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					Section 25

Construction and Housing

This section presents data on the construction industry and on various indicators of its activity and costs; on housing units and their characteristics and occupants; and on the characteristics and vacancy rates for commercial buildings. This edition contains data from the 1997 American Housing Survey. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which issues a variety of current publications. Construction statistics compiled by the Census Bureau appear in its monthly Current Construction Reports series with various quarterly or annual supplements; Housing Starts and Housing Completions present data by type of structure and by four major census regions; New One-Family Houses Sold and For Sale also provides statistics annually on physical and financial characteristics for all new housing by the four major census regions; Price Index of New One-Family Houses Sold presents quarterly figures and annual regional data; and Housing Units Authorized by Building Permits covers approximately 19,000 permit-issuing jurisdictions in the United States (prior to 1995, 17,000 places). Statistics on expenditures by owners of residential properties are issued quarterly and annually in Expenditures for Residential Upkeep and Improvements. Value of New Construction Put in Place presents data on all types of construction and includes monthly composite cost indexes. Reports of the censuses of construction industries (see below) are also issued on various topics. Other Census Bureau publications include the Current Housing Reports series, which comprises the quarterly Housing Vacancies, the quarterly Market Absorption of Apartments, the biennial American Housing Survey (formerly Annual Housing Survey), and reports of the censuses of housing and of construction industries.

Construction Review, published quarterly by the International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, contains many of the census series and other construction statistics series from the Federal Government and private agencies. Other sources include the monthly Dodge Construction Potentials of F. W. Dodge Division, McGraw-Hill Information Systems Company, New York, NY, which presents national and state data on construction contracts; the National Association of Home Builders with state-level data on housing starts; the National Association of REALTORS, which presents data on existing home sales; the Society of Industrial and Office Realtors and Oncor International on commercial office and industrial space; the Bureau of Economic Analysis, which presents data on residential capital and gross housing product; and the U.S. Energy Information Administration , which provides data on commercial buildings through its periodic sample surveys. Censuses and surveys—Censuses of the construction industry were first conducted by the Census Bureau for 1929, 1935, and 1939; beginning in 1967, a census has been taken every 5 years (through 1992, for years ending in “2” and “7”). The latest complete reports are for 1992. The 1997 census results, part of the 1997 Economic Census, are being released on a flow basis. See Table 1187 and Section 32. The census of construction industries, covers all employer establishments primarily engaged in (1) building construction by general contractors or operative builders; (2) heavy (nonbuilding) construction by general contractors; and (3) construction by special trade contractors. The 1997 census was conducted in accordance with the 1997 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS); the 1992 Construction and Housing 707

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

census was conducted in accordance with the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). This sector now includes construction management and land subdividers and developers, not included previously. See text, Section 17, Business, for general information on the SIC and NAICS. From 1850 through 1930, the Census Bureau collected some housing data as part of its censuses of population and agriculture. Beginning in 1940, separate censuses of housing have been taken at 10-year intervals. For the 1970 and 1980 censuses, data on year-round housing units were collected and issued on occupancy and structural characteristics, plumbing facilities, value, and rent; for 1990 such characteristics were presented for all housing units. The American Housing Survey (Current Housing Reports Series H-150 and H-170), which began in 1973, provided an annual and ongoing series of data on selected housing and demographic characteristics until 1983. In 1984, the name of the survey was changed from the Annual Housing Survey. Currently, national data are collected every other year, and data for selected metropolitan areas are collected on a rotating basis. All samples represent a cross section of the housing stock in their

respective areas. Estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling errors; caution should therefore be used in making comparisons between years. Data on residential mortgages were collected continuously from 1890 to 1970, except 1930, as part of the decennial census by the Census Bureau. Since 1973, mortgage status data, limited to single family homes on less than 10 acres with no business on the property, have been presented in the American Housing Survey. Data on mortgage activity are covered in Section 16, Banking. Housing units—In general, a housing unit is a group of rooms or a single room occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters; that is, the occupants do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure, and there is direct access from the outside or through a common hall. Transient accommodations, barracks for workers, and institutional-type quarters are not counted as housing units. Statistical reliability—For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

708 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1187. Construction—Summary (SIC Basis): 1992 and 1997
[For establishments with payroll (539,085 represents $539,085,000,000). See Table 865 in Section 17, Business, for more comparative economic census data] 1987 SIC code Establishments
1

Industry

Value of business done (mil. dol.) 1992 1997

Annual payroll (mil. dol.) 1992 1997

Paid employees (1,000) 1992 4,668 1,097 799 2,772

2

1992

1997

1997 5,567 1,269 852 3,446

Construction, total . . . . . . . . . C Building construction—general contractors and operative builders . . 15 Heavy construction contractors other than buildings construction . . . . . . . 16 Special trade contractors . . . . . . . . . 17
1

572,851 639,482 539,085 834,795 117,730 170,962 168,407 184,517 220,231 365,551 37,180 39,542 98,528 126,864 367,263 415,423 220,325 342,379 27,078 39,852

23,728 29,218 66,924 101,892
2

1987 Standard Industrial Classification System code; see text, Section 17, Business. including March, May, August, and November 12.

Average for the pay periods

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census, Core Business Statistics Series, Comparative Statistics Series, EC97X-CS2.

No. 1188. Construction Materials—Producer Price Indexes: 1990 to 1999
[1982=100, except as noted. For discussion of producer price index, see text, Section 15, Prices. This index, more formally known as the special commodity grouping index for construction materials, covers materials incorporated as integral part of a building or normally installed during construction and not readily removable. Excludes consumer durables such as kitchen ranges, refrigerators, etc. This index is not the same as the stage-of-processing index of intermediate materials and components for construction] Commodity Construction materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interior solvent based paint . Plastic construction products Douglas fir, dressed . . . . . . Southern pine, dressed . . . . Millwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 119.6 133.0 117.2 138.4 111.2 130.4 119.6 102.7 142.3 112.2 102.6 133.0 144.3 131.6 131.4 (NA) 113.0 113.0 118.7 114.6 110.1 158.0 115.3 113.5 129.9 95.8 105.2 108.4 101.2 1992 122.5 141.7 112.7 169.5 130.6 143.3 147.2 106.9 168.3 119.6 94.1 141.4 153.1 137.3 135.0 116.7 115.3 117.6 117.7 117.5 109.4 166.5 119.4 117.2 132.0 94.3 99.9 102.3 100.2 1993 128.6 142.9 116.6 237.6 168.8 156.6 169.7 115.4 216.0 132.7 92.8 144.9 155.9 140.4 136.6 117.2 115.5 117.4 119.5 119.3 110.7 172.9 123.4 120.2 135.1 94.9 108.3 105.8 102.0
3

1994 133.8 148.1 122.9 236.2 182.6 162.4 176.8 122.3 207.8 144.1 96.9 148.0 159.6 142.5 142.0 119.4 115.4 116.2 123.4 122.6 112.4 179.1 128.7 124.6 138.3 92.9 136.1 111.9 103.2

1995 138.8 164.5 133.8 198.8 166.9 163.8 188.1 122.2 203.5 144.9 104.4 153.2 166.0 147.5 156.5 132.4 120.8 121.0 128.0 125.7 113.0 183.5 134.7 129.4 141.3 97.8 154.5 118.8 105.8
4

1996 139.6 175.6 130.9 227.1 177.9 166.6 173.7 124.9 189.3 137.2 103.2 156.5 171.1 151.2 159.3 125.5 122.9 123.4 131.3 126.8 113.7 186.3 138.8 133.2 142.3 97.4 154.0 118.9 107.6

1997 142.1 180.5 128.2 221.3 201.2 170.9 175.5 127.1 201.7 129.6 106.9 158.4 174.5 152.4 161.0 132.1 123.2 122.8 133.5 128.0 114.8 189.0 142.5 136.0 143.5 96.5 170.8 117.7 113.2

1998 141.4 185.7 126.2 186.1 177.3 171.1 174.9 126.9 180.1 132.9 109.4 160.8 175.1 153.3 161.3 134.5 122.8 119.0 135.4 130.1 116.0 191.5 147.6 140.0 144.9 95.7 177.6 119.7 112.5
5

1999 142.8 188.0 128.0 212.1 185.7 174.7 207.0 128.6 197.4 141.6 102.5 161.9 176.7 154.0 162.2 135.4 122.3 118.7 136.2 130.6 117.5 192.8 152.1 143.7 148.3 95.2 208.0 131.7 112.9

Softwood plywood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardwood plywood and related products . . . . . Softwood plywood veneer, ex. reinforced/backed Building paper and building board mill products . Steel pipe and tubes 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Builders hardware . . . . . . . . . . . Plumbing fixtures and brass fittings Heating equipment . . . . . . . . . . . Metal doors, sash, and trim . . . . . Siding, aluminum 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Outdoor lighting equipment 3 . . . . . . . . . Commercial fluorescent fixtures 4 . . . . . . Architectural and ornamental metalwork 5 . Fabricated ferrous wire products 1 . . . . . . Elevators, escalators, and other lifts. . . . .

Stamped metal outlet box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete ingredients and related products . . . . . Concrete products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clay construction products exc. refractories. . . . . Prep. asphalt and tar roofing and siding products .

Gypsum products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insulation materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paving mixtures and blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available. 1983=100.
1

June 1982=100.

2

December 1982=100.

June 1985=100.

Recessed nonair.

December

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Producer Price Indexes, monthly and annual.

Construction and Housing 709
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1189. Price and Cost Indexes for Construction: 1980 to 1999
[1996=100. Excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Indexes of certain of these sources are published on bases different from those shown here] Name of index U.S. Census Bureau Composite: Fixed-weighted 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implicit price deflator 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Census Bureau houses under construction: Fixed-weighted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Price deflator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Highway Administration, composite 4 . . . . . Bureau of Reclamation composite 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . Turner Construction Co.: Building construction 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering News-Record: 7 Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handy-Whitman public utility: Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . C. A. Turner Telephone Plant
1 8 3

1980 59.3 59.0 58.0 57.0 79.7 62 54 60.6 57.6 66 60 60 64 79

1985 71.8 71.1 69.8 68.3 83.6 75 74 75.8 74.6 76 74 75 76 77

1990 85.5 85.0 84.6 83.4 88.9 85 87 84.4 84.2 85 86 86 85 87

1994 93.9 93.9 94.1 94 94.3 94 94 97.1 96.2 94 95 97 95 90

1995 97.7 97.8 98.1 98.1 99.8 98 97 97.1 97.3 97 98 99 98 96

1996 99.9 100.0 100 100 100.0 100 100 100.0 100.0 100 100 100 100 100

1997 103.2 103.3 102.9 102.9 107.5 103 104 105.0 103.6 103 102 102 102 102

1998 106.0 106.1 105.6 105.6 105.2 105 109 105.8 105.3 104 104 104 104 102

1999 110.3 110.4 110.4 110.4 112.7 107 113 107.9 107.8 107 105 107 107 101

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Weighted average of the various indexes used to deflate the Construction Put in Place series. In calculating the index, the weights (i.e., the composition of current dollar estimates in 1996 by category) are held constant. 2 Derived ratio of total current to constant dollar Construction Put in Place (multiplied by 100). 3 Excludes value of site. 4 Based on average contract unit bid prices for composite mile (involving specific average amounts of excavation, paving, reinforcing steel, structural steel, and structural concrete). 5 Derived from the four quarterly indexes which are weighted averages of costs of labor, materials, and equipment for the construction of dams and reclamation projects. 6 Based on firm’s cost experience with respect to labor rates, materials prices, competitive conditions, efficiency of plant and management, and productivity. 7 Building construction index computed on the basis of a hypothetical unit of construction requiring 6 bbl. of portland cement, 1,088 M bd. ft. of 2’’ x 4’’ lumber, 2,500 lb. of structural steel, and 68.38 hours of skilled labor. General construction index based on same materials components combined with 200 hours of common labor. 8 Based on data covering public utility construction costs in six geographic regions. Covers skilled and common labor. 9 As derived by U.S. Census Bureau. Covers steam generation plants only. 10 As derived by U.S. Census Bureau. Reflects costs for structures and improvements at water pumping and treatment plants. 11 Computed by the Census Bureau by averaging the weighted component indexes published for six geographic regions. Source: U.S. Census Bureau. In U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, Construction Review, quarterly.

No. 1190. Value of New Construction Put in Place: 1964 to 1999
[In millions of dollars (75,097 represents $75,097,000,000). Represents value of construction put in place during year; differs from building permit and construction contract data in timing and coverage. Includes installed cost of normal building service equipment and selected types of industrial production equipment (largely site fabricated). Excludes cost of shipbuilding, land, and most types of machinery and equipment. For methodology, see Appendix III] Current dollars Private Year Total 1964 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . . . 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
1

Constant (1996) dollars Private Resi- Nonresidential dential buildings buildings 169,635 155,113 149,410 175,822 162,706 134,605 195,028 231,396 234,955 266,481 267,063 263,385 252,745 228,943 197,526 232,134 249,757 274,956 251,937 281,229 280,748 297,886 315,757 96,497 115,372 96,407 129,275 140,569 145,054 131,289 155,261 178,925 163,740 160,363 164,191 169,173 167,896 135,389 120,921 122,222 127,593 139,711 153,866 166,754 177,639 175,048

Total

1

Resi- Nonresidential dential buildings buildings 30,526 35,863 51,581 100,381 99,241 84,676 125,833 155,015 160,520 190,677 199,652 204,496 204,255 191,103 166,251 199,393 225,067 258,561 247,351 281,115 289,014 314,607 348,826 17,385 28,171 35,409 72,480 85,569 92,690 87,069 107,680 127,466 120,917 123,247 130,854 139,953 143,506 116,570 105,646 110,635 120,289 136,541 153,912 172,990 190,711 195,776

Public 20,203 27,908 43,293 63,646 64,691 63,064 63,450 70,238 77,815 84,582 90,648 94,735 98,174 107,478 110,109 115,847 115,960 120,193 129,933 139,263 154,882 159,523 172,673

Total 405,864 429,041 404,132 464,144 455,260 423,729 465,073 534,557 567,689 588,804 585,103 583,396 579,583 560,802 503,711 533,322 546,757 574,302 567,900 613,454 635,765 670,859 692,477

Total

1

Public 105,492 107,101 105,577 100,043 94,191 89,835 89,880 97,232 103,835 109,182 114,528 115,797 116,042 123,803 125,467 131,755 128,720 128,842 133,450 139,147 149,493 150,246 156,852

75,097 105,890 152,635 273,936 289,070 279,332 311,887 370,190 403,416 433,454 446,643 462,012 477,502 476,778 432,592 463,661 493,260 539,232 555,591 613,535 656,630 711,759 764,233

54,893 77,982 109,342 210,290 224,378 216,268 248,437 299,952 325,601 348,872 355,994 367,277 379,328 369,300 322,483 347,814 377,300 419,038 425,658 474,273 501,749 552,236 591,561

300,372 321,940 298,555 364,101 361,069 333,894 375,193 437,325 463,854 479,623 470,575 467,599 463,541 436,999 378,245 401,567 418,037 445,460 434,450 474,307 486,273 520,613 535,625

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Includes other types of private construction, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Construction Reports, Series C30, Value of Construction, monthly.

710 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1191. Value of New Construction Put in Place by Type: 1990 to 1999
[In millions of dollars (476,778 represents $476,778,000,000). Represents value of construction put in place during year; differs from building permit and construction contract data in timing and coverage. Includes installed cost of normal building service equipment and selected types of industrial production equipment (largely site fabricated). Excludes cost of shipbuilding, land, and most types of machinery and equipment. For methodology, see Appendix III] Type of construction Current dollars 1990 1995 1997 1998 1999 1990 Constant (1996) dollars 1995 1997 1998 1999 692,477 535,625 315,757 225,896 201,210 24,686 89,860 175,048 31,214 41,643 14,262 51,067 6,701 8,743 12,183 9,235 3,977 38,166 15,142 23,024 4,540 13,393 3,690 1,401 2,678 156,852 69,497 5,088 828 35,497 3,548 24,537 48,827 1,909 5,602 10,438 7,142 13,436

Total new construction . 476,778 555,591 656,630 711,759 764,233 560,802 567,900 635,765 670,859 Private construction . . . . . . 369,300 425,658 501,749 552,236 591,561 436,999 434,450 486,273 520,613 Residential buildings . New housing units . 1 unit . . . . . . . . 2 or more units . Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191,103 247,351 289,014 314,607 348,826 228,943 251,937 280,748 297,886 . 132,137 171,404 198,063 223,983 249,536 158,319 174,585 192,386 212,068 . 112,886 153,515 175,179 199,409 222,280 135,253 156,363 170,154 188,785 . 19,250 17,889 22,883 24,574 27,256 23,066 18,222 22,232 23,283 . 58,966 75,947 90,951 90,624 99,290 70,625 77,352 88,362 85,818

Nonresidential buildings . . . 143,506 136,541 172,990 190,711 195,776 167,896 139,711 166,754 177,639 Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . 33,636 34,024 36,739 40,484 34,894 39,350 34,814 35,411 37,715 Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35,055 25,613 34,305 42,226 46,570 41,027 26,218 33,058 39,333 Hotels, motels . . . . . . . . 10,679 7,112 12,898 14,816 15,939 12,497 7,274 12,438 13,794 Other commercial . . . . . 40,047 42,654 51,809 53,598 57,143 46,847 43,636 49,948 49,915 Religious . . . . . . . . . . . 3,566 4,326 5,777 6,594 7,497 4,169 4,426 5,565 6,139 Educational . . . . . . . . . 4,616 5,493 8,693 9,698 9,784 5,398 5,621 8,375 9,039 Hospital and institutional . 10,868 11,248 13,546 13,793 13,624 12,710 11,512 13,066 12,853 1 5,040 6,071 9,223 9,501 10,327 5,897 6,209 8,892 8,850 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . Farm nonresidential. . . . . . 2,801 3,014 3,815 4,284 4,451 3,276 3,084 3,675 3,989 Public utilities . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications . . . . Other public utilities . . . . Railroads . . . . . . . . . . Electric light and power . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum pipelines . . . All other private 2 . . . . . . 28,933 9,803 19,130 2,600 11,299 4,820 411 2,957 35,859 11,093 24,766 3,509 14,049 6,279 929 2,893 33,638 12,416 21,222 4,922 11,325 4,006 969 2,292 40,028 13,328 26,700 5,736 12,381 7,318 1,265 2,606 39,607 15,223 24,384 4,918 14,057 3,920 1,489 2,901 33,505 11,346 22,159 2,969 13,083 5,627 480 3,379 36,740 11,556 25,184 3,609 14,310 6,329 936 2,979 32,884 12,159 20,725 4,745 11,122 3,911 947 2,212 38,616 13,036 25,581 5,463 11,885 7,020 1,213 2,482

Public construction. . . . . . . 107,478 129,933 154,882 159,523 172,673 123,803 133,450 149,493 150,246 Buildings . . . . . . . Housing and redevelopment Industrial . . . . . Educational . . . Hospital . . . . . . Other 3 . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43,615 3,808 1,434 16,055 2,860 19,458 32,105 2,665 4,686 10,276 4,909 9,223 57,754 4,698 1,508 25,783 4,236 21,528 37,616 3,011 6,308 8,420 4,709 12,116 71,867 5,230 999 34,385 5,152 26,100 44,105 2,556 5,739 10,392 6,419 13,803 73,277 5,124 1,010 36,234 3,906 27,004 48,515 2,529 5,447 10,168 6,830 12,755 77,690 5,618 925 39,725 3,968 27,454 53,532 2,111 6,003 11,181 7,602 14,555 51,117 4,560 1,677 18,772 3,348 22,760 35,879 3,050 5,482 12,010 5,730 10,535 59,074 4,786 1,544 26,374 4,335 22,034 38,952 3,102 6,443 8,600 4,809 12,468 69,319 5,084 965 33,136 4,970 25,164 42,535 2,466 5,541 10,034 6,275 13,323 68,334 4,853 941 33,743 3,642 25,155 45,877 2,377 5,219 9,743 6,552 12,145

Highways and streets . Military facilities . . . . . Conservation and development . . . . . . Sewer systems . . . . . . Water supply facilities . Miscellaneous public 4 .

... ... . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes amusement and recreational buildings, bus and airline terminals, animal hospitals and shelters, etc. 2 Includes privately owned streets and bridges, parking areas, sewer and water facilities, parks and playgrounds, golf courses, airfields, etc. 3 Includes general administrative buildings, prisons, police and fire stations, courthouses, civic centers, passenger terminals, space facilities, postal facilities, etc. 4 Includes open amusement and recreational facilities, power generating facilities, transit systems, airfields, open parking facilities, etc.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Construction Reports, Series C30, Value of Construction, monthly.

Construction and Housing 711
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1192. Construction Contracts—Value of Construction and Floor Space of Buildings by Class of Construction: 1980 to 1999
[The complete publication including this copyright table is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service]

No. 1193. Construction Contracts—Value by State: 1990 to 1999
[The complete publication including this copyright table is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service]

712 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1194. New Privately-Owned Housing Units Authorized by State: 1998 and 1999
[1,612.3 represents 1,612,300. Based on about 19,000 places in United States having building permit systems] Housing units (1,000) State 1998 U.S AL . . AK . . AZ . . AR . . CA . . CO . . CT . . DE . . DC . . FL. . . GA . . HI . . . ID . . . IL . . . IN . . . IA . . . KS . . KY . . LA . . ME . . MD . . MA . . MI . . . MN . . MS . . 1999 Total One unit 1998 Valuation (mil. dol.) 1999 Total One unit MO . MT . NE . NV . NH . NJ. . NM . NY . NC . ND . OH . OK . OR . PA . RI . . SC . SD . TN . TX . UT . VT . VA . WA . WV . WI. . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State 1998 25.7 2.6 9.6 37.0 5.8 31.3 10.3 38.4 80.5 3.0 48.0 14.4 25.9 41.6 2.6 33.6 3.5 34.1 156.7 20.9 2.2 50.2 45.7 3.8 35.4 1.9 Housing units (1,000) 1999 Total 26.8 2.6 8.7 32.6 6.3 32.0 9.7 42.6 84.8 2.6 55.9 14.2 23.2 42.7 3.4 36.2 3.7 37.0 146.6 20.5 2.6 53.2 42.8 4.2 35.6 1.9 One unit 1998 Valuation (mil. dol.) 1999 Total One unit

. 1,612.3 1,663.5 1,246.7 165,266 181,246 157,123 . 20.5 19.0 14.9 1,791 1,883 1,655 . 2.9 2.2 1.5 385 307 233 . 63.9 65.1 53.2 6,766 7,350 6,696 . 10.0 11.5 7.7 798 966 826 . 124.0 138.0 102.8 18,230 21,031 18,321 . 51.2 49.3 38.4 5,777 6,036 5,304 . 11.9 10.6 9.2 1,394 1,466 1,373 . 5.3 5.3 4.8 499 492 476 . 0.4 0.7 0.3 35 53 36 . 148.6 164.7 106.6 14,123 16,102 12,259 . 85.4 89.6 71.5 7,859 8,749 7,861 . 3.3 4.2 3.4 484 633 560 . 11.7 12.2 10.5 1,251 1,357 1,269 . 48.0 54.0 39.2 5,618 6,538 5,475 . 40.7 41.5 33.4 4,333 4,748 4,325 . 13.1 13.4 9.7 1,292 1,400 1,192 . 15.3 15.7 11.3 1,516 1,667 1,443 . 20.6 21.6 16.5 1,731 1,909 1,694 . 16.5 17.8 14.6 1,541 1,767 1,569 . 6.3 5.7 5.4 642 623 602 . 30.9 29.8 24.2 2,903 3,102 2,825 . 19.3 19.0 15.5 2,519 2,666 2,324 . 54.5 54.3 45.4 5,880 6,205 5,676 . 30.4 33.3 26.7 3,485 4,053 3,554 . 12.9 12.9 9.6 890 990 874

20.7 2,425 2,739 2,426 1.6 217 226 176 6.6 787 828 731 24.3 2,807 2,977 2,508 5.7 658 782 739 25.1 2,936 3,162 2,802 8.6 979 1,080 1,026 24.7 3,826 4,411 3,386 64.1 8,062 8,617 7,665 1.4 245 223 168 40.0 5,410 6,401 5,642 11.1 1,286 1,430 1,287 16.6 2,827 2,653 2,252 36.6 4,219 4,635 4,295 2.7 284 336 301 27.2 3,087 3,615 3,100 2.9 297 330 285 29.9 3,428 3,835 3,495 101.8 13,682 14,041 12,101 16.6 2,210 2,287 2,029 2.2 234 305 271 42.1 4,744 5,142 4,621 28.1 4,745 4,578 3,596 3.6 323 381 354 24.8 3,556 3,863 3,199 1.5 251 279 247

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Construction Reports, Series C40, Building Permits, monthly.

No. 1195. New Privately-Owned Housing Units Started—Selected Characteristics: 1970 to 1999
[In thousands (1,434 represents 1,434,000). For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Structures with— Year Total units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,434 2,357 2,045 1,338 1,160 1,538 1,987 2,020 1,745 1,292 1,084 1,062 1,703 1,750 1,742 1,805 1,621 1,488 1,376 1,193 1,014 1,200 1,288 1,457 1,354 1,477 1,474 1,617 1,666 One unit 813 1,309 1,132 888 892 1,162 1,451 1,433 1,194 852 705 663 1,068 1,084 1,072 1,179 1,146 1,081 1,003 895 840 1,030 1,126 1,198 1,076 1,161 1,134 1,271 1,335 Two to four units 85 141 118 68 64 86 122 125 122 110 91 80 113 121 93 84 65 59 55 37 36 31 29 35 34 45 44 43 32 Five or more units 536 906 795 382 204 289 414 462 429 331 288 320 522 544 576 542 409 348 318 260 138 139 133 224 244 271 296 303 300 Region Northeast Midwest 218 330 277 183 149 169 202 200 178 125 117 117 168 204 252 294 269 235 179 131 113 127 126 138 118 132 137 148 154 294 443 440 317 294 400 465 451 349 218 165 149 218 243 240 296 298 274 266 253 233 288 298 329 290 322 304 330 356 Condominium units Singlefamily (NA) (NA) 69 46 20 30 41 42 43 35 36 40 77 96 79 80 73 53 37 22 21 35 45 48 47 53 56 59 58
1

South 612 1,057 899 553 442 569 783 824 748 643 562 591 935 866 782 733 634 575 536 479 414 497 562 639 615 662 670 743 760

West 311 527 429 285 275 400 538 545 470 306 240 205 382 436 468 483 420 404 396 329 254 288 302 351 331 361 363 395 396

Total (NA) (NA) 241 175 65 95 118 156 198 186 181 170 276 291 225 214 196 148 118 75 60 74 86 96 93 107 110 113 119

Multifamily (NA) (NA) 172 130 45 64 77 114 156 150 145 130 199 194 146 134 123 95 82 53 39 40 41 48 47 54 54 54 61

1970 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 Type of ownership under which the owners of the individual housing units are also joint owners of the common areas of the building or community. Includes a small number of cooperatively-owned units. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Construction Reports, Series C20, Housing Starts, monthly.

Housing and Construction 713
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1196. New Privately-Owned Housing Units Started by State: 1997 to 2000
[In thousands of units (1,476 represents 1,476,000)] 2000 State 1997 U.S. AL . . . AK . . . AZ . . . AR . . . CA . . . CO. . . CT . . . DE . . . DC . . . FL . . . GA . . . HI . . . ID . . . IL. . . . IN . . . IA . . . KS . . . KY . . . LA . . . ME. . . MD. . . MA. . . MI . . . MN. . . MS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,476 21.7 2.5 58.2 13.0 109.1 43.8 9.1 4.9 135.2 78.6 3.8 10.5 46.5 36.0 11.2 13.6 20.5 16.7 4.6 26.5 16.9 49.0 25.2 12.2 1998 1,623 23.7 2.7 65.2 12.9 123.0 50.6 11.0 5.5 0.4 143.9 87.1 3.4 12.0 49.2 40.8 13.7 15.6 23.2 17.8 5.8 31.2 18.2 54.5 30.8 15.0 1999 1,660 23.5 2.4 66.5 13.7 129.9 49.9 10.6 5.4 0.7 152.8 88.4 3.7 12.6 52.4 41.8 13.6 16.4 23.2 18.6 5.8 30.3 18.0 55.4 32.9 15.2 Total units 1,535 21.2 2.1 60.0 12.5 128.2 45.9 10.0 5.2 0.4 148.1 81.5 3.8 11.5 48.1 37.6 13.0 15.2 21.4 15.8 5.8 27.9 17.7 50.9 30.7 12.8 Singlefamily units 1,223 17.7 1.6 48.2 9.5 99.9 36.0 8.7 4.8 0.3 104.9 68.4 3.2 10.1 38.9 32.3 10.7 11.7 17.5 13.4 5.5 23.0 15.5 44.2 26.8 10.1 State 1997 MO MT . NE . NV . NH . NJ . NM. NY . NC . ND . OH. OK . OR. PA . RI . SC . SD . TN . TX . UT . VT . VA . WA WV WI . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.9 2.5 9.8 35.6 5.3 26.8 10.5 30.5 74.1 3.2 44.6 13.2 26.6 38.6 2.6 31.2 3.4 37.8 134.0 19.8 1.8 46.9 40.7 5.1 30.7 1.9 1998 29.7 2.4 9.8 36.4 5.7 29.7 9.4 34.0 81.5 3.3 47.0 16.3 25.6 40.1 2.7 33.2 3.8 37.4 159.8 21.1 2.2 50.9 44.0 5.1 34.3 2.1 1999 29.6 2.5 9.7 35.1 6.0 31.9 9.2 36.3 85.8 3.2 49.8 16.2 24.5 41.1 2.9 35.8 4.1 37.3 155.2 20.5 2.4 53.0 43.7 5.8 35.4 2.0 2000 Total units 26.0 2.2 8.4 34.5 6.0 31.2 8.1 34.9 74.8 2.7 45.3 15.5 22.2 37.5 2.7 33.9 3.5 33.9 148.4 19.5 2.4 50.2 40.9 5.3 32.0 1.8 Singlefamily units 22.2 1.4 6.2 25.3 5.6 25.4 7.2 22.7 59.2 1.8 37.7 12.4 15.8 32.4 2.5 27.1 2.8 29.9 108.3 16.1 2.1 42.6 28.4 4.1 24.7 1.5

- Represents or rounds to zero. Source: National Association of Home Builders, Economics Division, Washington, DC. Data provided by the Econometric Forecasting Service.

No. 1197. Characteristics of New Privately-Owned One-Family Houses Completed: 1970 to 1999
[Percent distribution, except as indicated (793 represents 793,000). Data beginning 1980 show percent distribution of characteristics for all houses completed (includes new houses completed, houses built for sale completed, contractor-built and owner-built houses completed, and houses completed for rent). Data for 1970 cover contractor-built, owner-built, and houses for rent for year construction started and houses sold for year of sale. Percents exclude houses for which characteristics specified were not reported] Characteristic Total houses (1,000). . . . Financing 1 . . . . . . . . . Mortgage . . . . . . . . . FHA-insured . . . . . VA-guaranteed . . . . Conventional . . . . . Rural Housing Service 2 . . . . . . . . . . Cash or equivalent . . . Floor area . . . . . . . . . Under 1,200 sq. ft . . 1,200 to 1,599 sq. ft . 1,600 to 1,999 sq. ft . 2,000 to 2,399 sq. ft . 2,400 sq. ft. and over Average (sq. ft.). . . . Median (sq. ft.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 1980 1990 1995 1999 793 100 84 30 7 47 (3) 16 957 100 82 16 8 55 3 18 966 1,066 1,307 100 82 14 4 62 2 18 100 88 8 5 74 1 12 100 91 9 3 79 1 9 Characteristic Bedrooms . . . . . . . . . . 2 or less. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 or more . . . . . . . . . Bathrooms . . . . . . . . . 1 1/2 or less . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1/2 or more . . . . . . Heating fuel . . . . . . . . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electricity . . . . . . . . . Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . Heating system . . . . . . Warm air furnace . . . . Electric heat pump . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . Central air-conditioning With . . . . . . . . . . . . Without . . . . . . . . . . Fireplaces . . . . . . . . . . No fireplace . . . . . . . 1 or more . . . . . . . . . Parking facilities . . . . . Garage . . . . . . . . . . Carport . . . . . . . . . . No garage or carport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 1980 1990 1995 1999 100 13 63 24 100 52 32 16 100 62 28 8 1 100 71 (NA) 29 100 34 66 100 65 35 100 58 17 25 100 17 63 20 100 27 48 25 100 41 50 3 5 100 57 24 19 100 63 37 100 43 56 100 69 7 24 100 15 57 29 100 13 42 45 100 59 33 5 3 100 65 23 12 100 76 24 100 34 66 100 82 2 16
3

. 100 100 100 100 100 . 36 21 11 10 7 . 28 29 22 22 19 . 16 22 22 23 22 . 21 13 17 17 18 15 29 28 34 . (4) . 1,500 1,740 2,080 2,095 2,225 . 1,385 1,595 1,905 1,920 2,030 100 74 17 10 100 37 36 27 100 60 31 8 100 36 45 19 100 46 49 4 100 38 40 21 100 49 48 3 100 39 42 19 100 48 51 1 100 37 47 17

Number of stories . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 or more . . . . . . . . . . Split level . . . . . . . . . . Foundation . . . . . . . . . . Full or partial basement. Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crawl space . . . . . . . .

100 13 57 30 100 11 41 48 100 67 28 3 1 100 67 25 9 100 80 20 100 37 63 100 84 2 14

100 12 54 34 100 7 38 55 100 70 27 3 1 100 72 22 6 100 84 16 100 38 62 100 87 1 12

1 2 Excludes homes not yet sold. Prior to 1999, Farmers Home Administration. NA Not available. ‘‘Conventional’’ financing. 4 Included with floor area of 2,000 to 2,399 square feet.

Included with

Source: U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Current Construction Reports, Series C25, New One-Family Houses Sold, monthly, and Characteristics of New Housing, annual.

714 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1198. New Privately-Owned One-Family Houses Sold by Region and Type of Financing, 1980 to 1999, and by Sales-Price Group, 1999
[In thousands (545 represents 545,000). Based on a national probability sample of monthly interviews with builders or owners of 1-family houses for which building permits have been issued or, for nonpermit areas, on which construction has started. For details, see source. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Region Year and sales-price group 1980 1985 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total sales 545 688 650 534 509 610 666 670 667 757 804 886 907 13 19 72 100 189 214 114 67 118 Northeast 50 112 86 71 57 65 60 61 55 74 78 81 75 (B) (B) (B) 5 10 16 13 10 18 Conventional 1 302 403 416 337 329 428 476 490 490 570 616 693 705 8 8 37 59 132 178 106 64 113 Financing type Rural FHA Housing and VA Service 2 196 208 162 138 128 134 147 130 129 140 137 136 152 3 3 3 6 32 35 45 25 (B) (B) (B)
1

Midwest 81 82 102 89 93 116 123 123 125 137 140 164 173 (B) 3 12 20 38 42 27 13 19

South 267 323 260 225 215 259 295 295 300 337 363 398 408 10 15 48 55 88 89 41 23 39

West 145 170 202 149 144 170 188 191 187 209 223 243 249 (B) (B) 11 20 53 66 33 21 43

Cash 32 64 58 50 43 41 37 41 39 38 46 48 43 (B) (B) 3 5 11 10 5 (B) 6

14 11 14 10 9 7 6 9 9 9 6 9 6 (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B)

1999. . . . . . . . . . . Under $70,000. . . . . . $70,000 to $79,999 . . $80,000 to $99,999 . . $100,000 to $119,999 . $120,000 to $149,999 . $150,000 to $199,999 . $200,000 to $249,999 . $250,000 to $299,999 . $300,000 and over . . .

B Withheld because estimate did not meet publication standards on the basis of sample size. financing. 2 Prior to 1996, the Farmers Home Administration. 3 FHA only. VA data withheld.

Includes all other types of

Source: U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Current Construction Reports, Series C25, Characteristics of New Housing, annual; and New One-Family Houses Sold, monthly.

No. 1199. Median Sales Price of New Privately-Owned One-Family Houses Sold by Region: 1980 to 1999
[In dollars. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Year 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. 64,600 84,300 92,000 104,500 112,500 120,000 122,900 120,000 Northeast 69,500 103,300 125,000 140,000 149,000 159,600 159,000 155,900 Midwest South West 72,300 92,600 95,700 111,000 126,500 139,000 147,500 141,100 Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. 121,500 126,500 130,000 133,900 140,000 146,000 152,500 159,800 Northeast 169,000 162,600 169,000 180,000 186,000 190,000 200,000 210,000 Midwest 115,600 125,000 132,900 134,000 138,000 149,900 157,500 160,000 South 105,500 115,000 116,900 124,500 126,200 129,600 135,800 145,000 West 130,400 135,000 140,400 141,400 153,900 160,000 163,500 173,700

63,400 59,600 80,300 75,000 88,300 80,200 95,000 88,000 101,600 92,000 108,800 96,400 107,900 99,000 110,000 100,000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Current Construction Reports, Series C25, Characteristics of New Housing, annual; and New One-Family Houses Sold, monthly.

No. 1200. New Manufactured (Mobile) Homes Placed for Residential Use and Average Sales Price by Region: 1980 to 1999
[233.7 represents 233,700. A mobile home is a moveable dwelling, 8 feet or more wide and 40 feet or more long, designed to be towed on its own chassis, with transportation gear integral to the unit when it leaves the factory, and without need of permanent foundation. Excluded are travel trailers, motor homes, and modular housing. Data are based on a probability sample and subject to sampling variability; see source. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Units placed (1,000) Year Total 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.7 283.4 195.4 174.3 212.0 242.5 286.1 319.4 338.4 338.1 369.0 298.0 Northeast 12.3 20.2 18.8 14.3 15.0 15.4 16.2 15.0 16.2 14.5 14.5 12.5 Midwest 32.3 38.6 37.7 35.4 42.2 44.5 53.0 57.7 59.1 55.8 58.1 49.8 South 140.3 187.6 108.4 97.6 124.4 146.7 174.4 202.6 218.1 219.6 246.2 198.5 West 48.7 36.9 30.6 27.0 30.4 35.9 42.5 44.0 44.9 48.1 50.2 37.4 U.S. 19,800 21,800 27,800 27,700 28,400 30,500 33,500 36,300 38,300 41,100 43,800 43,800 Average sales price (dol.) Northeast 18,500 22,700 30,000 30,400 30,900 32,000 33,900 37,900 39,700 43,900 45,500 45,200 Midwest 18,600 21,500 27,000 27,600 28,800 31,400 34,600 36,700 39,400 41,400 44,100 45,300 South 18,200 20,400 24,500 24,500 25,400 27,700 30,500 33,900 36,200 38,900 41,800 42,100 West 25,400 28,700 39,300 38,600 39,000 40,500 44,600 46,400 47,200 50,300 52,900 50,900

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Internet site, <http://www.census.gov/ftp/pub/const/www/mhsindex.html> (accessed 25 August 2000).

Construction and Housing 715
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1201. Existing One-Family Houses Sold and Price by Region: 1970 to 1999
[1,612 represents 1,612,000. Based on data (adjusted and aggregated to regional and national totals) reported by participating real estate multiple listing services. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Year 1970 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
1

Houses sold (1,000) Total Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,612 2,334 2,272 2,476 3,064 3,650 3,986 3,827 2,973 2,419 1,990 2,697 2,829 3,134 3,474 3,436 3,513 3,325 3,219 3,186 3,479 3,786 3,916 3,888 4,196 4,382 4,970 5,197 251 367 354 370 439 515 516 526 403 353 354 477 478 561 635 618 606 490 458 463 521 550 552 547 584 607 663 655 Midwest 501 674 645 701 881 1,101 1,144 1,061 806 632 490 692 720 806 922 892 865 832 809 812 913 967 965 945 986 1,005 1,129 1,147 South 568 847 839 862 1,033 1,231 1,416 1,353 1,092 917 780 1,004 1,006 1,063 1,145 1,163 1,224 1,185 1,193 1,173 1,242 1,386 1,436 1,433 1,511 1,595 1,870 2,016 West 292 446 434 543 712 803 911 887 672 516 366 524 624 704 773 763 817 818 759 737 802 882 962 964 1,116 1,174 1,310 1,380

Median sales price (dol.) Total Northeast 23,000 28,900 32,000 35,300 38,100 42,900 48,700 55,700 62,200 66,400 67,800 70,300 72,400 75,500 80,300 85,600 89,300 89,500 92,000 97,100 99,700 103,100 107,200 110,500 115,800 121,800 128,400 133,300 25,700 32,800 35,800 39,300 41,800 44,400 47,900 53,600 60,800 63,700 63,500 72,200 78,700 88,900 104,800 133,300 143,000 127,700 126,400 129,100 128,900 129,100 129,100 126,700 127,800 131,800 135,900 139,000 Midwest 20,100 25,300 27,700 30,100 32,900 36,700 42,200 47,800 51,900 54,300 55,100 56,600 57,100 58,900 63,500 66,000 68,400 71,800 75,300 79,500 83,000 86,000 89,300 94,800 101,000 107,000 114,300 119,600 South 22,200 29,000 32,200 34,800 36,500 39,800 45,100 51,300 58,300 64,400 67,100 69,200 71,300 75,200 78,200 80,400 82,200 84,400 85,100 88,500 91,500 94,300 95,700 97,700 103,400 109,600 116,200 120,300 West 24,300 31,000 34,800 39,600 46,100 57,300 66,700 77,400 89,300 96,200 98,900 94,900 95,800 95,400 100,900 113,200 124,900 127,100 129,600 135,300 131,500 132,500 139,400 141,000 147,100 155,200 164,800 173,900

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

Beginning 1989 data not comparable to earlier years due to rebenchmarking. Source: NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®, Washington, DC, prior to 1990, Home Sales, monthly, and Home Sales Yearbook: 1990; (copyright); thereafter, Real Estate Outlook; Market Trends & Insights, monthly, (copyright).

No. 1202. Median Sales Price of Existing One-Family Homes by Selected Metropolitan Area: 1997 to 1999
[In thousands of dollars (121.8 represents $121,800). For the top 60 areas in sales price in 1999. Areas are metropolitan statistical areas defined by source as of 1992] Metropolitan area United States, all areas . Albuquerque, NM . . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic City, NJ . . . . . . . . . . Aurora-Elgin, IL . . . . . . . . . . Austin-San Marcos, TX . . . . . Baltimore, MD . . . . . . . . . . . Birmingham, AL . . . . . . . . . . Boise City, ID . . . . . . . . . . . . Boston, MA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bradenton, FL . . . . . . . . . . . Charleston, SC. . . . . . . . . . . Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN . . . . . . . Cleveland, OH . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado Springs, CO . . . . . . Columbus, OH . . . . . . . . . . . Denver, CO . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eugene-Springfield, OR . . . . . Ft. Lauderdale-HollywoodPompano Beach, FL . . . . . . Greensboro-Winston-SalemHigh Point, NC . . . . . . . . . . Hartford, CT. . . . . . . . . . . . . Honolulu, HI. . . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas City, MO-KS . . . . . . . Lake County, IL . . . . . . . . . . Las Vegas, NV . . . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles Area, CA 1 . . . . . Madison, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . Miami-Hialeah, FL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 121.8 126.7 108.4 109.7 141.8 (NA) 118.2 118.9 102.5 229.0 94.9 103.6 124.2 158.9 110.5 116.8 130.5 117.6 140.6 119.6 119.4 123.7 117.3 138.1 307.0 106.8 153.5 123.2 176.5 126.8 117.7 1998 128.4 128.2 115.4 112.8 146.2 121.1 120.6 122.7 109.2 258.4 107.3 120.0 134.0 166.8 116.3 121.8 138.5 121.7 152.2 132.6 124.4 128.6 123.5 142.8 297.0 114.0 159.4 128.2 192.6 131.8 121.5 1999 133.3 130.3 123.7 117.0 151.9 128.6 127.4 127.1 123.9 290.0 117.2 131.7 138.2 171.2 119.9 125.1 144.9 125.0 171.3 140.0 129.5 136.1 124.8 150.7 290.0 120.7 164.0 130.8 205.3 136.5 134.6 Metropolitan area Milwaukee, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI . . New Haven-Meriden, CT . . . . . New York-N. New JerseyLong Island, NY-NJ-CT . . . . . NY: Bergen-Passaic, NJ. . . . . . NY: Middlesex-SomersetHunterdon, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . NY: Monmouth-Ocean, NJ . . . . NY: Nassau-Suffolk, NY . . . . . . NY: Newark, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . Orange Cnty.(AnaheimSanta Ana) CA 1 . . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA-NJ. . . . . . . . . Phoenix, AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Portland, OR . . . . . . . . . . . . . Providence, RI . . . . . . . . . . . . Raleigh-Durham, NC . . . . . . . . Reno, NV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richmond-Petersburg, VA . . . . Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 1. Sacramento, CA 1 . . . . . . . . . . Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT. . . . . San Diego, CA 1 . . . . . . . . . . . San Francisco Bay Area, CA 1 . Sarasota, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tallahassee, FL . . . . . . . . . . . Trenton, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tucson, AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington, DC-MD-VA . . . . . . Wilmington, DE-NJ-MD . . . . . . Worcester, MA . . . . . . . . . . . . W. Palm Beach-Boca RatonDelray Beach, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 125.3 118.4 134.1 177.9 205.4 176.7 147.7 164.0 193.0 229.8 126.3 113.7 152.4 119.6 152.8 143.4 114.2 114.3 116.1 128.6 185.2 286.2 114.1 111.7 137.7 106.8 166.3 123.7 (NA) 133.4 1998 132.9 128.0 137.8 188.1 213.5 184.2 152.6 175.4 199.2 261.7 129.7 120.2 158.1 124.4 159.8 147.2 122.0 121.5 125.6 133.5 207.1 321.7 123.1 114.6 139.5 112.6 172.1 123.9 (NA) 126.6 1999 135.3 138.7 145.7 203.2 221.8 196.8 164.4 190.4 212.0 281.5 124.8 126.4 165.0 128.8 165.0 150.6 128.5 128.7 133.8 137.9 231.6 365.3 134.8 117.8 144.2 117.7 176.5 120.6 117.0 131.0

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 California data supplied by the California Association of REALTORS®. Source: NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®, Washington, DC, Real Estate Outlook: Market Trends & Insights, monthly, (copyright).

716 Construction and Housing
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No. 1203. Existing Home Sales by State: 1990 to 1999
[In thousands (3,599 represents 3,599,000). Includes condos and co-ops as well as single-family homes] State United States Alabama . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California 1 . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho. . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . Michigan . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 3,599 52.0 12.3 71.8 33.7 413.1 77.7 37.4 7.9 7.2 281.1 91.2 19.0 22.3 163.3 83.6 42.8 36.8 47.9 57.1 17.0 67.0 47.9 137.6 68.1 28.2 1995 4,350 69.0 10.2 120.3 45.0 426.7 102.5 43.3 9.5 7.0 379.6 101.0 10.3 27.1 183.4 102.6 43.2 50.5 61.5 77.3 25.5 63.5 69.4 142.2 81.6 41.3 1998 5,600 84.0 17.1 155.1 54.9 665.4 130.8 49.9 8.6 13.0 454.4 128.1 14.7 29.7 235.3 125.9 56.5 66.8 71.8 91.7 32.9 92.4 100.0 161.9 108.5 48.2 1999 5,929 87.0 16.0 170.0 63.5 708.7 136.2 51.0 8.6 13.8 509.8 149.2 17.8 28.6 243.9 132.0 57.8 67.9 77.8 88.8 34.7 103.1 97.7 160.4 106.5 51.1 State Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire. New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina. . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin. . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 77.1 13.5 23.6 26.9 13.5 85.7 24.7 135.9 98.9 8.5 146.9 62.2 56.6 143.2 9.6 54.3 10.8 66.2 311.8 29.4 7.2 89.3 85.9 22.6 62.1 8.5 1995 100.8 14.8 25.0 31.0 26.2 102.4 27.6 149.7 157.7 8.5 173.1 74.5 58.7 163.2 13.6 70.7 11.9 106.6 367.9 43.5 7.9 94.8 110.9 26.1 78.2 11.4 1998 116.0 18.3 33.3 38.4 40.5 129.9 27.1 183.1 211.6 11.4 191.4 95.5 63.1 175.4 19.0 98.7 14.3 136.2 512.1 44.9 6.8 133.4 159.2 29.3 101.1 12.0 1999 122.9 19.1 34.3 47.3 40.6 141.9 29.8 179.5 228.6 10.3 194.9 100.1 62.4 177.9 20.7 104.3 15.4 149.0 551.9 46.5 6.9 146.9 175.7 26.7 100.8 13.1

1 California data supplied by the California Association of REALTORS®. Source: NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®, Washington, DC, Real Estate Outlook: Market Trends & Insights, monthly (copyright).

No. 1204. Existing Apartment Condos and Co-Ops—Units Sold and Average Sales Price by Region: 1989 to 1999
[358 represents 358,000. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Units sold (1,000) Year Total 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 348 333 361 400 439 428 476 524 606 682 Northeast 58 45 48 57 63 69 70 78 88 104 120 Midwest 45 42 43 49 53 54 53 58 64 75 81 South 144 151 145 153 175 196 188 206 220 249 289 West 110 110 97 102 108 119 116 134 152 178 192 U.S. 86,000 85,200 85,800 86,000 84,400 87,200 87,400 90,900 95,500 100,600 108,000 Median sales price (dol.) Northeast 111,000 110,200 107,200 103,100 99,200 99,500 94,800 97,500 101,100 103,400 112,500 Midwest 65,500 70,200 73,900 79,000 78,900 86,200 90,700 95,200 99,100 106,400 114,600 South 68,700 66,800 68,300 69,400 69,300 69,500 70,600 73,500 76,300 80,000 84,100 West 118,800 105,200 105,100 107,700 102,700 108,800 105,300 109,900 118,300 126,400 132,100

Source: NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®, Washington, DC, Real Estate Outlook: Market Trends & Insights, monthly (copyright).

No. 1205. New Apartments Completed and Rented in 3 Months by Region: 1980 to 1999
[196.1 represents 196,100. Structures with five or more units, privately financed, nonsubsidized, unfurnished rental apartments. Based on sample and subject to sampling variability; see source for details. For composition of regions, see inside front cover] Number (1,000) Year and rent U.S. 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999, prel. . . . . . Less than $450 . . . . . $450 to $649 . . . . . . . $450 to $549 . . . . . $550 to $649 . . . . . $650 to $849 . . . . . . . $650 to $749 . . . . . $750 to $849 . . . . . $850 or more. . . . . . . Median monthly asking
2

Percent rented in 3 months West 46.6 137.0 80.0 37.7 57.6 3.2 7.7 3.8 3.9 17.8 9.5 8.3 29 (2) U.S. 75 65 67 73 72 80 75 79 74 70 70 70 72 (X) Northeast 77 69 66 74 85 96 75 73 80 86 89 59 86 (X) Midwest 77 72 75 75 73 81 80 86 77 72 74 67 63 (X) South 74 59 64 72 69 87 76 81 74 67 67 69 67 (X) West 75 68 65 73 74 67 69 73 64 74 73 76 77 (X)

Northeast 14.2 8.1 12.7 7.1 16.8 1.1 3.1 1.9 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.1 11.1 (2)

Midwest 43.8 54.0 44.3 31.7 27.9 1.5 9.9 3.0 6.9 10.0 6.4 3.6 6.4 $688

South 91.5 166.1 77.2 78.5 123.3 2.7 25.3 7.5 17.8 51.1 27.1 24.0 44.3 $777

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... rent

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196.1 365.2 214.3 155.0 225.6 8.6 46.1 16.2 29.9 80.2 44.2 36.0 90.8 $788

X Not applicable. 1 Due to revised estimation procedures, data beginning 1990 not strictly comparable with prior years. Over $850. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Housing Reports, Series H130, Market Absorption of Apartments, and unpublished data.

Construction and Housing 717
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1206. Recent Home Buyers—General Characteristics: 1976 to 1999
[As of October. Based on a sample survey; subject to sampling variability] Item Median purchase price . . . First-time buyers . . . . . Repeat buyers 1 . . . . . Average monthly mortgage payment . . . . . Percent of income . . . . Percent buying— New houses . . . . . . . . Existing houses . . . . . . Single-family houses. . . Other houses 2 . . . . . . For the first time . . . . . Average age: First-time buyers . . . . . Repeat buyers 1 . . . . . Downpayment/sales price . First-time buyers . . . . . Repeat buyers 1 . . . . . Unit . Dollars . . . Dollars . . . Dollars . . . Dollars . . . Percent . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent . Years . . Years . . Percent . Percent . Percent . . . . . . . . . . . 1976 43,340 37,670 50,090 329 24.0 15.1 84.9 88.8 11.2 44.8 28.1 35.9 25.2 18.0 30.8 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 175,400 150,300 195,700 1,240 32.3 22.7 77.3 83.0 17.0 44.7 32.0 41.4 19.5 12.6 25.5

68,714 90,400 131,200 147,700 153,200 159,700 167,900 61,450 75,100 106,000 128,300 130,100 135,400 142,200 75,750 106,200 149,400 164,300 170,700 178,700 189,800 599 32.4 22.4 77.6 82.4 17.6 32.9 28.3 36.4 28.0 20.5 32.7 896 30.0 23.8 76.2 87.0 13.0 36.6 28.4 38.4 24.8 11.4 32.7 1,127 33.8 21.2 78.8 83.8 16.2 41.9 30.5 39.1 23.3 15.7 28.9 1,062 32.6 21.5 78.5 83.1 16.9 46.2 32.1 40.7 20.4 13.3 26.8 1,087 32.6 22.7 77.3 82.6 17.4 44.7 32.4 41.1 19.5 12.4 25.3 1,114 32.8 20.9 79.1 81.6 18.4 46.8 32.1 41.1 20.3 13.7 26.1 1,212 32.3 21.2 78.8 82.3 17.7 46.2 32.2 41.1 19.3 12.8 24.9

1 Buyers who previously owned a home. 2 Includes multifamily, condominums and co-ops. Source: Chicago Title Corporation, Chicago, IL, Who’s Buying Homes in America (copyright).

No. 1207. Total Housing Inventory for the United States: 1970 to 1999
[In thousands (69,778 represents 69,778,000), except percent. Based on the Current Population Survey and the Housing Vacancy Survey and subject to sampling error; see source for details] Item All housing units . . . . Vacant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Year-round vacant . . . . . . For rent . . . . . . . . . . . For sale only . . . . . . . . Rented or sold. . . . . . . Held off market . . . . . . Occasional use . . . . Usual residence else where . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . Seasonal 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Total occupied . . . . . . . . . . Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION All housing units . . . . . Vacant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total occupied . . . . . . . . . . Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

69,778 78,821 87,739 97,333 106,283 110,952 112,655 114,139 115,621 117,282 119,044 6,137 6,896 8,101 9,446 12,059 12,257 12,669 13,155 13,419 13,748 14,116 4,391 5,202 5,996 7,400 9,128 9,229 9,570 9,945 10,114 10,516 10,848 1,299 1,647 1,575 2,221 2,662 2,858 2,946 3,008 2,978 3,046 3,119 427 591 734 1,006 1,064 953 1,022 1,082 1,133 1,205 1,184 427 536 623 664 660 772 810 834 867 927 956 2,238 2,429 3,064 3,510 4,742 4,646 4,793 5,022 5,136 5,338 5,589 615 649 814 977 1,485 1,612 1,667 1,709 1,818 1,792 1,948 429 470 568 659 1,068 815 801 852 885 910 965 1,195 1,309 1,683 1,875 2,189 2,219 2,325 2,461 2,433 2,636 2,676 1,746 1,694 2,106 2,046 2,931 3,028 3,099 3,209 3,305 3,232 3,268 63,640 71,925 79,638 87,887 94,224 98,695 99,985 100,984 102,202 103,534 104,928 40,834 46,463 52,223 56,152 60,248 63,136 64,739 66,041 67,143 68,638 70,097 22,806 25,462 27,415 31,736 33,976 35,558 35,246 34,943 35,059 34,896 34,831 100.0 8.8 91.2 58.5 32.7 100.0 8.7 91.3 58.9 32.3 100.0 9.2 90.8 59.5 31.2 100.0 9.7 90.3 57.7 32.6 100.0 11.3 88.7 56.7 32.0 100.0 11.0 89.0 56.9 32.0 100.0 11.2 88.8 57.5 31.3 100.0 11.5 88.5 57.9 30.6 100.0 11.6 88.4 58.1 30.3 100.0 11.7 88.3 58.5 29.8 100.0 11.9 88.1 58.9 29.3

1 Beginning 1990 includes vacant seasonal mobile homes. For years shown, seasonal vacant housing units were underreported prior to 1990. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Internet site <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/hvs/historic/index.html>.

No. 1208. Vacancy Rates for Housing Units—Characteristics: 1990 to 1999
[In percent. Rate is relationship between vacant housing for rent or for sale and the total rental and homeowner supply, which comprises occupied units, units rented or sold and awaiting occupancy, and vacant units available for rent or sale. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover. Based on the Current Population Survey/Housing Vacancy Survey; see source for details] Characteristic Total units . . . Inside MSAs . . . . . Outside MSAs . . . . Northeast . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . Units in structure: 1 unit . . . . . . . . 2 units or more . . 5 units or more . . Units with— 3 rooms or less . 4 rooms . . . . . . 5 rooms . . . . . . 6 rooms or more .
1

Rental units 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 7.1 7.6 6.1 6.4 8.8 6.6 4.0 9.0 9.6 10.3 8.0 5.7 3.0 1995
1

Homeowner units 1998 7.9 7.7 9.2 6.7 7.9 9.6 6.7 6.3 9.0 9.4 10.8 8.9 6.5 4.3 1999 8.1 7.8 9.6 6.3 8.6 10.3 6.2 7.3 8.7 8.9 11.3 9.0 6.5 4.4 1990 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.3 2.1 1.8 1.4 7.1 8.4 10.2 3.2 2.0 1.1 1995
1

1997 7.7 7.5 8.8 6.7 8.0 9.1 6.6 5.8 9.0 9.1 11.1 8.6 6.0 3.9

1997 1.6 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.2 1.9 1.8 1.5 4.4 4.6 9.6 3.3 1.9 1.1

1998 1.7 1.6 2.0 1.5 1.4 2.0 1.7 1.6 4.4 4.5 9.7 3.5 1.9 1.2

1999 1.7 1.5 2.1 1.4 1.2 2.0 1.7 1.5 3.6 3.8 9.2 3.3 2.1 1.1

7.6 7.6 7.9 7.2 7.2 8.3 7.5 5.4 9.0 9.5 11.4 8.2 5.8 3.8

1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.7 1.4 4.8 5.1 9.2 2.8 1.8 1.1

Beginning 1995, based on 1990 population census controls. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Internet site <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/hvs/annual99/ann99ind.html>.

718 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1209. Housing Units—Characteristics by Tenure and Region: 1997
[In thousands of units (112,357 represents 112,357,000), except as indicated. As of Oct. 1. Based on the American Housing Survey; see Appendix III. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Year-round units Characteristic Total housing units Occupied Seasonal Total Owner Renter Northeast Midwest South West Vacant 9,704 8.6 4,167 781 1,261 727 702 509 528 1,028 3,339 2,795 1,696 552 293 1,508 1,604 1,614 222 2,444 833 936 1,171 1,896 2,422 1965 6,124 1,194 999 442 375 128 226 74 18 3 72 49 2,924 6,780 9,269 7,417 7,601 14 45 3,535 2,974 3,467 3,118 3,891 40.1 2,019 8,621 88.8 919 164 7,598 78.3 2,019 86

Total units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112,357 Percent distribution . . . . . . . . . 100.0 Units in structure: Single family detached . Single family attached . 2 to 4 units . . . . . . . . 5 to 9 units . . . . . . . . 10 to 19 units . . . . . . . 20 to 49 units . . . . . . . 50 or more units . . . . . Mobile home or trailer . Stories in structure: 1 One story . . . . . . . . . 2 stories . . . . . . . . . . 3 stories . . . . . . . . . . 4 to 6 stories . . . . . . . 7 or more stories . . . . Foundation: 2 Full or partial basement Crawlspace . . . . . . . . Concrete slab. . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68,109 6,778 10,363 5,657 5,025 3,877 4,247 8,301 37,919 35,578 22,619 5,730 2,211 31,922 19,806 21,238 1,921 22,342 8,389 13,852 15,949 23,300 28,527 1967 66,699 12,745 14,008 6,105 5,089 1,768 2,020 1,386 281 138 617 847 656 5,629 106,728 111,191 109,357 108,779 267 514 57,642 80,133 76,470 45,843 57,168 50.9 28,715 98,654 87.8 12,891 812 85,775 76.3 26,161 421

3,166 99,487 65,487 34,000 19,484 23,951 34,808 21,245 2.8 88.5 58.3 30.3 17.3 21.3 31.0 18.9 1,831 62,111 53,756 157 5,840 3,030 129 8,973 1,756 78 4,852 491 59 4,264 319 75 3,292 355 108 3,611 524 729 6,544 5,255 8,355 10,238 16,416 22,726 12,731 2,810 1,586 1,061 1,944 1,249 7,216 3,014 2,131 1,945 1,884 4,361 939 1,071 1,572 1,270 3,945 757 831 1,595 1,081 2,936 925 609 820 938 3,087 1,431 676 730 774 1,289 593 1,156 3,476 1,319 1,376 6,110 7,524 2,922 959 3,970 17,912 9,611 9,117 7,817 3,342 1,077 589 320 372 9,948 7,358 1,933 489 198 2,488 5,058 6,186 248 2,301 1,551 2,704 3,385 5,145 6,158 1971

1,374 33,205 23,699 9,506 587 32,195 20,202 11,993 307 20,616 13,806 6,810 101 5,076 2,176 2,900 68 1,850 349 1,501 325 30,087 26,865 684 17,518 14,059 552 19,073 14,931 426 1,273 931 458 234 439 465 832 737 1970 19,441 11,254 7,321 4,602 12,476 8,878 14,313 9,453 20,571 13,138 25,367 18,163 1967 1968 3,223 3,459 4,141 341 8,186 2,720 3,598 4,860 7,433 7,202 1965

9,893 13,053 4,654 703 2,563 9,195 1,067 1,631 10,189 161 230 633 7,256 1,665 2,596 2,452 2,593 2,921 1953 6,339 3,543 1,760 2,345 3,300 3,877 3,285 5,191 4,476 8,356 4,791 11,495 1962 1973

Year structure built: 1939 and earlier . . . . . . . . . . 1940 to 1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1950 to 1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1960 to 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 to 1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 or later . . . . . . . . . . . . Median year. . . . . . . . . . . . . Main heating equipment: Warm-air furnace . . . . . . . . . Electric heat pump . . . . . . . . Steam or hot water system . . . Floor, wall, or pipeless furnace Built-in electric units . . . . . . . Room heaters with flue . . . . . Room heaters without flue . . . Stoves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fireplaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooking stoves. . . . . . . . . . . None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Portable electric heaters. . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,972 58,603 41,977 16,626 450 11,101 7,750 3,351 79 12,929 7,143 5,786 74 5,588 2,533 3,055 183 4,531 2,093 2,438 56 1,584 859 725 40 1,754 1,031 723 170 1,142 944 198 40 225 176 48 12 123 45 78 617 232 384 67 708 377 331 24 582 326 256 416 2,750 3,044 2,922 2,860 5 16 990 1,258 1,334 740 2,289 97,198 98,878 99,017 98,318 247 454 53,116 75,901 71,669 41,984 515 64,972 65,316 65,310 65,023 165 177 41,162 60,708 58,231 28,888 1,774 32,226 33,563 33,707 33,295 82 277 11,954 15,193 13,438 13,096

7,719 18,810 19,046 13,029 350 662 8,579 1,510 9,236 2,304 692 697 510 588 1,519 2,970 1,140 1,022 866 1,503 153 182 925 324 36 62 1,588 67 173 177 471 321 13 24 90 97 52 17 47 7 4 5 170 437 15 12 520 162 82 86 294 121 515 18,969 19,375 19,391 19,306 28 60 9,267 13,744 12,565 4,169 456 23,496 23,818 23,862 23,727 37 101 11,312 18,757 18,373 10,136 629 34,179 34,650 34,672 34,372 85 202 19,462 27,978 26,096 13,786 690 20,555 21,036 21,092 20,913 98 91 13,076 15,422 14,635 13,894 8,038 37.8 3,139

Kitchen equipment: Lacking complete facilities . . . . . With complete facilities. . . . . . . . Kitchen sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooking stove or range . . . . . . . Burners only, no stove or range . . Microwave oven only . . . . . . . . . Dishwasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washing machine . . . . . . . . . . . Clothes dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disposal in kitchen sink . . . . . . . Air conditioning: Central . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of total units . . . . . . . One or more room units . . . . . . . Source of water: Public system or private company Percent of total units . . . . . . . Well serving 1 to 5 units. . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Means of sewage disposal: Public sewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of total units . . . . . . . Septic tank, cesspool, chemical toilet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Represents or rounds to zero.

.. .. .. . . . . . . . .

974 52,303 38,789 13,514 30.8 52.6 59.2 39.7 562 26,133 15,561 10,573

4,416 13,119 26,728 22.7 54.8 76.8 8,653 6,582 7,760

2,025 88,008 55,547 32,462 16,885 20,471 30,607 20,046 64.0 88.5 84.8 95.5 86.7 85.5 87.9 94.4 917 11,055 9,608 1,447 2,511 3,392 3,995 1,157 224 424 332 92 88 89 206 41 1,272 76,906 45,920 30,986 15,087 18,860 24,549 18,410 40.2 77.3 70.1 91.1 77.4 78.7 70.5 86.7 1,662 22,479 19,507 233 102 61
2

.. .. .. ..
1

2,973 41

4,396 1

5,060 10,204 31 55

2,820 15

Excludes mobile homes.

Limited to single-family units.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Housing Reports, Series H150/97, American Housing Survey for the United States.

Construction and Housing 719
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1210. Housing Inventory for Selected Metropolitan Areas— Summary Characteristics: 1992 to 1998
[389.9 represents 389,900. Based on the American Housing Survey and subject to sampling error; see source for details. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] Percent Year and metropolitan area Total units (1,000) 1992 Birmingham, AL MSA . . . . . . . . Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA MSA . . . . . . . . . . . Providence-Pawtucket-Warwick, RI-MA PMSAs. . . . . . . . . . . . Salt Lake City, UT MSA . . . . . . .. .. .. .. 389.9 563.8 421.7 383.8 1,684.4 1,044.3 1,544.6 556.7 1,076.7 1,642.4 63.7 55.6 55.5 64.7 55.1 67.3 50.6 56.8 56.7 57.1 56.0 60.9 51.3 57.9 58.5 56.2 56.5 50.4 62.7 59.6 57.9 61.2 66.3 61.9 42.0 52.1 54.6 41.0 56.0 63.7 66.5 60.3 55.4 58.6 62.4 60.5 62.2 59.3 57.8 55.1 64.3 58.3 61.7 64.1 56.5 61.2 53.0 70.6 56.0 56.8 57.8 63.8 67.9 46.2 58.2 58.6 59.3 28.0 35.4 34.7 30.8 36.0 26.7 42.6 39.2 24.1 35.4 36.8 30.2 39.1 32.4 35.9 30.7 26.7 39.8 30.6 33.8 34.0 32.5 26.9 30.2 48.0 31.8 33.9 50.9 34.2 28.0 25.7 32.9 34.6 33.4 30.7 31.1 30.2 31.5 28.7 34.1 26.5 35.1 27.8 26.9 37.4 30.3 36.7 26.0 33.3 38.8 33.6 27.6 24.6 48.6 37.6 23.6 32.8 8.3 9.1 9.7 4.5 8.8 6.0 6.8 4.0 19.3 7.5 7.2 8.8 9.7 9.7 5.6 13.2 16.8 9.7 6.7 6.6 8.1 6.2 6.7 7.9 10.0 16.1 11.5 8.1 9.8 8.4 7.8 6.8 10.0 8.1 6.9 8.4 7.6 9.2 13.5 10.8 9.2 6.5 10.5 9.0 6.0 8.5 10.4 3.3 10.7 4.4 8.6 8.6 7.5 5.2 4.2 17.8 7.9 70.1 70.1 56.2 69.7 52.1 68.2 56.2 65.2 58.6 64.3 56.1 59.9 60.7 69.8 59.6 63.7 67.4 55.9 68.4 54.7 75.8 68.9 75.0 76.2 54.7 49.9 65.2 32.3 59.2 73.1 73.9 70.2 67.0 66.9 67.0 63.0 73.4 70.0 72.0 71.2 71.2 60.4 78.8 75.9 59.2 68.1 68.7 72.0 73.8 71.8 62.0 71.0 75.0 57.7 72.7 62.8 72.4 20.4 27.1 42.6 26.9 46.9 29.6 42.5 30.8 25.7 35.0 40.2 38.3 35.6 27.3 39.8 26.3 21.5 39.1 20.8 44.5 21.4 28.8 22.9 21.0 44.0 46.5 30.2 67.4 40.0 25.8 21.5 23.9 27.3 28.6 31.5 36.5 22.5 26.1 22.1 24.0 23.6 33.9 19.6 15.6 39.8 28.6 26.9 25.6 22.2 26.4 36.7 24.4 21.7 41.4 23.2 19.6 26.7 9.5 2.8 1.2 3.3 1.0 2.3 1.4 4.0 15.7 0.7 3.7 1.8 3.6 2.9 0.6 10.0 11.1 5.0 10.8 0.7 2.8 2.2 2.1 2.8 1.3 3.5 4.7 0.3 0.8 1.0 4.7 5.9 5.6 4.5 1.5 0.5 4.0 3.9 6.0 4.8 5.2 5.7 1.6 8.5 1.0 3.3 4.4 2.4 4.0 1.9 1.4 4.6 3.3 0.9 4.1 17.6 0.9 317 699 58,912 89,421 363 513 491 401 646 523 720 828 485 690 805 446 532 509 498 509 592 640 489 584 484 539 508 481 654 609 441 650 669 578 417 566 475 651 492 616 507 477 434 590 462 630 589 480 748 481 556 583 582 773 540 572 593 894 1,038 567 746 Owner occupied Renter occupied Renter occuMedian pied, monthly median housmonthly ing Median housing Mobile costs value costs homes (dol.) (dol.) (dol.) Owner occupied

Vacant and sea- Singlesonal family

Multifamily

678 129,138 558 75,260 841 157,089 733 93,748 1,031 256,258 1,155 256,067 442 69,089 1,056 167,103 1,127 216,962 589 85,378 783 87,615 668 70,759 684 101,407 664 88,269 807 123,491 873 176,277 532 86,763 850 136,362 654 92,664 763 119,694 551 89,648 565 78,542 943 192,803 729 97,058 404 75,768 931 976 673 416 704 507 803 552 888 603 592 461 874 557 897 732 374 934 601 676 784 172,651 176,713 112,769 73,383 127,731 62,577 105,037 99,283 139,641 91,213 76,175 65,638 140,758 82,111 164,554 127,557 87,670 191,179 103,553 82,543 122,601

1993 Boston, MA-NH CMSA . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA . San Francisco-Oakland, CA Area PMSAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . San Jose, CA PMSA . . . . . . . . . . Tampa-St. Petersburg, FL MSA . . . Washington, DC-MD-VA MSA . . . . 1994

Anaheim-Santa Ana, CA PMSA . . . 918.0 Buffalo, NY CMSA. . . . . . . . . . . . 503.2 Dallas, TX PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,152.8 Fort Worth-Arlington, TX PMSA . . . 555.4 Milwaukee, WI PMSA . . . . . . . . . 593.0 Phoenix, AZ MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,032.8 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA PMSAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,121.4 San Diego, CA MSA . . . . . . . . . . 993.3 1995 Charlotte, NC-SC MSA. . . . . . . . Chicago, IL Area PMSAs . . . . . . Columbus, OH MSA . . . . . . . . . Denver, CO PMSA . . . . . . . . . . Detroit, MI PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas City, MO-KS MSA . . . . . Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA New Orleans, LA MSA . . . . . . . . New York-Nausau-Suffolk-Orange County, NY PMSAs . . . . . . . . . Northern New Jersey PMSAS . . . Philadelphia, PA-NJ PMSA . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA MSA . . . . . . . . . . Portland, OR-WA PMSA . . . . . . . San Antonio, TX MSA . . . . . . . . 1996 Atlanta, GA MSA. . . . . . . Cleveland, OH PMSA . . . Hartford, CT MSA . . . . . . Indianapolis, IN MSA . . . . Memphis, TN-AR-MS MSA Oklahoma City, OK MSA . Sacramento, CA PMSA . . St. Louis, MO-IL MSA . . . Seattle-Everett, WA PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539.4 . 2,987.1 . 604.9 . 773.9 . 1,802.7 . 715.5 . 3,276.0 . 1,483.8 . 547.7 . . . . . . 4,577.3 2,442.2 1,986.6 1,051.7 702.6 538.7

. 1,421.1 . 829.6 . 480.2 . 640.8 . 442.0 . 446.4 . 625.4 . 1,107.0 . 965.3 1,028.2 394.0 1,345.9 647.5 1,547.3 1,150.3 632.1 895.0 415.4 448.5 444.0 700.2 591.0 1,138.3 1,817.4

1998 Baltimore, MD MSA . . . . . . . . . . . Birmingham, AL MSA . . . . . . . . . . Boston, MA-NH CMSA . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN, PMSA . . . . . Houston, TX, PMSAs . . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA . Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oakland, CA, PMSA . . . . . . . . . . Providence-Pawtucket-Warwick, RI-MA PMSAs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rochester, NY, MSA . . . . . . . . . . Salt Lake City, UT MSA . . . . . . . . San Francisco, CA, PMSA . . . . . . San Jose, CA PMSA . . . . . . . . . . Tampa-St. Petersburg, FL MSA . . . Washington, DC-MD-VA, MSA . . . .
1

723 101,903 1,074 226,174 769 718 711 1,235 1,157 528 1,098 124,005 94,468 141,888 (1) (1) 133,886 170,021

More than $300,000. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Housing Survey for the (name) Metropolitan Area (year), Series H-170.

720 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1211. Housing Units—Size of Units and Lot: 1997
[In thousands (112,357 represents 112,357,000), except as indicated. As of Oct. 1. Based on the American Housing Survey; see Appendix III. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Year-round units Item Total housing units Occupied Seasonal Total Owner Renter Northeast Midwest South West Vacant 9,704 125 406 1,690 3,145 2,165 1,147 516 510 4.3 510 5,838 943 2,413

Total units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112,357 Rooms: 1 room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 rooms or more . . . . . . . . . . . . Median number of rooms. . . . . . . Complete bathrooms: No bathrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 bathroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 and one-half bathrooms . . . . . . 2 or more bathrooms . . . . . . . . . Square footage of unit: Single detached and mobile homes 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 500 . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 to 749 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 to 999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 to 1,499 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,500 to 1,999 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,000 to 2,499 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,500 to 2,999 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,000 to 3,999 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,000 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . Other 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Median square footage . . . . . . Lot size: Single detached and attached units and mobile homes . . . . . . Less than one-eighth acre . . . . One-eighth to one-quarter acre . One-quarter to one-half acre. . . One-half up to one acre . . . . . . 1 to 5 acres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 10 acres . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 acres or more . . . . . . . . . . Other 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Median acreage . . . . . . . . . . . 471 1,470 11,715 23,468 24,476 21,327 13,782 15,647 5.3 1,673 51,729 16,162 42,794

3,166 99,487 65,487 34,000 19,484 23,951 34,808 21,245 18 112 627 1,286 552 295 154 122 4.1 328 5 323 951 100 851 9,399 1,037 8,361 19,038 6,996 12,042 21,760 14,828 6,932 19,885 16,415 3,470 13,113 11,900 1,213 15,014 14,207 807 5.4 6.1 4.1 95 333 2,403 3,324 3,558 3,639 2,656 3,475 5.5 67 123 2,039 4,290 5,078 4,878 3,352 4,122 5.6 51 218 2,556 6,881 8,683 7,318 4,461 4,640 5.4 114 278 2,400 4,542 4,441 4,050 2,644 2,776 5.2

412 750 319 432 220 1,668 44,223 19,801 24,421 10,795 232 14,987 11,628 3,360 3,360 854 39,527 33,739 5,787 5,109

192 182 157 11,659 13,509 8,259 4,778 4,142 2,707 7,322 16,975 10,121

76,410 1,402 3,188 6,576 17,030 15,007 10,680 5,944 5,469 3,229 7,885 1,702

2,560 369 381 364 468 196 113 45 45 49 529 932

68,655 59,011 778 491 2,286 1,369 5,586 4,121 15,432 12,886 14,071 12,598 10,194 9,526 5,660 5,315 5,212 4,966 3,023 2,825 6,414 4,915 1,750 1,825

9,644 10,831 17,572 26,202 14,050 287 82 132 356 207 917 227 535 1,127 398 1,465 531 1,329 2,647 1,079 2,546 1,443 3,386 7,045 3,558 1,473 1,828 3,387 5,367 3,488 668 1,992 2,949 3,281 1,973 345 1,303 1,758 1,633 967 245 1,244 1,651 1,501 815 198 801 890 903 429 1,499 1,380 1,556 2,342 1,137 1,276 2,154 1,888 1,570 1,674

5,195 254 521 627 1,130 741 373 238 212 157 941 1,321

83,188 12,087 22,045 15,414 9,841 14,185 2,143 4,293 3,180 0.35

2,717 640 586 319 269 346 58 260 239 0.26

74,495 62,041 12,454 12,417 18,633 28,146 15,299 10,175 7,515 2,659 1,761 2,691 2,745 2,977 19,915 16,284 3,632 2,625 5,309 6,547 5,434 14,235 12,381 1,854 2,217 3,578 5,542 2,899 8,977 7,858 1,120 1,915 1,961 4,103 999 13,067 11,345 1,723 2,580 2,765 6,166 1,557 1,990 1,791 199 300 578 797 315 3,687 3,238 450 562 1,252 1,422 451 2,449 1,629 817 457 499 824 667 0.35 0.38 0.23 0.43 0.32 0.45 0.23

5,976 1,273 1,544 860 595 771 96 346 491 0.24

1 Does not include selected vacant units. 2 Represents units not reported or size unknown. 3 Represents condominiums and cooperatives—single detached, single attached, and mobile homes. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Housing Reports, Series H150/97, American Housing Survey for the United States.

No. 1212. Occupied Housing Units—Tenure by Race of Householder: 1991 to 1997
[In thousands (93,147 represents 93,147,000), except percent. As of fall. Based on the American Housing Survey; see Appendix III] Race of householder and tenure ALL RACES 1 Occupied units, total . . . . . . . . . . Owner occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renter occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHITE Occupied units, total . . . . . . . . . . Owner occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renter occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLACK Occupied units, total . . . . . . . . . . Owner occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renter occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HISPANIC ORIGIN 2 Occupied units, total . . . . . . . . . . Owner occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renter occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 93,147 59,796 64.2 33,351 79,140 53,749 67.9 25,391 10,832 4,635 42.8 6,197 6,239 2,423 38.8 3,816 1993 94,724 61,252 64.7 33,472 80,029 54,878 68.6 25,151 11,128 4,788 43.0 6,340 6,614 2,788 42.2 3,826 1995 97,693 63,544 65.0 34,150 81,611 56,507 69.2 25,104 11,773 5,137 43.6 6,637 7,757 3,245 41.8 4,512 1997 99,487 65,487 65.8 34,000 82,154 57,781 70.3 24,372 12,085 5,457 45.2 6,628 8,513 3,646 42.8 4,867

1 Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Housing Reports, Series H150/91, H150/93, H150/95RV, and H150/97, American Housing Survey for the United States.

Construction and Housing 721
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1213. Homeownership Rates by Age of Householder and Family Status: 1985 to 1999
[In percent. Represents the proportion of owner households to the total number of occupied households. Based on the Current Population Survey/Housing Vacancy Survey; see source for details] Age of householder and family status United States . . . . . . . . . . . AGE OF HOUSEHOLDER Less than 25 years 25 to 29 years old . 30 to 34 years old . 35 to 39 years old . 40 to 44 years old . 45 to 49 years old . old. ... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 37.7 54.0 65.4 71.4 74.3 77.5 79.2 79.9 79.5 76.8 69.8 39.9 68.1 75.9 79.5 74.8 15.7 35.2 51.8 63.0 69.8 73.9 76.8 78.8 79.8 80.0 78.4 72.3 38.5 66.3 75.2 79.3 76.3 14.9 33.6 50.5 61.4 69.1 74.2 76.2 79.3 81.2 80.8 79.0 73.3 37.6 65.1 75.1 80.2 77.1 15.0 34.0 51.0 62.1 69.0 73.9 77.1 78.8 80.9 80.6 79.9 73.3 37.9 65.4 75.4 79.8 77.3 14.9 34.1 50.6 61.2 68.2 73.8 76.8 78.4 80.1 80.6 80.1 73.5 37.3 64.5 75.2 79.3 77.4 15.9 34.4 53.1 62.1 68.6 73.7 77.0 78.8 80.3 81.0 80.9 74.6 38.6 65.2 75.2 79.5 78.1 18.0 34.7 53.0 62.1 69.0 74.4 77.2 79.4 80.7 82.4 81.4 75.3 39.1 65.5 75.6 80.0 78.9 17.7 35.0 52.6 62.6 69.7 74.2 77.7 79.7 80.5 81.9 82.0 75.8 38.7 66.1 75.8 80.1 79.1 18.2 36.2 53.6 63.7 70.0 73.9 77.8 79.8 82.1 81.9 82.2 76.2 39.3 66.9 75.7 80.9 79.3 19.9 36.5 53.8 64.4 69.9 74.5 77.8 80.7 81.3 82.9 82.8 77.1 39.7 67.2 76.0 81.0 80.1 1985 63.9 1990 63.9 1992 64.1 1993
1

1994 64.0

1995 64.7

1996 65.4

1997 65.7

1998 66.3

1999 66.8

64.5

50 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 59 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 to 69 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 74 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 years old and over . . . . . . . . . Less than 35 years 35 to 44 years old . 45 to 54 years old . 55 to 64 years old . 65 years and over . old. ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FAMILY STATUS Family households: Married-couple families . . . . . . . Male householder, no spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female householder, no spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfamily households: One-person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male householder . . . . . . . . . Female householder . . . . . . . Other: Male householder . . . . . . . . . Female householder . . . . . . .
1

78.2 57.8 45.8 45.8 38.8 51.3 30.1 30.6

78.1 55.2 44.0 49.0 42.4 53.6 31.7 32.5

78.7 53.6 43.6 49.8 43.5 54.1 32.4 34.0

79.1 54.6 44.5 50.0 43.2 54.8 33.2 35.6

78.8 52.8 44.2 49.8 43.1 54.5 33.6 34.3

79.6 55.3 45.1 50.5 43.8 55.4 34.2 33.0

80.2 55.5 46.1 51.4 44.9 56.0 35.5 35.9

80.8 54.0 46.1 51.8 45.2 56.7 35.9 39.5

81.5 55.7 47.0 52.1 45.7 56.9 36.7 40.3

81.8 56.1 48.2 52.7 46.3 57.6 37.2 41.5

Based on 1990 census controls.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Internet site <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/hvs.html>.

No. 1214. Homeownership Rates by State: 1985 to 1999
[In percent. See headnote, Table 1213] State United States . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . California. . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware. . . . . . . . Dist. of Columbia . . Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia. . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Louisiana. . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 1990 1995 1997 1998 1999 63.9 70.4 61.2 64.7 66.6 54.2 63.6 69.0 70.3 37.4 67.2 62.7 51.0 71.0 60.6 67.6 69.9 68.3 68.5 70.2 73.7 65.6 60.5 70.7 70.0 69.6 63.9 68.4 58.4 64.5 67.8 53.8 59.0 67.9 67.7 36.4 65.1 64.3 55.5 69.4 63.0 67.0 70.7 69.0 65.8 67.8 74.2 64.9 58.6 72.3 68.0 69.4 64.7 70.1 60.9 62.9 67.2 55.4 64.6 68.2 71.7 39.2 66.6 66.6 50.2 72.0 66.4 71.0 71.4 67.5 71.2 65.3 76.7 65.8 60.2 72.2 73.3 71.1 65.7 71.3 67.2 63.0 66.7 55.7 64.1 68.1 69.2 42.5 66.9 70.9 50.2 72.3 68.1 74.1 72.7 66.5 75.0 66.4 74.9 70.5 62.3 73.3 75.4 73.7 66.3 72.9 66.3 64.3 66.7 56.0 65.2 69.3 71.0 40.3 66.9 71.2 52.8 72.6 68.0 72.6 72.1 66.7 75.1 66.6 74.6 68.7 61.3 74.4 75.4 75.1 66.8 74.8 66.4 66.3 65.6 55.7 68.1 69.1 71.6 40.0 67.6 71.3 56.6 70.3 67.1 72.9 73.9 67.5 73.9 66.8 77.4 69.6 60.3 76.5 76.1 74.9 State Missouri . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska. . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . . New York. . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 1990 1995 1997 1998 1999 69.2 66.5 68.5 57.0 65.5 62.3 68.2 50.3 68.0 69.9 67.9 70.5 61.5 71.6 61.4 72.0 67.6 67.6 60.5 71.5 69.5 68.5 66.8 75.9 63.8 73.2 64.0 69.1 67.3 55.8 65.0 65.0 68.6 53.3 69.0 67.2 68.7 70.3 64.4 73.8 58.5 71.4 66.2 68.3 59.7 70.1 72.6 69.8 61.8 72.0 68.3 68.9 69.4 68.7 67.1 58.6 66.0 64.9 67.0 52.7 70.1 67.3 67.9 69.8 63.2 71.5 57.9 71.3 67.5 67.0 61.4 71.5 70.4 68.1 61.6 73.1 67.5 69.0 70.5 67.5 66.7 61.2 66.8 63.1 69.6 52.6 70.2 68.1 69.0 68.5 61.0 73.3 58.7 74.1 67.6 70.2 61.5 72.5 69.1 68.4 62.9 74.6 68.3 67.6 70.7 68.6 69.9 61.4 69.6 63.1 71.3 52.8 71.3 68.0 70.7 69.7 63.4 73.9 59.8 76.6 67.3 71.3 62.5 73.7 69.1 69.4 64.9 74.8 70.1 70.0 72.9 70.6 70.9 63.7 70.2 64.5 72.6 52.8 71.7 70.1 70.7 71.5 64.3 75.2 60.6 77.1 70.7 71.9 62.9 74.7 69.1 71.2 64.8 74.8 70.9 69.8

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/hvs.html>.

722 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1215. Occupied Housing Units—Costs by Region: 1997
[As of fall. (65,487 represents 65,487,000) Specified owner-occupied units are limited to one-unit structures on less than 10 acres and no business on property. Specified renter-occupied units exclude one-unit structures on 10 acres or more. See headnote Table 1216 for an explanation of housing costs. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover. Based on the American Housing Survey; see Appendix III] Number (1,000) Category OWNER OCCUPIED UNITS Total . . . . . . . . . Monthly housing costs: Less than $300 . . . . $300 to $399 . . . . . $400 to $499 . . . . . $500 to $599 . . . . . $600 to $699 . . . . . $700 to $799 . . . . . $800 to $999 . . . . . $1,000 to $1,249 . . . $1,250 to $1,499 . . . $1,500 or more . . . . Median (dol.) 1 . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65,487 18,889 6,936 5,368 4,612 4,251 3,792 6,402 5,249 3,602 6,386 534 12,241 1,923 1,493 1,339 967 849 765 1,204 1,168 922 1,613 647 16,902 4,912 2,186 1,430 1,379 1,241 1,078 1,752 1,252 744 928 494 23,650 8,910 2,185 1,769 1,625 1,531 1,355 2,124 1,562 891 1,700 439 12,694 3,144 1,073 830 641 629 595 1,322 1,267 1,046 2,146 705 100.0 28.8 10.6 8.2 7.0 6.5 5.8 9.8 8.0 5.5 9.8 (X) 100.0 15.7 12.2 10.9 7.9 6.9 6.2 9.8 9.5 7.5 13.2 (X) 100.0 29.1 12.9 8.5 8.2 7.3 6.4 10.4 7.4 4.4 5.5 (X) 100.0 37.7 9.2 7.5 6.9 6.5 5.7 9.0 6.6 3.8 7.2 (X) 100.0 24.8 8.5 6.5 5.0 5.0 4.7 10.4 10.0 8.2 16.9 (X) Total units Northeast Midwest South West Total units Percent distribution Northeast Midwest South West

RENTER OCCUPIED UNITS Total . . . . . . . . . Monthly housing costs: Less than $300 . . . . $300 to $399 . . . . . $400 to $499 . . . . . $500 to $599 . . . . . $600 to $699 . . . . . $700 to $799 . . . . . $800 to $999 . . . . . $1,000 to $1,249 . . . $1,250 to $1,499 . . . $1,500 or more . . . . No cash rent . . . . . . Median (dol.) 1 . . . . X Not applicable. ........ . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

34,000 4,550 3,808 4,945 5,327 4,365 3,162 3,133 1,395 556 589 2,171 549

7,242 1,000 606 803 1,087 1,122 727 841 326 165 186 380 594

7,050 1,199 1,128 1,351 1,115 736 493 355 136 45 59 432 473

11,157 1,598 1,427 1,786 1,775 1,255 940 881 314 106 129 947 517

8,551 753 648 1,007 1,349 1,252 1,002 1,056 619 239 215 412 625

100.0 13.4 11.2 14.5 15.7 12.8 9.3 9.2 4.1 1.6 1.7 6.4 (X)

100.0 13.8 8.4 11.1 15.0 15.5 10.0 11.6 4.5 2.3 2.6 5.2 (X)

100.0 17.0 16.0 19.2 15.8 10.4 7.0 5.0 1.9 0.6 0.8 6.1 (X)

100.0 14.3 12.8 16.0 15.9 11.2 8.4 7.9 2.8 1.0 1.2 8.5 (X)

100.0 8.8 7.6 11.8 15.8 14.6 11.7 12.3 7.2 2.8 2.5 4.8 (X)

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

For explanation of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation.

No. 1216. Occupied Housing Units—Financial Summary by Selected Characteristics of the Householder: 1997
[In thousands of units (99,487 represents 99,487,000), except as indicated. As of fall. Housing costs include real estate taxes, property insurance, utilities, fuel, water, garbage collection, and mortgage. Based on the American Housing Survey; see Appendix III] Households Hispanic Total Elderly 2 below poverty Tenure Black origin 1 occulevel pied units Owner Renter Owner Renter Owner Renter Owner Renter Owner Renter 99,487 65,487 34,000 23,439 18,889 10,744 6,936 10,312 5,368 9,939 4,612 8,615 4,251 6,955 3,792 9,535 6,402 17,777 15,237 542 534 4,550 3,808 4,945 5,327 4,365 3,162 3,133 2,540 549 5,457 1,845 572 455 530 377 325 490 863 464 6,628 1,399 864 1,055 982 721 469 449 262 480 3,646 1,016 263 247 242 277 216 396 987 620 4,867 16,493 616 531 751 869 705 495 455 219 549 8,788 2,679 1,534 912 677 403 468 1,034 287 4,413 1,205 470 536 515 438 268 231 297 453 6,619 3,497 805 563 418 304 219 238 575 285 9,108 2,533 1,248 1,311 1,089 797 469 457 347 426

Characteristic

Total units 3 . . . . . . . . . Monthly housing costs: Less than $300 . . . . . . . . $300-$399 . . . . . . . . . . . . $400-$499 . . . . . . . . . . . . $500-$599 . . . . . . . . . . . . $600-$699 . . . . . . . . . . . . $700-$799 . . . . . . . . . . . . $800-$999 . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,000 or more. . . . . . . . . Median amount (dol.) 4 . . . Monthly housing costs as percent of income: 5 Less than 5 percent . . . . . 5 to 9 percent . . . . . . . . . 10 to 14 percent . . . . . . . . 15 to 19 percent . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 percent . . . . . . . . 25 to 29 percent . . . . . . . . 30 to 34 percent . . . . . . . . 35 to 39 percent . . . . . . . . 40 percent or more . . . . . . Median amount (percent) . . Median monthly costs (dol.): 4 Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . Piped gas . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,790 4,433 12,648 11,438 14,146 11,246 14,371 10,232 11,650 7,556 8,663 5,198 6,232 3,486 4,110 2,109 18,527 8,652 21 18 63 42 63 70 46 66

357 1,210 2,900 4,139 4,095 3,465 2,746 2,001 9,876 29 46 31 49

340 767 786 735 577 514 344 241 993 20 73 49 67

56 196 486 681 792 657 523 403 2,156 31 49 34 44

192 496 477 499 379 389 236 145 766 22 67 33 79

48 148 282 477 516 507 492 330 1,712 33 45 (7) (7)

760 2,768 3,023 2,224 1,582 1,155 918 612 2,993 18 61 46 64

44 79 157 238 337 492 349 300 1,833 39 39 28 52

23 96 235 321 328 365 383 351 3,434 6 41 63 42 59

14 61 89 199 328 534 488 368 5,229 6 42 45 30 44

1 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 2 Householders 65 years old and over. 3 Includes units with mortgage payment not reported and no cash rent not shown separately. 4 For explanation of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. 5 Money income before taxes. 6 Revised since originally published. 7 Less than $25. Source of Tables 1215 and 1216: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Housing Reports, Series H-150/97, American Housing Survey for the United States.

Construction and Housing 723
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1217. Mortgage Characteristics—Owner Occupied Units: 1997
[In thousands (65,487 represents 65,487,000). As of fall. Based on the American Housing Survey; see Appendix III] Housing unit characteristics Mortgage characteristic Total New occupied construcunits tion 1 65,487 25,453 29 5,757 27,670 2,708 2,427 1,443 4,894 1,018 352 3,128 130 147 119 Mobile homes 5,255 2,936 95 1,847 101 163 113 Household characteristics Moved in past year 5,093 1,056 199 3,470 102 172 94 Below poverty level 6,619 4,177 5 198 1,578 138 314 210

Black Hispanic Elderly 5,457 2,047 357 2,478 141 268 165 3,646 1,217 163 1,962 69 139 96

2

ALL OWNERS Total 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mortgages currently on property: None, owned free and clear. . . . . . . . Reverse mortgage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regular and home equity mortgages . . Regular mortgage only . . . . . . . . . . . Home equity mortgage only . . . . . . . . With regular mortgage, home equity not reported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No regular mortgage, home equity not reported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of regular and home equity mortgages: 1 mortgage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 mortgages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 mortgages or more . . . . . . . . . Type of home equity mortgage: Units with 1 or more home equity mortgages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lump sum only . . . . . . . . . . . Credit line only. . . . . . . . . . . . Both. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,493 12,649 29 293 2,050 527 558 388

... ... ...

29,210 6,345 444

3,174 398 19

1,914 106 15

2,473 452 39

1,947 232 12

2,508 326 23

3,465 272 16

1,667 227 16

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

8,465 3,354 4,765 40

482 220 233 2

196 108 64 2

499 259 209 -

232 109 119 -

819 298 498 2

301 109 160 5

336 126 184 2

OWNERS WITH ONE OR MORE REGULAR MORTGAGES Total 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type of primary mortgage: FHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farmers Home Administration . . . . Other types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mortgage origination: Placed new mortgage(s) . . . . . . . . Assumed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wrap-around. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination of the above . . . . . . . Payment plan of primary mortgage: Fixed payment, self amortizing . . . . Adjustable rate mortgage . . . . . . . Adjustable term mortgage . . . . . . . Graduated payment mortgage . . . . Balloon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination of the above . . . . . . .

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35,855 5,065 1,936 364 25,579 34,766 957 26 106 27,590 2,955 256 376 328 360

3,627 396 160 37 2,873 3,613 14 2,825 343 41 45 56 48

2,105 95 20 14 1,769 2,030 74 1,643 160 39 9 9 11

3,104 799 263 57 1,626 2,995 93 3 13 2,380 157 34 25 7 28

2,264 510 147 29 1,433 2,181 72 10 1,812 171 12 14 18 27

2,901 224 104 52 1,859 2,801 95 5 1,869 205 35 12 16 13

3,842 611 165 24 2,841 3,747 87 3 5 2,959 343 58 65 61 54

2,090 298 77 26 1,323 2,000 80 6 5 1,401 140 43 9 19 16

- Represents or rounds to zero. 1 Constructed in the past 4 years. 2 65 years old and over. 3 Includes types not known and not reported. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Housing Reports, Series H150/97, American Housing Survey for the United States.

No. 1218. Debt Status of Homeowners by Selected Characteristic: 1997
[In percent. See headnote, Table 812] Homeowner characteristic All homeowners . . . Age of head: 18 to 34 years old . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over Family income: Less than $15,000 . . $15,000 to $24,999 . . $25,000 to $49,999 . . $50,000 to $74,999 . . $75,000 to $99,999 . . $100,000 or more . . . Home equity 2: Less than $50,000 . . $50,00 to $99,999 . . . $100,000 or more . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All homeowners 100 16 23 20 16 26 10 16 34 23 10 8 41 33 26 No mortgage debt 100 7 9 12 18 55 20 26 32 12 5 5 24 38 37 First mortgage only 1 100 24 31 24 13 8 4 11 38 26 13 8 55 29 16 Home equity line of credit 100 6 28 34 20 12 2 3 25 38 16 16 21 40 39 Traditional home equity loan 100 23 32 27 11 6 2 6 32 42 8 11 69 21 10 Either type of home equity loan 100 12 30 31 17 10 2 4 27 39 14 14 38 34 28

....... ....... .......

1 Excludes those who have only a home equity line of credit. 2 Home equity consists of the market value of the home less all debts secured by the home, including balances outstanding on equity lines of credit and traditional home equity loans. Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Federal Reserve Bulletin, April 1998.

724 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1219. Heating Equipment and Fuels for Occupied Units: 1991 to 1997
[As of fall. (93,147 represents 93,147,000) Based on American Housing Survey. See Appendix III] Type of equipment or fuel Occupied units, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heating equipment: Warm air furnace. . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steam or hot water . . . . . . . . . . . Floor, wall, or pipeless furnace. . . . Built-in electric units. . . . . . . . . . . Room heaters with flue. . . . . . . . . Room heaters without flue . . . . . . Fireplaces, stoves, portable heaters None. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . House main heating fuel: Utility gas. . . . . . . . . . Fuel oil, kerosene, etc. . Electricity . . . . . . . . . . Bottled, tank, or LP gas Coal or coke. . . . . . . . Wood and other fuel . . None. . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooking fuel: Electricity . . Gas 1 . . . . Other fuel . None. . . . .
1

Number (1,000) 1991 93,147 49,423 7,638 13,929 4,291 6,755 2,549 2,111 5,590 861 47,018 12,462 23,714 3,882 319 4,890 862 54,232 38,119 424 372 1993 94,724 51,248 8,422 13,657 4,746 6,722 1,766 1,597 5,654 911 47,669 12,189 25,107 3,922 297 4,630 910 55,887 37,996 479 362 1995 97,692 53,165 9,406 13,669 4,963 7,035 1,620 1,642 5,150 1,044 49,203 12,029 26,771 4,251 210 4,186 1,043 57,621 39,218 566 287 1997 99,487 58,603 11,101 12,929 5,588 4,531 1,584 1,754 2,780 617 51,052 10,855 29,202 5,398 183 2,177 620 58,818 40,083 113 474

Percent distribution 1991 100.0 53.1 8.2 15.0 4.6 7.3 2.7 2.3 6.0 0.9 50.5 13.4 25.5 4.2 0.3 5.2 0.9 58.2 40.9 0.5 0.4 1997 100.0 58.9 11.2 13.0 5.6 4.6 1.6 1.8 2.8 0.6 51.3 10.9 29.4 5.4 0.2 2.2 0.6 59.1 40.3 0.1 0.5

...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... or other ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

Includes utility, bottled, tank, and LP gas.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Housing Reports, Series H150/91, H150/93, H150/95RV, and H150/97, American Housing Survey for the United States.

No. 1220. Occupied Housing Units—Housing Indicators by Selected Characteristics of the Householder: 1997
[In thousands of units (99,487 represents 99,487,000). As of fall. Based on the American Housing Survey; see Appendix III] Total Households below Hispanic Elderly 2 Tenure Black occupoverty level origin 1 pied units Owner Renter Owner Renter Owner Renter Owner Renter Owner Renter . 99,487 65,487 34,000 . 75,986 55,374 20,612 . 31,825 27,702 4,123 . 39,077 31,411 7,666 . 34,515 31,582 2,932 . 58,027 47,488 10,539 9,447 7,494 2,480 5,165 6,967 2,329 5,457 4,217 1,554 2,805 2,493 2,903 480 178 2,541 1,803 455 3,241 1,346 390 78 81 387 189 3 58 119 558 6,628 3,689 460 1,635 479 1,173 2,438 175 3,019 904 92 3,501 474 215 154 209 778 461 84 238 1,054
2

Characteristic Total units . . . . . . . . . Amenities: Porch, deck, balcony or patio Usable fireplace . . . . . . . . . Separate dining room . . . . . With 2 or more living rooms or recreation rooms . . . . . . Garage or carport with home Cars and trucks available: No cars, trucks, or vans. . . Other households without cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 car with or without trucks or vans . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 cars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 or more cars . . . . . . . . .

3,646 2,835 1,106 1,555 1,263 2,566 132 373 1,673 1,117 352 1,654 1,346 514 68 54 229 94 35 88 338

4,867 16,493 2,477 13,737 354 5,575 917 7,269 191 7,181 1,543 12,208 1,174 391 2,313 845 143 2,590 829 273 180 184 493 378 5 74 181 594 1,713 704 9,808 3,688 579 9,667 3,952 1,160 79 99 420 256 5 106 281 817

4,413 2,371 280 749 312 1,210 2,028 123 1,961 270 31 1,881 308 195 42 48 212 130 3 43 106 311

6,619 5,156 1,721 2,696 2,226 3,754 944 560 3,509 1,381 226 3,308 1,742 626 92 126 342 177 17 68 190 476
3

9,108 4,791 526 1,690 499 1,969 3,636 475 3,991 883 123 4,096 971 405 211 288 1,010 635 5 123 323 1,126 During

.. ..

. . 47,902 30,544 17,357 . . 27,573 21,185 6,389 . . 7,071 6,112 958

With cars, no trucks or vans . . 51,617 32,456 19,161 1 truck or van with or without cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28,096 22,171 5,925 2 or more trucks or vans . . . . 10,327 8,380 1,948 Internal deficiencies: Signs of rats in last 3 months Holes in floors . . . . . . . . . . Open cracks or holes . . . . . Broken plaster or peeling paint (interior of unit) . . . . . No electrical wiring . . . . . . . Exposed wiring . . . . . . . . . Rooms without electric outlet Water leakage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 920 1,168 5,748 2,938 40 788 2,122 9,667 425 487 2,719 1,239 33 457 1,160 5,177 495 680 3,029 1,699 7 331 962 4,490

- Represents zero. 1 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. the 12 months prior to the survey.

Householders 65 years old and over.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Housing Reports, Series H150/97, American Housing Survey for the United States.

Construction and Housing 725
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1221. Appliances and Office Equipment Used by Households by Region and Household Income: 1997
[101.5 represents 101,500,000. Represents appliances possessed and generally used by the household. Based on Residential Energy Consumption Survey; see source. For composition of regions, see inside front cover] Households using appliance ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.5 46.8 24.8 77.4 71.2 55.1 15.2 50.2 60.1 33.2 30.2 2.9 83.0 98.8 61.4 33.3 44.1 99.2 60.2 34.7 99.8 86.8 100.0 39.1 51.9 68.8 98.7 31.8 37.4 19.1 7.7 2.7 87.6 35.1 29.2 5.9 20.4 12.5 25.2 9.9 4.7 2.1 3.1 61.4 6.2 3.7 58.4 Region Northeast Midwest 19.7 22.1 39.6 76.0 66.7 48.3 17.7 48.5 51.2 25.7 24.2 1.5 78.7 99.4 49.3 45.0 48.5 99.7 48.3 45.7 99.9 85.2 100.0 25.9 46.3 66.7 98.9 31.8 36.1 20.8 7.5 2.6 86.1 31.9 27.2 4.7 17.8 11.4 21.5 10.4 4.5 2.3 3.6 59.6 6.5 3.8 62.2 24.1 51.3 26.1 78.9 75.8 50.1 23.9 46.9 63.6 41.8 38.4 3.4 86.9 99.1 56.6 38.0 45.1 99.4 55.5 39.3 99.9 85.1 100.0 26.5 67.6 67.0 99.0 32.1 36.2 20.4 7.8 2.5 89.7 38.0 32.4 5.6 21.7 12.9 27.7 10.2 5.2 2.5 2.6 63.8 5.3 3.9 61.0 Household income in 1997 Under $10,000 13.3 27.4 33.3 52.7 36.2 31.0 4.8 15.7 39.3 25.6 23.6 2.0 60.3 96.6 49.1 42.2 18.1 97.0 49.1 42.4 99.3 73.0 100.0 40.7 46.9 45.2 96.1 55.6 30.9 7.5 1.7 (S) 66.8 9.7 8.0 (S) 5.2 2.5 6.3 3.4 2.3 (S) (S) 35.3 (S) (S) 30.2 $10,000$24,999 29.1 37.3 28.8 69.0 61.0 49.0 11.1 35.5 55.2 30.0 27.5 2.5 81.2 98.6 58.7 34.9 31.1 99.1 58.3 35.6 99.9 83.1 100.0 43.3 48.5 60.1 98.5 40.5 37.7 15.6 3.6 1.1 84.0 16.5 14.5 2.0 8.6 4.5 12.2 4.2 2.3 (S) 1.2 51.5 2.5 1.5 49.1 $25,000$49,999 31.1 50.2 24.0 81.5 77.1 59.9 16.3 53.6 64.4 35.1 32.2 2.9 86.7 99.4 63.9 31.6 47.0 99.8 62.8 32.9 99.9 88.5 100.0 39.9 51.5 73.7 99.2 27.3 41.6 20.4 8.2 1.7 91.6 36.9 32.8 4.1 19.8 12.8 28.2 8.7 4.1 1.4 3.3 66.9 5.3 3.9 62.3 $50,000 and over 27.9 62.1 17.5 93.4 91.8 67.6 23.3 78.2 70.3 37.9 34.1 3.8 91.5 99.3 67.4 29.2 66.6 99.6 64.4 31.9 100.0 95.2 100.0 32.9 58.2 83.7 99.6 16.6 35.4 26.8 14.0 6.8 96.6 64.5 50.7 13.8 40.7 25.1 44.4 20.0 9.1 5.0 6.0 77.9 13.3 7.3 77.2

Type of appliance

South 35.9 69.4 23.2 82.0 74.2 66.4 7.2 51.5 71.2 36.9 33.1 3.8 82.4 98.7 72.1 22.1 41.8 99.1 70.9 23.6 99.9 90.0 100.0 58.3 37.3 67.8 98.7 29.1 38.9 18.4 8.9 3.4 86.0 31.0 25.9 5.1 18.2 11.7 23.0 8.0 4.2 1.1 2.7 61.5 5.6 3.5 54.2

West 21.8 26.9 12.8 69.5 65.1 48.2 16.5 53.1 46.0 24.2 22.1 2.2 83.3 98.1 60.2 35.7 42.7 98.8 58.4 37.8 99.7 84.7 100.0 33.0 63.5 74.4 98.2 36.0 37.3 17.3 5.5 2.2 89.0 41.3 32.9 8.5 24.9 14.2 29.3 12.1 5.3 3.1 3.7 60.2 8.1 3.9 59.1

Total households (mil.) . PERCENT WITH— Air conditioner: Central system . . . . . . . Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clothes washer . . . . . . . . Clothes dryer 1 . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . Dishwasher . . . . . . . . . . . Ceiling fan . . . . . . . . . . .

Freezer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1..................... 2 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microwave oven . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self cleaning oven . . . . . . . . . . . Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frost free . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water heater 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stereo equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . Color TV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1..................... 2..................... 3..................... 4..................... 5 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal computers . . . . . . . . . . 1..................... 2 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . With laser printer . . . . . . . . . . Used 15 hrs. per week or less. . Used 16 hrs. per week or more . Personal use only . . . . . . . . Business use only . . . . . . . . Both . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cordless phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . Facsimile machine . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answering machine . . . . . . . . . .

S Figure does not meet publication standards. 1 Includes other types, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Internet site <http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/contents.html>.

No. 1222. Net Stock of Residential Capital: 1985 to 1998
[In billions of dollars (4,707.5 represents $4,707,500,000,000). End of year estimates] Item Total residential fixed assets . By type of owner and legal form of organization: Private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noncorporate . . . . . . . . . . . . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State and local . . . . . . . . . . . By tenure group: 1 Owner-occupied Farm . . . . . . Nonfarm . . . . Tenant-occupied Farm . . . . . . Nonfarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 4,707.5 1990 6,287.4 1992 6,755.5 1993 7,161.9 1994 7,654.5 1995 7,973.1 1996 8,391.5 1997 8,821.2 1998 9,405.1

. . . . . . . . . . . .

4,601.3 57.0 4,544.4 106.2 33.0 73.2 3,249.8 127.8 3,122.0 1,436.1 9.4 1,426.6

6,137.7 68.0 6,069.6 149.7 52.5 97.2 4,486.9 150.3 4,336.6 1,774.5 10.9 1,763.6

6,595.8 71.9 6,524.0 159.6 53.5 106.1 4,873.5 155.6 4,717.9 1,855.7 11.2 1,844.5

6,991.0 73.7 6,917.2 170.9 57.3 113.7 5,214.1 161.1 5,053.0 1,920.3 11.7 1,908.6

7,472.2 76.0 7,396.3 182.3 60.7 121.6 5,628.7 169.6 5,459.1 1,997.3 12.5 1,984.8

7,784.2 78.2 7,706.0 188.8 62.4 126.5 5,891.6 174.0 5,717.7 2,052.5 12.8 2,039.7

8,195.3 81.5 8,113.8 196.2 64.5 131.7 6,228.8 178.9 6,049.9 2,133.1 13.2 2,119.9

8,618.5 85.4 8,533.1 202.7 66.4 136.2 6,578.6 184.4 6,394.2 2,212.2 13.5 2,198.7

9,193.0 91.7 9,101.3 212.1 69.1 142.9 7,034.4 191.9 6,842.5 2,339.0 14.0 2,325.0

1 Excludes stocks of other nonfarm residential capital, which consists of dormitories, fraternity and sorority houses, and nurses’ homes. Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2000 issue and Fixed Assets and Consumer Durable Goods in the United States, 1925-97, forthcoming.

726 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1223. Expenditures by Residential Property Owners for Improvements and Maintenance and Repairs by Type of Property and Activity: 1980 to 1998
[In millions of dollars (46,338 represents $46,338,000,000)] 1-unit properties with owner occupant 31,481 47,742 54,298 54,791 60,822 59,858 59,683 58,083 67,316 70,746 77,270 75,362 76,094 82,216 7,648 5,788 7,885 7,443 87,243 7,242 4,187 8,636 8,267 Additions and alterations Other properties 14,857 32,525 36,976 39,291 40,295 41,033 47,090 39,445 36,418 37,559 37,760 36,321 38,825 36,353 3,256 4,646 3,608 3,905 33,418 2,521 3,510 3,083 4,383 To structures Total 21,336 28,775 38,608 39,978 43,339 39,786 37,253 30,944 40,186 45,797 48,828 44,726 53,456 55,530 3,041 3,668 (NA) (NA) 53,868 2,376 1,860 (NA) (NA) Additions 4,183 3,966 7,377 9,557 11,333 6,828 8,561 7,914 6,783 12,757 9,647 7,936 12,035 11,042 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 10,092 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) To property Alter- outside of ations structures 5,960 7,211 10,040 8,779 9,303 9,828 6,771 6,954 10,704 8,259 10,509 9,897 11,357 11,442 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 10,992 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) Major replacements 9,816 16,134 16,695 15,875 16,893 18,415 18,215 16,744 18,393 20,809 23,248 24,910 24,465 24,463 5,917 2,765 6,662 (NA) 27,467 4,958 2,505 8,133 (NA) Maintenance and repairs 15,187 35,358 35,971 38,229 40,885 42,689 51,305 49,840 45,154 41,699 42,953 42,047 36,997 38,576 1,945 4,000 4,832 11,348 39,326 2,429 3,332 3,586 12,651

Year and type of expenditure Total ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... 1 1997, total . . . . . . . . . Heating and air conditioning 2 . Plumbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998, total 1 . . . . . . . . . Heating and air conditioning 2 . Plumbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46,338 80,267 91,274 94,082 101,117 100,891 106,773 97,528 103,734 108,305 115,030 111,683 114,919 118,569 10,904 10,434 11,493 11,348 120,661 9,763 7,697 11,719 12,651

11,193 17,599 21,192 21,641 22,703 23,129 21,920 16,076 22,700 24,781 28,672 26,893 30,064 33,046 3,041 3,668 (NA) (NA) 32,784 2,376 1,860 (NA) (NA)

NA Not available. 1 Includes types of expenditures not separately specified. 2 Central air-conditioning. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Construction Reports, Series C50, Expenditures for Residential Improvement, quarterly.

No. 1224. Home Remodeling Work Done and Amount Spent: 1998
[In thousands, except percent (1,345 represents 1,345,000). As of spring. For work done in the prior 12 months. Based on survey and subject to sampling error; see source] Households with work done 1 Remodeling project Number Conversion of garage/attic/basement into living space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remodel bathroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remodel kitchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remodel bedroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remodel/convert room to home office Remodel other rooms . . . . . . . . . Add bathroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Add/extend garage . . . . . . . . . . . Add other rooms- exterior addition . Add deck/porch/patio. . . . . . . . . . Roofing. . . . . . . . . . . . . Siding - vinyl/metal . . . . . Aluminum windows . . . . . Clad-wood/wood windows Vinyl windows . . . . . . . . Ceramic tile floors. . . Hardwood floors . . . . Vinyl flooring . . . . . . Carpeting . . . . . . . . Kitchen cabinets. . . . Kitchen counter tops . Skylights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,345 5,543 4,623 3,035 1,094 3,225 759 491 778 2,218 4,749 1,487 815 442 1,555 1,993 1,273 2,720 4,887 2,213 2,317 552 2,736 1,326 1,544 2,321 328 786 895
2

Work done by— Household Outside member contractor 888 3,608 2,705 2,262 748 2,141 431 2 186 378 1,402 1,143 466 323 199 451 941 616 1,321 1,191 932 843 2 181 1,385 794 461 951 2 105 581 560 277 1,322 1,268 397 2 123
2 164 2

Amount spent (dol.) Under $1,000 to $1,000 $2,999 445 3,012 2,040 1,968 588 1,736 2 237 2 58 2 166 911 1,270 229 289 2 160 393 1,094 653 1,813 2,316 692 1,074 258 1,924 844 917 1,098 2 42 513 599
2

Percent of households 1.3 5.5 4.6 3.0 1.1 3.2 0.8 0.5 0.8 2.2 4.7 1.5 0.8 0.4 1.5 2.0 1.3 2.7 4.8 2.2 2.3 0.5 2.7 1.3 1.5 2.3 0.3 0.8 0.9

Over $3,000 356 503 918 2 165 2 85 376 2 93 250 307 318 1,218 616 2 145 2 111 406
2 147 2 133 2

335 1,103 813 361 2 149 482 249 2 91 2 111 592 1,510 370 2 169 2 124 487 430 252 348 1,368 503 370 2 101 216 2 99 244 417 2 72
2 55 157

593

204 257 571

2,884 754 310 2 185 850 781 494 1,029 3,076 821 999 271 993 256 826 1,023 2 131
2

55 440 395 2 196 2 20
2 65 2 24 2

Exterior doors . . . . . . . . . Interior doors . . . . . . . . . . Garage doors . . . . . . . . . Concrete or masonry work . Swimming pool—in ground.

2

57 343 107
2 2 9 39

Wall paneling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ceramic wall tile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

140 233

Includes no response and amount unknown.

Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision.

Source: Mediamark Research Inc., New York, NY, Top-Line Reports, (copyright) Internet site <http://www.mediamark. com/mri/docs/TopLineReports.html> (accessed 30 May 2000).

Construction and Housing 727
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1225. Commercial Office Space—Overview for Selected Market Areas: 1999
[As of mid-October. (3,459,729 represents 3,459,729,000). For the 76 market areas with the highest vacancy rates in 1999. Data based on responses from individuals knowledgeable in the local markets] Market area United States, all market areas 2 . Albuquerque, NM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allentown, PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Birmingham, AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boise, ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridgeport/Stratford, CT. . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charleston, SC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charlotte, NC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleveland, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Columbia, SC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corpus Christi, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dayton, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Des Moines, IA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . El Paso, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fargo, ND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fort Worth, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fresno, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grand Rapids, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greensboro, NC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greenville, SC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hartford, CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Honolulu, Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indianapolis, IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jacksonville, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knoxville, TN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Las Vegas, NV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Little Rock, AR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles-Central, CA . . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles-East, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles-Inland Empire, CA. . . . . . Los Angeles-San Fernando Valley, CA . Los Angeles-South Bay, CA . . . . . . . . Los Angeles-West, CA . . . . . . . . . . . Louisville, KY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medford, OR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Melbourne, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miami, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milwaukee, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. . . . . . . . . . Mobile, AL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nashville, TN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Haven, CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Jersey-Central . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Jersey-Northern . . . . . . . . . . . . New Jersey-Southern . . . . . . . . . . . . Orlando, FL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phoenix, AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Providence, RI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reno, NV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richmond, VA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rochester, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saint Louis, MO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . San Antonio, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shreveport, LA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sioux Falls, SD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sonoma County, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . South Bend, IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Springfield, MA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Syracuse, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tampa, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toledo, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tulsa, OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ventura/Oxnard, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . West Palm Beach, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . Wichita, KS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wilmington, DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Youngstown, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Represents zero. separately. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Inventory (1,000 sq. ft.) 3,459,729 11,181 8,576 107,335 39,539 20,096 5,928 7,792 8,564 3,916 27,730 148,717 32,285 36,379 10,470 2,789 148,102 11,961 9,228 7,173 3,567 18,572 14,051 10,605 14,351 5,985 21,767 11,737 107,620 21,506 15,005 6,886 15,562 10,540 27,378 1,840 6,604 32,076 29,898 40,427 14,636 6,462 4,397 30,626 25,900 49,315 3,577 20,620 13,900 66,645 71,724 16,177 21,397 87,728 27,494 34,078 9,319 4,560 20,065 14,043 29,080 38,562 17,261 3,605 1,911 9,514 3,089 4,427 9,361 23,054 6,928 15,129 9,600 9,238 7,735 11,373 2,585

Vacant space (1,000 sq. ft.) 308,762 1,171 695 12,190 3,856 2,003 683 1,282 1,231 344 2,447 17,271 3,095 3,900 863 507 25,791 1,685 852 942 297 2,355 1,629 977 1,939 1,058 4,160 1,677 9,231 2,049 1,522 887 1,878 819 5,242 147 1,209 3,464 4,520 3,319 1,840 531 592 3,155 2,630 4,028 527 2,102 2,115 7,163 10,998 1,575 2,294 9,153 2,516 4,111 922 515 1,842 1,749 2,427 3,987 2,109 861 177 762 393 455 1,270 1,864 1,295 2,102 1,000 893 1,646 1,089 320

Vacancy rate (percent) 8.9 10.5 8.1 11.4 9.8 10.0 11.5 16.5 14.4 8.8 8.8 11.6 9.6 10.7 8.2 18.2 17.4 14.1 9.2 13.1 8.3 12.7 11.6 9.2 13.5 17.7 19.1 14.3 8.6 9.5 10.1 12.9 12.1 7.8 19.1 8.0 18.3 10.8 15.1 8.2 12.6 8.2 13.5 10.3 10.2 8.2 14.7 10.2 15.2 10.7 15.3 9.7 10.7 10.4 9.1 12.1 9.9 11.3 9.2 12.5 8.3 10.3 12.2 23.9 9.3 8.0 12.7 10.3 13.6 8.1 18.7 13.9 10.4 9.7 21.3 9.6 12.4
2

Construction (1,000 sq. ft.) 139,856 463 220 6,062 1,445 62 283 208 385 4,400 4,234 532 899 515 6,320 (NA) 15 (NA) 69 393 303 320 565 347 5,360 308 1,170 94 1,092 347 (NA) 60 425 82 650 225 300 60 1,429 550 4,888 90 1,891 390 1,595 3,845 (NA) 2,421 777 2,182 755 50 630 (NA) 2,304 1,281 680 (NA) 214 440 79 50 1,275 213 884 570 321 (NA) 25

Net absorption 1 (1,000 sq. ft.) 116,112 487 -57 5,341 2,532 133 989 -265 9 149 1,882 -1,924 337 731 491 27 5,139 264 31 244 269 78 691 396 91 497 1,179 -123 2,758 1,261 1,438 416 1,132 259 785 18 285 803 1,097 797 341 380 186 1,175 245 202 107 -1,842 360 3,937 8,304 4,810 1,928 1,597 936 -265 204 217 519 340 1,786 2,054 274 -53 102 248 32 97 157 1,077 196 -619 450 402 1,086 981 5

NA Not available.

Net change in occupied stock.

Includes other market areas, not shown

Source: Society of Industrial and Office REALTORS, Washington DC, 2000 Comparative Statistics of Industrial and Office Real Estate Markets (copyright).

728 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1226. Commercial Buildings—Selected Characteristics by Square Footage of Floorspace: 1995
[Excludes buildings 1,000 square feet or smaller (4,579 represents 4,579,000). Building type based on predominant activity in which the occupants were engaged. Based on a sample survey of building representatives conducted between August and December 1995; therefore, subject to sampling variability. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Floorspace (mil. sq. ft.) Characteristic Number of buildings (1,000) 4,579 725 1,139 1,750 964 353 562 867 718 813 846 218 202 309 137 285 105 158 1,289 705 326 87 269 580 67 261 553 4,025 Mean sq. ft. Median per sq. ft. 25,001 50,001 100,001 buildper to to and ing building 50,000 100,000 over (1,000) (1,000) 7,676 1,380 1,726 2,664 1,905 407 595 1,260 1,650 1,337 1,701 378 349 1,825 (S) (S) 175 512 1,180 1,293 485 (S) 392 1,165 (S) 148 2,023 5,653 7,968 1,371 1,920 2,980 1,697 386 750 1,293 1,453 1,453 1,816 410 407 1,752 (S) (S) (S) 613 1,274 1,542 499 (S) (S) 1,147 (S) 225 2,211 5,757
1

Within buildings having square footage of— 5,000 or less 6,338 995 1,772 2,428 1,144 442 855 1,180 889 1,245 1,087 316 324 250 234 550 152 150 1,841 1,084 312 (S) 301 807 (S) 399 630 5,709 5,001 to 10,000 7,530 1,223 1,678 2,786 1,842 756 981 1,710 1,132 1,186 1,102 368 296 404 (S) 390 (S) 269 2,202 915 786 (S) 662 991 (S) 497 924 6,606 10,001 to 25,000 11,617 2,118 2,701 4,481 2,317 957 1,241 1,942 2,163 2,071 2,809 251 184 1,045 (S) (S) 243 748 2,939 1,580 940 368 1,120 1,530 (S) 503 1,546 10,071

Total 58,772 11,883 14,322 20,830 11,736 3,673 6,710 9,298 10,858 11,333 12,252 2,590 2,059 7,740 642 1,353 2,333 3,618 12,728 10,478 3,948 1,271 2,792 8,481 1,004 2,384 12,076 46,696

All buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . Region: Northeast . Midwest . . South . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17,643 4,795 4,526 5,491 2,831
3 340 2,288 1,913 3,572 4,040 3,737 867 4 264

12.8 16.4 12.6 11.9 12.2 10.4 11.9 10.7 15.1 13.9 14.5 11.9 10.2 25.1 4.7 4.8 22.2 22.8 9.9 14.9 12.1 14.6 10.4 14.6 14.9 9.1 21.8 11.6

5.0 5.0 4.5 4.8 5.5 5.5 4.8 4.3 5.5 5.0 5.0 3.5 3.5 8.5 2.5 3.0 4.5 9.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 8.0 5.5 5.0 4.0 7.0 4.8

Year constructed: 1919 or before 1920 to 1945 . 1946 to 1959 . 1960 to 1969 . 1970 to 1979 . 1980 to 1989 . 1990 to 1992 . 1993 to 1995 .

Principal activity within building: Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food service . . . . . . . . . . . . Health care. . . . . . . . . . . . . Lodging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mercantile/services. . . . . . . . Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public assembly . . . . . . . . . Public order and safety . . . . . Religious worship. . . . . . . . . Warehouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,216 (NA) (NA) 1,483 1 1,105 3,292 4,064 1 655 (NA) (NA) 2,841 (NA) (NA) 4,741 9,209

Government owned . . . . . . . . . Nongovernment owned . . . . . . . Fuels used alone or in combination: Electricity . . . . . . . . Natural gas. . . . . . . Fuel oil . . . . . . . . . Propane . . . . . . . . . District heat . . . . . . District chilled water . Any other . . . . . . . . Workers: Fewer than 5 5 to 9 . . . . . 10 to 19 . . . . 20 to 49 . . . . 50 to 99 . . . . 100 to 249 . . 250 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,358 2,522 634 589 115 53 213 2,505 798 625 400 138 71 43 899 1,257 969 567 420 466

57,275 38,838 14,670 5,344 5,941 2,521 2,336 13,885 6,291 7,102 9,132 6,931 5,988 9,443 6,143 13,233 12,242 10,052 6,202 10,908

6,008 3,020 987 997 (S) (S) 278 4,184 1,202 695 225 (S) (S) (S) 1,544 1,701 1,264 653 618 559

7,064 4,542 713 881 (S) (S) 414 3,636 1,608 1,637 615 (S) (S) (S) 1,619 2,033 1,707 1,020 503 647

11,310 7,654 1,445 1,342 407 239 413 3,806 2,090 2,399 2,513 567 155 (S) 1,354 3,382 2,562 1,873 1,024 1,422

7,641 5,309 1,164 562 673 275 223 770 529 1,099 2,620 1,644 913 (S) 576 1,981 2,103 1,182 749 1,085

7,925 5,658 1,992 637 792 348 419 518 567 557 2,087 2,108 1,472 658 426 1,776 1,897 1,354 988 1,527

17,326 12,655 8,368 1 772 3,848 1,576 2 252
3

13.1 15.4 23.1 9.1 51.6 47.7 16.2 5.5 7.9 11.4 22.8 50.3 84.4 220.1 6.8 10.5 12.6 17.7 14.8 23.4
2

5.0 5.5 4.8 4.0 12.5 12.5 4.0 3.0 4.8 7.5 16.3 37.5 55.0 120.0 4.0 4.8 5.5 6.0 4.3 6.0

1

940 2,325 3,431 8,598 (NA) 2,144 2,709 3,970 2,319 5,670

3 480 1

415 (NA)

Weekly operating hours: 39 or less . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 48 . . . . . . . . . . . 49 to 60 . . . . . . . . . . . 61 to 84 . . . . . . . . . . . 85 to 167 . . . . . . . . . . 168 (open continuously) NA Not available. 500,000 square feet.

1

1 S Figure does not meet publication standards. 100,001 to 500,000 square feet. 3 100,001 to 200,000 square feet. 4 200,001 square feet and over.

200,001 to

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey, 1995, Internet site <http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/contents.html> (accessed 26 August 1998).

Construction and Housing 729
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 1227. Commercial Buildings—Number and Size by Principal Activity: 1995
[See headnote, Table 1226. (4,579 represents 4,579,000). For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Building characteristics NUMBER (1,000) All buildings . Region: Northeast . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . South . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . Year constructed: 1919 or before . 1920 to 1945 . . 1946 to 1959 . . 1960 to 1969 . . 1970 to 1979 . . 1980 to 1986 . . 1990 to 1992 . . 1993 to 1995 . . FLOORSPACE (mil. sq. ft.) All buildings . Region: Northeast . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . South . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . Year constructed: 1919 or before . 1920 to 1945 . . 1946 to 1959 . . 1960 to 1969 . . 1970 to 1979 . . 1980 to 1986 . . 1990 to 1992 . . 1993 to 1995 . . All buildngs 1 4,579 725 1,139 1,750 964 353 562 867 718 813 846 218 202 Education 309 39 42 111 117 18 42 72 66 45 36 17 13 Food sales 137 (S) (S) 73 32 (S) (S) (S) (S) 42 (S) (S) (S) Food service 285 41 69 109 66 (S) (S) (S) 25 66 74 (S) (S) MercanHealth tile/ care Lodging services 105 14 19 51 21 (S) (S) 19 7 34 (S) (S) (S) 158 10 38 51 59 (S) 7 33 53 24 25 (S) (S) 1,289 241 390 457 201 112 154 278 229 207 212 47 49 Public Reliassemgious bly worship 326 46 89 134 57 37 72 38 63 60 33 20 (S) 269 41 57 97 74 20 (S) 65 50 53 58 (S) (S) Warehouse 580 88 163 223 105 31 59 79 68 73 161 38 71

Offices 705 112 157 298 138 57 74 128 75 158 151 38 23

58,772 11,883 14,322 20,830 11,736 3,673 6,710 9,298 10,858 11,333 12,252 2,590 2,059

7,740 1,930 1,997 2,315 1,498 521 1,080 1,921 1,841 1,232 614 238 293

642 (S) (S) 287 209 (S) (S) (S) (S) 165 (S) (S) (S)

1,353 166 474 443 271 (S) (S) (S) 192 285 305 (S) (S)

2,333 408 466 916 543 (S) (S) 356 428 748 425 (S) (S)

3,618 350 909 1,313 1,047 (S) 170 607 972 576 829 (S) (S)

12,728 2,838 3,203 4,864 1,822 816 1,118 1,895 2,342 2,749 2,727 632 449

10,478 2,154 2,338 3,483 2,503 599 1,155 1,262 1,206 2,095 3,377 568 217

3,948 694 957 1,367 930 381 706 498 821 736 399 221 (S)

2,792 442 633 1,006 711 266 (S) 637 535 510 598 (S) (S)

8,481 1,480 2,044 3,436 1,522 192 1,076 1,236 1,530 1,616 2,104 318 409

S Figure does not meet publication standards. 1 Includes other commercial buildings, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey, 1995, Internet site <http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/contents.html> (accessed 28 August 1998).

No. 1228. Office Buildings—Vacancy Rates for Major Markets: 1980 to 1999
[As of end of year. Excludes government owned and occupied, owner-occupied, and medical office buildings] Market Atlanta, GA. . . . . . . . . . . . Charlotte, NC . . . . . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH. . . . . . . . . . Colorado Springs, CO. . . . . Dallas, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . Denver, CO . . . . . . . . . . . Emmonton, CN . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . . . Indianapolis, IN . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles, CA . . . . . . . . Memphis, TN . . . . . . . . . . Miami, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milwaukee, WI. . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis, MN . . . . . . . . Montreal, CN . . . . . . . . . . Nashville, TN . . . . . . . . . . New Jersey (Central) . . . . . New Jersey (North) . . . . . . New York, NY 1 . . . . . . . . . Orlando, FL . . . . . . . . . . . Ottawa, CN. . . . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA . . . . . . . . Phoenix, AZ . . . . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA . . . . . . . . . . Raleigh-Durham, NC . . . . . Richmond, VA . . . . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA . . . . . . . . San Diego, CA . . . . . . . . . St. Louis, MO . . . . . . . . . . St. Paul, MN . . . . . . . . . . . Tampa/St. Petersburg . . . . . Toronto, CN . . . . . . . . . . . Vancouver, CN . . . . . . . . . West Palm Beach, FL . . . . . Winston-Salem/Greensboro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 10.0 (NA) 7.0 (NA) (NA) 8.6 6.6 (NA) 4.0 (NA) 0.9 (NA) 2.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 3.1 (NA) (NA) 6.3 (NA) 1.2 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1985 21.0 16.7 16.5 (NA) (NA) 23.0 24.7 (NA) 27.6 (NA) 15.3 (NA) 20.9 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 7.9 (NA) (NA) 14.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 24.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1990 19.1 16.5 18.6 (NA) (NA) 25.8 24.8 (NA) 24.9 21.2 16.8 (NA) 23.4 22.9 (NA) (NA) 25.1 (NA) (NA) 16.0 (NA) (NA) 18.2 27.6 16.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) 19.5 21.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1992 19.4 (NA) 22.1 19.4 (NA) 31.3 21.5 (NA) 27.0 22.4 21.2 (NA) 18.5 18.4 19.9 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 18.3 (NA) (NA) 19.0 24.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 23.8 21.8 18.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1993 16.8 (NA) 21.4 (NA) (NA) 29.5 15.9 (NA) 25.1 18.8 21.0 (NA) 19.0 21.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 17.9 (NA) (NA) 17.8 (NA) 17.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) 22.1 19.1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1994 13.0 10.0 18.7 15.3 (NA) 21.7 12.8 (NA) 24.7 18.4 19.6 (NA) 15.4 17.6 8.2 21.3 7.5 20.7 16.5 16.3 12.1 14.5 16.3 11.8 15.8 (NA) 11.9 14.1 18.8 18.1 15.2 (NA) 19.9 8.2 16.8 13.2 1995 10.4 8.9 15.5 (NA) (NA) 18.7 12.1 (NA) 21.9 14.3 23.2 (NA) 13.8 16.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 17.0 (NA) (NA) 16.2 (NA) 14.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) 17.4 12.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1996 9.2 8.2 15.5 13.1 (NA) 16.2 10.8 (NA) 17.5 (NA) 22.1 13.6 12.4 (NA) 6.5 20.5 6.9 16.0 14.5 16.0 6.5 14.6 13.7 11.5 (NA) (NA) 9.7 12.4 14.1 13.4 12.5 13.0 19.4 7.6 12.0 14.1 1997 10.5 7.1 (NA) 11.5 (NA) 14.7 9.3 (NA) 12.1 14.2 13.8 12.0 11.2 (NA) 6.2 19.1 6.0 11.2 11.9 (NA) 6.4 10.6 10.9 9.3 15.4 (NA) 9.7 12.3 10.1 12.3 9.9 9.1 13.2 7.0 12.3 12.3 1998 11.2 7.2 14.4 9.9 8.1 15.0 7.6 (NA) 10.7 11.2 14.2 12.5 11.4 (NA) 7.0 17.5 7.5 9.9 10.0 8.6 7.1 8.0 12.4 8.9 14.0 6.0 10.7 11.8 9.1 9.6 7.2 8.8 11.9 6.7 13.5 14.5 1999 11.8 9.5 14.6 9.9 7.9 18.5 8.2 12.0 12.7 10.8 11.5 11.2 10.7 16.9 7.6 14.4 9.7 10.1 9.6 7.3 9.5 8.2 11.1 13.4 13.0 8.0 9.3 12.4 10.1 11.2 9.2 10.0 11.0 7.6 13.0 15.7

NA Not available. 1 Refers to Manhattan. Source: ONCOR International, Houston, TX, 1980 and 1985, National Office Market Report, semiannual; 1989-1990, International Office Market Report, semiannual; thereafter, Year-End (year) Market Data Book, annual (copyright).

730 Construction and Housing
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000