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					Section 18

Communications and Information Technology
This section presents statistics on the various communications media: telephone, telegraph, radio, television, newspapers and periodicals, and the usage, finances, and operations of the Postal Service. Expenditure data for advertising in the media are also included. Communication media—The Bureau of the Census Annual Survey of Communication Services (ASCS) covers all employer firms with one or more establishments that are primarily engaged in providing point-topoint communication services, whether by wire or radio, and whether intended to be received aurally or visually. This includes telephone communications, including cellular and other radiotelephone services; telegraph and other message communications, such as electronic mail services, facsimile transmission services, telex services, and so on; radio and television broadcasting stations and networks; cable and other pay television services; and other communication services, such as radar station operations, satellite earth stations, satellite or missile tracking stations, and so on. The report presents statistics that are summarized by kind-of-business classification based on the 1987 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), established in 1934, regulates wire and radio communications. Only the largest carriers and holding companies file annual or monthly financial reports. The FCC has jurisdiction over interstate and foreign communication services, but not over intrastate or local services. The gross operating revenues of the telephone carriers reporting annually to the FCC, however, are estimated to cover about 90 percent of the revenues of all U.S. telephone companies. Data are not comparable with Bureau of the Census Annual Survey of Communication Services because of coverage (ASCS includes all domestic long-distance telephone companies, all local exchange carriers, and all cellular
U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

In Brief
Consumer spending per person in 1996: Basic cable $140 Books $83 Home video $77 Recorded music $57 Daily newspapers $51 Magazines $37 On-line/Internet access services $20 telephone companies) and different accounting practices for those telephone companies which report to the FCC. Reports filed by the broadcasting industry cover substantially all radio and television stations operating in the United States. The private radio services represent the largest and most diverse group of licensees regulated by the FCC. These services provide voice, data communications, point-to-point and point-tomultipoint radio communications for fixed and mobile communicators. Major users of these services are small businesses, the aviation industry, the maritime trades, the land transportation industry, manufacturing industries, state and local public safety and governmental authorities, emergency medical service providers, amateur radio operators, and personal radio operations (CB and the General Mobile Radio Service). The FCC also licenses entities as private and common carriers. Private and common carriers provide fixed and land mobile communications service on a for-profit basis. Principal sources of wire, radio, and television data are the FCC’s Annual Report and its annual Statistics of Communications Common Carriers. Statistics on the printed media are available from the U.S. Bureau of the Census, as well as from various private agencies. The censuses of manufactures (conducted by the Census Bureau every 5 years, for the years ending in “2” and “7”)
Sep. 25, 1998

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

570

Communications and Information Technology
Postal Service—The Postal Service provides mail processing and delivery services within the United States. The Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 created the Postal Service, effective July 1971, as an independent establishment of the Federal Executive Branch.

provide statistics on the number and circulation of newspapers and periodicals and on sales of books and pamphlets. Editor & Publisher Co., New York, NY, presents annual data on the number and circulation of daily and Sunday newspapers in its International Year Book. Monthly data on new books and new editions appear in Publishers Weekly, issued by R. R. Bowker Company, New York. (See Table 937 for annual data.) Advertising—Data on advertising expenditures are compiled primarily by McCann-Erickson, Inc., (see Table 943). Monthly index figures of advertising in certain media are also published periodically by McCann-Erickson in Advertising Age. The Broadcast Advertisers Reports distinguishes between spot and local advertising primarily on the basis of the type of advertiser to whom the time is sold, rather than how and by whom it is sold. In general, time purchased on behalf of retail or service establishments in the market is considered local, even though the establishments may be part of a national or regional chain. That is, spot advertising promotes a product, while local advertising promotes a given establishment. Network advertising, mutually exclusive of spot and local, is broadcast through the network system.

Revenue and cost analysis describes the Postal Service’s system of attributing revenues and costs to classes of mail and service. This system draws primarily upon probability sampling techniques to develop estimates of revenues, volumes, and weights, as well as costs by class of mail and special service. The costs attributed to classes of mail and special services are primarily incremental costs which vary in response to changes in volume; they account for roughly 60 percent of the total costs of the Postal Service. The balance represents “institutional costs.” Statistics on revenues, volume of mail, and distribution of expenditures are presented in the Postal Service’s annual report, Cost and Revenue Analysis, and its Annual Report of the Postmaster General and its Annual Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations.
Statistical reliability—For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Sep. 25, 1998

Communications and Information Technology
No. 911. Gross Domestic Income in Information Technologies (IT) Industries: 1990 to 1998
[In millions of dollars, except as noted] INDUSTRY Total all IT industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent share of the economy . . . . . . . . Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computers and equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computers and equipment wholesale sales . . Computers and equipment retail sales . . . . . . Calculating and office machines, n.e.c. 2 . . . . Electron tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Printed circuit boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Passive electronic components. . . . . . . . . . . Industrial instruments for measurement . . . . . Instruments for measuring electricity . . . . . . . Laboratory analytical instruments . . . . . . . . . Software/services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer programming services. . . . . . . . . . Prepackaged software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer integrated systems design . . . . . . . Computer processing and data preparation. . . Information retrieval services . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer services management. . . . . . . . . . Computer rental leasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer maintenance and repair . . . . . . . . Computer related services, n.e.c. 2 . . . . . . . . Communications hardware 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone and telegraph equipment . . . . . . . Radio and TV and communications equipment Communications services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone and telegraph communications . . . Radio broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable and other pay TV services . . . . . . . . .
2

571

1987 SIC code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) (X) (X) 3571,2,5,7 5045 (pt) 5734 (pt) 3578, 9 3671 3672 3674 3675-9 3823 3825 3826 (X) 7371 7372 7373 7374 7375 7376 7377 7378 7379 (X) 3661 3663 48 481, 2, 9 4832 4833 4841

1

1990 346,971 6.1 116,145 28,677 33,599 1,857 2,607 1,318 4,997 17,855 13,099 3,765 5,352 3,019 59,661 14,903 10,615 9,424 10,256 2,435 1,369 1,588 4,274 3,006 24,465 9,619 11,278 146,700 119,100 3,743 11,757 12,100

1994 466,604 6.7 155,916 31,352 43,249 2,505 2,811 1,357 5,042 36,266 18,435 4,586 6,678 3,635 89,747 22,674 17,730 13,829 15,333 3,188 1,932 1,324 4,740 6,686 36,341 14,236 16,825 184,600 142,100 5,574 15,607 21,320

1995 517,693 7.1 183,580 32,931 50,756 2,514 3,036 1,473 5,719 51,272 19,098 4,999 7,512 4,271 102,595 26,178 19,972 15,025 17,925 3,769 2,135 1,329 5,024 8,549 39,918 14,925 19,862 191,600 144,100 6,150 17,103 24,248

1996 est. 571,734 7.5 209,581 37,154 61,129 2,836 3,173 1,543 6,519 57,933 22,111 5,140 7,766 4,279 116,959 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 44,994 15,614 23,020 200,200 149,600 7,292 18,373 24,936

1997 est. 626,744 7.8 232,130 41,273 67,907 3,151 3,322 1,623 7,105 64,305 25,516 5,345 8,030 4,553 133,333 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 48,107 16,464 25,445 213,174 157,379 8,014 19,354 28,427

1998 est. 682,587 8.1 254,115 45,082 74,173 3,441 3,478 1,717 7,603 70,092 29,802 5,547 8,399 4,781 151,999 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 51,289 17,374 27,854 225,184 163,674 8,696 20,976 31,838

NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification code. See text, Section 13, Labor Force. N.e.c. means not elsewhere classified. 3 Includes other industries, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, The Emerging Digital Economy, April 1998.

No. 912. Information Technologies (IT)—Employment and Wages: 1985 to 1996
INDUSTRY Total private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total IT-producing industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computers and equipment wholesalers . . . . . . . . Computers and equipment retailers . . . . . . . . . . . Computer storage devices & peripheral equipment. Computer terminals, office & accounting, machines, & office machines, n.e.c. 2 . . . . . . . . . Electron tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Printed circuit boards, electronic capacitors, resistors, coils, transformers, & connectors . . . . . Electronic components, n.e.c. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial instruments for measurement . . . . . . . . Instruments for measuring electricity . . . . . . . . . . Analytical instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Software/services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer programming services. . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepackaged software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer integrated systems design . . . . . . . . . . Computer processing & data preparation . . . . . . . Information retrieval services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer services management, rental & leasing, & maintenance & repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer maintenance & repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications equipment 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone and telegraph equipment . . . . . . . . . . Radio and TV communications equipment & communications equipment, n.e.c. 2. . . . . . . . . . Communication services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone & telegraph communications . . . . . . . . Radio broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable & other pay TV services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 SIC code (X) (X) (X) 3571 5045 (pt) 5734 (pt) 3572, 7
1

EMPLOYMENT (1,000) 1985 80,992 4,056 1,666 326 273 54 98 76 47 279 171 150 58 109 25 558 79 55 60 192 39 91 25 514 169 148 1,319 921 52 113 115 118 1990 1996

ANNUAL WAGES AND EARNINGS (dol.) 1985 18,843 27,768 28,098 32,689 34,908 20,478 28,114 28,738 26,808 28,206 18,453 21,772 24,528 26,661 27,973 27.683 29,311 32,933 31,569 23,228 25,121 30,345 26,929 23.919 28,281 26,624 28.885 30,951 27,444 18,244 30,880 21,633 1990 23,209 36,248 37,598 46,406 46,314 29,051 35,938 39,259 32,257 38,109 24,209 27,051 31,697 36,802 34,400 38.764 41,857 45,505 43,795 30,452 32,704 41,185 34,296 30.195 37,197 34,468 35.239 37,230 39,699 22,088 41,726 25,994 1996 28,352 48,488 48,494 62,379 57,536 34,605 50,501 49,537 40,774 55,149 29,616 34,371 40,464 54,029 47,727 55.760 57,818 70,821 59,810 43,098 46,501 57,150 40,072 37.398 55,562 44,173 46.136 49,400 58,258 28,964 50,732 35,238

91,098 100,076 4,134 4,638 1,574 1,550 279 190 295 301 71 104 94 115 65 32 240 169 141 67 91 30 790 151 113 98 197 48 127 40 461 126 137 1,309 913 37 119 115 126 58 23 256 194 137 66 75 31 1,228 272 199 142 231 68 242 53 522 113 157 1,338 898 26 115 128 171

. 3575, 8, 9, . 3671 . 3674 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3672, 5-8 3679 3823 3825 3826 (X) 7371 7372 7373 7374 7375 7376, 7, 9 7378 (X) 3661 3663, 9 48 481 482, 489 4832 4833 4841

X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification code. See text, Section 13, Labor Force. 2 N.e.c. means not elsewhere classified. 3 Includes other industries, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, The Emerging Digital Economy, April 1998.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

572

Communications and Information Technology
No. 913. Communications Industry—Finances: 1993 to 1996
[In millions of dollars. Covers publicly reporting media and communications companies with revenues of over $1 million in 14 media and communication industry segments] INDUSTRY REVENUE 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141,070 20,448 15,582 4,867 1,700 1,603 97 18,869 15,213 3,656 14,445 7,666 18,028 4,207 8,591 1,778 7,576 15,245 7,886 7,843 6,788 1994 155,318 22,110 16,613 5,497 2,031 1,875 157 19,880 15,599 4,281 18,102 8,715 19,489 4,267 8,658 1,973 8,692 17,647 8,420 7,812 7,522 1995 174,164 23,133 16,893 6,239 2,308 2,139 169 24,439 19,356 5,083 22,669 9,248 20,872 4,302 9,090 2,215 9,764 20,297 9,390 7,446 8,991 1996 195,588 26,963 19,772 7,191 3,114 2,913 201 29,490 23,885 5,605 25,684 8,378 22,345 4,413 9,717 2,317 10,904 23,209 10,578 8,447 10,030 1993 20,700 3,578 2,540 1,038 219 226 -7 3,808 3,164 644 1,240 827 2,679 544 911 178 828 2,376 713 1,785 1,016 OPERATING INCOME 1994 22,881 4,350 3,001 1,349 357 353 4 3,531 2,856 675 1,732 1,032 3,130 513 943 219 942 2,984 858 1,199 1,092 1995 24,205 4,320 2,669 1,651 421 402 18 3,730 2,817 913 2,471 1,133 2,970 543 995 254 1,001 3,446 1,016 750 1,156 1996 26,341 5,042 3,105 1,937 561 539 23 3,765 2,570 1,195 2,622 1,033 3,512 444 1,038 279 1,590 3,807 1,168 150 1,331

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . Television network companies . . . . . Television station broadcasters . . . . . Radio broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio station broadcasters . . . . . . . Radio network companies . . . . . . . . Subscription video services . . . . . . . . . Subscription video services operators Cable and pay-per-view networks . . . Filmed entertainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recorded music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newspaper publishing . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumer book publishing . . . . . . . . . Consumer magazine publishing . . . . . . Business-to-business communications. . Professional and educational publishing Business information services . . . . . . . Advertising agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interactive digital media . . . . . . . . . . . Specialty media and marketing services

Source: Veronis, Suhler & Associates Inc., New York, NY, Communications Industry Report, annual (copyright).

No. 914. Media Usage and Consumer Spending: 1990 to 2001
[Estimates of time spent were derived using rating data for television and radio, survey research and consumer purchase data for recorded music, newspapers, magazines, books, home video, admissions for movies, and consumer online/Internet access services. Adults 18 and older except for recorded music, movies in theaters, and video games where estimates include persons 12 years and older] ITEM HOURS PER PERSON PER YEAR Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Broadcast TV. . . . . . . . . . Network stations 1 . . . . . Independent stations . . . Subscription video services Basic networks 2 . . . . . . Premium channels. . . . . Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recorded music . . . . . . . . . Daily newspapers . . . . . . . . Consumer books . . . . . . . . . Consumer magazines . . . . . . Home video 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Movies in theaters . . . . . . . . Home video games . . . . . . . Consumer on-line Internet access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,263 1,470 1,120 780 340 350 260 90 1,135 235 175 95 90 38 12 12 1 (Z) 3,325 1,510 1,073 914 159 437 359 78 1,150 233 172 100 85 42 11 19 2 1 3,296 1,535 1,082 920 162 453 375 78 1,082 248 170 99 85 43 12 19 2 1 3,395 1,560 1,091 919 172 469 388 81 1,102 294 169 102 84 45 12 22 3 2 3,393 1,575 1,019 836 183 556 468 88 1,091 289 165 99 84 45 12 24 7 2 3,395 1,567 980 803 177 587 498 89 1,091 289 161 99 83 49 12 26 16 2 3,402 1,564 942 759 183 622 528 94 1,089 296 158 97 81 52 12 29 22 2 3,402 1,552 907 730 177 645 547 98 1,085 303 157 96 80 54 12 31 30 2 3,405 1,548 873 690 183 675 571 104 1,076 313 155 97 80 56 12 33 33 2 3,429 1,555 854 666 188 701 592 109 1,074 325 154 98 79 58 12 35 37 2 3,440 1,551 830 642 188 721 612 109 1,072 336 153 99 79 60 12 37 39 2 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997, proj. 1998, proj. 1999, proj. 2000, proj. 2001, proj.

.. ..

CONSUMER SPENDING PER PERSON PER YEAR (dol.) Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Broadcast TV. . . . . . . . . . Subscription video services Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recorded music . . . . . . . . . Daily newspapers . . . . . . . . Consumer books . . . . . . . . . Consumer magazines . . . . . . Home video 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Movies in theaters . . . . . . . . Home video games . . . . . . . Consumer on-line Internet access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365.42 398.17 423.82 452.08 479.12 512.05 545.63 582.63 616.66 651.37 . 87.90 101.39 109.02 110.89 125.54 140.37 155.70 168.75 178.23 187.60 . . 87.90 101.39 109.02 110.89 125.54 140.37 155.70 168.75 178.23 187.60 . . 36.64 43.05 47.42 56.35 56.93 57.33 59.21 61.54 64.40 67.99 . 47.55 48.54 48.25 49.12 50.08 50.95 51.59 52.62 54.05 55.27 . 63.90 71.39 75.28 80.28 81.39 82.98 84.67 88.09 92.38 97.68 . 33.14 34.26 35.27 36.36 36.10 36.63 37.22 37.92 38.91 39.96 . 56.35 59.25 64.17 68.96 70.99 77.43 82.51 88.79 96.33 104.76 . 24.40 23.24 24.33 25.20 25.39 27.04 26.39 26.62 27.13 27.35 . 12.39 11.51 12.56 13.15 13.34 14.92 16.86 18.59 19.88 20.87 2.93 0.22 4.39 1.14 5.35 2.17 7.44 4.34 15.03 4.34 20.01 4.38 27.23 4.26 35.30 4.43 40.88 4.46 45.35 4.53 685.18 196.62 196.62 71.56 56.31 102.86 40.92 113.72 27.56 21.65 49.32 4.66

.. ..

- Represents zero. Z Less than 1 hour. 1 Affiliates of the Fox network are counted as network affiliates for part of 1991 and all latter years, but as independent stations in earlier years. Beginning 1995, includes UPN and WB affiliates. 2 Includes TBS beginning in 1992. 3 Playback of prerecorded tapes only. Source: Veronis, Suhler & Associates Inc., New York, NY, Communications Industry Report, annual (copyright).

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

Communications and Information Technology
No. 915. Utilization of Selected Media: 1970 to 1996
ITEM Households with— Telephone service 1 . . . . . . . . Radio 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of total households . Average number of sets . . . Television 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of total households . Television sets in homes . . . Average number of sets per home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Color sets . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable television 4 . . . . . . . . . Percent of TV households . . VCR’s 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of TV households . . Commercial radio stations: 2 AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television stations: 6 Total . . Commercial 3 . . . . . . . . . VHF . . . . . . . . . . . . . UHF . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable television: Systems 6 . . . . . . . . . . . Daily newspaper circulation 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Percent Millions Percent Number Millions Percent Millions Number Millions Millions Percent Millions Percent Number Number Number Number Number Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 87.0 62.0 98.6 5.1 59 95.3 81 1.4 21 4 6.7 (NA) (NA) 4,323 2,196 862 677 501 176 2,490 62 1980 93.0 78.6 99.0 5.5 76 97.9 128 1.7 63 15 19.9 1 1.1 4,589 3,282 1,011 734 516 218 4,225 62 1985 91.8 87.1 99.0 5.5 85 98.1 155 1.8 78 36 42.8 18 20.8
5 4,718 5

573

1990 93.3 94.4 99.0 5.6 92 98.2 193 2.1 90 52 56.4 63 68.6 4,987 4,392 1,442 1,092 547 545

1991 93.6 95.5 99.0 5.6 93 98.2 193 2.1 91 55 58.9 67 71.9 4,985 4,570 1,459 1,099 547 552

1992 93.9 96.6 99.0 5.6 92 98.3 192 2.1 91 55 60.2 69 75.0 4,961 4,785 1,481 1,118 551 567

1993 94.2 97.3 99.0 5.6 93 98.3 201 2.2 92 57 61.4 72 77.1 4,994 4,971 1,506 1,137 552 585

1994 93.9 98.0 99.0 5.6 94 98.3 211 2.2 93 59 62.4 74 79.0 4,913 5,109 1,512 1,145 561 584

1995 93.9 98.0 99.0 5.6 95 98.3 217 2.3 94 60 63.4 77 81.0 4,150 5,730 1,532 1161 562 599

1996 93.8 98.0 99.0 5.6 96 98.3 223 2.3 95 63 65.3 79 82.2 4,747 7,566 1,533 1,174 554 620 11,119 57

3,875 1,182 883 520 363 6,844 63

. . . . Number . . . . . Millions .

9,575 10,704 11,075 11,217 11,214 11,218 62 61 60 60 59 57

NA Not available. 1 For occupied housing units. 1970 and 1980 as of April 1; all other years as of March. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1970 and 1980 Census of Housing, vol. 1; thereafter Federal Communications Commission, Trends in Telephone Service, July 1998. 2 As of December 31, except as noted. Source: Radio Advertising Bureau, New York, NY, through 1992, Radio Facts, annual, (copyright); beginning 1993, Radio Marketing Guide and Fact Book for Advertisers, annual, (copyright). Number of stations on the air compiled from Federal Communications Commission reports. 3 1970, as of September of prior year; all other years as of January of year shown. Excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Source: Television Bureau of Advertising, Inc., Trends in Television, annual, (copyright). 4 As of February. Excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Source: See footnote 3. 5 As of 6 As of January 1. Source: Warren Publishing, Washington DC, Television and Cable Factbook (copyright). February 1986. 7 As of September 30. Source: Editor & Publisher, Co., New York, NY, Editor & Publisher International Year Book, annual, (copyright). Source: Compiled from sources mentioned in footnotes.

No. 916. Multimedia Audiences—Summary: 1998
[In percent, except total. As of spring. For persons 18 years old and over. Represents the percent of persons participating during a specified time period. Based on sample and subject to sampling error; see source for details] ITEM Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 25 35 45 55 65 to 24 years old. . . to 34 years old. . . to 44 years old. . . to 54 years old. . . to 64 years old. . . years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total population (1,000) 195,192 24,842 40,972 43,561 32,521 21,227 32,069 93,553 101,639 164,831 22,686 7,674 19,624 36,372 64,868 51,498 42,453 107,605 19,881 67,705 15,846 26,824 27,129 12,815 12,389 22,135 78,052 Television viewing 91.9 89.6 90.2 90.3 91.4 95.4 96.0 91.9 91.8 91.6 94.8 88.6 92.6 93.1 92.7 91.8 89.6 90.5 92.1 94.0 93.0 93.0 92.9 91.1 92.9 92.1 90.8 Television prime time viewing 77.2 72.4 76.0 76.1 78.9 79.3 81.1 76.3 78.1 77.0 79.7 74.3 80.1 76.4 78.8 77.5 75.4 75.8 75.2 80.2 78.3 79.7 78.3 75.7 79.1 77.8 75.6 Cable viewing 66.8 62.8 63.4 69.8 71.4 69.5 63.9 67.7 66.0 68.3 60.1 54.4 48.7 50.8 68.9 71.5 71.8 70.4 66.1 61.4 42.4 52.5 61.5 67.4 70.0 71.1 76.8 Radio listening 83.3 90.1 90.4 89.4 85.9 77.4 61.7 85.2 81.5 83.6 83.5 76.2 84.6 72.2 82.2 87.9 88.8 90.3 87.4 70.9 71.6 70.7 79.0 80.6 86.4 86.9 90.4 Newspaper reading 81.3 75.6 79.4 83.3 84.2 82.7 81.7 81.7 81.0 82.1 76.5 78.4 65.7 64.8 80.7 85.8 90.9 83.3 83.0 77.7 65.3 71.9 78.5 81.2 81.6 82.9 88.3 Accessed Internet 1 22.4 27.6 28.9 28.2 27.7 12.8 3.0 25.3 19.6 23.2 12.8 32.6 13.8 3.6 10.8 28.5 48.7 30.0 26.4 9.0 5.8 5.5 11.4 13.9 18.1 19.2 38.3

Male. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . Spanish speaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Not high school graduate . High school graduate . . . Attended college. . . . . . . College graduate . . . . . .

Employed: Full time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Household income: Less than $10,000 . $10,000 to $19,999 $20,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $34,999 $35,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $49,999 $50,000 or more . .
1

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

In the last 30 days.

Source: Mediamark Research Inc., New York, NY, Multimedia Audiences, spring 1998 (copyright).

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

574

Communications and Information Technology
No. 917. Internet Access and Usage, and Online Service Usage: 1998

[As of spring. For persons 18 years old and over. For composition regions, see inside front cover. Based on sample and subject to sampling error; see source for details] HAVE INTERNET ACCESS Home or work 62,273 Home only 37,047 Work only 29,791 USED THE INTERNET IN THE LAST 30 DAYS Home or work 43,643 Home only 27,595 Work only 20,395 Used any online service in the past 30 days 34,227

ITEM

Total adults

Any Online/ Internet usage 44,873

Total adults (1,000). . . . . . . . . . . 195,192 PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Age: 18 to 34 years old . . . . 35 to 54 years old . . . . 55 years old and over . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . Census region: Northeast . . . . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . Household size: 1 to 2 persons . . . . . . 3 to 4 persons . . . . . . 5 or more persons . . . . Any child in household . Marital status: Single . . . . . . . . . . . . Married . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational attainment: Graduated college plus. Attended college . . . . . Did not attend college . Household income: Less than $50,000 . . $50,000 to $74,000 . $75,000 to $149,000 $150,000 or more . . . . . . . . . . ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.7 39.0 27.3 47.9 52.1 20.1 23.3 35.0 21.6 45.3 39.3 15.4 41.7 23.1 57.6 19.3 21.7 26.4 51.9 60.0 20.3 16.5 3.1

42.6 48.8 8.6 53.9 46.1 22.4 22.5 29.9 25.2 36.9 47.9 15.3 46.9 29.3 61.4 9.3 46.9 33.9 19.2 31.8 28.2 32.5 7.5

40.9 48.2 10.8 51.7 48.3 22.8 23.1 30.0 24.0 35.8 48.1 16.1 47.4 27.9 61.6 10.5 41.8 34.5 23.7 34.3 28.3 30.2 7.1

35.9 53.2 10.8 52.5 47.5 23.8 21.6 29.2 25.3 31.6 50.8 17.7 50.4 23.4 68.0 8.6 45.8 32.3 21.9 27.6 29.0 34.3 9.2

33.7 57.2 9.1 55.7 44.3 22.4 23.6 29.9 24.1 39.8 46.1 14.0 48.3 20.7 67.5 11.7 54.7 28.6 16.7 24.5 29.4 37.9 8.2

42.8 48.8 8.4 54.3 45.7 22.5 22.8 29.7 25.0 37.0 47.7 15.3 46.8 29.4 61.4 9.2 47.4 33.6 19.1 31.6 28.2 32.7 7.5

37.0 53.6 9.4 55.9 44.1 23.3 21.3 29.7 25.6 34.4 49.6 16.0 49.3 24.0 68.0 8.1 49.4 31.8 18.8 26.9 28.4 35.5 9.2

35.5 57.2 7.3 58.4 41.6 22.4 22.5 30.0 25.1 39.6 46.6 13.8 47.8 22.7 66.7 10.6 60.0 27.0 13.0 21.9 28.9 40.3 8.9

42.2 49.2 8.6 53.8 46.2 23.5 21.1 31.5 23.9 36.5 48.4 15.1 47.3 28.8 61.9 9.3 45.9 34.7 19.4 30.7 28.3 33.0 8.0

........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: Mediamark Research Inc., New York, NY, CyberStats, spring 98 (copyright). Internet site <http://www.mediamart. com/pages/freedata.htm> (accessed 17 June 1998).

No. 918. Telephone Companies—Summary: 1988 to 1995
[As of Dec. 31 or calendar year, as applicable. January 1, 1988, marked the beginning of significant rules changes in the way local exchange carriers account for assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, and income. Any comparisons with earlier data would not be meaningful] ITEM All companies . . . . . . . . . . Access lines . . . . . . . . . Total telephone plant . . . . Operating revenues . . . . Avg. daily conversations 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Number Millions Bil. dol. Bil. dol. Millions Number Millions Bil. dol. Bil. dol. Bil. dol. Bil. dol. Bil. dol. Bil. dol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEPENDENT COMPANIES 1988 1,349 29 59 21 (NA) 585 29 57 20 21 14 3 20 16 170 1990 1,310 32 65 22 (NA) 594 30 63 24 22 16 3 22 15 161 1994 1,314 37.4 82.3 29.6 (NA) 563 35.2 73.8 31.1 25.1 18.0 4.0 25.4 15.7 135
1

ALL TELEPHONE COMPANIES 1988 1,371 130 238 90 1,700 607 130 233 80 86 61 12 76 16 639 1990 1,332 138 256 90 9,515 616 136 251 95 89 65 12 80 14 606 1994 1,333 157.9 296.2 103 11,158 582 155.8 284.1 122.7 98.4 73.8 99 78.8 12.6 501 1995 1,331 165.8 308.1 105 11,641 587 162.7 295.9 134.3 101.1 76.5 11.3 78.8 14.3 477

1995 1,312 39.8 85.8 30.2 (NA) 568 36.7 77.4 34.2 26.2 19.6 3.2 25.7 12.5 132

Reporting companies 3 . . . . . Access lines . . . . . . . . . . Telephone plant in service . Depreciation reserves 4 . . . Operating revenues . . . . . Operating expenses 5 . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . Stockholders’ equity . . . . . Net income to stockholders equity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employees . . . . . . . . . . .

. Percent . . 1,000. . .

NA Not available. 1 Companies independent of the Bell System, prior to divestiture of January 1984. 2 Average business day conversations in 1988. Average business day minutes of use beginning in 1990. 3 Comprises only companies submitting operating information to source cited below. 4 Total accumulated depreciation and amortization. 5 Excludes federal income tax. Source: United States Telephone Association, Washington, DC, Statistics of the Local Exchange Carriers, annual (copyright).

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

Communications and Information Technology
No. 919. Telephone Systems: 1985 to 1996
[Covers principal carriers filing annual reports with Federal Communications Commission] ITEM LOCAL EXCHANGE CARRIERS 1 Carriers 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Access lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business access lines . . . . . . . . . . Residential access lines . . . . . . . . . Other access lines (public, mobile, special) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of local calls (originating) . . . . Number of toll calls (originating) . . . . . Gross book cost of plant . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation and amortization reserves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net plant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total assets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total stockholders equity . . . . . . . . . . Operating revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating expenses 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Net operating income 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensation of employees . . . . . . . Average monthly residential local telephone rate 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average monthly single-line business telephone rate 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LONG DISTANCE CARRIERS Number of carriers with presubscribed lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of presubscribed lines . . . . . . Total toll service revenues . . . . . . . . . Interstate switched access minutes . . . INTERNATIONAL TELEPHONE SERVICE 6 Number of U.S. billed calls. . . . . . . . . Number of U.S. billed minutes . . . . . . U.S. billed revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. carrier revenue net of settlements with foreign carriers. . . . . . . . . . . . . Revenue from private-line service . . . . Revenue from resale service . . . . . . . Unit Number Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. Billions . Billions . Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. Bil. dol.. (1,000) . Bil. dol.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 55 112 31 79 2 365 (NA) 191 49 142 162 63 73 32 48 13 9 (NA) (NA) 14.54 38.39 1989 51 126 34 87 5 389 (NA) 233 84 150 177 72 83 35 60 14 10 592 21 17.53 41.25 1990 51 130 36 89 6 402 63 240 89 151 180 74 84 37 62 14 11 569 23 17.79 41.21 1991 52 137 38 91 7 416 67 246 93 153 184 76 86 38 63 14 10 538 22 18.66 42.12 1992 54 140 39 93 8 434 72 254 99 155 187 77 87 40 64 14 9 527 22 18.70 42.29 1993 53 149 41 96 13 447 78 264 107 156 192 73 90 42 66 14 5 507 23 18.94 42.57 1994 52 157 42 98 17 465 83 272 116 157 196 72 93 43 70 13 9 474 22 19.07 41.64 1995 53 166 46 101 19 484 94 284 127 157 197 72 96 46 72 14 11 447 21 19.49 41.77

575

1996 51 178 49 104 25 504 95 296 138 158 198 74 101 50 74 16 13 437 23 19.58 41.83

Dollars . . Dollars . .

Number Millions. Bil. dol.. Bil. min.

. . . .

(NA) (NA) 43 167

302 128 51 277

325 132 52 307

388 135 54 328

414 139 58 350

436 143 62 371

511 148 67 401

583 153 74 432

621 159 82 469

Millions. . Millions. . Mil. dol. . Mil. dol. . Mil. dol. . Mil. dol. .

411 3,446 3,487 2,358 172 (NA)

835 6,751 6,901 4,503 208 113

984 8,030 8,042 5,280 201 167

1,371 1,643 1,926 2,313 2,821 8,986 10,156 11,393 13,393 15,837 9,096 10,179 11,353 12,255 13,990 5,798 303 440 6,835 313 511 7,649 356 593 7,966 440 1,120 9,053 506 1,687

3,485 19,119 14,079 8,433 649 3,457

NA Not available. 1 Gross operating revenues, gross plant, and total assets of reporting carriers estimated at more than 90 percent of total industry. New accounting rules became effective in 1989; prior years may not be directly comparable on a one-to-one basis. Includes Virgin Islands, and prior to 1991, Puerto Rico. 2 The reporting threshold for carriers is $100 million. 3 Excludes taxes. 4 After tax deductions. 5 Based on surveys conducted by FCC. 6 Beginning 1991, includes calls to and from Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Canada, and Mexico. Source: U.S. Federal Communications Commission, Statistics of Communications Common Carriers, annual.

No. 920. Telephone Communications—Operating Revenue and Expenses: 1990 to 1996
[Based on a sample of employer firms with one or more establishments that are primarily engaged in providing telephone, voice, and data communication services. For SIC 481. Based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification code; see text, Section 13, Labor Force] ITEM OPERATING REVENUE Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-distance service . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cellular and other radiotelephone . . . . . . Directory advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATING EXPENSES Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual payroll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employer contributions to Social Security and other supplemental benefits . . . . . . Access charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lease and rental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purchased repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone and other purchased communication services . . . . . . . . . . . Purchased utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purchased advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL (mil. dol.) 1990 160,482 40,180 67,698 30,044 6,002 8,373 8,185 131,493 34,903 8,121 23,214 22,927 3,543 2,977 193 504 1,106 2,328 5,086 26,591 1993 183,538 45,178 73,923 31,658 12,401 9,117 11,261 160,273 37,106 9,379 27,035 25,546 3,608 3,474 228 946 1,315 3,085 5,861 42,690 1994 199,259 46,662 81,037 32,988 16,848 9,439 12,285 164,936 38,106 9,347 30,047 28,578 4,037 4,413 261 1,321 1,562 3,835 6,603 36,826 1995 216,296 49,349 86,834 34,131 22,837 9,850 13,295 180,538 40,721 9,184 33,748 31,651 3,919 4,907 304 1,858 1,770 3,607 7,539 41,330 1996 238,063 53,403 94,039 36,101 28,520 10,214 15,786 192,349 42,087 9,611 36,018 32,937 4,492 5,243 336 2,030 1,961 4,534 7,978 45,122 PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 1990 100.0 25.0 42.2 18.7 3.7 5.2 5.1 100.0 26.5 6.2 17.7 17.4 2.7 2.3 0.1 0.4 0.8 1.8 3.9 20.2 1995 100.0 22.8 40.1 15.8 10.6 4.6 6.1 100.0 22.6 5.1 18.7 17.5 2.2 2.7 0.2 1.0 1.0 2.0 4.2 22.9 1996 100.0 22.4 39.5 15.2 12.0 4.3 6.6 100.0 21.9 5.0 18.7 17.1 2.3 2.7 0.2 1.1 1.0 2.4 4.1 23.5

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Annual Survey of Communication Services. U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

576

Communications and Information Technology
No. 921. Cellular Telephone Industry: 1990 to 1997

[Calendar year data, except as noted. Based on a survey mailed to all cellular, personal communications services, and enhanced special mobile radio systems. For 1997 data, the universe was 2,228 systems and the response rate was 90 percent] ITEM Systems . . . . . . . . . . . Subscribers . . . . . . . . . Cell sites 1 . . . . . . . . . Employees . . . . . . . . . Service revenue . . . . . . Roamer revenue 2. . . Capital investment . . . . Average monthly bill 3 . . Average length of call 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT Number . 1,000 . . Number . Number . Mil. dol. . Mil. dol. . Mil. dol. . Dollars. . Minutes . 1990 751 5,283 5,616 21,382 4,548 456 6,282 80.90 2.20 1991 1,252 7,557 7,847 26,327 5,708 704 8,672 72.74 2.38 1992 1,506 11,033 10,307 34,348 7,822 974 11,262 68.68 2.58 1993 1,529 16,009 12,805 39,775 10,891 1,360 13,946 61.48 2.41 1994 1,581 24,134 17,920 53,902 14,229 1,830 18,939 56.21 2.24 1995 1,627 33,786 22,663 68,165 19,081 2,542 24,080 51.00 2.15 1996 1,740 44,043 30,045 84,161 23,635 2,781 32,574 47.70 2.32 1997 2,228 55,312 51,600 109,387 27,486 2,974 46,058 42.78 2.31

1 The basic geographic unit of a cellular system. A city or county is divided into smaller ‘‘cells,’’ each of which is equipped with a low-powered radio transmitter/receiver. The cells can vary in size depending upon terrain, capacity demands, etc. By controlling the transmission power, the radio frequencies assigned to one cell can be limited to the boundaries of that cell. When a cellular phone moves from one cell toward another, a computer at the Switching Office monitors the movement and at the proper time, transfers or hands off the phone call to the new cell and another radio frequency. 2 Service revenue generated by subscribers’ calls outside of their system areas. 3 As of December 31. Source: Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association, Washington, DC, State of the Cellular Industry, annual (copyright).

No. 922. Wireless Bureau Stations Authorized, by Class: 1996
[In thousands. For calendar year. Includes Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands] CLASS Total. . . . . . . . . . . Aviation: Aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . Ground . . . . . . . . . . Marine: Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . Coast . . . . . . . . . . . Public safety: Police . . . . . . . . . . . Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Government . . . Highway maintenance. Forestry conservation . Special emergency. . . Emergency medical . . Industrial: Special industrial . . . . Business . . . . . . . . . Power . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum. . . . . . . . . Manufacturers . . . . . . Forest products . . . . . ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of stations 2,228 128 12 631 11 27 23 41 9 7 19 1 46 282 24 12 15 4 CLASS Radiolocation . . . . . . . . . . . Video production . . . . . . . . . Relay press . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone maintenance . . . . Land transportation: Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxicab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automobile emergency . . . . . Interurban passenger . . . . . . Interurban property. . . . . . . . Urban passenger . . . . . . . . . Urban property . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous: 220 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800/900 MHz base. . . . . . . . 800/900 MHz mobile . . . . . . Broadcast auxiliary. . . . . . . . General mobile . . . . . . . . . . Interactive video data (IVDS) . Amateur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microwave Part 94 . . . . . . . . . Microwave auxiliary broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of stations 4 5 7 2 3 3 1 4 32 113 19 14 1 664 40 21

- Represents zero. Source: U.S. Federal Communications Commission, Annual Report; and unpublished data.

No. 923. Radio and Television Broadcasting Services—Finances: 1990 to 1996
[In millions of dollars. Based on a sample of taxable employer firms with one of more establishments primarily engaged in broadcasting to the public, except cable and other pay television services. Based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification Code; see text, Section 13, Labor Force] ITEM Operating revenue. . . . . . . . . . Station time sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network compensation . . . . . . . . . . National/regional advertising . . . . . . Local advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network time sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating expenses . . . . . . . . Annual payroll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employer contributions to social security and other supplemental benefits . . . . . Broadcast rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Music license fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lease and rental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purchased repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone and other purchased communication services . . . . . . . . . . Purchased utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purchased advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL (SIC 483) 1990 28,017 19,019 549 7,226 11,244 7,905 1,093 24,145 6,333 998 7,642 373 1,345 469 232 143 240 246 947 176 5,001 1995 34,319 22,450 564 8,166 13,720 10,319 1,550 28,038 7,933 1,303 8,260 405 1,324 538 300 168 278 281 1,115 217 5,916 1996 37,542 24,130 631 8,476 15,023 11,792 1,620 30,721 8,497 1,400 9,404 454 1,455 590 331 188 319 310 1,195 229 6,349 RADIO (SIC 4832) 1990 6,954 6,397 105 1,522 4,770 305 252 6,317 2,428 326 264 159 477 197 79 64 115 99 368 60 1,681 1995 8,518 7,779 71 1,765 5,943 464 275 6,997 2,864 361 304 204 403 226 76 69 123 104 409 71 1,783 1996 9,305 8,476 81 1,750 6,645 498 331 7,499 3,065 389 287 224 440 239 78 79 134 110 407 71 1,976 TELEVISION (SIC 4833) 1990 21,063 12,622 444 5,704 6,474 7,600 841 17,828 3,905 672 7,378 214 868 272 153 79 125 147 579 116 3,320 1995 25,801 14,671 493 6,401 7,777 9,855 1,275 21,041 5,069 942 7,956 201 921 312 224 99 155 177 706 146 4,133 1996 28,237 15,654 550 6,726 8,378 11,294 1,289 23,222 5,432 1,011 9,117 230 1,015 351 253 109 185 200 788 158 4,373

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Annual Survey of Communication Services.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

Communications and Information Technology
No. 924. Copyright Registration, by Subject Matter: 1990 to 1997

577

[In thousands. For years ending September 30. Comprises claims to copyrights registered for both U.S. and foreign works] SUBJECT MATTER Total . . . Monographs 1 . Semiconductor Serials. . . . . . .......... .......... chip products. .......... 1990 1995 1996 1997 SUBJECT MATTER Sound recordings . . . . . Renewals. . . . . . . . . . . Musical works 2 . . . . . . Works of the visual arts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 1995 1996 1997

. 643.5 609.2 550.4 569.2 . 179.7 196.0 187.2 176.4 . 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 . 111.5 88.7 83.4 83.3

. 37.5 34.0 29.9 35.7 . 51.8 30.6 23.7 28.6 . 185.3 163.6 133.5 154.4 . 76.7 95.5 91.6 89.6

1 Includes computer software and machine readable works. 2 Includes dramatic works, accompanying music, choreogra3 Two-dimensional works of fine and graphic art, including prints and art phy, pantomimes motion pictures, and filmstrips. reproductions; sculptural works; technical drawings and models; photographs; commercial prints and labels; works of applied arts, cartographic works, and multimedia works.

Source: The Library of Congress, Copyright Office, Annual Report.

No. 925. Public Television Programming: 1984 to 1996
[For October through September seasons. General programming is directed at the general community. Instructional programming is directed at students in the classroom or otherwise in the general context of formal education] ITEM Stations broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of broadcasters 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average annual hours per broadcaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BROADCAST HOURS, PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Program content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . News and public affairs 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Information and skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cultural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General children’s and youth’s . . . . . . . . Sesame Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructional 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children and youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Producer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Any public TV source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Coproduction 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children’s TV Workshop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Independent producer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign producer, international coproduction Commercial producer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local distribution only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public broadcasting service. . . . . . . . . . . . Regional public television network . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 88 14 26 20 8 15 6 13 12 1 100 6 44 3 16 9 13 3 5 100 6 65 13 16 100 86 16 30 21 7 11 2 15 (NA) (NA) 100 5 38 3 5 29 (5) 15 6 4 100 5 64 14 17 100 85 16 32 18 6 12 1 16 (NA) (NA) 100 5 27 10 16 19 14 4 4 100 6 62 18 14 100 86 18 32 19 6 11 1 14 (NA) (NA) 100 5 32 10 15 19 12 4 3 100 6 59 24 11 100 90 17 29 18 15 11 1 12 9 3 100 4 31 6 14 25 11 5 4 100 5 63 23 9 100 92 19 27 16 20 9 1 9 6 3 100 5 33 6 12 26 10 5 4 100 4 63 23 9 100 92 19 29 17 20 8 1 8 5 3 100 5 36 6 9 27 10 4 4 100 5 63 25 8 1984 303 169 5,542 1986 305 178 5,650 1988 322 186 6,135 1990 341 193 6,392 1992 349 198 6,303 1994 349 198 6,500 1996 352 201 6,758

NA Not available. 1 Beginning 1988, only broadcasters in the 50 U.S. States were surveyed. In prior years, the stations in 3 the outlying areas were also included. 2 Beginning 1986, this category includes ‘‘Business or Consumer.’’ Some general audience programs with instructional applications were double counted if aired during school hours when school was in session. 4 5 ‘‘The Electric Company’’ was one such program. Prior to 1986, ‘‘Consortium.’’ Independent producer included with Children’s TV Workshop for 1986. Source: Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC, Programming Survey, biennial.

No. 926. Public Broadcasting Systems—Income, by Source: 1980 to 1996
[In millions of dollars, except number of stations and percents. Stations as of Dec. 31; fiscal year data for income. Includes nonbroadcast income] NUMBER OF STATIONS AND INCOME SOURCE CPB-qualified public radio stations 1 Public television stations . . . . . . . . Total income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal government . . . . . . . . . . . State and local government 2 . . . . . Subscribers and auction/marathon. . Business and industry . . . . . . . . . . Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 1980 217 290 705 193 272 102 72 24 43 288 317 1,096 179 358 248 171 43 97 318 341 1,581 267 474 364 262 71 143 400 352 1,790 370 475 412 285 100 149 403 351 1,795 330 510 420 301 97 137 407 351 1,917 338 560 447 294 109 169 408 352 1,956 339 518 477 291 159 172 (X) (X) 100 27 39 15 10 3 6 1990 (X) (X) 100 17 30 23 17 5 9 1996 (X) (X) 100 17 27 24 15 8 9

1980

1985

1990

1993

1994

1995

1996

X Not applicable. 1 Includes CPB-supported developmental grantees/stations, and excludes repeater stations. 2 Includes income received from state and other public colleges and universities. Source: Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), Washington, DC, Public Broadcasting Income, Fiscal Year, 1996; and unpublished data.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

578

Communications and Information Technology
No. 927. Cable Television—Systems and Subscribers: 1970 to 1997
[Subscribers in thousands, except percent. Estimated] NUMBER OF 1— Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,838 265 446 508 665 399 1,967 1,434 1,468 3,323 Subscribers 62,448 29,919 13,436 7,181 4,570 1,662 3,722 1,034 528 396 PERCENT OF 1— Systems 100 2 4 5 6 4 18 13 14 31 Subscribers 100 48 22 12 7 3 6 2 1 1

YEAR (As of Jan. 1) 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987
1

Systems . . . . . . . . . . 2,490 3,506 4,225 4,375 4,825 5,600 6,200 6,600 7,600 7,900

Subscribers 4,500 9,800 16,000 18,300 21,000 25,000 30,000 32,000 37,500 41,100
2

YEAR (As of Jan. 1) 1988 . 1989 . 1990 . 1991 . 1992 . 1993 . 1994 . 1995 . 1996 . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Systems 8,500 9,050 9,575 10,704 11,075 11,100 11,200 11,126 11,119 10,850

Subscribers 44,000 47,500 50,000 51,000 53,000 55,000 57,000 58,000 60,280 64,050

SUBSCRIBER SIZE-GROUP 1997, total 2 . . 50,000 and over . 20,000 to 49,999 . 10,000 to 19,999 . 5,000 to 9,999 . . 3,500 to 4,999 . . 1,000 to 3,499 . . 500 to 999 . . . . . 250 to 499 . . . . . Less than 250 . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

As of October 1.

Total number of systems includes 363 not available by subscriber size-group.

Source: Warren Publishing, Inc., Washington, DC, Television & Cable Factbook, annual (copyright).

No. 928. Cable and Pay TV—Summary: 1980 to 1997
[Cable TV for calendar year. Pay TV as of Dec. 31 of year shown] CABLE TV YEAR Avg. Avg. basic subscrib- monthly basic rate ers (dol.) (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,500 35,440 50,520 60,900 62,800 64,210 7.69 9.73 16.78 23.07 24.41 26.48 Revenue 1 (mil. dol.) Total 2,609 8,831 17,582 25,556 27,951 30,784 Basic 1,615 4,138 10,174 16,860 18,395 20,405 Total Units 2 (1,000)
3

PAY TV Monthly rate (dol.) Total pay 3 8.91 10.29 10.35 4 8.54 4 8.35 4 8.29 Pay cable 8.62 10.25 10.30 8.54 8.35 8.00 Percent of homes Percent of homes passed by cable with cable TV with with pay pay TV TV 26 46 46 50 51 51 47 82 77 74 75 74

Pay cable 7,336 29,418 39,751 44,473 46,057 46,445

1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

8,581 29,885 39,902 53,323 59,422 65,395

1 2 Includes installation revenue, subscriber revenue, and nonsubscriber revenue. Individual program services sold to 3 Includes multipoint distribution service (MDS), satellite TV (STV), multipoint multichannel distribution service subscribers. 4 (MMDS), satellite master antenna TV (SMATV), C-band satellite, and DBS satellite. Direct broadcast satellite average rate not included.

Source: Paul Kagan Associates Inc., Carmel, CA, The Cable TV Financial Databook, annual, 1997 (copyright); The Cable TV Investor, April 14, 1998; and The Pay TV Newsletter, March 31, 1996, and February 28, 1998.

No. 929. Cable and Pay TV—Revenue and Expenses: 1990 to 1996
[Based on a sample of taxable employer firms with one or more establishments that are primarily engaged in the dissemination of visual and textual television programs on a subscription or fee basis. For SIC 4841. Based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification code; see text, Section 13, Labor Force] ITEM Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Program revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pay-per-view and other premium service . . . Installation fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other cable and pay TV revenue. . . . . . . . . Operating expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual payroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employer contributions to Social Security and other supplemental benefits . . . . . . . . Program and production costs 1 . . . . . . . . . Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lease and rental payments . . . . . . . . . . . . Purchased repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone, other purchased communications Purchased utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purchased advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other operating expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

TOTAL (mil. dol.) 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,165 1,882 3,816 10,933 4,351 302 881 19,354 2,816 588 5,926 3,611 513 343 110 133 188 467 310 4,349 1993 28,769 2,981 4,440 14,904 4,880 417 1,147 22,648 3,824 866 7,644 3,848 631 432 165 191 220 601 423 3,803 1994 29,304 3,597 4,714 14,547 4,662 427 1,357 23,492 3,931 915 8,333 3,934 648 459 162 225 210 708 424 3,543 1995 32,541 4,466 4,843 16,310 5,068 445 1,409 26,428 4,519 1,000 9,442 4,433 682 555 175 283 215 891 429 3,804 1996 37,027 5,007 5,438 18,621 5,696 508 1,757 30,471 5,061 1,150 11,239 4,990 764 615 190 321 241 1,062 436 4,402

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 1990 100.0 8.5 17.2 49.3 19.6 1.4 4.0 100.0 14.5 3.0 30.6 18.7 2.7 1.8 0.6 0.7 1.0 2.4 1.6 22.5 1995 100.0 13.7 14.9 50.1 15.6 1.4 4.3 100.0 17.1 3.8 35.7 16.8 2.6 2.1 0.7 1.1 0.8 3.4 1.6 14.4 1996 100.0 13.5 14.7 50.3 15.4 1.4 4.7 100.0 16.6 3.8 36.9 16.4 2.5 2.0 0.6 1.1 0.8 3.5 1.4 14.4

Includes costs from basic cable, pay-per-view, premium services, in-house programs, and other program and production

costs. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Annual Survey of Communication Services.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

Communications and Information Technology
No. 930. Microcomputer Software Sales: 1995 and 1996
[In millions of dollars. Estimated North American retail sales. Figures may not add to totals because individual applications and totals are derived independently] 1995 APPLICATION Total 2 . . . . . . . Entertainment . . . . . . Home creativity . . . . . Home education . . . . . Finance . . . . . . . . . . Word processors . . . . Spreadsheets. . . . . . . Databases . . . . . . . . . Integrated . . . . . . . . . Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . Presentation graphic . . Drawing and painting. . Desktop publishing . . . Other graphics . . . . . . Project management . . Personal info. manager Languages and tools . . Other productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total 9,772.0 826.2 300.8 939.7 397.4 1,085.0 865.2 336.6 133.5 621.0 462.9 461.9 357.2 313.8 164.2 395.2 361.3 1,624.7 PC/ Windows MS-DOS 1,041.2 403.5 2.9 32.5 80.7 25.0 12.3 8.7 2.1 110.9 (B) (B) (B) 22.4 6.7 1.9 11.8 184.3
1

579

1996 Macintosh Total PC/ Windows Windows MS-DOS 32-bit 16-bit 558.2 303.4 3.4 22.9 34.2 2.1 2.4 4.7 (B) 30.7 (B) (B) (B) 13.5 5.4 2.0 6.7 126.3 3,199.6 343.3 118.6 102.0 8.8 373.4 295.9 174.1 29.2 288.5 175.2 14.4 95.4 54.5 47.5 86.7 135.2 857.1 5,327.5 169.6 190.5 658.2 388.7 556.7 547.4 210.1 48.6 147.0 349.4 153.3 183.5 138.6 112.1 210.4 271.2 992.1 Macintosh 1,170.8 45.5 25.3 174.4 36.2 43.4 35.2 40.0 28.5 114.5 24.4 168.7 79.1 54.3 6.9 39.1 3.6 251.8

7,333.4 317.4 253.8 728.2 270.6 987.2 803.4 302.9 86.9 371.2 427.5 146.7 244.6 216.1 142.9 343.3 337.2 1,069.5

1,520.8 10,580.4 105.3 861.9 44.0 337.7 185.1 958.3 46.2 467.8 63.5 976.3 46.8 881.6 24.2 429.8 43.9 107.1 101.9 773.9 30.4 548.8 309.9 343.4 112.6 357.9 76.1 275.3 14.6 171.9 49.7 348.8 8.8 418.0 279.7 2,321.8

1 16- and 32-bit. 2 Includes other B Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a derived figure. software platforms, not shown separately. Source: Software Publishers Association, Washington, DC, SPA Software Sales Report, News Release, March 31, 1997 (copyright).

No. 931. Recording Media—Manufacturers’ Shipments and Value: 1982 to 1997
[Domestic shipments based on reports of manufacturers representing more than 85 percent of the market. Domestic value data based on list prices of records and other media] MEDIUM UNIT SHIPMENTS 1 (mil.) Total 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vinyl singles . . . . . . . . . . Albums—LPs and EPs. . . . CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CD singles. . . . . . . . . . . . Music video . . . . . . . . . . . Cassettes . . . . . . . . . . . . Cassette singles . . . . . . . . MANUFACTURES VALUE (mil. dol.) Total 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vinyl singles . . . . . . . . . . Albums—LPs and EPs. . . . CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CD singles. . . . . . . . . . . . Music video . . . . . . . . . . . Cassettes . . . . . . . . . . . . Cassette singles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982 577.4 137.2 243.9 (X) (X) (X) 182.3 (X) 1985 653.0 120.7 167.0 22.6 (X) (X) 339.1 (X) 1990 865.7 27.6 11.7 286.5 1.1 9.2 442.2 87.4 1991 801.0 22.0 4.8 333.3 5.7 6.1 360.1 69.0 1992 895.5 19.8 2.3 407.5 7.3 7.6 366.4 84.6 1993 955.6 15.1 1.2 495.4 7.8 11.0 339.5 85.6 1994 1,122.7 11.7 1.9 662.1 9.3 11.2 345.4 81.1 1995 1,112.7 10.2 2.2 722.9 21.5 12.6 272.6 70.7 1996 1,137.2 10.1 2.9 778.9 43.2 16.9 225.3 59.9 1997 1,063.4 7.5 2.7 753.1 66.7 18.6 172.6 42.2

. . . . . . . .

3,641.6 283.0 1,925.1 (X) (X) (X) 1,384.5 (X)

4,378.8 281.0 1,280.5 389.5 (X) (X) 2,411.5 (X)

7,541.1 94.4 86.5 3,451.6 6.0 172.3 3,472.4 257.9

7,834.2 63.9 29.4 4,337.7 35.1 118.1 3,019.6 230.4

9,024.0 10,046.6 12,068.0 12,320.3 12,533.8 12,236.8 66.4 51.2 47.2 46.7 47.5 35.6 13.5 10.6 17.8 25.1 36.8 33.3 5,326.5 6,511.4 8,464.5 9,377.4 9,934.7 9,915.1 45.1 45.8 56.1 110.9 184.1 272.7 157.4 213.3 231.1 220.3 236.1 323.9 3,116.3 2,915.8 2,976.4 2,303.6 1,905.3 1,522.7 298.8 298.5 274.9 236.3 189.3 133.5

X Not applicable. 1 Net units, after returns. 2 Includes discontinued media. Source: Recording Industry Association of America, Washington, DC, Internet site <http://www.riaa.com> (accessed March 25 1998).

No. 932. Publishing Industry—Summary: 1987 to 1996
[In millions of dollars, except as noted. Number in parentheses represents Standard Industrial Classification code; see text, Section 13, Labor Force] ITEM Establishments . . . . . . . . . . With 20 or more employees Employees 1 (1,000) . . . . . . . Payroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Value of receipts . . . . . . . . . Cost of materials . . . . . . . . . Value added 2 . . . . . . . . . . . New capital expends. . . . . . . Fixed assets, gross assets . . . Inventories, Dec. 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEWSPAPERS (SIC 2711) 1987 9,091 2,617 435 9,025 31,849 7,533 24,311 1,523 14,028 857 1992 8,679 2,629 417 10,506 34,124 6,874 27,247 1,667 20,042 767 1996 (NA) (NA) 403 11,199 39,171 8,483 30,692 1,277 (NA) 894 PERIODICALS (SIC 2721) 1987 4,020 876 110 2,983 17,329 5,873 11,452 246 2,528 902 1992 4,699 991 116 4,075 22,034 6,201 15,833 234 2,769 1,067 1996 (NA) (NA) 121 4,665 24,930 6,940 17,982 311 (NA) 1,216 BOOKS (SIC 2731) 1987 2,298 424 70 1,860 12,620 3,663 9,111 240 1,680 2,091 1992 2,644 500 80 2,676 16,731 5,338 11,494 327 2,402 2,944 1996 (NA) (NA) 85 3,128 21,363 6,601 14,792 365 (NA) 3,320

1 NA Not available. Represents the average number of production workers plus the number of other employees in mid-March. 2 By manufacture, derived by subtracting the cost of materials, supplies, containers, fuel, purchased electricity, and contract work from the value of shipments. This result is then adjusted by the addition of value added by merchandising operations, plus the net change in finished goods and work-in-process inventories between the beginning and the end of the year. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1992 Census of Manufactures, Industry Reports, series MC92-I-27A, and Annual Survey of Manufactures.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

580

Communications and Information Technology
No. 933. Newspapers and Periodicals—Number, by Type: 1980 to 1997
[The complete publication including this copyright table is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service]

No. 934. Daily and Sunday Newspapers—Number and Circulation: 1970 to 1997
[Number of newspapers as of February 1 the following year. Circulation figures as of September 30 of year shown. For English language newspapers only] TYPE NUMBER Daily: Total 1 Morning . Evening . Sunday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,748 1,756 1,745 1,676 1,626 1,611 1,586 1,570 1,556 1,548 1,533 1,520 . 334 339 387 482 530 559 571 596 623 635 656 686 . 1,429 1,436 1,388 1,220 1,125 1,084 1,042 996 954 935 891 846 . 586 639 736 798 847 863 875 891 884 886 888 890 1,509 705 816 903 1970 1975 1980 1985 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

CIRCULATION (mil.) Daily: Total 1 . . . . . . . . . . Morning . . . . . . . . . . . Evening . . . . . . . . . . . Sunday . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

62.1 25.9 36.2 49.2

60.7 25.5 35.2 51.1

62.2 29.4 32.8 54.7

62.8 36.4 26.4 58.8

62.6 40.7 21.9 62.0

62.3 41.3 21.0 62.6

60.7 41.5 19.2 62.1

60.1 42.4 17.8 62.2

59.8 43.1 16.7 62.6

59.3 43.4 15.9 62.3

58.2 44.3 13.9 61.5

57.0 44.8 12.2 60.8

56.7 45.4 11.3 60.5

PER CAPITA CIRCULATION 2 Daily: Total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Morning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sunday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

0.30 0.13 0.18 0.24

0.28 0.12 0.16 0.24

0.27 0.13 0.14 0.24

0.26 0.15 0.11 0.25

0.25 0.16 0.09 0.25

0.25 0.17 0.08 0.25

0.24 0.16 0.08 0.25

0.24 0.17 0.07 0.24

0.23 0.17 0.06 0.24

0.23 0.17 0.06 0.24

0.22 0.17 0.05 0.23

0.21 0.17 0.05 0.23

0.21 0.17 0.04 0.23

1 All-day newspapers are counted in both morning and evening columns but only once in total. Circulation is divided equally between morning and evening. 2 Based on U.S. Bureau of the Census estimated resident population as of July 1.

Source: Editor & Publisher Co., New York, NY, Editor & Publisher International Year Book, annual (copyright).

No. 935. Daily Newspapers—Number and Circulation, by Size of City: 1980 to 1997
[Number of newspapers as of February 1 the following year. Circulation as of September 30 of year shown. For English language newspapers only. See Table 47 for number of cities by population size. All-day newspapers are counted in both morning and evening columns; circulation is divided equally between morning and evening] TYPE OF DAILY AND POPULATION-SIZE CLASS Morning dailies, total In cities of— 1,000,001 or more . . . . 500,001 to 1,000,000. . . 100,001 to 500,000 . . . . 50,001 to 100,000 . . . . . 25,001 to 50,000 . . . . . Less than 25,000 . . . . . Evening dailies, total In cities of— 1,000,001 or more . . . . 500,001 to 1,000,000. . . 100,001 to 500,000 . . . . 50,001 to 100,000 . . . . . 25,001 to 50,000 . . . . . Less than 25,000 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NUMBER 1980 387 20 27 99 75 64 102 1,388 11 23 123 156 246 829 1985 482 22 24 121 87 83 145 1,220 8 14 102 127 229 740 1990 559 18 22 138 100 102 179 1,084 7 12 71 94 204 696 1995 656 25 22 153 138 115 203 891 3 7 45 72 158 606 1997 705 25 27 153 156 123 221 816 1 6 39 64 143 563 1980 29,413 8,795 5,705 8,996 2,973 1,701 1,243 32,788 2,984 4,101 8,178 4,896 5,106 7,523 NET PAID CIRCULATION (1,000) 1985 36,361 9,367 6,897 12,197 3,653 2,145 2,099 26,407 2,169 1,626 6,987 3,942 4,606 7,075 1990 41,311 6,508 4,804 20,051 4,373 3,209 2,365 21,017 1,423 1,350 4,687 2,941 4,278 6,338 1995 44,310 10,173 5,587 17,214 5,602 3,150 2,584 13,883 390 1,017 2,529 2,029 2,819 5,099 1997 45,434 10,328 6,383 16,707 5,869 3,337 2,810 11,294 2 849 1,959 1,719 2,337 4,428

Source: Editor & Publisher Co., New York, NY, Editor & Publisher International Year Book, annual (copyright).

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

Communications and Information Technology

581

No. 936. Daily and Sunday Newspapers—Number and Circulation, by State: 1997
[Number of newspapers as of February 1 the following year. Circulation as of September 30 of the year shown. For English language newspapers only. New York, Massachusetts, and Virginia Sunday newspapers include national circulation] DAILY STATE Circulation Number
1

SUNDAY Net paid circulation 1 (1,000) 60,484 749 132 910 532 6,247 1,294 851 171 1,161 3,875 1,338 258 237 2,546 1,299 667 425 683 827 203 890 1,658 2,086 1,153 403 STATE

DAILY Circulation Number
1

SUNDAY Net paid circulation 1 (1,000) 1,289 196 434 325 251 1,718 297 5,475 1,500 181 2,776 813 711 3,258 273 750 134 1,077 4,000 365 102 1,142 1,275 381 1,101 65

Net paid Per (1,000) capita 56,728 678 112 767 473 6,118 1,074 769 147 877 3,013 1,045 226 219 2,390 1,366 649 464 624 734 248 614 1,726 1,792 901 393

Number
2

Net paid Per (1,000) capita 986 188 452 302 235 1,422 295 6,491 1,362 177 2,528 671 690 2,869 237 634 161 888 2,965 322 126 2,692 1,181 381 965 89

Number
2

U.S. AL . . . AK . . . AZ . . . AR . . . CA . . . CO. . . CT . . . DE . . . DC . . . FL . . . GA . . . HI . . . ID . . . IL. . . . IN . . . IA . . . KS . . . KY . . . LA . . . ME. . . MD. . . MA. . . MI . . . MN. . . MS. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,509 24 7 16 31 95 30 18 2 2 42 34 6 12 68 70 38 47 23 26 7 14 33 49 25 23

0.21 0.15 0.18 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.26 0.23 0.19 1.64 0.20 0.13 0.18 0.17 0.20 0.23 0.22 0.18 0.16 0.16 0.20 0.12 0.28 0.18 0.19 0.14

903 20 5 11 18 61 16 12 2 2 36 25 5 8 31 21 11 15 14 21 4 8 14 26 14 18

MO MT . NE . NV . NH . NJ . NM. NY . NC . ND . OH. OK . OR. PA . RI . SC . SD . TN . TX . UT . VT . VA . WA WV WI . WY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45 11 16 9 12 19 18 68 47 10 84 44 19 86 6 15 11 27 88 6 8 28 24 22 35 9

0.18 0.20 0.27 0.17 0.20 0.17 0.16 0.35 0.17 0.27 0.22 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.16 0.21 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.21 0.39 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.18

23 7 6 4 8 16 13 45 36 7 38 37 10 41 3 14 4 16 85 6 3 15 16 11 17 4

1 Circulation figures based on the principal community served by a newspaper which is not necessarily the same location as the publisher’s office. 2 Per capita based on estimated resident population as of July 1.

Source: Editor & Publisher Co., New York, NY, Editor & Publisher International Year Book, annual (copyright).

No. 937. New Books and Editions Published and Imports, by Subject: 1990 to 1996
[Covers listings in Bowker’s Weekly Record in year shown, plus titles issued in that year which were listed in following 6 months. Comprises new books (published for first time) and new editions (with changes in text or format). Excludes government publications; books sold only by subscription; dissertations; periodicals and quarterlies; and pamphlets under 49 pages] SUBJECT Total . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biography . . . . . . . . . Business . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . General works . . . . . . History . . . . . . . . . . . Home economics . . . . Juvenile. . . . . . . . . . . Language . . . . . . . . . Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature . . . . . . . . . . Medicine . . . . . . . . . . Music . . . . . . . . . . . . Philosophy, psychology Poetry and drama . . . . Religion . . . . . . . . . . . Science . . . . . . . . . . . Sociology, economics. . Sports, recreation . . . . Technology . . . . . . . . Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . NEW BOOKS AND NEW EDITIONS 1990 . 46,738 . 514 . 1,262 . 1,957 . 1,191 . 1,039 . 5,764 . 1,760 . 2,243 . 758 . 5,172 . 649 . 896 . 2,049 . 3,014 . 289 . 1,683 . 874 . 2,285 . 2,742 . 7,042 . 973 . 2,092 . 495 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1990 6,414 86 94 115 134 234 166 266 329 19 103 202 138 242 588 52 284 119 176 1,030 1,368 75 546 48 1992 6,506 93 156 124 126 232 246 313 348 25 50 164 197 274 514 69 291 136 165 840 1,521 112 458 52 IMPORTS 1993 7,055 125 225 136 253 246 141 308 373 24 45 172 229 286 532 63 351 167 186 868 1,652 144 476 53 1994 8,172 87 205 144 276 287 247 331 447 31 45 199 261 326 605 49 379 226 225 997 2,121 106 465 113 1995 8,539 97 273 142 268 285 251 367 462 41 63 263 215 308 611 73 346 206 235 1,068 2,198 118 487 162 1996 9,271 72 203 221 238 280 280 424 536 22 47 313 264 428 720 67 393 231 310 1,058 2,392 136 520 116

49,276 49,756 51,663 62,039 68,175 565 559 532 673 675 1,392 1,540 1,621 2,168 2,033 2,007 2,071 2,197 2,658 3,007 1,367 1,442 1,616 1,843 1,788 1,184 1,247 1,310 1,526 1,595 5,690 5,419 5,415 7,605 8,573 2,153 1,870 2,208 2,751 3,027 2,322 2,317 2,507 2,999 3,576 826 881 1,004 1,395 1,447 5,144 5,469 5,321 5,678 5,353 617 699 700 732 898 1,063 1,143 1,168 1,230 1,357 2,227 2,169 2,356 2,525 3,082 3,234 3,094 3,147 3,510 4,223 346 377 364 479 461 1,806 1,764 1,741 2,068 2,333 899 1,004 1,065 1,407 1,566 2,540 2,633 2,730 3,324 3,803 2,729 2,678 3,021 3,323 3,725 7,432 7,502 8,038 9,362 10,528 1,113 1,146 1,161 1,591 1,751 2,152 2,247 2,085 2,470 2,629 468 487 556 722 745

Source: R. R. Bowker Co., New York, NY, Publishers Weekly. (Copyright by Reed Publishing USA.)

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

582

Communications and Information Technology
No. 938. Books—Average Retail Prices: 1980 to 1996

[In dollars. Covers listings in Bowker’s Weekly Record in year shown, plus titles issued in that year which were listed in following 6 months. Comprises new books (published for first time) and new editions (with changes in text or format)] SUBJECT Hardcover 1 . . . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biography . . . . . . . . . . Business . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . General works . . . . . . . History . . . . . . . . . . . . Home economics . . . . . Juvenile . . . . . . . . . . . Language . . . . . . . . . . Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature . . . . . . . . . . Medicine. . . . . . . . . . . Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philosophy, psychology . Poetry and drama . . . . Religion . . . . . . . . . . . Science . . . . . . . . . . . Sociology, economics . . Sports, recreation . . . . . Technology . . . . . . . . . Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 24.64 27.55 27.70 19.77 22.45 17.01 12.46 29.84 22.78 13.31 8.16 22.16 33.25 18.70 34.28 21.79 21.70 17.85 17.61 37.45 31.76 15.92 33.64 16.80 (NA) 8.60 1985 31.46 36.77 35.15 22.20 28.84 27.28 15.29 37.91 27.02 17.50 9.95 28.68 41.70 24.53 44.36 28.79 28.11 22.14 19.13 51.19 33.33 23.43 50.37 24.66 3.63 13.98 1990 42.12 54.24 42.18 29.58 45.48 38.72 19.83 54.77 36.43 23.80 13.01 42.98 60.78 35.80 72.24 41.86 40.58 32.19 31.31 74.39 42.10 30.52 76.80 30.41 4.57 17.45 1991 44.17 57.73 44.99 27.52 43.38 41.26 21.30 51.74 39.87 24.23 16.64 51.71 64.89 36.76 71.44 41.04 42.74 33.29 32.33 80.14 48.43 30.68 76.40 32.43 5.08 18.40 1992 45.05 53.76 44.59 30.41 43.91 48.77 20.39 56.29 39.19 24.88 14.46 49.68 76.21 39.23 75.22 47.37 46.85 36.76 35.31 81.95 45.53 34.62 82.18 33.28 5.22 18.81 1993 34.98 41.84 39.99 28.37 37.95 38.60 19.50 45.41 40.78 20.55 13.87 34.02 53.94 35.30 49.78 41.44 39.44 31.06 29.16 52.71 41.32 32.28 56.31 26.22 5.82 20.56 1994 44.65 58.10 39.97 30.43 42.72 47.98 20.95 60.41 40.20 20.49 14.59 52.09 72.32 37.77 76.30 39.27 44.71 31.56 30.73 90.12 50.24 33.39 81.03 32.13 5.70 20.56 1995 47.15 49.00 41.23 30.01 46.90 43.00 21.47 54.11 42.19 22.53 14.55 54.89 73.09 38.49 75.80 43.27 45.26 34.96 34.27 93.52 55.51 32.14 88.28 38.30 6.53 21.71 1996 50.00 45.00 53.40 31.67 52.62 47.09 22.89 68.36 45.62 23.39 15.97 58.81 88.51 43.28 81.48 39.21 48.40 34.15 36.62 90.63 53.82 34.71 91.59 33.91 6.57 21.41

Paperbacks: Mass market 2 . . . . . . Trade . . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 Excludes publications of the United States and other governmental units, books sold only by subscription, and dissertations. 2 ‘‘Pocket-sized’’ books sold primarily through magazine and news outlets, supermarkets, variety stores, etc. Source: R. R. Bowker Co., New Providence, NJ, The Bowker Annual: Library and Book Trade Almanac. (Copyright by Elsevier Inc.); and Publishers Weekly, New York, NY.

No. 939. Periodicals—Average Retail Prices: 1994 to 1998
[In dollars] SUBJECT Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . Art and architecture . . . . . . . . Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Botany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business and economics . . . . . Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and technology . . . Food science. . . . . . . . . . . . . General science . . . . . . . . . . . General works . . . . . . . . . . . . Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health sciences . . . . . . . . . . . History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Language and literature. . . . . . Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Library and information science. Math and computer science . . . Military and naval science . . . . Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philosophy and religion . . . . . . Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Political science . . . . . . . . . . . Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zoology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 293.56 143.20 87.17 746.36 556.93 422.25 194.94 1,006.70 125.39 523.24 272.22 369.40 63.09 305.27 469.41 367.24 76.83 71.24 97.22 136.23 566.94 133.50 52.75 81.48 1,035.81 105.37 163.91 59.82 149.41 457.94 421.74 1995 326.02 157.10 92.24 840.93 620.18 475.10 227.43 1,106.09 136.45 575.28 308.20 416.28 66.73 340.79 516.08 403.28 83.27 77.83 105.21 153.58 619.31 153.75 57.50 91.30 1,144.93 119.91 182.67 61.30 156.42 519.93 471.55 1996 383.21 176.07 97.99 993.03 731.84 556.14 271.13 1,319.23 150.99 695.69 352.20 487.86 76.04 391.43 628.26 461.07 91.45 87.34 119.16 172.45 728.84 168.00 60.89 101.25 1,358.19 138.24 207.48 68.73 181.84 621.97 539.72 1997 417.56 189.79 101.06 1,071.36 824.81 607.42 307.21 1,467.35 165.03 785.93 385.11 548.10 80.66 452.85 703.95 517.24 95.62 90.60 123.80 181.35 805.26 184.13 65.27 105.99 1,510.45 151.75 234.12 71.54 201.66 702.67 594.28 1998 419.04 207.45 102.30 1,087.53 891.40 644.47 339.55 1,577.13 178.53 866.99 440.44 607.80 80.53 493.93 740.14 573.79 99.26 92.55 138.78 202.30 859.91 209.50 67.93 107.14 1,601.03 166.05 257.69 75.94 222.23 775.05 641.06

Source: Library Journal, New York, NY, Library Journal, April 15, 1998. (Copyright by Reed Publishing USA.)

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

Communications and Information Technology
No. 940. U.S. Postal Service—Summary: 1980 to 1997

583

[Employees in thousands; revenue and expenditures in millions of dollars, except as indicated. For fiscal years; see text, Section 9. Includes Puerto Rico and all outlying areas. See text, Section 18] ITEM Offices, stations, and branches . Number of post offices . . . . . . . . . . . Number of stations and branches . . . . Pieces of mail handled (bil.) . . . . . . . . First class, number (bil.) 1 . . . . . . . . Percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicals (bil.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employees, total . Career . . . . . . . . . . . . Headquarters . . . . . . Headquarters support Inspection Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 39,486 30,326 9,160 106.3 60.3 56.7 10.2 667 643 3 (NA) 5 635 29 36 5 263 37 187 6 33 3 27 5 4 25 5 (X) 20 (X) (X) 16,541 24,799 159 19,253 17,143 16,377 10,146 612 184 15 863 2,412 805 154 442 765 157 120 55 21 73 95 244 19,413 1990 40,067 28,959 11,108 166.3 89.3 53.7 10.7 843 761 2 6 4 747 27 43 10 290 51 236 7 42 2 33 5 1 83 27 (X) 43 12 (Z) 34,214 37,570 197 40,074 39,201 37,892 24,023 1,555 630 8 1,509 8,082 919 222 941 1,310 174 310 47 26 6 155 592 40,490 1993 39,392 28,728 10,664 171.2 92.2 53.8 10.3 818 691 2 4 4 681 25 32 10 257 51 212 7 44 2 35 5 1 126 27 42 44 12 1 38,447 42,711 209 47,986 47,418 45,909 28,828 2,300 627 7 1,740 9,817 1,183 211 1,196 1,510 130 426 52 20 2 166 713 46,322 1994 39,372 28,657 10,715 178.0 95.3 53.5 10.2 852 729 2 4 4 720 27 35 11 265 55 229 8 45 2 37 5 1 123 26 38 47 13 1 39,609 44,342 209 49,576 49,252 47,739 29,377 2,653 671 2 1,756 10,534 1,353 205 1,208 1,513 120 428 53 17 5 154 735 48,455 1995 39,149 28,392 10,757 180.7 96.3 53.3 10.2 875 753 2 4 4 745 27 35 11 274 57 240 8 46 2 38 5 2 122 26 32 50 13 1 41,931 45,001 207 54,509 54,176 52,490 31,955 3,075 711 2 1,972 11,792 1,525 205 1,254 1,687 116 560 52 21 3 169 764 50,730 1996 38,212 28,189 10,023 183.4 98.2 53.3 10.1 886 761 2 4 4 748 26 35 11 277 58 238 8 48 1 39 5 2 125 25 33 54 13 1 42,676 44,718 207 56,544 56,309 54,538 33,117 3,322 737 2 2,014 12,175 1,524 199 1,450 1,771 113 556 49 21 4 221 803 53,113 1997 38,019 28,060 9,959 190.9 99.7 52.2 10.4 893 765 2 4 4 755 26 36 11 281 59 234 9 50 1 40 6 2 128 33 27 55 13 1 43,835 48,793 214 58,331 58,133 56,267 33,398 3,857 825 2 2,068 12,876 1,628 192 1,423 1,866 99 627 63 22 1 212 842 54,873

Field Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postmasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors/managers . . . . . . . . . . Professional, administrative, and technical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mail handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . City carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle operators. . . . . . . . . . Rural carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special delivery messengers . . . . . . Building and equipment maintenance Vehicle maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . Other 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noncareer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Casuals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transitional . . . . . . . . . . . Rural substitutes . . . . . . . . Relief/Leave Replacements. Nonbargaining temporary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Compensation and employee benefits (mil. dol.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Avg. salary per employee (dol.) 3 . . . . . . . . Pieces of mail per employee, (1,000) . . . . . . Total revenue 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating postal revenue . . . . . . . . . . . Mail revenue 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First class mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priority mail 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Express mail 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mailgram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicals (formerly 2d class) . . . . Standard mail A (formerly 3d class) . Standard mail B (formerly 4th class) International surface . . . . . . . . . . . International air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service revenue . . . . . . Registry . . . . . . . . . . Certified . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . Collection-on-delivery . Special delivery . . . . . Money orders . . . . . . Other. . . . . . . . . . . . Operating expenses
8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

................

NA Not available. X Not applicable. Z Fewer than 500. 1 Items mailed at 1st class rates and weighing 11 ounces or less. 2 Includes discontinued operations, area offices, and nurses. 3 For career bargaining unit employees. Includes fringe benefits. 4 Net revenues after refunds of postage. Includes operating reimbursements, stamped envelope purchases, indemnity claims, and miscellaneous revenue and expenditure offsets. Shown in year which gave rise to the earnings. 5 For 1980, includes penalty and franked mail, not shown separately. Later years have that mail distributed into the appropriate class. 6 Provides 2to 3-day delivery service. 7 Overnight delivery of packages weighing up to 70 pounds. 8 Shown in year in which obligation was incurred. Source: U.S. Postal Service, Annual Report of the Postmaster General and Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations, annual; and unpublished data.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

584

Comminications and Information Technology
No. 941. U.S. Postal Service—Volume of Mail, by Class: 1980 to 1997

[In millions, except percent and per capita. For fiscal years; see text Section 9. Includes Puerto Rico and all outlying areas. For definition of classes of mail, see footnotes, Table 940] CLASS OF MAIL Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . First class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priority mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicals (formerly 2d class) . Standard A (formerly 3d class) . Standard B (formerly 4th class) Mailgram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Postal Service . . . . . . . . Free for the blind. . . . . . . . . . International surface . . . . . . International air . . . . . . . . . Percent distribution . . . . . Domestic 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . First class mail . . . . . . . . . . . Express mail . . . . . . . . . . . . Priority mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicals (formerly 2d class) . Standard A (formerly 3d class) . Standard B (formerly 4th class) Mailgram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Postal Service . . . . . . . . Free for the blind. . . . . . . . . . International surface . . . . . . International air . . . . . . . . . Per capita: 2 Domestic mail 3 . . . . . . . . . . First class. . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicals . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard A . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard B . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PIECES OF MAIL 1980 106,311 105,348 60,276 17 248 10,220 30,381 633 39 (NA) 28 450 513 100.0 99.1 56.7 (Z) 0.6 9.6 28.6 0.6 (Z) (Z) 0.4 0.5 475 272 46 137 3 1990 166,301 165,503 89,270 59 518 10,680 63,725 663 14 538 35 166 632 100.0 99.5 53.7 (Z) 0.3 6.4 38.3 0.4 (Z) 0.3 (Z) 0.1 0.4 662 357 43 255 3 1995 180,734 179,933 96,296 57 869 10,194 71,112 936 5 412 52 106 696 100.0 99.6 53.3 (Z) 0.5 5.6 39.3 0.5 (Z) 0.2 (Z) 0.1 0.4 684 366 39 270 4 1997 190,888 189,881 99,660 64 1,068 10,411 77,254 988 5 377 53 97 910 100.0 99.5 52.2 (Z) 0.6 5.4 40.5 0.5 (Z) 0.2 (Z) 0.1 0.5 708 372 39 288 4 1980 12,958 12,742 2,136 78 591 3,478 3,240 2,661 (X) (NA) 40 164 52 100.0 98.3 16.5 0.6 4.6 26.8 25.0 20.5 (X) 0.3 1.3 0.4 57 10 16 15 12 WEIGHT OF MAIL (lbs.) 1990 18,826 18,578 3,340 112 1,007 4,233 7,648 2,109 (X) 97 30 146 102 100.0 98.7 17.7 0.6 5.3 22.5 40.6 11.2 (X) 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.5 74 13 17 31 8 1995 21,926 21,677 3,865 63 1,484 4,211 9,234 2,709 (X) 80 32 114 135 100.0 98.9 17.6 0.3 6.8 19.2 42.1 12.4 (X) 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.6 82 15 16 35 10 1997 23,352 23,093 4,115 76 1,861 4,338 9,694 2,890 (X) 88 33 102 157 100.0 98.9 17.6 0.3 8.0 18.6 41.5 12.4 (X) 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.7 87 15 16 36 11

- Represents zero. NA Not available. X Not applicable. Z Less than .05 percent. 1 1980 includes penalty and franked mail, not shown separately. In later years this mail was allocated to the appropriate class. 2 Based on estimated total population as of July 1, including Armed Forces abroad. 3 Includes types of mail not shown separately. Source: U.S. Postal Service, Annual Report of the Postmaster General; and unpublished data.

No. 942. U.S. Postal Service Rates for Letters and Post Cards: 1958 to 1995
[Domestic airmail letters discontinued in 1973 at 13 cents per ounce; superseded by express mail. Prior to February 3, 1991, international airmail rates were based on international zones which have been discontinued. Rates exclude Canada and Mexico] SURFACE MAIL DOMESTIC MAIL DATE OF RATE CHANGE Letters Each ounce $0.04 $0.05 $0.06 $0.08 $0.10 (X) 2 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) First ounce (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) $0.10 2 $0.13 $0.15 $0.18 $0.20 $0.22 $0.25 $0.29 $0.32 Each added ounce (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) $0.09 2 $0.11 $0.13 $0.17 $0.17 $0.17 $0.20 $0.23 $0.23 Postal and post cards $0.03 $0.04 $0.05 $0.06 $0.08 $0.07 2 $0.09 $0.10 $0.12 $0.13 $0.14 $0.15 $0.19 $0.20 INTERNATIONAL Express AIR MAIL 1 mail DATE OF RATE CHANGE (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) $9.35 $10.75 4 $12.00 4 $13.95 4 $15.00 1961 1967 1971 1974 1976 1981 1985 1988 1991 1995 (July 1) . (May 1) . (July 1) . (Mar. 2) . (Jan. 3) . (Jan. 1) . (Feb. 17) (Apr. 17) (Feb. 3) . (July 9) . . . . . . . . . . . LETTERS First 1/2 ounce (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) $0.50 $0.60 Second 1/2 ounce (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) $0.45 3 $0.40 Each added 1/2 ounce (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 3 $0.39 (X) Postal and Aeropost grammes cards $0.11 $0.13 $0.13 $0.18 $0.21 $0.28 $0.33 $0.36 $0.40 $0.40 $0.11 $0.13 $0.13 $0.18 $0.22 $0.30 $0.36 $0.39 $0.45 $0.45

1958 1963 1968 1971 1974 1975 1975 1978 1981 1981 1985 1988 1991 1995

(Aug. 1) . (Jan. 7). . (Jan. 7). . (May 16) . (Mar. 2). . (Sept. 14) (Dec. 31). (May 29) . (Mar. 22) . (Nov. 1) . (Feb.17) . (Apr. 3) . . (Feb. 3) . (Jan. 1). .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 X Not applicable. Post Office to addressee rates. Rates shown are for weights up to 2 pounds, all zones. Beginning Feb. 17, 1985, for weights between 2 and 5 lbs, $12.85 is charged. Prior to Nov. 1, 1981, rate varied by weight and distances. Over 5 pounds still varies by distance. 2 As of October 11, 1975, surface mail service upgraded to level of airmail. 3 Up to the limit of 64 ounces. 4 Over 8 ounces and up to 2 pounds. Source: U.S. Postal Service, ‘‘United States Domestic Postage Rate: Recent History,’’ and unpublished data.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

Communications and Information Technology
No. 943. Advertising—Estimated Expenditures, by Medium: 1990 to 1997
[In millions of dollars. See text, Section 18, for definitions of types of advertising] MEDIUM Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newspapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magazines . Weeklies Women’s Monthlies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 129,590 73,380 56,210 32,281 3,867 28,414 6,803 2,864 1,713 2,226 215 29,073 9,863 9,383 1,860 1,109 7,788 7,856 597 8,726 482 1,635 6,609 8,926 1,132 7,794 23,370 2,875 1,084 16,237 1991 127,470 73,270 54,200 30,409 3,685 26,724 6,524 2,670 1,671 2,183 215 28,189 9,533 8,933 2,024 1,253 7,110 7,565 704 8,476 490 1,575 6,411 9,182 1,162 8,020 24,460 2,882 1,077 16,056 1992 132,650 76,710 55,940 30,737 3,602 27,135 7,000 2,739 1,853 2,408 231 30,450 10,249 9,549 2,227 1,370 7,551 8,079 974 8,654 424 1,505 6,725 9,320 1,188 8,132 25,391 3,090 1,031 16,746 1993 139,540 80,795 58,745 32,025 3,620 28,405 7,357 2,850 2,009 2,498 243 31,698 10,209 9,369 2,586 1,576 7,800 8,435 1,092 9,457 458 1,657 7,342 9,517 1,230 8,287 27,266 3,260 1,090 17,627 1994 151,680 88,250 63,430 34,356 3,906 30,450 7,916 3,140 2,106 2,670 262 35,435 10,942 9,959 3,052 1,734 8,993 9,464 1,250 10,529 463 1,902 8,164 9,825 1,314 8,511 29,638 3,358 1,167 19,194 1995 162,930 95,360 67,570 36,317 3,996 32,321 8,580 3,347 2,236 2,997 283 37,828 11,600 10,263 3,535 2,016 9,119 9,985 1,573 11,338 480 1,959 8,899 10,236 1,410 8,826 32,866 3,559 1,263 20,660 1996 175,230 103,040 72,190 38,402 4,400 34,002 9,010 3,581 2,303 3,126 297 42,484 13,081 11,423 4,472 2,218 9,803 10,944 1,966 12,269 523 2,135 9,611 10,849 1,555 9,294 34,509 3,808 1,339 22,263

585

1997, prel. 186,765 109,950 76,815 41,220 4,840 36,380 9,975 3,890 2,595 3,490 315 44,580 13,275 11,525 5,275 2,385 9,995 11,490 2,160 13,180 555 2,340 10,285 11,470 1,685 9,785 36,925 4,140 1,410 23,550

Farm publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television. . . . . . . . . . . TV networks . . . . . . . Three TV networks . Syndication (nat’l) . . . Syndication TV . . . . . Spot (national). . . . . . Spot (local) . . . . . . . . Cable (non-network) . . Radio . . . . Network . Spot . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Yellow Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Direct mail . . . . . Business papers . Outdoor . . . . . . . Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: McCann-Erickson, Inc., New York, NY. Compiled for Crain Communications, Inc. in Advertising Age (copyright).

No. 944. Magazine Advertising—Expenditures, by Product: 1985 to 1997
[In millions of dollars. Space cost based on one-time rate; special rates used where applicable. Year-to-year data not strictly comparable, as a few minor publications are added or deleted] PRODUCT Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apparel, footwear, accessories . . . . . . . . . Automotive, accessories, equipment. . . . . . Beer, wine, and liquor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computers, office equipment and stationery. Business and consumer services . . . . . . . . Drugs and remedies . . . . . . . . . . Food and food products . . . . . . . . Household equipment and supplies Household furnishings . . . . . . . . . Jewelry, cameras, optical goods . . Mail orders/direct response. Publishing and media . . . . Retail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smoking materials . . . . . . Toiletries and toilet goods . . Travel, hotels, and resorts . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 4,961 251 549 240 250 463 135 342 100 87 101 328 188 121 383 385 245 793 1990 6,753 428 900 277 283 516 163 444 118 116 157 531 212 255 305 679 380 989 1991 6,608 419 941 279 291 453 167 437 115 123 157 574 197 201 265 640 346 1,005 1992 7,186 496 1,035 247 354 513 299 459 161 117 158 617 202 190 224 734 350 1,030 1993 7,667 513 1,064 204 364 625 368 470 141 146 168 725 214 219 210 811 378 1,047 1994 1995 1996 11,282 671 1,447 226 1,031 902 641 665 169 161 270 988 357 321 333 989 518 1,593 1997 12,755 757 1,777 270 1,088 1,020 816 684 185 187 297 1,099 407 410 307 1,121 571 1,757

9,029 10,212 544 1,223 199 699 680 438 512 141 166 183 904 259 248 288 880 449 1,216 585 1,328 220 951 782 479 677 170 172 231 962 292 256 314 900 469 1,425

Source: Publishers Information Bureau, Inc., New York, NY, as compiled by Competitive Media Reporting.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

586

Communications and Information Technology
No. 945. Television—Expenditures for Network Advertising: 1995 to 1997
[In millions of dollars. See text, Section 18, Communications, for a definition of network advertising. Beginning 1996, includes WB and UPN] PRODUCT 1995 . . . . . . . . 12,402 340 1,736 367 62 164 673 909 393 85 1,422 69 60 73 1996 1997 PRODUCT Home electronics equipment . . . Horticulture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Household equipment, supplies, and furnishings . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jewelry, cameras, optical goods Laundry soaps, cleansers, polishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pet products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proprietary medicines . . . . . . . Publishing and media . . . . . . . Restaurants and drive-ins. . . . . Toiletries and toilet goods . . . . . Toys and sporting goods . . . . . Travel, hotels, and resorts . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 203 37 382 143 123 267 496 95 1,088 31 1,011 1,163 285 138 587 1996 258 31 424 255 169 250 668 110 1,405 31 1,254 1,265 351 145 964 1997 233 35 400 189 176 265 718 126 1,387 26 1,216 1,376 336 141 886

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apparel, footwear, accessories Automotive . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beer and wine . . . . . . . . . . . Building material, equipment, fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computers, office equipment, and stationery . . . . . . . . . . Confectionery, soft drinks . . . . Consumer services . . . . . . . . Department, discount stores . . Financial planning services . . . Food and food products . . . . . Freight, industrial development Gas, lubricants, etc. . . . . . . . Home centers and hardware stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14,740 15,225 412 370 1,959 2,323 391 402 53 303 722 1,022 463 153 1,385 137 78 82 60 380 831 1,028 517 177 1,362 103 87 75

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..

Source: Television Bureau of Advertising, Inc., New York, NY (copyright). Data compiled by Competitive Media Reporting, New York, NY.

No. 946. Television—Estimated Time Charges for Spot Advertising: 1995 to 1997
[In millions of dollars. Data represent activity in the top 75 markets monitored by Competitive Media Reporting, currently covering approximately 382 stations. Data exclude National Syndicated activity. See text, Section 18, Communications, for definitions of types of advertising] PRODUCT Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture and farming . . . . . . . Apparel, footwear, accessories . . Automotive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beer and wine. . . . . . . . . . . . . Building material, equipment, fix . Computers, office equipment and stationery . . . . . . . . . . . . Confectionery, soft drinks . . . . . Consumer services . . . . . . . . . Food and food products . . . . . . Freight, industrial development . . Gasoline, lubricants, etc. . . . . . . Home electronics equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 6,586 9 59 2,457 177 51 45 285 699 883 33 123 151 1996 7,038 11 79 2,678 152 48 60 292 759 830 48 124 163 1997 7,219 11 66 2,945 123 66 62 290 863 894 20 118 125 PRODUCT Horticulture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Household equipment, supplies, and furnishings . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jewelry, cameras, optical goods . . Laundry soaps, cleaners, polishes Pet products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Political, unions, religious . . . . . . Proprietary medicines . . . . . . . . . Publishing and media . . . . . . . . . Toiletries and toilet goods . . . . . . Toys and sporting goods . . . . . . . Travel, hotels, and resorts . . . . . . Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 42 156 208 41 88 35 53 168 83 241 250 193 56 1996 46 153 234 44 83 44 172 192 85 246 229 190 76 1997 43 142 270 35 94 45 31 220 73 243 191 159 90

Source: Television Bureau of Advertising, Inc., New York, NY (copright). Data compiled by Competitive Media Reporting, New York, NY, in the top 75 markets.

No. 947. Television—Expenditures for Retail/Local Advertising: 1995 to 1997
[In millions of dollars. See headnote, Table 946] PRODUCT Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amusements, entertainment . . Appliance stores . . . . . . . . . . Auto repair, service stations . . Auto supply, accessory stores . Auto, truck dealers . . . . . . . . Banks, S&L associations . . . . Builders, home improvement. . Carpet, floor covering stores . . Clothing stores . . . . . . . . . . . Department stores . . . . . . . . Discount department stores . . Drug stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education services . . . . . . . . Financial planning services . . . Food stores, supermarkets . . . Furniture stores . . . . . . . . . . Gas, electric, water companies Health clubs, reducing salons . Home centers and hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 1996 1997 PRODUCT Hotels, resorts, U.S. . . . . . . . . Insurance agencies . . . . . . . . . Jewelry stores . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . Leisure time stores and services Loan, mortgage companies . . . Medical, dental services . . . . . . Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newspapers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office equipment/supply stores . Optical services, supplies . . . . . Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio, cable TV . . . . . . . . . . . Realtors, real estate developers Rental services (nonauto). . . . . Restaurants, drive-ins . . . . . . . Shoe stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shopping centers . . . . . . . . . . Sport, hobby, toy stores . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 1996 1997

. 6,608 7,167 7,500 . 188 194 210 . 309 332 295 . 103 107 99 . 67 71 94 . 444 482 455 . 141 172 169 . 44 60 53 . 72 70 70 . 168 173 178 . 226 202 257 . 152 171 211 . 96 116 116 . 121 136 158 . 28 43 58 . 291 309 336 . 431 439 453 . 41 45 63 . 115 120 118 . 180 189 195

107 111 132 38 37 41 33 38 40 157 154 168 225 234 238 75 98 168 181 214 243 383 387 381 28 30 44 36 26 31 70 59 51 36 260 77 240 220 239 33 36 40 27 29 22 1,116 1,138 1,252 29 39 50 38 41 40 61 59 55 478 526 600

Source: Television Bureau of Advertising, Inc., New York, NY (copyright). Data compiled by Competitive Media Reporting, New York, NY, in the top 75 markets.

U.S. Census Bureau, the Official StatisticsTM

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998

Oct. 29, 1998