                                                                     short simple texts                  texts to own writing                   language and text                         writers

                Pre-Level 1 learner is         Level 1 learner has a          Pre-Level 2 learner is            Level 2 learner is beginning to      Level 3 learner is beginning        Level 4 learner is experimenting       Level 5 learner is growing in             Level 6 learner is becoming a
                new to writing.                concept of writing.            beginning to reproduce            experiment with writing.             self-generated writing in           with longer and more structured        independence in writing but               competent writer.
                                                                              writing.                                                               familiar guided contexts.           discourse.                             complexity and precision is limited.
Descriptors




               The student:                   The student:                    The student:                      The student:                         The student:                        The student:                           The student:                              The student:
               Limited Schooling               May copy some words            Reproduces environment           Writes learned phrases and          Generates own short texts on       Writes coherent texts on              Writes (though with support              Is a competent writer (at the
                Has practices that             from environmental print,       print and sentences from          can complete short cloze             familiar topics (e.g. recounts,     familiar topics (e.g. reports,         normally given in classes) recounts,      level expected for their phase
                 enable them to                 and phrases from the            teacher‟s scribing (from          activities around familiar           email messages,                     longer recounts, procedures)           narratives, story retelling and other     of schooling), though some
                 negotiate their way in         classroom context,              blackboard                        language with contextual             straightforward telephone           modelled on those read with            texts, as expected at their phase of      HL features persist which will
                 their familiar                 though understanding is         writing/teacher‟s writing in      support.                             messages, letters, reports,         and /or by the teacher but with        schooling, but with ESL features.         not impede meaning.
                 environment (e.g.              as yet very limited             their workbooks/sentence                                               descriptions), in highly            ESL features (e.g. difficulty with
                 planning and sequential        because of lack of              strips/word banks).              Makes attempts at                    supported contexts with             word order, tense usage,              Writes informational texts, including    Can take notes and write a
                 skills, spoken HL              knowledge of SAE.                                                 captions/labels on                   specific modelling of text          prepositions, plurals).                reports and projects (though with HL      researched report (at the level
                 competency).                                                  Selects words (with               picture/diagrams with some           structure and language                                                     features) with clear guidance, and if     expected at the phase of
                                               May have literacy               picture cues) to fill in the      teachers support                     features (e.g. word banks).        Writes upper primary/junior            reading source material is at their       schooling) provided the task is
                May have well-                 understandings and              blanks in guided cloze                                                                                     secondary texts (e.g.                  level of reading ability, otherwise       carefully structured (e.g.
                 developed fine motor           skills in their L1 to           activity with teacher            Uses beginning graphophonic         Connects simple                     Imaginative narrative, longer          writing may break down.                   specific questions to be
                 skills (e.g. able to carve     varying degrees of              support.                          knowledge in their attempts at       sentences/statements                descriptive, simple film reviews                                                 researched; talking around
                 wood, thread sinkers,          ability.                                                          writing learned phrases,             approximating sentences with        and information texts) with           Writes with lack of depth because of      the topic; drafting and
                 braid hair, play                                              Writes captions/labels on         captions.                            cohesive devices (e.g. and,         extensive ESL-informed                 limited control over SAE (e.g.            redrafting); however, are likely
                 electronic games).           Limited Schooling                 pictures/diagrams with                                                 but, then), very limited in         support.                               narrow range of vocabulary,               to need more time for both the
                                               Is developing concepts          maximum scaffolding (e.g.        May spell words using visual                                                                                    structures, and subtleties of the
                                                                                                                  memory so that letters may be        range, typical of the spoken                                                                                         reading and writing required in
                May be inexperienced           and awareness of print          labels parts of an engine                                              mode.                              Has uneven control of text             language).                                order to produce their best
                 with using writing             upon which literacy             using a word list).               correct, but may be in the                                               structures such as paragraphs,
                                                                                                                  wrong order.                                                                                                   Expresses complex thoughts (e.g.          work.
                 implements and may             development can be                                                                                    Writes with ESL features            sentences, syntax, cohesive
                 need time to                   based.                         Requires a high degree of                                              reflecting their acquisition of     devices and may conform                explanation, interpretation,             Writes extended pieces of
                                                                                intense scaffolding and          Writes language, which is                                                                                       evaluation, argument) but in doing
                 experiment with pens                                                                             related to their level of spoken     SAE and this use of inter-          closely to teacher model.                                                        writing, given time.
                 and other writing             Is progressing through a        one-to-one teacher/adult                                               language is a sign of second                                               so, the text may continue to be less
                                                range of steps in early         support to engage in and          SAE and to the teacher‟s                                                See themselves as writers and          coherent and less accurate (a sign       Writes fluently, using simple
                 implements.                                                                                      models of reading and writing.       language progress and should
                                                literacy (depending upon        complete tasks designed                                                be sensitively supported.           have success.                          of language growth) and require           and complex sentences and
                Has had limited school         prior literacy                  for their year level.            Participates orally (at minimal                                                                                 more on the part of the reader to         appropriate connectors (at the
                 experience.                    experiences) and so may                                                                               Requires one-on-one                Expresses complex thoughts             comprehend intended meaning and           level expected of their phase
                                                                               May select and copy               level) in guided whole class                                             (e.g. explanations, arguments)
                                                stay at this level for                                            and group constructions of           assistance to clarify and                                                  this risk-taking is to be encouraged      of schooling) reflecting ability
                Brings to their learning,      some considerable time.         printed material when                                                  understand when                     but in doing so, the text may          as it enables progress.                   to organise a series of main
                 levels of maturity and a                                       given an unsupported task         text.                                                                    become less coherent and less
                                                                                                                                                       commencing writing tasks,                                                                                            ideas and details.
                 range of knowledge,           Is restricted in their          above their writing ability      May write with influences of         because of gaps in ESL              accurate (a sign of language          Self-edits routine grammatical
                 understandings, skills         ability to write in SAE         without one-on-one                HL on writing and attempts           listening (up to level 5).          growth) and require more on the        corrections (e.g. simple past tense      Uses more complex sentence
                 and attitudes and will         until their literacy set is     support, but as yet may           should be encouraged.                                                    part of the reader to                  corrections) after teacher feedback       structures, with occasional
                 benefit from respect           fully established and until     have little understanding                                             Requires extra time to              comprehend intended meaning            on their drafts, but may not yet have     ESL features (e.g. omitted
                 and acknowledgement            an initial familiarity with     of what they are copying         Reads back own writing.              process thoughts in test            and this risk-taking is to be          enough language awareness about           articles, inappropriate
                 of this.                       SAE language and                (e.g. copying out pages of                                             situations (up to Level 6).         encouraged as it enables               written SAE to adequately self-edit       prepositions).
                                                culture in the school and       an encyclopaedia to show         May be able to provide only                                              progress.                              their written texts (e.g. complex
                                                classroom context is            that they are writing).           limited comments about their                                                                                    clauses, cohesion).
                                                gained.                                                           pictures or writing in SAE;                                             Needs strong ESL support (e.g.
                                                                              Limited Schooling                   however, may choose to give                                              pre-task and post-task talk,
                                               May be learning a new          Is still developing               comments and explanations in                                             modelling, joint construction).
                                                script.                         handwriting skills: shaping       their HL to their HL peers.
                                                                                letters correctly, writing on
                                                                                a line.                         Limited Schooling
                                                                                                                 Has taken considerable time
                                                                                                                  to reach this level and will
                                                                                                                  continue to require high levels
                                                                                                                  of support in order to be able
                                                                                                                  to draw on the variety of
                                                                                                                  literacy knowledges required
                                                                                                                  to produce simple texts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Students at this level need specialist    Students at this level need
implications




               ESL students at these levels of listening, speaking, reading/viewing and writing will require specialist, intensive support. Where this is not possible, the teaching and learning program                       support. Where this is not possible,      support with tasks that are
               at the mainstream school should provide extra scaffolding to meet these students’ needs and additional support should be provided. Some students, e.g. students who speak creoles,                               the teaching and learning program at      culturally overloaded. They may
               may plateau at level 3 in listening because of the lack of understanding that the language they speak is not SAE. That is, it may be erroneously assumed by both students and teachers                           the mainstream school should              need individual support to
               that the students are SAE users and therefore they ‘should’ be able to understand what is being said in the classroom.                                                                                           provide extra scaffolding to meet         understand the cultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                these students’ needs and additional      demands of tasks, and will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                support should be provided.               benefit from more time for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Students will benefit from more time      reading and writing required in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                for the reading and writing required      assessment tasks.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                in assessment tasks.



Bandscales for English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners Middle Phase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8

								
To top