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					Section 19

Energy
This section presents statistics on fuel resources, energy production and consumption, electric energy, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, solar energy, wood energy and the electric and gas utility industries. The principal sources are the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC, and the American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. The Department of Energy was created in October 1977 and assumed and centralized the responsibilities of all or part of several agencies including the Federal Power Commission (FPC), the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Federal Energy Administration, and the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For additional data on transportation, see Section 21; on fuels, see Section 24; and on energy-related housing characteristics, see Section 25. The EIA, in its Annual Energy Review, provides statistics and trend data on energy supply, demand, and prices. Information is included on petroleum and natural gas, coal, electricity, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, solar, wood, and geothermal energy. Among its annual reports are Annual Energy Review, Electric Power Annual, Natural Gas Annual, Petroleum Supply Annual, State Energy Data Report, State Energy Price and Expenditure Report, Financial Statistics of Selected Electric Utilities, Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers, Annual Energy Outlook, and International Energy Annual. These various publications contain state, national, and international data on production of electricity, net summer capability of generating plants, fuels used in energy production, energy sales and consumption, and hydroelectric power. The EIA also issues the Monthly Energy Review, which presents current supply, disposition, and price data and monthly publications on petroleum, coal, natural gas, and electric power. Data on residential energy consumption, expenditures, and conservation activities are available from EIA’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey and are published triennially in Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Consumption and Expenditures, and Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Housing Characteristics, and other reports. The Edison Electric Institute’s monthly bulletin and annual Statistical Year Book of the Electric Utility Industry for the Year contain data on the distribution of electric energy by public utilities; information on the electric power supply, expansion of electric generating facilities, and the manufacture of heavy electric power equipment is presented in the annual Year-End Summary of the Electric Power Situation in the United States. The American Gas Association, in its monthly and quarterly bulletins and its yearbook, Gas Facts, presents data on gas utilities, financial and operating statistics. Btu conversion factors—Various energy sources are converted from original units to the thermal equivalent using British thermal units (Btu). A Btu is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (F) at or near 39.2 degrees F. Factors are calculated annually from the latest final annual data available; some are revised as a result. The following list provides conversion factors used in 1995 for production and consumption, in that order, for various fuels: Petroleum, 5.800 and 5.586 mil. Btu per barrel; total coal, 21.278 and 20.852 mil. Btu per short ton; and natural gas (dry), 1,028 Btu per cubic foot for both. The factors for the production of nuclear power and geothermal power were 10,676 and 20,914 Btu per kilowatt-hour, respectively. The fossil fuel steam-electric power plant generation factor of 10,272 Btu per kilowatt-hour was used for hydroelectric power generation and for wood and waste, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy consumed at electric utilities. Energy 581
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

Figure 19.1

Energy Production, Trade, and Consumption: 1980 to 1999
Quadrillion Btu 100 Consumption

80 Production

60

40

Net trade 20

0

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Census Bureau. For data, see Table 942.

Figure 19.2

Energy Consumption, by End-Use Sector: 1980 to 1999
Quadrillion Btu 50

40 Industrial and miscellaneous 30 Residential and commercial 20 Transportation

10

0 1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Census Bureau. For data, see Table 945.

582 Energy
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 942. Energy Supply and Disposition by Type of Fuel: 1970 to 1999
[In quadrillion British thermal units (Btu). For Btu conversion factors, see text, this section] Type of fuel Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crude oil 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas liquids . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear electric power . . . . . Renewable energy: Hydroelectric power . . . . . Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . Biofuels (wood & waste) 3 . Net trade 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum (crude oil) . . . . Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum 5 . . . . . . . . . . Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas 7 . . . . . . . . . . . Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear electric power . . . . . Renewable energy . . . . . . . Hydroelectric power 8 . . . . Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . Other 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 63.50 20.40 2.51 21.67 14.61 0.24 4.07 2.63 0.01 1.43 -5.73 2.66 1.94 0.07 0.55 8.39 (Z) 0.85 7.47 67.86 29.52 21.80 12.27 0.24 2.67 2.65 0.01 (Z) 1973 63.58 19.49 2.57 22.19 13.99 0.91 4.43 2.86 0.04 1.53 12.68 2.05 1.43 0.08 0.49 14.73 (Z) 1.06 13.47 75.81 34.84 22.51 12.97 0.91 3.06 3.01 0.04 1975 61.36 17.73 2.37 19.64 14.99 1.90 4.72 3.16 0.07 1.50 11.75 2.36 1.76 0.07 0.44 14.11 0.02 0.98 12.95 72.04 32.73 19.95 12.66 1.90 3.29 3.22 0.07 1980 67.24 18.25 2.25 19.91 18.60 2.74 5.49 2.90 0.11 2.48 12.25 3.72 2.42 0.05 1.16 15.97 0.03 1.01 14.66 78.43 34.20 20.39 15.42 2.74 3.23 3.12 0.11 0.01 1985 67.72 18.99 2.24 16.98 19.33 4.15 6.03 2.97 0.20 2.86 7.87 4.23 2.44 0.06 1.66 12.10 0.05 0.95 10.61 76.78 30.92 17.83 17.48 4.15 3.61 3.40 0.20 0.02
1

1990 70.85 15.57 2.18 18.36 22.46 6.16 6.16 3.05 0.35 2.67 14.08 4.87 2.77 0.09 1.82 18.95 0.07 1.55 17.12 84.19 33.55 19.30 19.10 6.16 1 6.17 9 3.14 1 0.36 1 0.02

1995 71.29 13.89 2.44 19.10 22.03 7.18 6.68 3.21 0.32 3.04 18.00 4.54 2.32 0.16 1.99 22.54 0.24 2.90 18.86 90.94 34.55 22.16 20.02 7.18 6.85 3.47 0.34 0.02

1996 72.58 13.72 2.53 19.36 22.68 7.17 7.15 3.59 0.34 3.10 19.33 4.66 2.37 0.16 2.06 23.99 0.20 3.00 20.27 93.91 35.76 22.56 20.94 7.17 7.39 3.92 0.35 0.02

1997 72.53 13.66 2.50 19.39 23.21 6.68 7.14 3.72 0.33 2.98 20.94 4.57 2.19 0.16 2.10 25.52 0.19 3.06 21.74 94.32 36.27 22.53 21.44 6.68 (NA) 3.94 0.33 0.02

1998 72.55 13.24 2.42 19.29 23.72 7.16 6.78 3.35 0.33 2.99 22.51 4.34 2.05 0.16 1.97 26.86 0.22 3.22 22.91 94.57 36.93 21.92 21.59 7.16 (NA) 3.55 0.34 0.02

1999 72.52 12.54 2.51 19.30 23.33 7.73 7.18 3.23 0.33 3.51 23.08 3.82 1.53 0.16 1.96 26.92 0.23 3.64 22.53 96.60 37.71 22.10 21.70 7.73 (NA) 3.42 0.33 (NA)

- Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available. Z Less than 50 trillion. 1 There is a discontinuity in this time series between 1989 and 1990 due to the expanded coverage of nonelectric utility use of renewable energy beginning in 1990. 2 Includes lease condensate. 3 Includes wood, wood waste, peat, wood liquors, railroad ties, pitch, wood sludge, municipal solid waste, agricultural waste, straw, tires, landfill gases, fish oils, and/or other waste. 4 Exports minus imports. 5 Includes imports of crude oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in 1977. Includes imports of unfinished oils and natural gas plant 6 7 Petroleum products supplied, including natural gas plant liquids and crude oil burned as fuel. Includes liquids. supplemental gaseous fuels. 8 Includes net imports of electricity. 9 There is a discontinuity in this time series between 1989 and 1990; beginning in 1990, pumped storage is removed and expanded coverage of industrial use of hydroelectric power is included. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review through 1985; thereafter, Monthly Energy Review, March.

No. 943. Energy Supply and Disposition by Type of Fuel—Estimates, 1997 to 1999, and Projections, 2005 to 2020
[In quadrillion British thermal units (Btu). Projections are ‘‘reference’’ or mid-level forecasts. See report for methodology and assumptions used in generating projections] Type of fuel Production, total . . . . . . . . . . . . Crude oil and lease condensate. Natural gas plant liquids . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear power . . . . . . . . . . . . Imports, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crude oil 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum products 2 . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other imports 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Exports, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumption, total . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum products 5 . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear power . . . . . . . . . . . . Renewable energy/other 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Projections 1997 73.30 13.66 2.57 19.43 23.28 8.71 25.34 17.88 3.89 3.06 0.54 4.45 2.09 0.16 2.19 94.41 36.43 22.60 21.34 6.71 7.00 1998 73.46 13.23 2.49 19.40 23.89 7.19 26.85 18.60 3.99 3.37 0.59 4.16 1.94 0.17 2.05 94.88 37.21 21.99 21.50 7.19 8.67 1999 73.05 12.72 2.50 18.88 23.48 7.46 27.49 19.02 4.01 3.68 0.78 3.79 2.00 0.18 1.60 96.39 37.94 22.05 21.89 7.46 6.56 2005 74.85 11.35 2.57 20.25 25.79 7.20 34.36 21.49 5.37 4.52 0.99 3.76 1.94 0.24 1.59 105.26 41.21 24.57 24.72 7.20 7.08 2010 77.61 10.96 2.90 23.09 26.18 6.70 37.50 24.91 6.80 4.91 0.88 3.89 1.97 0.29 1.63 111.26 43.98 27.69 25.12 6.70 7.41 2015 80.35 11.01 3.21 25.73 26.63 5.45 40.16 24.97 8.88 5.31 0.89 3.75 1.95 0.35 1.44 116.66 46.65 30.68 25.84 5.46 7.71 2020 82.18 11.13 3.36 27.13 27.36 4.56 42.67 25.22 10.87 5.61 0.97 3.76 1.93 0.35 1.46 120.95 48.05 32.38 26.60 4.65 7.99

1 2 Includes imports of crude oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Includes imports of finished petroleum products, imports of unfinished oils, alcohols, ethers, and blending components. 3 Includes coal, coal coke (net), and electricity (net). 4 Includes crude oil and petroleum products. 5 Includes natural gas plant liquids, crude oil consumed as a fuel, and nonpetroleum based liquids for blending, such as ethanol. 6 Includes net electricity imports, methanol, and liquid hydrogen.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook.

Energy 583
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 944. Selected Energy Indicators—Summary: 1970 to 1999
[Btu=British thermal unit. For Btu conversion factors, see text, this section. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] Item AVERAGE ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGE 1 Gross domestic product 2 . . Energy production, total 3 . . Crude oil 4 . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy consumption, total 3 Petroleum products . . . . Natural gas (dry) . . . . . . Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PER CAPITA 5 (mil. Btu) Energy production . . . . . . . . . . Energy consumption . . . . . . . . Energy consumption per dollar of GDP 2 (1,000 Btu) . . . 304 326 0.1 294 351 0.1 278 334 0.1 290 345 0.1 289 323 0.1 284 337 0.1 265 339 0.1 272 343 0.1 271 346 0.1 274 354 0.1 271 352 0.1 268 350 0.1 266 354 0.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 4.6 4.2 6.4 2.2 4.6 4.8 6.4 4.8 1.9 -0.2 -0.9 -0.2 1.4 1.9 1.9 -0.2 -0.8 -2.3 -3.8 3.4 -1.4 -1.1 -6.1 -3.1 0.9 0.2 13.7 1.2 -0.7 -1.6 13.7 -1.6 0.8 1.4 0.2 -1.2 -0.4 -0.1 -0.1 -1.2 -0.1 1.7 2.0 -3.4 2.8 5.1 -0.5 -1.9 2.8 -1.9 2.6 -2.4 -4.9 1.1 -6.6 2.1 0.9 1.1 0.9 4.0 3.6 -2.7 4.0 8.8 2.2 2.4 4.0 2.4 2.6 0.6 -1.5 -1.3 -0.4 1.9 -0.3 -1.3 -0.3 3.5 1.8 -1.2 1.4 2.9 3.2 3.4 1.4 3.4 4.2 -0.1 -0.5 0.2 2.3 0.4 1.4 0.2 1.4 4.2 -3.1 -0.5 2.2 0.3 1.8 -0.5 1.8 4.1 1 -5.4 -1.7 2.1 2.1 2.1 1970 1973 1975 1980 1985 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

- Represents zero. 1 Represents percent change from immediate prior year; for example, 1970, change from 1965. Percent change derived from Btu values. 2 Gross domestic product in chained (1996) dollars. For definition of chained, see text, Section 14, Income. 3 Includes types of fuel or power, not shown separately. 4 Includes lease condensate. 5 Based on resident population estimated as of July 1. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review, and Monthly Energy Review.

No. 945. Energy Consumption by End-Use Sector: 1970 to 1999
[There exits a discontinuity in the series between 1989 and 1990 due to the expanded coverage of nonelectric utility use of renewable energy beginning 1990. Btu=British thermal units. For Btu conversion factors, see text, this section] Residential and commercial (quad. Btu) 22.11 24.50 24.33 25.51 25.94 26.72 26.55 25.53 26.13 26.59 26.57 27.42 27.62 27.75 28.49 29.83 30.43 29.48 30.14 30.03 31.12 31.37 32.26 33.67 33.64 33.68 34.17 Industrial and miscellaneous (quad. Btu) 29.65 32.69 29.46 31.46 32.36 32.79 34.02 32.21 30.93 27.78 27.60 29.75 29.09 28.50 29.68 30.92 31.58 32.15 31.80 33.01 33.30 34.35 34.70 35.71 35.85 35.54 36.50 Percent of total Transportation (quad. Btu) 16.10 18.61 18.25 19.10 19.82 20.61 20.47 19.69 19.50 19.07 19.14 19.81 20.07 20.82 21.46 22.31 22.57 22.54 22.13 22.47 22.89 23.52 23.97 24.52 24.82 25.36 25.92 Residential and commercial 32.6 32.3 33.8 33.5 33.2 33.3 32.8 32.6 34.1 36.2 36.2 35.6 36.0 36.0 35.8 35.9 36.0 35.0 35.9 35.1 35.6 35.2 35.5 35.9 35.7 35.6 35.4 Industrial and miscellaneous 43.7 43.1 40.9 41.4 41.4 40.9 42.0 41.1 40.4 37.8 37.6 38.7 37.9 37.0 37.3 37.2 37.3 38.2 37.8 38.6 38.1 38.5 38.2 38.0 38.0 37.6 37.8 Transportation 23.7 24.5 25.3 25.1 25.4 25.7 25.3 25.1 25.5 26.0 26.1 25.7 26.1 27.0 26.9 26.9 26.7 26.8 26.3 26.3 26.2 26.4 26.4 26.1 26.3 26.8 26.8

Year

Total consumption (quad. Btu) 67.86 75.81 72.04 76.07 78.12 80.12 81.04 78.43 76.57 73.44 73.32 76.97 76.78 77.06 79.63 83.07 84.59 84.19 84.06 85.51 87.31 89.23 90.94 93.91 94.32 94.57 96.60

1970 . . . . . . . . 1973 . . . . . . . . 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

584 Energy
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 946. Energy Consumption—End-Use Sector and Selected Source by State: 1997
[In trillions of Btu (94,063.6 represents 94,063,600,000,000,000), except as indicated. For Btu conversion factors, see text, this section] Per capita2 (mil. Btu) End-use sector Residential Commercial IndusTranstrial portation Petroleum Natural gas (dry) Source Hydroelectric power 3,880.4 121.2 11.3 127.9 36.3 447.5 21.6 11.8 10.6 45.9 1.2 151.0 1.1 5.8 8.3 0.1 34.9 15.3 68.7 16.4 14.0 26.9 95.4 15.2 138.3 17.2 26.7 24.2 -0.9 2.7 337.2 61.2 35.3 5.2 29.1 486.3 16.9 7.4 21.7 92.9 107.0 24.8 14.0 32.1 2.1 1,058.7 11.8 25.6 14.2
4

State Total1 United States. . . . . 94,063.6 Alabama . Alaska . . Arizona. . Arkansas California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Coal

Nuclear electric power 6,678.1 314.2 311.4 150.9 324.1 -1.3 244.0 323.1 542.5 44.1 89.6 143.5 140.4 45.8 232.8 114.9 114.9 95.1 98.5 84.8 147.7 314.1 344.7 162.9 718.7 477.1 261.8 396.9 45.3 287.7 66.3 41.6 -

351.3 18,402.5 14,918.1 335,797.4 24,945.6 36,382.5 22,691.1 20,986.4 219.1 64.7 250.6 118.9 1,249.5 242.7 193.2 43.8 109.2 778.5 400.7 24.1 81.8 719.2 300.0 158.3 173.1 215.3 230.2 57.9 323.8 382.7 572.3 225.5 138.6 337.9 54.7 121.8 91.9 55.9 523.4 105.6 1,168.8 418.4 44.3 651.9 203.7 185.0 592.4 51.5 193.0 40.6 339.2 1,130.7 114.7 28.6 451.1 321.7 95.7 279.1 42.8 983.5 398.8 240.1 446.2 2,322.5 298.3 139.0 103.2 3.5 565.1 840.3 77.3 205.7 1,398.5 1,278.1 472.5 390.4 841.2 2,758.4 283.5 302.6 301.7 1,123.7 656.8 434.3 375.6 148.5 170.5 199.2 77.0 669.5 215.8 905.6 792.1 177.5 1,673.0 553.3 406.0 1,463.7 47.3 661.8 63.6 748.5 6,551.0 249.7 41.7 543.8 779.3 389.1 768.4 243.0 441.2 184.9 399.3 275.1 2,817.4 331.8 216.6 65.7 28.2 1,280.1 813.7 117.0 117.9 844.8 618.9 270.7 274.7 434.6 777.4 112.0 372.9 430.3 792.7 446.0 351.9 587.8 103.6 184.6 179.6 88.3 845.5 234.7 962.4 658.4 76.8 927.3 381.2 311.7 946.1 65.7 345.1 78.6 553.4 2,390.4 201.7 51.4 632.1 636.8 178.8 403.7 103.8 546.6 244.8 432.1 316.7 3,281.2 397.9 439.5 130.2 34.5 1,691.4 980.6 217.8 163.4 1,293.6 878.3 375.5 371.7 642.4 1,592.1 261.7 529.4 746.0 1,051.7 647.5 453.5 729.9 175.4 239.4 210.6 162.1 1,253.0 215.7 1,531.9 889.1 121.2 1,299.2 466.6 368.0 1,350.0 104.1 469.0 115.2 703.6 5,247.0 261.8 88.7 819.9 852.5 277.7 562.0 149.0 335.5 425.4 134.0 267.0 1,982.0 309.6 140.7 48.1 34.8 509.0 371.4 2.7 69.0 1,099.7 563.3 257.1 334.5 239.3 1,855.0 6.3 214.5 388.6 995.4 360.5 264.1 286.4 61.7 131.9 132.1 21.1 642.8 274.4 1,260.3 221.9 58.9 939.2 566.7 179.5 717.9 84.9 158.7 36.1 291.1 4,061.2 172.1 8.2 252.0 241.9 169.9 405.0 107.9 858.8 11.7 369.4 246.8 49.2 356.0 28.0 48.6 1.0 697.3 771.9 3.3 6.4 964.2 1,427.3 390.0 310.8 985.2 225.4 4.8 290.2 122.9 774.6 341.2 132.2 666.7 160.7 193.3 166.3 44.5 75.0 288.4 306.1 733.1 386.5 1,409.7 367.4 16.4 1,462.1 0.1 361.6 42.4 673.5 1,507.1 365.5 0.1 384.8 80.5 922.5 488.4 466.5

1,977.5 457.7 333.7 697.3 1,145.3 48.8 1,152.4 253.2 262.4 1,030.2 408.2 190.0 7,727.5 239.9 1,338.1 1,133.4 795.8 267.2 176.6 3,614.7 2,588.4 239.5 497.7 3,900.2 2,683.6 1,136.4 1,033.1 1,809.6 4,093.0 553.4 1,360.0 1,534.1 3,259.1 1,685.8 1,123.7 1,748.9 377.5 617.1 584.4 303.9 2,585.4 647.1 4,093.2 2,425.2 355.8 4,144.3 1,405.2 1,132.9 3,900.7 235.1 291.3 243.5 363.5 334.0 246.2 345.8 201.4 411.1 324.7 457.0 398.1 394.9 463.1 940.6 444.4 267.0 250.9 333.1 359.6 411.3 323.4 429.6 372.6 348.8 259.0 260.5 247.0 54.4 35.7 991.0 533.6 21.2 92.4 937.7 486.6 234.9 194.9 318.6 327.1 100.0 360.7 419.4 770.4 357.5 198.9 447.6 70.8 140.2 113.7 82.7

Colorado. . . Connecticut . Delaware . . District of Columbia . Florida . . . . Georgia Hawaii . Idaho . . Illinois . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Iowa . . . Kansas. . Kentucky Louisiana Maine. . .

Maryland . . . . Massachusetts. Michigan. . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi . . .

Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . Oregon. . . . . Pennsylvania . Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

321.0 547.0 375.6 91.0 225.6 1,056.3 326.5 556.3 555.1 57.1 369.6 424.0 349.3 324.6 238.2 892.2 267.1 230.2 898.5 70.6

South Carolina. South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia. . . . . Washington . . West Virginia . Wisconsin . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . .

. 1,474.2 . 241.9 . 2,084.2 . 11,396.1 . 691.2 . . . . . . 167.1 2,126.4 2,164.2 809.2 1,835.4 428.3

389.0 274.4 331.0 59.1 387.5 443.0 588.8 1,324.1 334.7 125.2 283.9 315.8 386.2 445.7 352.9 892.2 45.4 499.4 426.5 145.6 384.2 38.7

1 Sources of energy includes geothermal, wood and waste, and net interstate sales of electricity, - Represents zero. including losses, not shown separately. 2 Based on estimated resident population as of July 1. 3 Includes net imports of coal coke not allocated by state. 4 A negative number occurs when more electricity is expended than is created to provide electricity during peak demand periods.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data Report, annual.

Energy 585
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 947. Energy Expenditures—End-Use Sector and Selected Source by State: 1996
[In millions of dollars ($567,318 represents $567,318,000,000). End-use sector and electric utilities exclude expenditure sources such as hydropower, solar, wind, and geothermal. Also excludes expenditures for reported amounts of energy consumed by the energy industry for production, transportation, and processing operations] End-use sector State Total U.S. . . . . . AL . AK. AZ . AR. CA. CO CT. DE. DC FL . GA HI . ID . IL . IN . IA . KS. KY. LA . ME MD MA MI . MN MS MO MT NE. NV. NH NJ . NM NY. NC ND OH OK OR PA . RI . SC. SD. TN. TX . UT. VT . VA . WA WV WI . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Source Trans- Petroleum portation products 208,632 3,682 1,266 3,669 2,322 23,853 3,054 2,366 585 266 10,421 6,028 973 1,138 7,706 5,092 2,383 2,104 3,682 4,762 1,103 3,554 4,199 6,684 3,996 2,486 4,927 989 1,635 1,614 871 6,461 1,623 8,825 5,858 647 8,257 2,954 2,838 8,318 664 2,884 723 4,664 17,420 1,849 514 5,457 5,151 1,446 3,849 818 266,595 4,312 1,520 4,005 2,625 25,651 3,521 3,605 822 306 12,121 7,017 1,338 1,471 9,879 6,257 3,166 2,802 4,755 7,643 1,923 4,471 5,871 8,499 5,176 3,091 5,884 1,290 1,999 1,812 1,328 8,382 1,824 12,117 7,332 894 10,321 3,390 3,200 10,656 941 3,545 981 5,507 30,027 2,125 794 6,544 5,806 2,062 4,908 1,075 Natural gas 91,769 1,298 252 574 981 8,879 1,097 932 232 281 1,928 1,995 42 226 5,382 2,743 1,220 1,083 1,036 3,751 43 1,220 2,622 4,264 1,537 749 1,615 258 612 590 146 3,532 512 7,913 1,275 163 5,139 1,884 610 4,314 473 741 158 1,340 10,365 529 40 1,448 909 568 2,014 250 Coal 27,522 1,345 26 534 406 87 362 54 75 2 1,205 1,234 6 13 1,492 1,782 402 318 1,107 333 12 432 211 1,102 391 205 635 113 120 232 73 132 385 463 1,067 411 1,898 349 21 2,113 539 42 789 1,900 374 525 136 1,119 562 389 Electricity sales 213,645 3,884 485 4,019 2,216 21,568 2,244 2,991 704 747 12,588 6,484 1,152 821 9,688 4,668 2,157 2,025 3,067 4,442 1,137 3,928 4,993 6,806 3,090 2,326 4,002 611 1,196 1,338 1,059 6,925 1,172 14,682 7,068 466 9,831 2,398 2,197 10,157 716 3,771 483 4,587 17,386 1,042 525 5,349 3,531 1,308 3,113 499

Residential 138,691 2,234 334 2,125 1,363 11,970 1,563 2,387 463 288 7,515 3,906 417 466 7,064 3,178 1,650 1,344 1,780 2,237 915 2,851 3,875 5,033 2,310 1,334 2,996 403 830 727 817 5,075 658 11,118 4,277 332 6,604 1,661 1,232 7,598 669 1,993 398 2,621 9,509 707 429 3,710 2,086 881 2,553 206

Commercial 100,209 1,342 344 1,711 728 10,748 1,250 1,699 293 763 4,916 2,702 415 338 4,814 1,691 915 1,029 1,074 1,480 487 2,091 3,223 3,726 1,252 867 1,940 289 631 504 512 4,303 653 10,342 2,571 226 4,407 1,068 874 4,428 443 1,167 231 1,938 6,834 550 239 2,500 1,446 520 1,499 193

Industrial 119,786 2,557 235 1,069 1,400 8,617 1,013 797 350 17 2,265 3,006 482 608 5,504 4,145 1,701 1,374 2,509 6,641 654 1,086 1,790 4,316 2,311 1,276 1,670 490 717 792 324 2,925 493 3,805 3,117 494 6,288 1,651 1,114 5,465 268 2,133 277 2,380 21,307 601 186 1,784 1,647 1,155 2,255 656

567,318 9,816 2,180 8,574 5,812 55,187 6,881 7,248 1,692 1,334 25,117 15,642 2,288 2,550 25,089 14,106 6,649 5,850 9,045 15,120 3,158 9,583 13,087 19,758 9,869 5,963 11,532 2,171 3,814 3,637 2,525 18,764 3,427 34,089 15,823 1,699 25,556 7,333 6,058 25,810 2,044 8,177 1,629 11,604 55,070 3,708 1,368 13,451 10,330 4,002 10,156 1,873

- Represents zero. 1 Includes sources not shown separately. Total expenditures are the sum of purchases for each source (including electricity sales) less electric utility purchases of fuel. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Price and Expenditure Report, annual.

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 948. Energy Expenditures and Average Fuel Prices by Source and Sector: 1970 to 1997
[82,862 represents $82,862,000,000. For definition of Btu, see text, this section. End-use sector and electric utilities exclude expenditures and prices on energy sources such as hydropower, solar, wind, and geothermal. Also excludes expenditures for reported amounts of energy consumed by the energy industry for production, transportation, and processing operations] Source and sector EXPENDITURES (mil. dol.) Total 1 2 . . . . Natural gas . . . . . Petroleum products Motor gasoline . Coal . . . . . . . . . . Electricity sales . . . Residential sector . Commercial sector. Industrial sector . . Transportation sector 2 . . . . . . . Motor gasoline . Electric utilities . . . AVERAGE FUEL PRICES (dol. per mil. Btu) All sectors . . . . Residential sector . . . Commercial sector. . . Industrial sector . . . . Transportation sector . Electric utilities . . . . .
1

1970

1973

1975

1980

1985

1990

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

.. .. 2 . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

82,862 111,591 171,828 374,359 437,292 10,891 13,933 20,061 51,061 72,938 47,942 65,257 103,372 237,628 223,591 31,596 39,667 59,446 124,408 118,043 4,594 6,251 13,047 22,648 29,723 23,345 33,780 50,680 98,095 149,233 20,151 10,654 16,678 35,379 30,525 -4,316 27,078 15,107 23,502 36,988 22,839 41,068

471,786 64,102 235,224 126,454 28,372 176,737

491,904 75,941 222,936 126,401 27,763 196,579

505,518 77,716 229,804 129,897 27,186 200,883

515,321 74,150 236,937 136,475 26,861 205,932

561,473 85,634 268,071 148,230 27,368 211,011

567,318 91,769 266,595 149,549 27,522 213,645

69,523 99,009 110,057 125,019 126,963 128,423 137,628 138,691 46,888 70,267 78,828 86,474 89,409 91,587 95,798 100,209 94,268 106,835 102,336 105,563 109,112 107,732 120,005 119,786

45,904 70,933 163,680 161,182 180,565 174,847 180,034 187,578 208,041 208,632 38,598 57,992 121,809 115,199 123,742 124,549 127,942 134,471 145,993 147,046 7,817 -16,396 -37,435 -42,558 -38,276 -36,692 -36,166 -34,810 -36,614 -37,815

1.65 2.11 1.96 0.98 2.31 0.32

2.02 2.73 2.56 1.09 2.57 0.46

3.33 3.81 4.09 2.12 4.02 0.96

6.89 7.44 7.88 5.15 8.61 1.75

8.36 10.93 11.71 6.27 8.26 1.85
2

8.29 11.91 12.02 5.25 8.27 1.46

8.27 12.29 12.68 4.99 7.87 1.35

8.31 12.63 12.87 4.92 7.88 1.30

8.29 12.57 12.75 4.74 8.04 1.23

8.77 12.68 12.88 5.49 8.72 1.28

8.82 13.24 13.15 5.20 8.65 1.30

Includes electricity sales; excludes electricity generation.

Includes sources or fuel types not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Price and Expenditure Report, annual.

No. 949. Residential Energy Consumption, Expenditures, and Average Price, 1980 to 1997
[For period April to March for 1980-1985; January to December for 1987 to 1997. Excludes Alaska and Hawaii in 1980. Covers occupied units only. Excludes household usage of gasoline for transportation and the use of wood or coal. Based on Residential Energy Consumption Survey; see source. Btu=British thermal unit; see text, this section] Type of fuel CONSUMPTION Total . . . . . . . . . . . . Avg. per household Natural gas . . . . . . . . . Electricity . . . . . . . . . . Fuel oil, kerosene . . . . . Liquid petroleum gas . . . EXPENDITURES Total . . . . . . . . . . . . Avg. per household Natural gas . . . . . . . . . Electricity . . . . . . . . . . Fuel oil, kerosene . . . . . Liquid petroleum gas . . . AVERAGE PRICE Total . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . Electricity . . . . . . . . Fuel oil, kerosene . . . Liquid petroleum gas . NA Not available. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Consumption and Expenditures, annual through 1983 beginning 1985, triennial. For 1987 and 1993, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures, 1987, 1990, 1993, and 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dol./mil. Btu Dol./mil. Btu . Dol./mil. Btu . Dol./mil. Btu . Dol./mil. Btu . . . . . . . . . . . 6.49 3.36 13.46 6.29 6.71 10.18 5.67 19.98 8.42 9.42 10.73 5.97 21.94 7.64 9.91 10.71 5.41 22.34 5.89 8.91 12.00 5.60 23.60 7.90 11.20 12.38 6.07 24.69 6.52 10.04 13.25 6.78 24.97 15.56 11.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bil. dol.. Dollars . Bil. dol. . Bil. dol. . Bil. dol. . Bil. dol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.2 (NA) 17.8 32.6 10.7 2.1 87.8 (NA) 27.1 48.4 9.6 2.7 97.0 (NA) 29.8 54.5 9.6 3.1 97.7 1,080 26.1 61.6 7.2 2.8 110.2 1,172 27.3 71.5 8.3 3.1 123.91 1,282 32.04 81.08 6.98 3.81 135.79 1,338 35.81 88.33 7.61 4.04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quad. Btu . Mil. Btu . . . Quad. Btu . Quad. Btu . Quad. Btu . Quad. Btu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.74 126 5.31 2.42 1.71 0.31 8.62 103 4.77 2.42 1.14 0.29 9.04 105 4.98 2.48 1.26 0.31 9.13 101 4.83 2.76 1.22 0.32 9.22 98 4.86 3.03 1.04 0.28 10.01 103.6 5.27 3.28 1.07 0.38 10.25 101.5 5.28 3.54 1.07 0.36 Unit 1980 1983 1985 1987 1990 1993 1997

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 950. Residential Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Type of Fuel and Selected Household Characteristic: 1997
[For period January through December. Quad.=quadrillion. See headnote, Table 949] Consumption (Btu) Characteristic Avg. per houseTotal 1 hold1 (quad.) (mil.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.25 8.46 0.51 0.77 0.50 3.48 1.33 1.39 1.71 1.41 0.92 1.02 2.54 3.19 3.49 101 115 92 49 80 125 106 96 87 82 95 76 87 103 125 Natural gas (quad.) 5.28 4.46 0.34 0.32 0.16 2.05 0.77 0.73 0.74 0.56 0.43 0.53 1.30 1.65 1.80 Electricity (quad.) 3.54 2.84 0.12 0.32 0.25 0.74 0.39 0.47 0.80 0.74 0.41 0.33 0.89 1.08 1.24 Fuel oil2 (quad.) 1.01 0.83 0.05 0.12 (B) 0.54 0.15 0.14 0.09 0.06 0.03 0.11 0.22 0.31 0.37 Expenditures Avg. per Total1 house(bil. hold1 dol.) (dol.) 135.8 110.0 6.2 11.9 7.6 39.6 16.8 18.3 25.3 22.5 13.3 13.3 33.7 41.6 47.3 1,338 1,492 1,108 755 1,206 1,420 1,340 1,264 1,291 1,302 1,369 2,013 3,478 2,670 3,434 Natural gas (bil. dol.) 35.81 29.97 2.36 2.46 1.02 14.15 5.30 4.88 4.75 3.83 2.91 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) Electricity (bil. dol.) 88.33 70.33 3.47 8.84 5.68 20.03 10.14 11.85 19.03 17.62 9.66 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
1

Fuel oil2 (bil. dol.) 7.11 6.13 0.35 0.59 (B) 3.77 1.08 0.97 0.63 0.44 0.22 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

Total households . Single family . . . . . . . . 2- to 4-unit building. . . . 5 or more unit building . Mobile home . . . . . . . . Year house built: 1949 or earlier . . . . . 1950 to 1959 . . . . . . 1960 to 1969 . . . . . . 1970 to 1979 . . . . . . 1980 to 1989 . . . . . . 1990 to 1997 . . . . . . 1997 family income: Less than $10,000 . $10,000 to $24,999 . $25,000 to $49,999 . $50,000 or more . . . . . . .

B Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a derived figure. petroleum gas, not shown separately. 2 Includes kerosene.

NA Not available.

Includes liquid

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures, 1987, 1990, 1993, and 1997.

No. 951. Manufacturing Primary Energy Consumption for All Purposes by Type of Fuel and Major Industry Group: 1994
[In trillions of Btu (21,663 represents 21,663,000,000,000). Estimates represented in this table are for the primary consumption of energy for heat and power and as feedstocks or raw material inputs. Primary consumption is defined as the consumption of the energy that was originally produced off-site or was produced on-site from input materials not classified as energy. Examples of the latter are hydrogen produced from the electrolysis of brine; the output of captive (on-site) mines or wells; woodchips, bark, and woodwaste from wood purchased as a raw material input; and waste materials such as wastepaper and packing materials. Primary consumption excludes quantities of energy that are produced from other energy inputs and, therefore, avoids double counting. Based on the 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey and subject to sampling variability] SIC 1 code (X) 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 2813 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 39 Net elec- Residual Total tricity 2 fuel oil 21,663 1,193 (D) 310 (D) 491 69 2,665 112 104 287 (D) 944 2,462 246 243 363 107 (D) 2,656 198 3 111 26 68 22 223 59 80 149 3 123 493 109 113 132 46 19 490 30 1 17 (D) 2 (Z) 173 (D) 10 2 7 43 (D) 3 11 4 1 Distillate fuel Natural oil 3 gas 4 158 19 (D) 7 1 25 1 9 2 (D) 4 (D) 23 13 4 2 7 1 1 6,835 631 (D) 117 25 48 24 575 48 23 110 (D) 432 811 111 88 157 29 19 Coke and Coal breeze 2,105 165 (D) 40 (D) (D) 3 307 (Z) 5 274 922 11 (D) 28 (D) 1 449 (D) 1 8 424 (D) (D) 2 -

Industry All industries . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . . . . Tobacco products . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products. . . . . . . . . . . Apparel and other textile products . Lumber and wood products . . . . . Furniture and fixtures . . . . . . . . . Paper and allied products. . . . . . . Printing and publishing . . . . . . . . Petroleum and coal products . . . . Rubber and misc. plastic products . Leather and leather products . . . . Stone, clay, and glass products . . . Primary metal industries. . . . . . . . Industrial machinery & equipment . Electric and electronic equipment . Transportation equipment . . . . . . . Instruments and related products. . Misc. manufacturing industries . . .

LPG 1,631 (D) (D) 4 (D) (D) 1 5 (D) (D) 3 (D) 4 5 3 2 3 (D) 1

Other

5

7,926 141 (D) 14 (D) 341 18 1,373 2 1 6 (Z) 73 85 5 (S) 23 3 (D)

- Represents or rounds to zero. D Withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments. S Withheld because 1 Standard Industrial Relative Standard Error is greater than 50 percent. X Not applicable. Z Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Classification Code; see text, Section 17, Business. 2 Net electricity is obtained by aggregating purchases, transfers in, and generation from noncombustible renewable resources minus quantities sold and transferred out. Excludes electricity inputs from on-site cogeneration or generation from combustible fuels because that energy has already been included as generating fuel (for example, coal). 3 Includes Nos.1, 2, and 4 fuel oils and Nos. 1, 2, and 4 diesel fuels. 4 Includes natural gas obtained from utilities, transmission pipelines, and any other supplier such as brokers and producers. 5 Includes net steam, and other energy that respondents indicated was used to produce heat and power or as feedstock/raw material inputs. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Manufacturing Energy Consumption: 1994.

588 Energy
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 952. Commercial Buildings—Energy Consumption and Expenditures: 1995
[Covers buildings using one or more major fuel. Excludes industrial buildings, predominantly residential buildings, and buildings of less than 1,000 sq. ft. Based on a sample survey of building representatives and energy suppliers; therefore, subject to sampling variability. For characteristics of commercial buildings, see tables in Section 25, Construction and Housing. For composition of regions, see map, inside front cover] All buildings using any major fuel Building characteristic Number (1,000) All buildings . . . . . . . . . Region: Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Year constructed: 1919 or before . . . . . . . . . . 1920 to 1945 . . . . . . . . . . . 1946 to 1959 . . . . . . . . . . . 1960 to 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 to 1979 . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 to 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 to 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 to 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . Principal activity within building: Assembly 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food sales . . . . . . . . . . . . Food service . . . . . . . . . . . Health care . . . . . . . . . . . . Lodging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mercantile/services . . . . . . . Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warehouse and storage . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Square footage: 1,001 to 5,000 . . . . . . . . . . 5,001 to 10,000 . . . . . . . . . 10,001 to 25,000 . . . . . . . . 25,001 to 50,000 . . . . . . . . 50,001 to 100,000 . . . . . . . . 100,001 to 200,000 . . . . . . . 200,001 to 500,000 . . . . . . . 500,001 and over . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,579 725 1,139 1,750 964 353 562 867 718 813 846 218 202 682 309 137 285 105 158 1,289 705 580 67 261 2,399 1,035 745 213 115 48 19 6 Square feet (mil.) 58,772 11,883 14,322 20,830 11,736 3,673 6,710 9,298 10,858 11,333 12,252 2,590 2,059 8,011 7,740 642 1,353 2,333 3,618 12,728 10,478 8,481 1,004 2,384 6,338 7,530 11,617 7,676 7,968 6,776 5,553 5,313 Consumption (tril. Btu) Major fuel, total 1 Electricity 5,321 1,035 1,497 1,684 1,106 292 508 826 1,024 1,125 1,059 297 190 677 614 137 332 561 461 973 1,019 325 173 51 708 624 824 630 698 687 636 514 2,608 436 558 1,027 587 99 173 325 472 615 648 163 113 252 221 119 166 211 187 508 676 176 75 18 380 238 384 316 363 337 307 282
2

Expenditures (mil. dol.) Natural gas 1,946 297 750 528 371 135 210 391 375 393 288 100 54 232 245 18 158 258 213 395 239 106 55 26 264 272 356 231 243 244 211 125 Major fuel, total 1 Electricity 69,918 16,479 15,076 22,211 16,152 3,310 5,665 9,813 13,135 15,366 15,895 4,011 2,722 7,876 7,129 2,634 4,817 5,261 5,114 14,025 15,849 4,709 1,865 638 11,577 8,063 11,099 8,676 8,824 7,859 7,291 6,530 56,621 13,059 10,946 19,009 13,607 2,290 4,012 7,395 10,405 13,005 13,844 3,318 2,353 5,688 5,168 2,532 3,931 3,901 3,838 11,655 14,020 3,934 1,473 481 9,696 6,055 8,911 7,005 7,194 6,283 5,908 5,568 Natural gas 9,018 1,739 2,947 2,560 1,772 655 966 1,796 1,750 1,695 1,397 510 249 1,145 1,117 97 851 838 966 1,979 1,150 559 197 119 1,483 1,439 1,775 1,159 1,091 958 729 385

1 Includes fuel oil, propane, and purchased steam not shown separately. and religious worship.

Includes public assembly, public order and safety,

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures, 1995.

No. 953. Energy Prices: 1980 to 1998
Product Crude oil domestic first purchase price: Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leaded regular . . . . . . . . . . . Unleaded regular. . . . . . . . . . Premium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas, residential . . . . . Heating oil, residential . . . . . . Coal, all . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electricity, total . . . . . . . . . . . Uranium, domestic purchases . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1980 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Dol/bbl . . Dol/bbl . . Cents/gal. Cents/gal. Cents/gal. Cents/gal.

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

21.6 37.9 122.1 119.1 124.5 (NA) 3.7 97.4 24.7 4.7 (NA)

20.0 23.2 121.7 114.9 116.4 134.9 5.8 106.3 21.8 6.6 15.7

16.0 17.4 119.0 (NA) 112.7 131.6 5.9 93.4 21.0 6.8 13.5

14.3 15.2 117.3 (NA) 110.8 130.2 6.2 91.7 19.9 6.9 13.1

13.2 13.7 117.4 (NA) 111.2 130.5 6.4 88.4 19.4 6.9 10.3

14.6 14.9 120.5 (NA) 114.7 133.6 6.1 86.7 18.8 6.9 11.1

18.5 18.5 128.8 (NA) 123.1 141.3 6.3 98.9 18.5 6.9 13.8

17.2 16.9 129.1 (NA) 123.4 141.6 6.9 98.4 26.2 6.9 12.9

10.87 10.54 112.0 (NA) 106 125.0 6.8 85.2 17.7 6.74 12.3

Dol/1,000 cu. ft. . . Cents/gal. . . . . . . Dol/short tons. . . . Cents/kilowatthour. Dol/lb . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 In chained (1992) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price deflators. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

Energy 589
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 954. Fossil Fuel Prices in Current and Constant (1996) Dollars: 1970 to 1999
[In cents per million British thermal units (Btu). All fuel prices taken as close to the point of production as possible. See text, this section, for explanation of Btu conversions from mineral fuels] Fuel CURRENT DOLLARS Composite 1 . . . . . Crude oil. . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . Bituminous coal 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.32 0.55 0.15 0.27 0.40 0.67 0.20 0.37 0.82 1.32 0.40 0.84 2.04 3.72 1.45 1.10 2.51 4.15 2.26 1.15 1.84 3.45 1.55 1.00 1.67 2.46 1.84 0.93 1.53 2.27 1.67 0.91 1.47 2.52 1.40 0.88 1.82 3.18 1.96 0.87 1.81 2.97 2.10 0.85 1.41 1.87 1.75 0.83 1.63 2.68 1.86 0.83 1970 1973 1975 1980 1985 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

CONSTANT (1996) DOLLARS Composite 1 . . . . . Crude oil. . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . Bituminous coal 2 . . .
1

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

1.09 1.89 0.53 0.92

1.18 2.00 0.60 1.09

2.05 3.30 1.00 2.11

3.58 6.52 2.54 1.93

3.41 5.64 3.06 1.56

2.13 3.99 1.79 1.15

1.78 2.61 1.96 0.99

1.59 2.37 1.74 0.94
2

1.50 2.57 1.43 0.90

1.82 3.18 1.96 0.87

1.77 2.92 2.06 0.84

1.36 1.82 1.70 0.81

1.55 2.56 1.78 0.80

Weighted by relative importance of individual fuels in total fuels production.

Includes subbituminous and lignite.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

No. 955. Energy Imports and Exports by Type of Fuel: 1970 to 1998
[In quadrillion of Btu. For definition of Btu, see text, this section] Type of fuel Net imports:1 Coal . . . . . . . . . Natural gas (dry). Petroleum . . . . . Other 2 . . . . . . . Imports: Coal . . . . . . . . . Natural gas (dry). Petroleum . . . . . Other 2 . . . . . . . Exports: Coal . . . . . . . . . Natural gas (dry). Petroleum . . . . . Other 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 -0.96 0.23 0.98 -0.08 (Z) 0.26 1.48 (Z) 0.96 0.03 0.50 0.08 1973 -1.01 0.32 2.93 0.01 (Z) 0.36 3.50 0.04 1.01 0.04 0.57 0.03 1975 -3.24 1.06 5.76 0.08 0.02 1.15 6.77 0.16 3.26 0.09 1.01 0.07 1980 -4.60 3.98 10.42 -0.08 0.03 4.21 12.54 0.05 4.63 0.23 2.12 0.13 1985 -4.39 2.79 12.57 -0.03 0.07 3.05 17.47 0.04 4.47 0.26 4.90 0.08 1990 -4.42 2.71 12.67 0.02 0.09 2.97 16.90 0.07 4.51 0.27 4.23 0.05 1993 -2.83 4.41 7.59 0.11 0.22 4.77 11.74 0.12 3.09 0.36 4.15 0.06 1994 -2.58 4.50 7.78 0.23 0.23 4.90 11.14 0.13 2.85 0.40 3.36 0.04 1995 -3.24 3.86 6.39 0.27 0.25 4.23 9.95 0.16 3.57 0.37 3.56 0.05 1996 -3.41 5.33 11.01 0.18 0.24 5.79 15.27 0.11 3.69 0.46 4.25 0.06 1997 -3.13 6.02 9.37 0.20 0.26 6.50 16.93 0.12 3.39 0.47 7.55 0.05 1998 -2.75 5.82 7.33 0.25 0.28 6.33 13.01 0.14 3.00 0.42 5.67 0.04

Z Less than .005 quadrillion Btu. 1 Net imports equals imports minus exports. Minus sign (-) denotes an excess of exports over imports. 2 Coal coke and small amounts of electricity transmitted across U.S. borders with Canada and Mexico. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

No. 956. U.S. Foreign Trade in Selected Mineral Fuels: 1973 to 1998
[Minus sign (-) indicates an excess of imports over exports] Mineral fuel NATURAL GAS Imports . . . . . . . . Bil. cu. ft. . . . . . Exports . . . . . . . . Bil. cu. ft. . . . . . Net trade . . . . . . . Bil. cu. ft. . . . . . CRUDE OIL Imports 1 . . . . . . . Mil. bbl. . . . . . . Exports . . . . . . . . Mil. bbl. . . . . . . Net trade . . . . . . . Mil. bbl. . . . . . . PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Imports . . . . . . . . Mil. bbl. . . . . . . Exports . . . . . . . . Mil. bbl. . . . . . . Net trade . . . . . . . Mil. bbl. . . . . . . COAL Imports . . . . . . . . 1,000 sh. tons . 127 940 1,194 1,952 2,699 8,870 9,473 8,115 7,487 Exports . . . . . . . . 1,000 sh. tons . 53,587 66,309 91,742 92,680 105,804 71,359 88,547 90,473 83,545 Net trade . . . . . . . 1,000 sh. tons . 53,460 65,369 90,548 90,728 103,105 62,489 79,074 82,358 76,058
1

Unit

1973

1975

1980

1985

1990

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1,033 77 -956

953 73 -880

985 49 -936

950 55 -894

1,532 86 -1,446

2,624 162 -2,462

2,841 154 -2,687

2,937 153 -2,784

2,994 157 -2,837

3,152 159 -2,993

1,184 1 -1,183

1,498 2 -1,496

1,926 105 -1,821

1,168 75 -1,093

2,151 40 -2,112

2,578 36 -2,542

2,639 35 -2,604

2,740 40 -2,700

3,002 39 -2,963

3,178 40 -3,138

1,099 84 -1015

712 74 -638

603 94 -509

681 211 -470

775 273 -502

706 308 -398

586 312 -274

719 318 -402

707 318 -389

731 327 -404

8,724 78,048 69,324

Beginning 1980, includes strategic petroleum reserve imports.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

590 Energy
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 957. Crude Oil Imports Into the United States by Country of Origin: 1970 to 1998
[In millions of barrels (483 represents 483,000,000). Barrels contain 42 gallons] Country of origin Total imports . . . Total OPEC 1 . . . . . Persian Gulf 2, total . . Arab OPEC . . . . . . . . . Algeria . . . . . . . . . . Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . Kuwait 3 . . . . . . . . . Qatar . . . . . . . . . . . Saudi Arabia 3 . . . . . United Arab Emirates. Other OPEC 2, total . . . Indonesia . . . . . . . . Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . Venezuela . . . . . . . . Non-OPEC 4, total. Canada . . . . . . . . . Ecuador 5 . . . . . . . . Gabon . . . . . . . . . . Malaysia . . . . . . . . . Mexico . . . . . . . . . . Norway. . . . . . . . . . Trinidad and Tobago . United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 1973 1975 1980 1985 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 3,178 1,518 746 746 (NA) 123 109 1 512 1 772 18 251 503 1,656 462 (NA) 9 482 81 19 59

483 1,184 1,498 1,921 1,168 2,151 2,220 2,477 2,578 2,643 2,748 3,002 183 765 1,172 1,410 479 1,283 1,243 1,317 1,307 1,303 1,280 1,376 23 52 2 12 15 23 160 26 17 98 245 245
44

293 258 44 1 15 3 169 26 472 73 164 126 419 365
44

409 404 96 1 1 7 256 43 763 138 272 144 326 219 4 14 10 (NA) 26 4 42 (Z)

550 713 166 10 10 8 456 63 860 115 307 57 511 73 23 9 (NA) 185 53 42 63

89 110 31 17 1 48 13 390 107 102 112 689 171 28 19 (NA) 261 11 36 101

657 680 23 188 29 1 436 3 625 36 286 243 869 235 33 23 (NA) 251 35 28 57

597 608 9 14 585 646 26 243 302

598 607 9 126 468 4 720 24 264 369

589 597 8 112 473 4 717 34 228 377

539 549 10 78 460 1 764 23 226 421

544 547 3 86 457 1 735 16 218 477

597 599 2 33 92 472 779 19 252 509

(NA) (Z) -

(NA) (Z) 22 -

977 1,160 1,271 1,340 1,410 1,624 292 329 359 380 394 437 36 35 42 36 45 55 71 84 67 84 (NA) 4 2 2 2 3 288 315 343 375 442 496 43 50 69 95 107 105 26 20 23 23 21 20 73 114 145 125 79 62

1 OPEC (Organization of - Represents zero. NA Not available. Z Represents less than half the unit of measure. Petroleum Exporting Countries) includes the Persian Gulf nations shown below, except Bahrain, which is not a member of OPEC, 2 and also includes nations shown under ‘‘Other OPEC’’. Excludes petroleum imported into the United States indirectly from 3 members of the OPEC countries. Imports from the Neutral Zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia are included in Saudi Arabia. 4 Includes petroleum imported into the United States indirectly from member of OPEC, primarily from Caribbean and West European areas, as petroleum products that were refined from crude oil produced by OPEC. 5 Ecuador withdrew from OPEC on Dec. 31, 1992; therefore, it is included under OPEC for the period 1973 to 1992.

Source: 1970, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbooks, Vol. I; thereafter, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Annual, Vol. I.

No. 958. Crude Oil and Refined Products—Summary: 1973 to 1999
[Barrels of 42 gallons. Data are averages] Crude 0il (1,000 bbl. per day) Year Domestic Input to producrefineries tion 12,431 12,133 12,442 13,416 14,602 14,739 14,648 13,481 12,470 11,774 11,685 12,044 12,002 12,716 12,854 13,246 13,401 13,409 13,301 13,411 13,613 13,866 13,973 14,195 14,662 14,889 14,807 9,208 8,774 8,375 8,132 8,245 8,707 8,552 8,597 8,572 8,649 8,688 8,879 8,971 8,680 8,349 8,140 7,613 7,355 7,417 7,171 6,847 6,662 6,560 6,465 6,452 6,252 5,925 Imports Total
1 3

Refined oil products (1,000 bbl. per day)

Strategic reserve (X) (X) (X) (X) 21 161 67 44 256 165 234 197 118 48 73 51 56 27 10 15 12 6

Ex- Domestic ports demand 2 3 6 8 50 158 235 287 228 236 164 181 204 154 151 155 142 109 116 89 98 99 95 110 108 110 118 17,308 16,653 16,322 17,461 18,431 18,847 18,513 17,056 16,058 15,296 15,231 15,726 15,726 16,281 16,665 17,283 17,325 16,988 16,714 17,033 17,237 17,718 17,725 18,309 18,620 18,917 19,389

Imports 3,012 2,635 1,951 2,026 2,193 2,008 1,937 1,646 1,599 1,625 1,722 2,011 1,866 2,045 2,004 2,295 2,217 2,123 1,844 1,805 1,833 1,933 1,605 1,971 1,936 2,002 1,964

Total oil imports 2 (1,000 bbl. per Exday) ports 229 218 204 215 193 204 236 258 367 579 575 541 577 631 613 661 717 748 885 861 904 843 855 871 896 835 822
2

Crude oil stocks (mil. bbl.)

Total 242 265 271 285 348 376 430 466 594 644 723 796 814 843 890 890 921 908 893 893 922 929 895 850 868 895 852

Strategic reserve (X) (X) (X) (X) 7 67 91 108 230 294 379 451 493 512 541 560 580 586 569 575 587 592 592 566 563 571 567

1973 . . . . . 1974 . . . . . 1975 . . . . . 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,244 3,477 4,105 5,287 6,615 6,356 6,519 5,263 4,396 3,488 3,329 3,426 3,201 4,178 4,674 5,107 5,843 5,894 5,782 6,083 6,787 7,063 7,230 7,508 8,225 8,706 8,588

6,256 6,112 6,056 7,313 8,807 8,363 8,456 6,909 5,996 5,113 5,051 5,437 5,067 6,224 6,678 7,402 8,061 8,018 7,627 7,888 8,620 8,996 8,835 9,478 10,162 10,708 10,551

1 Includes Strategic Petroleum Reserve. - Represents zero. X Not applicable. Petroleum Reserve imports) plus refined products. 3 End of year.

Crude oil (including Strategic

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review.

Energy 591
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 959. Petroleum and Coal Products Corporations—Sales, Net Profit, and Profit Per Dollar of Sales: 1980 to 1999
[Represents SIC Group 29. Profit rates are averages of quarterly figures at annual rates. Beginning 1990, excludes estimates for corporations with less than $250,000 in assets] Item Sales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net profit: Before income taxes . . . . . . After income taxes . . . . . . . Depreciation1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Profits per dollar of sales: Before income taxes . . . . . . After income taxes . . . . . . . Profits on stockholders’ equity: Before income taxes . . . . . . After income taxes . . . . . . .
1

Unit

1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1999

Bil. dol . . 333.2 320.9 318.5 282.2 278.0 266.1 268.2 283.1 323.5 320.0 250.4 288.4 Bil. dol . . Bil. dol . . Bil. dol . . Cents . . Cents . . Percent . Percent . 39.1 25.5 11.6 11.7 7.7 30.7 20.0 17.7 12.7 22.1 5.5 4.0 11.7 8.5 23.1 17.8 18.7 7.3 5.6 16.4 12.7 12.1 10.8 18.0 4.3 3.8 8.6 7.6 2.0 3.1 18.3 0.4 0.9 1.6 2.5 14.9 13.0 17.4 5.6 4.9 11.8 10.2 17.2 14.9 17.1 6.3 5.5 13.2 11.4 16.5 13.9 16.7 5.8 4.9 12.6 10.6 32.6 26.6 15.9 10.1 8.2 23.2 18.9 36.8 29.4 15.6 11.5 9.2 23.5 18.9 9.7 8.3 14.7 3.5 3.1 6.0 5.2 20.7 17.7 14.0 7.0 5.9 13.5 11.5

Includes depletion and accelerated amortization of emergency facilities. Source: 1980, U.S. Federal Trade Commission; thereafter, U.S. Census Bureau, Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing, Mining and Trade Corporations.

No. 960. Major Petroleum Companies—Financial Data Summary: 1973 to 1999
[Data represent a composite of approximately 42 major worldwide petroleum companies aggregated on a consolidated total company basis] Item FINANCIAL DATA (bil. dol.) Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation, depletion, etc . . . . . . . . . . . Cash flow1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dividends paid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net internal funds available for investment or debt repayment 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital and exploratory expenditures . . . . . Long-term capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preferred stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common stock and retained earnings 3 . Excess of expenditures over cash income 4 RATIOS
5

1973

1975

1980

1985

1990

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

. . . .

11.8 10.5 22.3 4.0

11.6 11.3 22.8 4.7

32.9 32.5 65.4 9.3

19.4 53.0 72.4 12.0

26.8 38.7 65.5 15.9

20.3 38.9 59.2 16.4

24.3 43.1 67.4 17.6

39.7 44.4 84.1 18.9

40.0 46.0 86.0 20.1

14.5 61.0 75.5 20.9

35.0 45.9 80.9 23.2 57.7 66.2 402.3 106.8 3.9 291.6 8.5 26.5 8.9 12.4

. 18.3 18.1 56.1 60.4 49.6 42.8 49.8 65.2 65.9 54.6 . 16.3 26.9 62.1 58.3 59.6 51.5 59.8 59.3 75.3 83.9 . 102.9 121.1 211.4 272.1 300.0 299.0 304.3 336.6 372.5 382.0 . 22.5 28.9 49.8 93.5 90.4 89.1 85.4 80.8 86.1 103.9 . 0.4 0.4 2.0 3.3 5.2 5.4 5.7 5.8 5.1 3.9 . 80.0 91.9 159.6 175.3 204.4 204.5 213.2 250.0 281.3 274.2 . -2.0 8.9 6.0 -2.1 10.0 8.7 10.0 -5.9 9.4 29.3 22.0 12.0 15.6 23.8 10.0 13.1 23.6 17.0 22.5 34.4 7.0 10.8 30.1 9.1 13.5 29.8 6.8 10.1 28.1 8.1 11.6 24.0 12.4 17.1 23.1 11.3 15.1 27.2 3.8 5.2

(percent)

Long-term debt to long-term capitalization . . Net income to total average capital . . . . . . . Net income to average common equity . . . .

1 Generally represents internally-generated funds from operations. Sum of net income and noncash charges such as depreciation, depletion, and amortization. 2 Cash flow minus dividends paid. 3 Includes common stock, capital surplus, and 4 Capital and exploratory expenditures plus dividends paid minus cash flow. earned surplus accounts after adjustments. 5 Represents approximate year-to-year comparisons because of changes in the makeup of the group due to mergers and other corporate changes. Source: Carl H. Pforzheimer & Co., New York, NY, Comparative Oil Company Statements, annual.

No. 961. Electric Utility Sales and Average Prices by End-Use Sector: 1970 to 1999
[Prior to 1980, covers Class A and B privately-owned electric utilities; thereafter, Class A utilities whose electric operating revenues were $100 million or more during the previous year] Sales (bil. kWh) Year Total 1970 1973 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Average price of electricity sold (cents per kWh) Current dollars Chained (1996) dollars Industrial 1.0 1.3 2.1 3.7 4.97 4.93 4.77 4.70 4.72 4.74 4.83 4.83 4.85 4.77 4.66 4.60 4.53 4.48 4.42 Total
1 2

Residential 466 579 588 717 794 819 850 893 906 924 955 936 995 1,008 1,043 1,082 1,076 1,128 1,139

Commercial 307 388 403 488 606 631 660 699 726 751 766 761 795 820 863 887 928 969 975

Industrial 571 686 688 815 837 831 858 896 926 946 947 973 977 1,008 1,013 1,030 1,033 1,040 1,050

Total

1

Residential 2.2 2.5 3.5 5.4 7.39 7.42 7.45 7.48 7.65 7.83 8.04 8.21 8.32 8.38 8.40 8.36 8.43 8.26 8.17

Commercial 2.1 2.4 3.5 5.5 7.27 7.20 7.08 7.04 7.20 7.34 7.53 7.66 7.74 7.73 7.69 7.64 7.59 7.41 7.20

Residential 7.6 7.4 8.7 9.5 10.0 9.8 9.6 9.3 9.2 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.4 8.3 8.0 7.8

Commercial 7.2 7.1 8.7 9.6 9.9 9.6 9.1 8.8 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.4 7.2 6.9

Industrial 3.4 3.9 5.2 6.5 6.7 6.6 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.2

1,392 1,713 1,747 2,094 2,324 2,369 2,457 2,578 2,647 2,713 2,762 2,763 2,861 2,935 3,013 3,098 3,140 3,240 3,265

1.7 2.0 2.9 4.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.7 6.6

5.8 6.0 7.2 8.2 8.7 8.6 8.2 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.0 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.3

1 Includes other sectors not shown separately. 2 Based on the GDP implicit price deflator. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

592 Energy
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 962. Electric Utility Industry—Net Generation, Net Summer Capability, Generating Units, and Consumption of Fuels: 1980 to 1998
[Net generation for calendar years; other data as of December 31] Item RETAIL SALES Retail sales, total . . . . . . . . . Net generation by electric utilities. . . Purchases by utilities from nonutility purchasers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Losses and unaccounted for . . . . . . NET GENERATION Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bil. kWh . . Average annual change 1 . . . . . . Percent . . . Net generation, kWh per kW of net summer capability 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Rate . . . . . Source of energy: Coal 3 . . . . . . . Nuclear . . . . . . Oil . . . . . . . . . Gas . . . . . . . . Hydro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent . . . . . . . . . . . 2,286 3.5 3,951 50.8 11.0 10.8 15.1 12.1 276 1,726 28 251 6 2,808 0.9 4,067 55.6 20.5 4.2 9.4 10.1 280 1,919 14 577 11 2,797 -1.0 4,024 56.3 22.1 3.2 9.4 8.7 240 1,908 21 619 10 2,883 3.0 4,119 56.9 21.2 3.5 9.0 9.3 265 1,964 25 610 10 2,911 1.0 4,147 56.2 22.0 3.1 10.0 8.5 244 1,982 36 640 9 2,995 2.8 4,248 55.2 22.5 2.0 10.3 9.9 294 1,977 44 673 6 3,077 2.7 4,333 57.0 22.0 2.0 9.0 11.0 328 2,018 49 675 7 3,123 1.5 (NA) 57.3 20.1 2.5 9.1 10.9 337 2,094 55 629 (NA) 3,212 2.9 (NA) 56.3 21.0 3.4 9.6 9.6 304 2,158 69 674 (NA) Bil. kWh . . Bil. kWh. . . Bil. Bil. Bil. Bil. kWh. kWh. kWh. kWh. . . . . . . . . 2,094 2,286 1 25 4 214 2,713 2,808 116 23 21 214 2,763 2,797 166 37 9 229 2,861 2,883 189 39 11 238 2,935 2,911 209 52 8 223 3,013 2,995 222 47 9 232 3,098 3,077 229 47 9 277 3,140 3,123 243 (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,240 3,212 259 (NA) (NA) (NA) Unit 1980 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Type of prime mover: 4 Hydro . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steam conventional 5 . . . Gas turbine and internal combustion . . . . . . . . . Steam nuclear . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . Bil. kWh. . . . . . . . . Bil. kWh. . . . . . . . . Bil. kWh. . . . . . . . . Bil. kWh. . . . . . . . . Bil. kWh. . .

NET SUMMER CAPABILITY Total 6 . . . . . . . . . . . Average annual change 1 Hydro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steam conventional 7 . . . . Gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . Steam nuclear . . . . . . . . . Internal combustion . . . . . . Geothermal and other . . . . Combined cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. kW . Percent . Mil. kW . Mil. kW . Mil. kW . Mil. kW . Mil. kW . Mil. kW . Mil. kW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 3.3 82 397 43 52 5 1 (NA) 691 0.8 91 448 46 100 5 2 (NA) 695 0.3 93 447 50 99 5 2 (NA) 700 0.7 96 447 52 99 5 2 (NA) 702 0.3 96 446 55 99 5 2 (NA) 705 0.4 97 446 57 99 5 2 (NA) 710 0.7 94 442 53 101 5 2 14 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 687 (NA) 94 423 53 97 5 2 14

NUMBER OF GENERATING UNITS Total 8 . . . . . . Hydro . . . . . . . . . . Steam conventional. Gas turbine . . . . . . Steam nuclear . . . . Internal combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number Number . Number . Number . Number . Number . . . . . . . . 11,084 10,296 10,221 10,471 10,427 10,396 10,422 . 3,275 3,479 3,497 3,388 3,362 3,337 3,480 . 2,862 2,354 2,307 2,221 2,170 2,157 2,153 . 1,447 1,460 1,501 1,411 1,446 1,486 1,542 . 74 111 109 109 109 109 110 . 3,410 2,847 2,807 2,976 2,953 2,920 2,884 (NA) 3,346 (NA) (NA) 110 (NA) 10,207 3,406 2,022 1,490 104 2,929

CONSUMPTION OF FOSSIL FUELS Net generation Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of total . . . Petroleum . . . . . . . . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . by fuel 9. ....... ....... ....... ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quad. Btu . Quad. Btu . Percent . . . Quad. Btu . Quad. Btu . 18.56 12.12 65.30 2.63 3.81 569 421 3,682 20.32 16.19 79.68 1.25 2.88 774 200 2,787 19.99 16.21 81.09 0.95 2.83 780 152 2,766 20.58 16.79 81.58 1.05 2.74 814 169 2,682 20.92 16.90 80.78 0.97 3.05 817 155 2,987 20.92 16.99 81.21 0.66 3.28 829 102 3,197 21.44 17.91 83.5 0.73 2.81 875 113 2,732 (NA) 18.44 (NA) 0.84 3.03 900 125 2,968 (NA) 18.72 (NA) 1.17 3.32 911 179 3,258

Fuel consumed: Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. sh. tons Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. bbl. . . . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bil cu. ft. . .

NA Not available. 1 Change from immediate prior year except for 1980, change from 1975. For explanation of average annual percent change, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. 2 Net summer capability is the steady hourly output that generating equipment is expected to supply to system load, exclusive of auxiliary power as demonstrated by test at the time of summer peak demand. 3 Includes small percentage (.5 percent) from wood and waste, geothermal, and petroleum coke. 4 A prime mover is the engine, turbine, water wheel, or similar machine which drives an electric generator. 5 Fossil fuels only. 6 Includes wind, solar thermal, and photovoltaic, not shown separately. 7 Includes fossil steam, wood, and waste. 8 Each prime mover type in combination plants counted separately. Includes geothermal, wind, and solar, not shown separately. 9 Includes small amounts of wood, waste, wind, geothermal, solar thermal, and photovoltaic. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 1980, Power Production, Fuel Consumption, and Installed Capacity Data-Annual, and unpublished data; thereafter, Electric Power Annual, Annual Energy Review, and unpublished data.

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No. 963. Electric Utility Industry—Capability, Peak Load, and Capacity Margin: 1980 to 1998
[Excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Capability represents the maximum kilowatt output with all power sources available and with hydraulic equipment under actual water conditions, allowing for maintenance, emergency outages, and system operating requirements. Capacity margin is the difference between capability and peak load] Capability at the time of— Year Summer peak load (1,000 kW) Change from prior year 13,731 13,982 13,923 10,307 7,791 17,357 11,694 14,827 13,462 11,736 11,775 5,824 4,521 1,186 8,735 11,237 9,349 5,508 -1,837 Winter peak load (1,000 kW) Change from prior year 17,670 14,374 11,497 14,387 9,672 14,350 10,246 16,256 13,963 8,309 11,508 6,455 4,540 4,205 3,133 12,589 12,847 3,248 -1,383 Noncoincident peak load Capacity margin Summer Amount (1,000 kW) 131,179 142,870 170,524 148,923 153,090 161,094 156,971 151,933 132,120 149,884 139,554 139,595 146,729 118,894 117,665 93,973 108,042 97,724 78,548 Percent of capability 23.5 25.0 29.1 25.0 25.3 25.9 24.8 23.4 20.0 22.3 20.4 20.2 21.1 17.1 16.7 13.2 14.9 13.4 10.8 Winter Amount (1,000 kW) 187,628 188,769 224,081 201,674 185,751 212,815 223,864 214,700 210,407 188,871 212,743 217,777 214,769 190,224 196,837 182,995 195,465 183,546 169,284 Percent of capability 32.8 32.2 37.5 32.9 29.9 33.4 34.6 32.4 31.1 27.6 30.5 31.0 30.3 26.7 27.5 25.1 26.4 24.7 22.8

Amount 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558,237 572,219 586,142 596,449 604,240 621,597 633,291 648,118 661,580 673,316 685,091 690,915 695,436 694,250 702,985 714,222 723,571 729,079 727,242

Amount 572,195 586,569 598,066 612,453 622,125 636,475 646,721 662,977 676,940 685,249 696,757 703,212 707,752 711,957 715,090 727,679 740,526 743,774 742,391

Summer 427,058 429,349 415,618 447,526 451,150 460,503 476,320 496,185 529,460 523,432 545,537 551,320 548,707 575,356 585,320 620,249 615,529 631,355 648,694

Winter 384,567 397,800 373,985 410,779 436,374 423,660 422,857 448,277 466,533 496,378 484,014 485,435 492,983 521,733 518,253 544,684 545,061 560,228 573,107

Source: Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC, Statistical Yearbook of the Electric Utility Industry, annual.

No. 964. Electric Energy Sales by Class of Service and by State, 1999
[In billions of kilowatt-hours (3,265.4 represents 3,265,400,000,000)] State Total . . . . . . . Alabama . Alaska . . Arizona . . Arkansas. California. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

Total

1

Residential 1,139.5 26.7 1.9 22.6 13.9 75.6 13.2 11.6 3.6 1.6 93.6 40.9 2.7 6.8 39.4 28.7 11.8 11.5 22.2 26.3 3.7 23.5 17.3 30.7 18.2 16.0

Commercial 975.2 15.3 2.4 20.1 8.3 90.0 17.4 11.8 3.4 8.1 70.0 33.5 2.9 6.4 40.3 19.7 8.0 11.9 12.0 17.5 3.5 25.1 22.5 35.0 11.1 9.8
2

Industrial 1,050.4 36.2 0.9 11.7 16.2 60.3 9.3 6.0 3.8 0.2 17.1 33.8 3.7 8.3 43.3 46.8 15.7 9.7 38.5 31.3 4.7 10.0 10.2 36.3 26.8 16.7

State Missouri . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico. . New York . . . North Carolina North Dakota . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total

1

Residential 27.5 3.6 8.0 8.3 3.6 24.6 4.6 41.7 43.4 3.3 46.5 18.2 17.9 44.5 2.7 23.3 3.3 35.3 107.3 6.3 2.0 35.5 33.0 9.4 19.6 2.1

Commercial 23.9 3.1 6.7 6.0 3.5 32.3 6.0 46.9 34.7 2.6 38.9 12.6 14.3 38.2 2.9 16.6 2.3 12.6 79.7 7.4 1.9 26.8 23.1 6.5 17.0 2.6

Industrial 15.7 2.5 6.9 10.8 2.5 13.3 5.8 25.4 34.3 1.8 71.7 12.9 16.6 48.4 1.4 31.5 1.9 44.1 98.3 7.5 1.5 20.0 33.5 11.1 26.6 7.1

3,265.4 78.9 5.3 57.2 39.1 230.4 40.9 29.7 10.7 10.4 186.4 109.6 9.4 21.9 131.6 95.7 36.9 33.4 75.9 77.9 11.9 59.4 50.6 102.8 56.8 43.3

68.0 9.4 23.0 26.0 9.7 70.6 17.9 126.9 114.5 8.2 161.3 46.4 49.4 132.4 7.1 72.4 7.9 93.0 298.7 22.0 5.4 92.3 93.2 27.1 63.9 12.3

Colorado . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . Delaware. . . . . . Dist. of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . Georgia Hawaii . Idaho . . Illinois . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . Tennessee. . . Texas . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia . . . . Washington . West Virginia Wisconsin . . Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Iowa . . . . Kansas . . Kentucky . Louisiana Maine . . .

Maryland . . . . . Massachusetts . Michigan . . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi. . . .
1

Includes other service not shown separately.

Estimated.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual.

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No. 965. Electric Energy—Net Generation and Net Summer Capability by State: 1990 to 1998
[Capacity as of Dec. 31. (2,808.2 represents 2,808,200,000,000). Covers utilities for public use] Net generation (bil. kWh) State 1998 Percent from coal 56.3 63.0 3.7 44.6 53.6 93.3 9.8 60.3 38.6 64.3 53.6 98.2 86.0 67.6 95.7 31.4 59.9 31.4 81.2 68.0 36.7 Net summer capability (mil. kW) Net generation (bil. kWh) State 1998 Percent from coal 83.4 59.8 63.8 64.6 24.7 15.6 87.6 20.3 61.0 92.3 87.9 60.3 7.2 61.3 38.4 34.0 58.5 45.3 4.8 49.3 9.6 99.3 75.7 96.8 Net summer capability (mil. kW)

1990

1995

Total

1995 706.1 20.5 1.7 15.2 9.6 43.3 6.6 6.7 2.2 0.8 35.9 22.3 1.6 2.6 33.1 20.7 8.2 9.7 15.4 17.0 2.4 11.0 9.3 22.0 8.9 7.2

1998 711.9 20.8 1.8 15.2 9.7 43.7 6.9 6.3 2.3 0.8 36.7 23.1 1.6 2.6 33.5 20.2 8.2 9.8 15.7 17.1 1.5 11.1 9.4 21.9 9.2 7.2 MO . MT . NE . NV . NH . NJ. . NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI . SC SD TN TX UT VT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990 48.9 15.5 16.3 14.1 6.0 29.4 24.7 108.6 72.1 15.8 110.2 44.6 36.6 122.5 1.0 41.9 8.6 60.2 203.0 32.1 3.8 34.3 92.3 70.8 37.8 22.4

1995 65.4 25.4 25.3 20.0 13.9 27.1 29.4 101.2 96.1 28.8 137.9 48.0 44.0 168.9 0.7 78.4 8.8 82.3 261.7 35.2 4.8 52.7 95.7 77.3 51.0 39.7

Total 74.9 27.6 28.7 26.6 14.2 35.9 31.4 115.8 113.1 30.5 146.4 51.5 46.4 173.9 2.1 84.4 9.1 94.1 293.1 94.4 4.4 63.8 97.1 89.6 52.5 44.7

1995 15.7 4.9 5.5 5.6 2.5 13.8 5.1 32.1 20.6 4.5 27.4 12.9 10.4 33.7 0.4 16.7 3.0 16.1 64.4 4.9 1.1 14.3 24.3 14.5 11.5 6.0

1998 16.2 4.9 5.8 5.6 2.5 13.7 5.2 30.0 21.1 4.7 26.6 12.9 10.5 33.8 0.4 17.4 2.9 17.4 64.9 1.1 15.3 25.3 14.5 11.8 6.0

U.S . . 2,286.4 2,994.5 3,212.2 AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL. GA HI . ID . IL . IN . IA . KS KY LA ME MD MA MI . MN MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78.3 3.1 36.9 19.7 140.3 23.6 24.7 6.7 0.7 95.9 63.3 6.5 9.5 103.4 70.6 21.8 25.1 57.1 45.7 7.9 32.2 34.8 74.8 31.5 18.5 99.6 4.8 69.0 39.5 121.9 32.7 26.9 8.3 0.2 147.2 102.0 6.2 10.1 145.2 105.2 33.5 38.2 86.2 65.6 2.7 44.7 27.0 92.5 42.5 26.4 113.4 4.6 81.3 43.2 114.9 35.5 15.1 6.3 0.2 169.4 108.7 6.3 12.0 131.3 112.8 37.1 41.5 86.2 66.1 3.5 48.5 26.0 85.1 44.0 32.0

VA . WA . WV . WI. . WY .

- Represents zero. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual, Electric Power Monthly, December issues, and Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, annual.

No. 966. Nuclear Power Plants—Number of Units, Net Generation, and Net Summer Capability by State: 1998
Net generation State Number of units U.S. . . . AL . AZ . AR . CA . CT . FL . GA . IL. . IA . KS . LA . ME. MD. MA. MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total (mil. kWh) Percent of total1 21 25 37 30 30 21 18 29 42 10 25 25 (NA) 28 22 15
1

Net summer capability Total (mil. Percent kW) of total1 99.7 4.9 3.8 1.7 4.3 2.6 3.9 4.0 12.6 0.5 1.2 2.0 1.7 0.7 3.9 14.0 23.4 24.9 17.5 9.9 41.8 10.6 17.1 37.6 6.5 11.9 11.8 15.1 7.1 17.9 State Number of units MN. MS. MO NE . NH . NJ . NY . NC . OH. PA . SC . TN . TX . VT . VA . WA WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 1 2 1 4 6 5 2 9 7 3 4 1 4 1 3

Net generation Total (mil. kWh) 11,644 9,191 8,517 8,259 8,387 27,132 31,314 38,778 16,476 61,149 48,759 28,388 38,685 3,358 27,234 6,916 9,397 Percent of total1 25 29 11 29 59 76 27 34 11 35 58 30 13 76 43 7 18

Net summer capability Total (mil. Percent kW) of total1 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.2 3.9 5.0 4.7 2.0 9.0 6.4 3.4 4.8 0.5 3.4 1.2 1.4 17.1 16.8 7.1 21.7 46.3 28.2 16.5 22.6 7.7 26.6 36.8 19.3 7.4 45.3 22.2 4.6 12.1

107 673,702 5 3 2 4 3 5 4 13 1 1 2 2 1 4 28,663 30,301 13,097 34,594 3,243 31,115 31,380 55,596 3,768 10,411 16,428 (NA) 13,331 5,698 12,494

- Represents zero.

NA Not available.

For total capability and generation, see Table 965.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual and Electric Power Monthly, December issues.

Energy 595
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 967. Nuclear Power Plants—Number, Capacity, and Generation: 1980 to 1999
Item Operable generating units 1 . . . . . Net summer capability 1 2 (mil. kW) Net generation (bil. kWh) . . . . . . . Percent of total electric utility generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity factor 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2

1980

1985

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999 104 97.2 727.9 19.8 85.5

. 71 96 112 111 109 110 109 109 109 107 104 . 51.8 79.4 99.6 99.6 99.0 99.1 99.1 99.5 100.8 99.7 97.1 . 251.1 383.7 577.0 612.6 618.8 610.4 640.5 673.4 674.7 628.6 673.7 . . 11.0 56.3 15.5 58.0 19.1 66.0 19.9 70.2 20.1 70.9 19.1 70.5 19.7 73.8 20.1 77.4 19.6 76.2 18.0 71.1 18.6 78.2

As of year-end. Net summer capability is the peak steady hourly output that generating equipment is expected to supply to system load, exclusive of auxiliary and other power plant, as demonstrated by test at the time of summer peak demand. 3 Weighted average of monthly capacity factors. Monthly factors are derived by dividing actual monthly generation by the maximum possible generation for the month (hours in month times net maximum dependable capacity). Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

No. 968. Uranium Supply and Discharged Commercial Reactor Fuel: 1980 to 1998
[Years ending Dec. 31. For additional data on uranium, see Section 24, Natural Resources on mining] Item URANIUM CONCENTRATE Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility purchases from domestic suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loaded into U.S. nuclear reactors 1 Inventories, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . At domestic suppliers . . . . . . . . At electric utilities . . . . . . . . . . . Average prices: Purchased imports . . . . . . . . . . Domestic purchases . . . . . . . . . DISCHARGED COMMERCIAL REACTOR FUEL 2 Annual discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metric tons . Inventory, year-end 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Metric tons . 1,193 1,330 2,084 2,102 1,809 2,292 6,434 12,481 21,029 27,039 28,848 31,140 2,174 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) . Mil. lb . . . . . Mil. lb . . . . . Mil. lb . . . . . . . . . Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. lb lb lb lb lb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43.70 5.8 3.6 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 11.31 5.3 11.7 21.7 (NA) 176.9 23.7 153.2 20.08 31.43 8.89 2.0 23.7 20.5 (NA) 129.1 26.4 102.7 12.55 15.70 3.06 3.0 21.0 15.5 45.1 105.7 24.5 81.2 10.53 13.14 3.35 17.7 36.6 22.7 40.4 86.9 21.5 65.4 8.95 10.30 6.04 9.8 41.3 22.3 51.1 72.5 13.7 58.7 10.20 11.11 6.32 11.5 45.4 22.9 46.2 80.0 13.9 66.1 13.15 13.81 5.64 17.0 43.0 18.7 48.2 106.2 40.4 65.9 11.81 12.87 4.71 15.1 43.7 20.3 38.3 137.6 70.7 66.9 11.19 12.31 Unit 1980 1985 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998, prel.

. Dol. per lb . . Dol. per lb .

NA Not available. 1 Does not include any fuel rods removed from reactors and later reloaded into the reactor. 2 Uranium content. Source: Nuclear Assurance Corporation, Atlanta, GA. 3 Reprocessed fuel not included as inventory. Source: Except as noted, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review, Uranium Industry Annual and unpublished data.

No. 969. Electric Utilities—Generation, Sales, Revenue, and Customers: 1980 to 1998
[Sales and revenue are to and from ultimate customers] Class Generation 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential or domestic . . . . Percent of total . . . . . . . . Commercial 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Revenue 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential or domestic . . . . Percent of total . . . . . . . . Commercial 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ultimate customers, Dec. 31 2 Residential or domestic . . . . Commercial 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Avg. kWh used per customer. Residential. . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Avg. annual bill per customer Residential. . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Avg. revenue per kWh sold . . Residential. . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Bil. kWh. Bil. kWh Bil. kWh. Percent . Bil. kWh. Bil. kWh. Bil. dol . Bil. dol. . Percent . Bil. dol. . Bil. dol. . Million . Million . . Million . . Million . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . Dollar . . Dollar . . Dollar . . Cents . . Cents . . Cents . . Cents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 2,286 2,126 734 34.5 524 794 95.5 37.6 39.4 27.4 27.3 92.7 82.2 9.7 0.5 23.2 9.0 54.5 1,040 462 2,848 4.49 5.12 5.22 3.44 1985 2,470 2,306 793 34.4 606 820 149.2 58.6 39.3 44.1 41.4 101.6 89.8 10.9 0.5 22.9 8.9 56.1 1,482 658 4,080 6.47 7.39 7.27 5.04 1990 2,808 2,684 916 34.1 739 932 176.5 71.7 40.7 54.2 44.9 110.1 97.0 12.1 0.5 24.6 9.5 61.3 1,614 744 4,494 6.57 7.83 7.33 4.81 1993 2,883 2,850 994 34.9 803 957 197.9 82.4 41.7 62.0 46.6 115.2 101.3 12.5 0.5 24.9 9.9 64.4 1,727 818 4,977 6.94 8.29 7.73 4.87 1994 2,911 2,935 1,008 34.3 820 1,008 202.7 84.6 41.7 63.4 48.1 116.5 102.3 12.7 0.6 25.2 9.9 65.7 1,741 827 5,076 6.91 8.38 7.73 4.77 1995 2,995 3,013 1,043 34.6 863 1,013 207.7 87.6 42.2 66.4 47.2 118.3 103.9 13.0 0.6 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 6.89 8.40 7.69 4.66 1996 3,077 3,098 1,082 34.9 887 1,030 212.5 90.5 42.6 67.8 47.4 120.0 105.3 13.2 0.6 25.8 10.3 78.0 1,769 859 5,140 6.86 8.36 7.64 4.60 1997 3,123 3,140 1,076 34.4 928 1,033 215.1 90.7 42.2 70.5 46.8 122.1 107.0 13.5 0.6 25.7 10.1 68.7 1,761 849 5,209 6.85 8.43 7.59 4.53 1998 (NA) 3,240 1,128 34.8 969 1,040 218.3 93.2 42.7 71.8 46.5 124.0 108.7 13.8 0.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 6.74 8.26 7.41 4.48

NA Not available. 1 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, monthly. 2 Includes other types not shown separately. 3 Small light and power. 4 Large light and power. Source: Except as noted, Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC, Statistical Yearbook of the Electric Utility Industry, annual.

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No. 970. Major Investor-Owned Electric Utilities—Balance Sheet and Income Account of Privately Owned Companies: 1993 to 1998
[In millions of dollars ($193,638 represents $193,638,000,000). As of Dec. 31. Covers approximately 180 investor-owned electric utilities that during each of the last 3 years met any one or more of the following conditions—1 mil. megawatt-hours of total sales; 100 megawatt-hours of sales for resale, 500 megawatt-hours of gross interchange out, and 500 megawatt-hours of wheeling for other] Item COMPOSITE INCOME ACCOUNTS Operating revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes other than income taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulatory debits (net) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deferred income tax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Investment tax credit (net) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total income before interest charges . . . . . . . . . . . . Net interest charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less allow. for borrowed funds used during const’n . Other charges, net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income before extraordinary charges . . . . . . . . . Less extraordinary items after taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dividends declared - preferred stock . . . . . . . . . . . . Earnings available for common stocks . . . . . . . . . . . Dividends declared - common stock. . . . . . . . . . . . . Additions total earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPOSITE BALANCE SHEET Total assets and other debits Utility plant, net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric utility plant, net . . . . . . . Electric utility plant . . . . . . . . . Construction work in progress . Less accumulated depreciation Nuclear fuel, net . . . . . . . . . . . . Other utility plant, net. . . . . . . . . Other property and investments . . . Current and accrued assets . . . . . . Deferred debits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566,641 393,829 363,829 519,207 18,049 173,427 5,964 24,036 20,064 42,410 110,338 566,641 360,455 (NA) 107,471 52,826 25,304 174,854 206,186 11,478 48,879 145,829 104,964 13,429 27,436 574,512 397,812 366,936 535,928 17,148 186,140 5,657 25,219 23,479 41,263 111,957 574,512 364,725 164,483 109,522 54,961 24,860 175,382 209,787 13,453 48,035 148,299 107,055 12,784 28,460 578,934 397,383 366,116 553,858 13,523 201,265 5,286 25,981 27,988 44,140 109,423 578,934 365,775 170,497 111,302 59,195 21,569 173,708 213,159 14,352 49,929 148,877 108,615 12,139 28,123 581,991 396,438 363,854 569,969 11,396 217,510 5,444 27,140 33,120 43,515 108,918 581,991 365,783 174,325 112,633 61,692 18,830 172,627 216,208 15,309 49,342 151,557 110,537 11,491 29,529 586,241 385,258 351,427 579,042 11,164 238,779 5,219 28,613 43,248 47,639 110,096 586,241 369,079 174,467 113,890 60,577 16,080 178,532 217,162 17,086 51,594 148,482 106,394 10,783 31,305 598,951 363,015 328,215 574,716 11,353 257,854 4,791 30,009 48,398 54,491 133,048 598,951 366,814 172,351 113,169 59,182 14,337 180,126 232,137 18,004 57,743 156,389 106,550 9,793 40,047 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193,638 176,354 16,687 597 161,908 146,118 91,328 12,447 18,099 13,040 429 8,297 2,993 -516 15,235 252 14,983 31,730 30,236 1,452 41 33,076 14,700 14,567 555 689 18,376 484 17,891 1,765 16,126 15,334 296 196,282 179,307 16,222 753 164,207 148,663 93,108 12,022 18,679 13,275 706 9,626 1,832 -585 14,878 465 14,413 32,074 30,645 1,344 86 33,884 14,162 13,915 421 667 19,722 -165 19,888 1,582 18,306 15,876 2,063 199,967 183,655 15,580 731 165,321 150,599 91,881 11,767 19,885 13,519 1,142 11,480 1,474 -550 14,073 532 13,541 34,646 33,057 1,507 82 36,457 14,421 14,170 435 687 22,036 -25 22,061 1,519 20,542 16,250 4,282 207,459 188,901 17,869 689 173,920 156,938 97,207 12,050 21,194 13,569 683 11,195 1,617 -577 16,258 224 16,034 33,539 31,963 1,612 -36 35,153 13,990 13,646 326 671 21,162 -66 21,228 1,248 19,980 16,810 2,193 215,083 195,898 18,663 522 182,796 165,443 104,337 12,368 23,072 13,612 616 11,862 25 -448 16,925 585 16,341 32,286 30,454 1,737 95 34,100 14,086 13,768 331 649 20,014 3,151 16,863 1,005 15,857 17,756 -1,960 217,818 201,613 15,735 470 186,103 171,294 110,807 12,451 23,890 12,836 -585 13,078 -535 -649 14,396 668 13,718 31,715 30,319 1,339 57 32,827 13,963 13,654 323 632 18,864 1,344 17,521 756 16,764 17,361 -17 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

CAPITALIZATION AND LIABILITIES Liabilities and other credits. . . . . . . . . . Capitalization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common stock equity (end of year) . . . . . . . Common stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retained earnings (adjusted) . . . . . . . . . . Preferred stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current liabilities and deferred credits . . . . . . . Other noncurrent liabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current and accrued liabilities . . . . . . . . . . . Deferred credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated deferred income taxes . . . . . Accumulated deferred investment tax credit Other deferred credits (adjusted) . . . . . . .

COMPOSITE FINANCIAL INDICATORS Activity: 1. Electric fixed asset (net plant) turnover . . . . . . 2. Total asset turnover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leverage: 3. Current assets to current liabilities . . . . . . . . . 4. Long term debt to capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Preferred stock to capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Common stock equity to capitalization . . . . . . . 7. Total debt to total assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Common stock equity to total assets . . . . . . . . 9. Interest coverage before taxes without AFUDC . Profitability: 10. Profit margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Return on average common stock equity . . . . 12. Return on investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.48 0.34 0.87 48.51 7.02 44.47 32.48 28.29 2.78 9.24 22.32 3.16

0.49 0.34 0.86 48.09 6.82 45.10 32.35 28.63 3.10 10.13 12.24 3.46

0.50 0.35 0.88 47.49 5.90 46.61 31.89 29.45 3.37 11.03 13.17 3.81

0.52 0.36 0.88 47.19 5.15 47.66 31.57 29.95 3.36 10.23 12.31 3.65

0.56 0.37 0.92 48.37 4.36 47.27 32.23 29.76 3.33 7.84 9.67 2.88

0.61 0.36 0.94 49.11 3.91 46.99 32.00 28.78 3.37 8.04 10.10 2.93

... ... ...

NA Not available. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual.

Energy 597
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 971. Nonutility Electric Power Producers—Summary by Type of Fuel: 1990 to 1998
Type of fuel Installed capacity (megawatts). . . . . Coal 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other gas 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum/natural gas (combined) Hydroelectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wood 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waste 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gross generation (mil. kilowatthours) Coal 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other gases 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydroelectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wood 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waste 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 98,085 13,712 2,629 37,325 205 23,105 4,136 1,449 385 1,689 6,887 3,488 421,364 70,369 17,533 238,747 8,866 14,633 9,882 887 3,015 32,596 21,086 . 45,271 49,998 56,814 60,778 68,461 70,254 73,189 74,004 . 6,937 7,351 8,503 9,772 10,372 10,877 11,370 11,027 . 1,038 1,514 1,730 2,043 2,262 2,116 2,251 2,924 . 17,430 20,694 21,542 23,463 26,925 27,906 30,166 31,092 . (4) (4) (4) (4) 1,130 1,217 327 35 . 6,468 5,292 8,478 8,505 9,820 10,479 10,912 10,029 . 1,968 2,072 2,684 2,741 3,364 3,399 3,419 3,770 . 1,086 1,103 1,254 1,318 1,335 1,295 1,346 1,303 . 360 360 360 360 354 354 354 354 . 1,405 1,652 1,822 1,813 1,737 1,723 1,670 1,566 . 6,049 6,708 6,805 7,046 7,416 6,885 7,263 7,282 . 2,323 2,741 3,006 3,131 3,150 3,430 3,463 3,394 . 220,058 251,747 296,001 325,226 354,925 375,901 382,423 384,496 . 32,131 40,587 47,363 53,367 59,035 60,234 61,375 59,211 . 7,330 7,814 10,963 13,364 15,069 15,049 14,959 15,930 . 116,969 131,820 158,798 174,282 179,735 196,633 198,555 207,527 . (4) (4) (4) (4) 12,480 13,984 14,750 11,687 . 8,153 8,180 9,446 11,511 13,227 14,774 16,555 17,902 . 7,235 8,014 8,578 9,749 10,122 9,912 10,198 9,382 . 663 779 746 897 824 824 903 893 . 2,251 2,606 2,916 3,052 3,482 3,185 3,400 3,248 . 30,812 33,785 36,255 37,421 38,595 37,283 37,525 34,898 . 11,688 14,475 17,352 18,325 18,797 20,231 20,412 20,246

1 Includes coal, anthracite, culm and coal waste. 2 Includes petroleum, petroleum coke, diesel, kerosene, and petroleum sludge and tar. 3 Includes butane, ethane, propane, and other gases. 4 Included in ‘‘Natural gas.’’ 5 Includes wood, wood waste, peat, wood liquors, railroad ties, pitch and wood sludge. 6 Includes municipal solid waste, agricultural waste, straw, tires, landfill gases and other waste. Source: Energy Information Administration, Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report.

No. 972. Water Power—Developed and Undeveloped Capacity by Division: 1980 to 1998
[In millions of kilowatts. (64.4 represents 64,400,000). As of Dec. 31. Excludes all capacity of reversible equipment at pumped storage projects. Also excludes capacity precluded from development due to wild and scenic river legislation. For composition of divisions, see map, inside front cover] Division United States . . New England. . . . . Middle Atlantic . . . . East North Central . West North Central . South Atlantic . . . . East South Central . West South Central Mountain . . . . . . . Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Developed installed capacity Estimated undeveloped capacity 1998 64.1 3.9 3.6 1.5 2.8 6.8 2.0 4.0 18.0 21.5

1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 64.4 1.5 4.3 0.9 2.8 5.9 5.6 2.3 7.4 33.7 73.0 1.9 4.9 1.1 3.1 6.7 5.9 2.7 9.2 37.5 74.1 1.9 4.9 1.2 3.1 6.7 5.9 2.7 9.5 38.2 74.2 1.9 4.9 1.2 3.1 6.7 5.9 2.7 9.5 38.3 74.8 2.0 5.0 1.2 3.0 6.8 5.9 2.7 10.0 38.3 73.5 2.0 5.6 1.2 3.0 6.8 5.9 2.8 10.0 36.2 73.8 129.9 2.0 4.7 5.6 5.1 1.2 2.0 3.0 3.4 6.8 9.6 5.9 3.3 2.8 4.7 10.0 34.2 36.5 62.9 73.9 4.4 5.1 1.7 3.1 7.0 2.4 4.6 19.4 26.2 73.5 4.4 4.9 1.7 3.1 7.2 2.4 4.6 19.1 26.1 71.0 4.4 4.9 1.7 3.1 7.2 2.3 4.6 18.8 24.0 70.0 4.4 4.8 1.6 3.0 7.3 2.0 4.6 19.1 22.9 64.1 3.9 3.6 1.5 2.8 6.8 2.0 4.0 18.0 21.5

Source: U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (formerly U.S. Federal Power Commission), Hydroelectric Power Resources of the United States, Developed and Undeveloped, January 1, 1988; and unpublished data.

No. 973. Solar Collector Shipments by Type, End Use, and Market Sector: 1986 to 1998
[In thousands of square feet, except number of manufacturers. Solar collector is a device for intercepting sunlight, converting the light to heat, and carrying the heat to where it will be either used or stored] Collector type Year Number of manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 59 51 44 51 48 45 41 41 36 28 29 28 Medium temperature, special, other 1,111 957 732 1,989 2,527 989 897 931 803 840 785 606 443 End use Market sector

Total shipments 1 9,360 7,269 8,174 11,482 11,409 6,574 7,086 6,968 7,627 7,666 7,616 8,138 7,756

Low temperature 3,751 3,157 3,326 4,283 3,645 5,585 6,187 6,025 6,823 6,813 6,821 7,524 7,292

Pool heating 3,494 3,111 3,304 4,688 5,016 5,535 6,210 6,040 6,813 6,763 6,787 7,528 7,201

Hot water 1,181 964 726 1,374 1,091 989 801 880 790 755 765 595 463

Space heating 127 23 7 205 2 24 35 15 19 132 57 10 67

Residential 4,131 3,775 3,796 5,804 5,835 6,322 6,832 6,694 7,026 6,966 6,873 7,360 7,165

Commercial Industrial 703 305 255 424 294 225 204 215 583 604 682 768 517 13 11 7 42 22 13 27 31 16 82 54 7 62

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

2 2 2 2

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes high temperature collectors, end uses such process heating, and utility and other market sectors not shown separately. 2 Declines between 1986 and 1989 are primarily due to the expiration of the Federal energy tax credit and industry consolidation. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity, annual.

598 Energy
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 974 Renewable Energy Consumption Estimates by Type: 1990 to 1999
[In quadrillion Btu. Renewable energy is obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible unlike fossil fuels of which there is a finite supply] Source and sector Consumption, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential and commercial Biomass 1 . . . . . . . . . . Geothermal energy 2 . . . Solar 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 6.26 0.68 0.62 0.01 0.06 2.24 1.94 0.16 0.10 0.01 0.03 0.08 3.25 0.02 0.19 3.04 (Z) 1995 6.96 0.72 0.64 0.01 0.07 2.69 2.28 0.21 0.15 0.01 0.03 0.10 3.46 0.02 0.12 3.32 (Z) 1996 7.48 0.72 0.64 0.01 0.07 2.80 2.37 0.22 0.17 0.01 0.04 0.07 3.89 0.02 0.12 3.74 (Z) 1997 7.36 0.56 0.48 0.01 0.07 2.81 2.39 0.20 0.19 0.01 0.03 0.10 3.89 0.02 0.12 3.75 (Z) 1998 6.98 0.50 0.42 0.02 0.07 2.84 2.44 0.21 0.15 0.01 0.03 0.11 3.53 0.02 0.11 3.40 (Z) 1999 7.37 0.54 0.46 0.02 0.06 3.37 2.92 0.28 0.13 0.01 0.04 0.11 3.35 0.02 0.04 3.29 (Z)

Industrial 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geothermal energy 6 . . . . . . . . . . Conventional hydroelectric power 7 . Solar energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric utilities 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geothermal energy 10 . . . . . . . . . . . Conventional hydroelectric power 7 11 . Solar and wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 3 Z Less than 0.005 quadrillion Btu. Wood. Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. The solar thermal component of 0.06 quadrillion Btu for residential and commercial use is calculated by presuming an overall efficiency of 50 percent for all three categories of solar thermal collectors, a 1,500-Btu per square foot average daily insulation, and the potential thermal energy production from the 219 million square feet of thermal collectors produced between 1980 and 1999. 4 Generation of electricity by nonutility power producers is included in the industrial sector, not the electric utility sector. Covers facilities of 1 megawatt or greater capacity. 5 Wood, wood waste, wood liquors, peat, railroad ties, wood sludge, spent sulfite liquors, agricultural waste, straw, tires, fish oils, tall oil, sludge waste, waste alcohol, municipal solid waste, landfill gases, and other waste. 6 Geothermal electricity generation, heat pump, and direct use energy. 7 Hydroelectricity generated by pumped storage is not included in renewable energy. 8 Ethanol blended into motor gasoline. 9 For Btu conversion rates, see source Appendix Table 6. 10 Includes electricity from Mexico that are derived from geothermal energy. 11 Includes electricity net imports from Canada that are derived from hydroelectric power.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Renewable Energy Annual.

No. 975. Privately Owned Gas Utility Industry—Balance Sheet and Income Account: 1980 to 1998
[In millions of dollars (75,851 represents $75,851,000,000). The gas utility industry consists of pipeline and distribution companies. Excludes operations of companies distributing gas in bottles or tanks] Item COMPOSITE BALANCE SHEET Assets, total . . . . . . . . Total utility plant . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation and amortization. Utility plant (net). . . . . . . . . . Investment and fund accounts Current and accrued assets . . Deferred debits 1 . . . . . . . . . Liabilities, total . . . . . . Capitalization, total . . . . . . . . Capital stock . . . . . . . . . . Long-term debts . . . . . . . . Current and accrued liabilities. Deferred income taxes 2 . . . . Other liabilities and credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75,851 104,478 121,686 135,813 137,911 141,965 121,328 134,715 67,071 88,121 112,863 135,859 139,372 143,636 135,179 140,268 26,162 36,377 49,483 60,152 61,140 62,723 58,815 62,554 40,909 51,744 63,380 75,707 78,232 80,912 76,364 77,714 15,530 23,871 23,872 23,342 22,658 26,489 13,207 22,812 17,243 24,771 23,268 21,451 20,728 18,564 17,393 19,084 2,169 4,092 9,576 13,369 14,234 13,923 11,983 12,844 75,851 104,478 121,686 135,813 137,911 141,965 121,328 134,775 51,382 65,799 74,958 82,755 85,728 90,581 77,440 78,887 29,315 39,517 43,810 49,051 50,394 54,402 43,555 42,530 22,067 26,282 31,148 33,693 35,296 35,548 33,644 35,971 18,119 26,125 29,550 27,321 25,438 28,272 22,098 33,507 4,149 7,769 11,360 13,070 13,787 14,393 13,326 13,636 2,201 4,785 5,818 12,667 12,955 8,715 8,464 8,745 119,715 135,092 61,226 73,866 12,337 17,348 13,721 119,715 71,718 37,977 33,386 26,953 13,239 7,806 1980 1985 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

COMPOSITE INCOME ACCOUNT Operating revenues, total . Operating expenses 3 . . . . . . . . Operation and maintenance . . Federal, state, and local taxes. Operating income . . . . . . . . . . . Utility operating income . . . . . . . Income before interest charges . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dividends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

. . . . . . . . .

85,918 103,945 81,789 98,320 74,508 88,572 4,847 6,590 4,129 5,625 4,471 6,030 6,929 7,636 4,194 3,785 2,564 4,060

66,027 60,137 51,627 4,957 5,890 6,077 8,081 4,410 3,191

69,966 62,977 50,468 6,185 6,988 7,177 8,754 5,589 3,149

63,446 56,789 43,879 6,613 6,657 6,851 8,200 5,011 3,928

58,390 50,760 37,966 6,182 7,630 7,848 9,484 5,139 4,037

63,600 56,695 43,742 6,362 6,905 7,013 8,030 4,797 4,138

62,617 59,375 46,070 7,182 3,242 3,337 4,193 48 6,258

57,117 50,896 41,026 5,429 6,220 6,361 7,779 4,379 2,263

1 Includes capital stock discount and expense and reacquired securities. 2 Includes reserves for deferred income taxes. Includes expenses not shown separately. Source: American Gas Association, Arlington, VA, Gas Facts, annual (copyright).

Energy 599
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 976. Gas Utility Industry—Summary: 1980 to 1998
[Covers natural, manufactured, mixed, and liquid petroleum gas. Based on questionnaire mailed to all privately and municipally owned gas utilities in United States, except those with annual revenues less than $25,000] Item End users 1 . . . . . . . Residential . . . . . . Commercial . . . . . Industrial and other Sales 2 . . . . . . . . . . Residential . . . . . . Percent of total . Commercial . . . . . Industrial . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . Revenues 2 . . . . . . . Residential . . . . . . Percent of total . Commercial . . . . . Industrial . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . Prices per mil. Btu 3. Residential . . . . . . Commercial . . . . . Industrial . . . . . . . Gas mains mileage . Field and gathering Transmission. . . . . Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1,000 . . . 1,000 . . . 1,000 . . . 1,000 . . . Tril. Btu 3 Tril. Btu . . Percent . . Tril. Btu . . Tril. Btu . . Tril. Btu . . Mil. dol . . Mil. dol . . Percent . . Mil. dol . . Mil. dol . . Mil. dol . . Dollars . . Dollars . . Dollars . . Dollars . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 47,223 43,489 3,498 187 15,413 4,826 31.3 2,453 7,957 177 48,303 17,432 36.1 8,183 22,215 473 3.13 3.61 3.34 2.79 1,052 84 266 702 5,350 1,583 1,869 1,150
3

1985 49,971 45,929 3,816 179 12,616 4,513 35.8 2,338 5,635 130 63,293 26,864 42.4 12,722 23,086 621 5.02 5.95 5.44 4.10 1,119 94 271 754 5,671 1,562 2,577 790

1990 54,261 49,802 4,246 166 9,842 4,468 45.4 2,192 3,010 171 45,153 25,000 55.4 10,604 8,996 553 4.59 5.60 4.84 2.99 1,207 90 280 837 7,899 2,886 3,714 309

1994 57,960 53,243 4,474 181 9,480 4,972 52.4 2,351 2,009 148 49,864 30,563 61.3 12,254 6,475 572 5.23 6.14 5.21 3.17 1,267 72 276 919 9,282 3,065 4,550 230

1995 58,728 53,955 4,530 181 9,094 4,736 52.0 2,204 1,930 224 46,381 28,741 61.9 11,410 5,652 579 5.10 6.06 5.18 3.00 1,262 62 265 935 10,829 3,384 5,448 366

1996 59,820 54,968 4,616 183 9,532 5,198 54.5 2,395 1,791 148 51,115 32,022 62.6 12,726 5,821 546 5.37 6.17 5.31 3.32 1,269 58 260 952 7,722 1,316 4,234 651
4

1997 59,802 54,998 4,593 173 8,913 5,021 56.3 2,244 1,524 124 51,517 33,068 64.2 12,666 5,284 498 5.78 6.59 5.64 3.53 1,258 46 257 955 7,189 1,334 4,404 347

1998 60,437 55,642 4,595 162 8,341 4,693 56.3 2,043 1,489 116 46,924 30,671 65.4 11,189 4,678 387 5.63 6.54 5.48 3.28 1,280 45 254 981 11,941 2,892 6,852 572

. . . . Construction expenditures 4 . Transmission. . . . . . . . . . . Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . Production and storage . . . .
1

Annual average.

2

Excludes sales for resale.

For definition of Btu, see text, this section.

Includes general.

Source: American Gas Association, Arlington, VA, Gas Facts, annual (copyright).

No. 977. Gas Utility Industry—Customers, Sales, and Revenues by State: 1998
[See headnote, Table 986. For definition of Btu, see text, this section] Customers (1,000) Total
2 1

State

Sales 3 (tril. Btu) Total
2

Revenues 3 (mil. dol.) Total
2

Residential

Residential

Residential

State

Customers (1,000) Total
2

1

Sales 3 (tril. Btu) Total
2

Revenues 3 (mil. dol.) Total
2

Residential 1,289 217 444 454 76 2,218 453 4,050 766 102 2,930 865 475 2,274 207 443 132 797 3,545 589 27 829 685 357 1,278 120

Residential 119 20 44 29 7 207 35 358 54 11 304 68 36 216 17 27 13 57 226 59 3 62 63 33 128 13

Residential 772 102 240 203 49 1,457 187 3,214 447 52 1,879 388 232 1,725 160 216 74 369 1,364 315 18 534 346 237 777 57

U.S. . . 60,437 55,642 AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL. GA HI . ID . IL . IN . IA . KS KY LA ME MD MA MI . MN MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 99 716 618 9,536 1,338 486 120 145 594 1,707 37 239 3,803 1,686 866 909 703 740 23 882 1,303 3,247 1,268 454 759 86 674 547 9,099 1,213 439 110 131 544 1,581 34 211 3,521 1,539 774 824 632 693 16 822 1,201 3,009 1,156 407

8,341 117 24 70 80 756 182 89 23 24 67 291 3 28 523 251 136 114 107 268 5 90 174 514 244 77
2

4,693 46,924 30,671 52 16 31 38 513 111 39 9 11 16 157 1 17 397 150 81 73 58 39 1 63 101 370 114 28 678 82 454 430 4,615 844 689 145 203 451 1,158 49 133 2,660 1,448 722 623 597 717 35 686 1,435 2,547 1,107 354 392 58 268 255 3,474 577 398 75 101 166 723 16 85 2,078 955 471 442 354 242 7 516 946 1,876 618 162

MO . MT . NE . NV . NH . NJ. . NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI . SC SD TN TX UT VT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,425 245 504 483 89 2,434 496 4,379 876 117 3,169 956 538 2,467 228 498 150 894 3,878 632 32 915 763 392 1,406 135
3

186 31 80 51 16 489 57 600 140 23 408 118 77 326 28 97 24 144 509 91 8 123 133 47 256 23

1,122 157 392 311 105 2,332 270 4,615 860 97 2,458 597 421 2,387 233 531 126 790 2,551 438 42 876 613 321 1,321 96

VA . WA . WV . WI. . WY .

1

Averages for the year.

Includes other service, not shown separately.

Excludes sales for resale.

Source: American Gas Association, Arlington, VA, Gas Facts, annual (copyright).

600 Energy
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000