Docstoc

833 - 885

Document Sample
833   - 885 Powered By Docstoc
					534

Business Enterprise

Figure 17.1

Patents Issued to U.S. Residents: 1980 to 1995
70 In thousands

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Bureau of the Census. For data, see table 861.

Figure 17.2

Bankruptcy Cases Filed: 1990 to 1996
1200 Thousands of cases

900

600

300

0

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Bureau of the Census. For data, see table 855.

Section 17

Business Enterprise
This section relates to the place and behavior of the business firm and to business initiative in the American economy. It includes data on the number, type, and size of businesses; financial data of domestic and multinational U.S. corporations; business investment, expenditures, and profits; sales and inventories; and business failures. Additional business data may be found in other sections, particularly 27 and 28. The principal sources of these data are the Survey of Current Business, published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), the Federal Reserve Bulletin, issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the annual Statistics of Income reports of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), The Business Failure Record issued by The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, Milton, CT, and Fortune and The Fortune Directory, issued by Time, Inc., New York. Business firms—A firm is generally defined as a business organization under a single management and may include one or more establishments. The terms firm, business, company, and enterprise are used interchangeably throughout this section. A firm doing business in more than one industry is classified by industry according to the major activity of the firm as a whole. The industrial classification is based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual (see text, section 13). The IRS concept of a business firm relates primarily to the legal entity used for tax reporting purposes. The IRS Statistics of Income reports present data, based on a sample of tax returns before audit, separately for sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations. Data presented are for active enterprises only. A sole proprietorship is an unincorporated business owned by one person including large enterprises with many employees and hired managers and part-time operations in which the owner is the only person involved. A partnership is an unincorporated business owned by two or more persons, each of whom has a financial interest in the business. The “persons” could be individuals, estates, trusts, other partnerships, or corporations. A corporation is a business that is

In Brief
Patents issued in 1994: 113,600 Percent issued to foreign country residents: 43% Bankruptcies filed in 1996: 1,042,110 Business: 5% Nonbusiness: 95.0% Change from 1995 21% legally incorporated under State laws. The IRS recognizes many types of businesses as corporations, including joint-stock companies, insurance companies, and unincorporated associations such as business trusts, etc. While many corporations file consolidated tax returns, most corporate tax returns represent individual corporations, some of which are affiliated through common ownership or control with other corporations filing separate returns. Assets and liabilities—In its annual report, Statistics of Income, Corporation Income Tax Returns, the IRS presents balance sheet and income estimates for all active U.S. corporations. The Bureau of the Census issues the Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing, Mining, and Trade Corporations (QFR), which presents quarterly income account and balance sheet data for manufacturing, mining, and trade industries. One of the most comprehensive measures of the investment position of the business sector (and the only measure adjusted to current replacement cost) is the BEA capital stock series. See Survey of Current Business, May 1997. Income, profits, dividends, and taxes—Several agencies, among them IRS and BEA, compile corporate income account data. These data, however, are not comparable because of differing definitions and methods of compilation. A reconciliation of the two can be found in table 8.23 of Survey of Current Business, published by BEA. The IRS publishes financial data for all business enterprises. These data appear in Statistics of Income, Corporation Income Tax Returns, and the Statistics of Income Bulletin (partnerships and sole proprietorships). Data on international income and taxes reported by U.S. corporations are also included in the Statistics of

536

Business Enterprise
Second, beginning with the preliminary 1994 benchmark survey results, the “communication and public utilities” group was disaggregated, and the “metal mining” and “nonmetallic minerals mining” groups were aggregated, in the industry table stub. Third, beginning with the revised 1993 annual estimates, the names of two industry groups were changed; the group “machinery, except electrical” is now called “industrial machinery and equipment,” and the group “electric and electronic equipment” is now called “electronic and other electric equipment.” Sources and uses of corporate funds— These data show capital requirements of corporations and the manner in which they are financed. Sources of funds should be equal to their uses. Fortune 500—Sales include service and rental revenues but exclude dividends, interest, and other nonoperating revenues. Assets are those shown at the company’s yearend. Net income is shown after taxes and after extraordinary credits or charges when any are shown on the income statement. Stockholder’s equity is the sum of capital stock, surplus, and retained earnings at the company’s yearend. Total returns to investors include both price appreciation and dividend yield. For further discussion, see Time, Inc., New York, NY, The Fortune Directories. Economic censuses—The economic censuses constitute comprehensive and periodic canvasses of the Nation’s industrial and business activities. The first economic census of the United States was conducted as part of the 1810 decennial census, when inquiries on manufacturing were included with the census of population. Minerals data were collected in 1840. The first censuses of construction and business were taken for 1929. An integrated economic census program was begun for 1954. In that year, the censuses covered the retail and wholesale trades, selected service industries, manufactures, and mineral industries. In 1992, coverage was expanded to 95 percent of the private U.S. economy. The economic censuses are taken at 5-year intervals covering years ending in “2” and “7.” Special surveys are conducted every 5 years as part of the economic censuses to determine the extent of business ownership by specific minority groups and women.

Income Bulletin and in the periodic Compendium of Studies of International Income and Taxes. BEA’s estimates of international investment income include receipts of income of U.S. direct investment abroad, payments of income on foreign direct investment in the United States, other private investment income receipts and payments (interest and dividends not included in direct investment), and U.S. Government interest receipts and payments. (See Section 28, Foreign Commerce and Aid.)
Corporate data issued by BEA are a part of its national income and product accounts (see text, section 14). The primary sources for BEA estimates of profits, taxes, dividends, and undistributed profits are from the SOI tabulations. Various adjustments of IRS data are required by the national income treatment—particularly with respect to profits which would be disclosed if all tax returns were audited: depletion, capital gain or loss, treatment of bad debts, measurement of income received from abroad, and intercorporate dividends—to make the figures comparable with other entries in the national income accounts. For a discussion of two types of adjustments (inventory valuation and capital consumption), see text, section 14. The BEA’s corporate profits data also include net earnings of Federal Reserve banks, credit unions, private noninsured pension funds, and several quasi-government credit agencies not included in IRS data. Changes in industry presentation—The country detail in this presentation is identical to that in the 1989 benchmark survey and in the intervening annual surveys. However, three changes have affected the industry detail. First, beginning with the publication of the preliminary 1994 benchmark survey results, the data for non-bank U.S. parents and foreign affiliates exclude savings institutions and credit unions. The change in coverage reflects the reclassification of savings institutions and credit unions from the “finance, except banking” industry (which is covered by the non-bank data) to the industry “depository institutions” (which will replace the industry “banking” in the publication of the final 1994 benchmark results). This change will not materially affect the comparisons of the data for 1993 with the data for 1994, because in 1993, only one U.S. parent and no foreign affiliates were classified as a savings institution or a credit union.

Returns, Business Receipts, and Net Income

537

No. 833. Number of Returns and Business Receipts, by Size of Receipts and Type of Business: 1980 to 1994
[Covers active enterprises only. Figures are estimates based on sample of unaudited tax returns; see Appendix III. The industrial distribution is based on data collected from companies; see text, section 17] RETURNS (1,000) 1980 Corporations . . . . . . . . . . Under $25,000 2 . . . . . . $25,000 to $49,999 . . . . $50,000 to $99,999 . . . . $100,000 to $499,999 . . . $500,000 to $999,999 . . . $1,000,000 or more . . . . Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . Under $25,000 2 . . . . . . $25,000 to $49,999 . . . . $50,000 to $99,999 . . . . $100,000 to $499,999 . . . $500,000 to $999,999 . . . $1,000,000 or more . . . . Nonfarm proprietorships 3 Under $25,000 2 . . . . . . $25,000 to $49,999 . . . . $50,000 to $99,999 . . . . $100,000 to $499,999 . . . $500,000 to $999,999 . . . $1,000,000 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 1992 1993 1994 1980 BUSINESS RECEIPTS (bil. dol.) 1990 1992 1993
1

SIZE-CLASS OF RECEIPTS

1994 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 732 4 4 9 52 37 625 791 75 67 101 308 95 145

2,711 3,717 3,869 3,965 (NA) 557 879 936 968 (NA) 208 252 256 256 (NA) 323 359 376 397 (NA) 926 1,162 1,216 1,218 (NA) 280 416 423 439 (NA) 418 649 662 687 (NA) 1,380 1,554 1,485 1,467 1,494 638 963 921 887 899 182 126 113 121 121 184 133 126 129 131 290 222 220 222 228 48 52 50 49 54 37 57 56 59 62 9,730 14,783 15,495 15,848 16,154 6,916 10,196 10,392 10,615 11,163 1,079 1,660 1,817 1,838 1,868 836 1,282 1,269 1,330 1,409 796 1,444 1,454 1,454 1,503 74 143 133 139 141 29 57 58 66 71

6,172 10,914 11,272 11,814 4 5 5 3 8 9 9 10 22 26 28 29 224 291 305 306 197 294 300 313 5,717 10,289 10,625 11,153 286 541 571 627 5 4 4 3 7 5 4 4 13 10 9 9 64 51 50 50 33 36 35 35 164 435 470 524 411 731 737 757 44 69 71 73 39 58 64 65 59 91 92 93 159 296 297 294 50 97 90 94 60 119 123 125

NA Not available. 1 Excludes investment income except for partnerships and corporations in finance, insurance, and real estate. Starting 1990, investment income no longer included for S corporations. S corporations are certain small companies with 35 shareholders (15 in 1980), mostly individuals, electing to be taxed through shareholders. 2 Includes firms with no receipts. 3 Number of businesses for 1980. Number of nonfarm sole proprietorship returns is not available by size prior to 1981. However, the number of returns and the number of businesses are very closely related. The ratio of number of returns to the number of businesses is approximately 1 to 1.3. Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income; Statistics of Income Bulletin; and unpublished data.

No. 834. Number of Returns, Receipts, and Net Income, by Type of Business and Industry: 1980 to 1994
[See headnote, table 833. Minus sign (-) indicates net loss] NUMBER OF RETURNS (1,000) ITEM Nonfarm proprietorships 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,932 11,929 13,679 14,298 14,783 15,181 15,495 15,848 16,154 515 126 1,986 513 744 2,954 379 2,575 1,345 7,803 Partnerships 1,380 1,714 1,654 1,635 1,554 1,515 1,485 1,468 1,493 123 27 66 30 23 153 18 130 810 261 Corporations 2,711 3,277 3,563 3,628 3,717 3,803 3,869 3,965 4,342 147 35 433 312 186 1,106 349 753 682 1,424 BUSINESS RECEIPTS (bil. dol.) Nonfarm proprietorships 1 411 540 672 693 731 713 737 757 791 19 6 116 33 40 248 39 209 54 272 Partnerships 286 349 516 524 541 539 571 627 731 11 16 31 108 66 142 56 85 161 196
2

NET INCOME (less loss) (bil. dol.) Nonfarm proprietorships 1 55 79 126 133 141 142 154 156 167 3.4 (Z) 20.4 3.9 6.1 16.6 5.4 11.2 20.2 95.7

3

Corporations 6,172 8,050 9,804 10,440 10,914 10,963 11,272 11,814 12,858 94 105 583 3,969 1,041 3,953 1,866 2,080 1,976 1,134

Partner- Corporaships tions 8 -9 15 14 17 21 43 67 83 2 1 3 7 6 4 2 3 24 36 239 240 413 389 371 345 402 498 577 1 4 12 219 68 68 31 38 169 36

1980. 1985. 1988. 1989. 1990. 1991. 1992. 1993.

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

1994 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, fishing 5. . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, public utilities . Wholesale and retail trade 6 . . Wholesale . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Z Less than $500 million. 1 In 1980, represents individually owned businesses, including farms; thereafter, represents only nonfarm proprietors, i.e., business owners. 2 Excludes investment income except for partnerships and corporations in finance, insurance, and real estate. Starting 1985, investment income no longer included for S corporations. 3 Net income (less loss) is defined differently by form of organization, basically as follows: (a) Proprietorships: Total taxable receipts less total business deductions, including cost of sales and operations, depletion, and certain capital expensing, excluding charitable contributions and owners’ salaries; (b) Partnerships: Total taxable receipts (including investment income except capital gains) less deductions, including cost of sales and operations and certain payments to partners, excluding charitable contributions, oil and gas depletion, and certain capital expensing; (c) Corporations: Total taxable receipts (including investment income, capital gains, and income from foreign subsidiaries deemed received for tax purposes, except for S corporations beginning 1985) less business deductions, including cost of sales and operations, depletion, certain capital expensing, and officers’ compensation excluding S corporation charitable contributions and investment expenses starting 1985; net income is before income tax. 4 Includes businesses not allocable to individual industries. 5 Represents agricultural services only. 6 Includes trade business not identified as wholesale or retail. Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income, various publications.

538

Business Enterprise

No. 835. Number of Returns and Business Receipts, by Industry, Type of Business, and Size of Business Receipts: 1991
[Number of returns in thousands; receipts and net income in billions of dollars. Covers active enterprises only. Figures are estimates based on a sample of unaudited tax returns; see Appendix III. The industrial distribution is based on data collected from establishments; see text, section 17. Minus sign (-) indicates net loss] Nonfarm proprietorships 15,181 713 142 432 17 150 7 1,735 93 427 23 660 33 2,678 246 1,291 44 7,642 247 CORPORATIONS Partnerships 1,515 539 21 127 8 39 18 57 27 24 66 26 38 171 100 804 113 260 171 Under $1 mil. 1 3,156 633 -13 117 18 34 4 335 85 199 54 132 26 774 214 571 61 965 168
2

INDUSTRY

$1 mil.$4.9 mil. 483 1,029 9 11 23 4 8 66 134 67 150 25 56 198 427 31 67 81 161

$5 mil.$9.9 mil. 82 571 9 1 8 1 4 9 66 15 104 4 30 36 251 6 43 10 66

$10 mil.- $50 mil. or $49.9 mil. more 66 1,330 36 1 13 1 12 6 107 14 294 3 50 31 614 7 137 5 102 15 7,399 304 (Z) 19 (Z) 62 1 110 5 2,807 1 734 5 1,786 3 1,615 1 265

Total: 2 Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, fishing: Number . . . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining: Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction: Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing: Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, public utilities: Number . . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade: Number . . . . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate: Number . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services: Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business receipts 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Z Less than 500 returns. Includes businesses without receipts. Includes businesses not allocable to individual 3 industries. Excludes investment income except for partnerships and corporations (other than S corporations) in finance, insurance, and real estate. Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income, various publications; and unpublished data.

No. 836. Sole Proprietorships—Selected Income and Deduction Items: 1980 to 1994
[In millions of dollars, except as indicated. Covers nonfarm sole proprietorships. All figures are estimates based on sample. Tax law changes have affected the comparability of the data over time; see Statistics of Income reports for a description] ITEM Number of returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . Businesses with net income (1,000). Inventory, end of year . . . . . . . . . . . Business receipts . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income from sales and operations Business deductions 1 . . . . . . . . . . Cost of goods sold/operations 1 . . Purchases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labor costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials and supplies . . . . . . Commissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries and wages (net) . . . . . . Car and truck expenses . . . . . . . Rent paid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes paid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest paid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pension and profit sharing plans . Net income (less loss) . . . . . . . . . . Businesses with net income . . . . NA Not available.
1

1980 8,932 (NA) 21,996 411,206 407,169 356,258 209,890 168,302 10,922 12,909 3,333 26,561 13,378 9,636 5,032 7,672 4,790 6,003 7,190 13,953 141 54,947 68,010

1985 11,929 8,641 24,970 540,045 528,675 461,273 232,294 (NA) 14,504 (NA) (NA) 38,266 17,044 15,259 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 11,914 26,291 311 78,773 98,776

1988 13,679 10,492 27,313 671,970 658,687 545,735 277,880 197,220 21,143 27,800 6,540 43,007 19,640 19,470 8,104 9,495 14,618 12,528 12,071 26,078 450 126,323 145,518

1989 14,298 11,018 30,060 692,811 678,616 560,175 283,709 204,681 22,540 29,870 6,843 45,469 20,789 20,952 8,149 9,948 13,601 12,879 13,280 24,479 539 132,738 152,416

1990 14,783 11,222 30,422 730,606 719,008 589,250 291,010 210,225 22,680 30,195 8,816 46,998 21,766 23,392 8,941 10,342 13,539 13,358 13,312 23,735 586 141,430 161,657

1991 15,181 11,551 29,783 712,568 700,681 571,154 272,627 200,861 21,918 28,072 7,628 48,890 22,594 23,643 9,159 10,629 13,260 13,065 12,077 23,076 519 141,516 162,427

1992 15,495 11,720 29,898 737,082 725,666 583,147 274,220 204,317 18,838 28,825 10,457 52,316 23,920 25,148 9,706 12,618 14,547 13,260 10,406 23,274 528 153,960 173,473

1993 15,848 11,872 31,795 757,215 746,306 600,765 289,578 210,260 20,685 32,701 8,707 52,046 26,714 25,008 9,847 13,062 16,069 13,173 9,431 24,964 636 156,459 176,983

1994 16,154 12,187 33,602 790,630 778,494 623,833 301,004 216,365 23,497 34,304 9,029 53,649 30,845 26,769 10,385 13,600 16,918 13,289 9,170 26,158 605 166,799 187,845

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Includes other amounts not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income Bulletin.

Partnerships—Selected Financial Items
No. 837. Partnerships—Selected Items, by Industry: 1980 to 1994

539

[In millions of dollars, except number of partners and partnerships in thousands. Covers active partnerships only. Includes partnerships not allocable by industry. Figures are estimates based on samples. See Appendix III] NUMBER OF PARTNERSHIPS YEAR Total All industries: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, fishing: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, public utilities: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With net income 774 876 854 856 870 890 72 76 77 81 76 72 15 33 29 23 21 17 51 41 45 42 45 48 11 15 14 12 11 12 20 12 15 14 16 18 123 113 100 86 88 87 313 369 401 427 443 465 169 207 173 169 169 170 With net loss 605 838 700 629 598 604 54 60 48 44 44 51 20 30 14 13 11 10 16 16 15 17 17 18 10 10 11 12 10 11 10 18 13 11 9 12 77 88 77 76 69 66 325 475 422 370 350 345 94 134 96 84 87 91 Number of partners Net income less loss 3

Total assets

1

Business receipts 2 3

Total deductions 3

Net income 3

Net loss 3

1,380 1,714 1,554 1,485 1,468 1,494 126 136 125 125 120 123 35 62 41 36 32 27 67 57 59 59 62 66 20 25 25 24 21 23 30 30 28 24 25 30 200 201 176 162 157 153 637 844 822 797 793 810 263 341 267 253 256 261

8,420 13,245 17,095 15,735 15,627 14,990 381 585 503 504 588 575 722 2,207 2,149 1,389 1,431 1,010 160 134 162 158 154 159 73 186 503 527 652 635 92 105 246 225 231 224 487 493 481 425 471 443 5,566 7,755 10,846 10,328 9,944 9,881 938 1,713 2,153 2,167 2,146 2,060

597,504 1,269,434 1,735,285 1,907,345 2,118,268 2,295,212 24,595 27,027 27,580 32,884 38,947 41,517 24,742 66,930 58,246 53,697 51,367 45,532 9,811 15,008 17,989 15,663 13,917 15,171 9,291 26,468 63,334 81,070 115,596 126,351 11,252 24,838 59,789 74,240 84,184 93,494 17,727 20,568 28,423 32,777 35,278 44,367 454,531 979,787 1,329,452 1,438,303 1,612,142 1,750,671 45,510 106,597 150,063 178,577 166,806 177,992

285,967 349,169 540,647 571,427 626,515 731,834 21,611 6,529 9,497 8,932 10,343 11,324 13,201 19,922 19,967 16,706 17,364 15,902 18,407 21,476 30,716 25,946 26,863 31,140 5,868 11,253 32,800 42,081 58,852 66,407

283,749 376,001 549,603 553,770 589,358 680,052 22,859 10,495 11,805 10,547 12,517 13,682 18,248 21,920 20,869 18,230 18,073 17,323 17,202 20,080 29,672 24,501 25,279 29,065 5,821 14,814 35,989 43,127 58,198 64,863

8,249 -8,884 16,610 42,916 66,652 82,183 472 -1,049 1,667 2,227 2,019 1,608 -4,208 1,482 2,183 1,009 2,148 984 1,560 2,207 1,908 1,906 2,176 2,654 248 -3,066 -117 1,054 4,119 5,627 -472 -1,085 1,166 1,870 3,940 6,584 2,475 1,977 2,610 2,553 3,076 4,301

45,062 77,045 116,318 121,834 137,441 150,928 2,539 2,797 3,905 3,951 3,989 3,985 3,920 7,884 7,009 5,271 6,070 5,076 2,119 2,743 3,020 2,648 2,884 3,127 1,092 1,360 5,887 6,585 9,319 11,118 1,199 1,228 4,791 5,779 7,482 9,853 3,374 3,467 4,717 4,758 5,304 6,344 15,169 30,383 47,577 50,044 59,062 65,369 15,649 26,942 39,383 42,748 43,300 46,048

36,813 85,928 99,708 78,918 70,788 68,745 2,067 3,846 2,238 1,724 1,970 2,377 8,128 6,402 4,825 4,263 3,922 4,092 559 536 1,112 743 708 474 844 4,426 6,004 5,531 5,200 5,491 1,671 2,314 3,626 3,909 3,542 3,268 900 1,490 2,107 2,205 2,229 2,043 19,418 56,311 66,790 50,796 43,802 41,245 3,224 10,400 12,930 9,744 9,413 9,730

15,327 16,142 22,588 24,225 65,354 65,833 78,028 78,996 89,861 88,889 107,569 104,551 65,793 63,988 69,079 68,119 98,120 97,131 107,870 106,639 110,890 109,854 142,116 140,295

87,133 91,382 -4,249 92,309 118,237 -25,929 64,313 87,011 -19,213 87,773 72,853 -752 127,908 113,480 15,260 161,365 137,240 24,125 58,627 104,197 161,702 181,603 184,434 195,933 48,106 96,202 145,789 158,260 162,846 172,926 12,424 16,541 26,453 33,004 33,887 36,318

1 Total assets are understated because not all partnerships file complete balance sheets. 2 Includes investment income for 3 partnerships in finance, insurance, and real estate. Beginning 1985, only net (not gross) income from farming, rents, and royalties are included.

Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income Bulletin, and Partnerhip Returns—1978-1994.

540

Business Enterprise
No. 838. Partnerships—Selected Income and Balance Sheet Items: 1980 to 1994

[In billions of dollars, except as indicated. Covers active partnerships only. All figures are estimates based on samples. See Appendix III] ITEM Number of returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . Number with net income (1,000). . . Number with balance sheets (1,000) Number of partners (1,000). . . . . . . . Assets 1 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciable assets (net) . . . . . . . . Inventories, end of year . . . . . . . . Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts payable . . . . . . . . . . . . Short-term debt 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term debt 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonrecourse loans. . . . . . . . . . . . Partners’ capital accounts 2 . . . . . . . Receipts 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business receipts 5 . . . . . . . . . . . Interest received 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost of goods sold/operations . . . . Salaries and wages . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes paid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest paid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . . . . . . . . . . . Net income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 1,380 774 1,194 8,420 598 239 33 70 489 34 48 178 119 109 292 271 11 284 114 22 10 28 22 8 45 1985 1,714 876 1,227 13,245 1,269 696 27 152 1,069 41 103 382 328 200 367 303 21 376 146 34 8 29 54 -9 77 1988 1,654 901 1,155 17,291 1,580 621 51 200 1,580 49 87 474 437 267 541 516 19 465 253 47 8 23 20 14 111 1989 1,635 898 1,149 18,432 1,791 670 59 214 1,791 52 87 512 461 356 551 524 21 475 233 54 9 33 20 14 114 1990 1,554 854 1,081 17,095 1,735 681 57 215 1,415 67 88 498 470 320 566 483 21 550 243 56 9 30 60 17 116 1991 1,515 856 1,048 15,801 1,817 696 57 213 1,460 63 117 491 474 357 563 483 20 541 237 58 10 28 58 21 113 1992 1,485 856 975 15,735 1,907 701 62 213 1,508 79 115 486 476 399 597 515 16 554 249 62 10 25 60 43 122 1993 1,468 870 977 15,627 2,118 698 71 207 1,620 80 131 489 478 499 656 561 16 589 273 65 11 27 60 67 137 1994 1,494 890 988 14,990 2,295 712 76 208 1,662 81 126 508 463 633 762 732 19 680 335 70 12 36 22 82 151

1 Includes items not shown separately. 2 Assets, liabilities, and partners’ capital accounts are understated because not all partnerships file complete balance sheets. 3 Mortgages, notes, and bonds payable in less than 1 year. 4 Mortgages, notes, and bonds payable in 1 year or more. 5 Includes investment income for partnerships in finance, insurance, and real estate. 6 1985 also includes dividends.

Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income Bulletin, various publications.

No. 839. Corporate Funds—Sources and Uses: 1980 to 1996
[In billions of dollars, except percent. Covers nonfarm nonfinancial corporate business. See text, section 17] ITEM Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. undistributed profits. . . . . . . IVA and CCA 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital consumption allowances. . Foreign earnings 2 . . . . . . . . . . . External 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credit market funds . . . . . . . . . . Securities and mortgages . . . . Equity issues . . . . . . . . . . . Bonds and mortgages 4 . . . . Loans and short-term paper . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Profit taxes payable . . . . . . . . Trade debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign direct investment in U.S. Miscellaneous liabilities . . . . . . Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital expenditures . . . . . . . . Increase in financial assets. . . . Discrepancy (sources less uses) . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 421.8 199.9 69.4 -74.5 186.3 18.7 221.9 78.7 35.9 10.4 25.5 42.8 143.1 2.9 29.1 13.2 111.1 419.7 250.7 168.9 2.1 1985 737.9 358.2 26.0 46.8 264.0 21.4 379.7 83.9 11.5 -84.5 96.0 72.4 295.8 -3.2 43.0 256.0 256.0 643.7 369.6 274.1 94.2 1989 851.9 408.2 80.1 -5.1 313.7 19.5 443.7 95.5 -0.2 -129.5 129.3 95.7 348.2 1.7 53.7 69.4 292.7 756.2 373.3 382.9 95.7 1990 592.6 409.1 23.6 -8.9 349.5 44.8 183.5 47.0 -26.6 -63.0 36.4 73.6 136.5 -5.0 28.4 55.9 113.1 509.7 394.5 115.3 82.9 1991 489.3 422.2 8.3 3.4 363.5 47.1 67.1 -35.6 75.1 18.3 56.8 -110.7 102.7 -8.2 23.1 12.0 87.8 500.7 370.9 129.8 -11.4 1992 600.0 438.6 33.7 -9.1 372.6 41.5 161.3 60.9 66.8 27.0 39.8 -5.9 100.5 7.2 33.4 59.8 59.8 554.4 386.9 167.5 45.6 1993 698.1 480.2 48.2 -7.5 386.1 53.4 217.9 68.9 85.3 21.3 64.0 -16.4 149.1 2.0 36.4 42.9 110.6 787.9 430.6 357.3 -899.8 1994 758.9 524.9 81.4 -8.7 408.5 43.7 234.0 73.2 -37.7 -44.9 7.2 110.8 160.8 2.4 91.8 84.7 66.7 761.7 483.6 278.1 -2.9 1995 882.0 543.8 86.9 -19.0 421.0 54.9 338.2 123.3 -2.1 -74.2 72.2 125.3 214.9 -0.8 67.6 133.3 148.1 889.0 546.6 342.4 -7.0 1996 953.8 592.8 92.7 7.4 438.5 54.2 361.0 64.7 -16.4 -82.6 66.2 81.1 296.3 1.1 59.0 236.1 236.1 973.4 555.7 417.7 -19.6
3

1 2 Inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustment. Foreign earnings of subsidiaries retained abroad. increases in liability. 4 Includes industrial pollution control revenue bonds issued by State and local governments.

Net

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Data derived from Flow of Funds Accounts, annual.

Corporation Balance Sheet and Income Statement
No. 840. Nonfinancial Corporate Business-Sector Balance Sheet: 1980 to 1994
[In billions of dollars. Represents yearend outstandings] ITEM Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tangible assets (current cost) . . . . . . Reproducible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid assets 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checkable deposits and currency Time deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumer credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mutual fund shares . . . . . . . . . . . Trade credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous assets . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credit market debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . Profit taxes payable . . . . . . . . . . . . Trade debt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous liabilities . . . . . . . . . . Net worth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 4,455 3,278 2,771 508 1,176 197 57 38 29 2 478 471 1,416 886 44 348 138 3,039 5,829 4,215 3,514 702 1,613 459 105 74 38 7 585 524 2,084 1,369 42 452 221 3,745 6,122 4,399 3,658 741 1,723 508 132 80 43 11 624 538 2,313 1,543 39 486 245 3,809 6,445 4,546 3,771 775 1,899 595 154 88 47 16 649 593 2,606 1,774 43 500 290 3,838 6,821 4,751 3,937 814 2,070 643 172 92 54 13 694 666 2,910 1,970 48 540 352 3,911 7,313 5,057 4,182 875 2,257 674 171 106 61 11 766 745 3,246 2,169 50 599 428 4,068 7,707 5,334 4,394 940 2,373 741 185 103 64 10 810 749 3,537 2,366 47 629 496 4,170 7,815 5,326 4,573 753 2,489 783 193 99 67 8 825 806 3,705 2,469 42 659 536 4,109 7,585 5,043 4,620 422 2,542 801 201 104 63 11 822 845 3,724 2,458 33 671 562 3,861 7,473 4,819 4,709 110 2,654 811 191 97 65 16 854 908 3,825 2,500 41 701 583 3,648 7,681 4,965 4,875 90 2,716 813 194 101 80 22 867 933 3,914 2,561 43 727 584 3,767

541

1994 8,097 5,230 5,136 93 2,868 857 195 102 90 20 942 957 4,152 2,681 45 800 627 3,945

1 Includes other assets not shown separately. Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Balance Sheets for the U.S. Economy.

No. 841. Corporations—Selected Financial Items: 1980 to 1994
[In billions of dollars, except as noted. Covers active corporations only. All corporations are required to file returns except those specifically exempt. See source for changes in law affecting comparability of historical data. Based on samples; see Appendix III] ITEM Number of returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . Number with net income (1,000) . . . . . . S Corporation returns 1 (1,000) . . . . . . . Assets 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes and accounts receivable . Inventories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Investments in Govt. obligations Mortgage and real estate . . . . . Other investments . . . . . . . . . . Depreciable assets . . . . . . . . . Depletable assets . . . . . . . . . . Land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts payable . . . . . . . . . . Short-term debt 3 . . . . . . . . . . Long-term debt 4. . . . . . . . . . . Capital stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paid-in or capital surplus . . . . . Retained earnings 5. . . . . . . . . Net worth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business receipts 6 7 . . . . . . . . Interest 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rents and royalties . . . . . . . . . Deductions 3 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost of sales and operations 7 . Compensation of officers . . . . . Rent paid on business property . Taxes paid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest paid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 6 9 . . . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deficit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income subject to tax . . . . . Income tax before credits 10 . Tax credits 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign tax credit . . . . . . . . Income tax after credits 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 2,711 1,597 545 7,617 529 1,985 535 266 894 1,214 2,107 72 93 7,617 542 505 987 417 532 1,070 1,944 6,361 5,732 367 54 6,125 4,205 109 72 163 345 157 52 239 297 58 247 104 42 25 62 1985 3,277 1,820 725 12,773 683 3,318 715 917 1,259 2,414 3,174 112 141 12,773 892 1,001 1,699 920 1,421 1,366 3,304 8,398 7,370 635 105 8,158 4,894 171 135 201 569 304 92 240 364 124 266 109 48 24 61 1988 3,563 1,909 1,257 16,568 785 4,099 846 1,095 1,605 3,614 3,821 124 177 16,568 1,023 1,431 2,352 1,429 2,154 1,493 4,207 10,265 8,950 805 116 9,853 5,945 203 161 222 672 328 114 413 556 143 383 127 35 27 92 1989 3,628 1,922 1,423 17,647 824 4,196 879 1,262 1,610 3,971 4,070 134 191 17,647 1,090 1,602 2,490 1,477 2,595 1,522 4,603 10,935 9,427 967 129 10,545 6,317 198 173 236 832 337 124 389 556 167 371 123 32 24 96 1990 3,717 1,911 1,575 18,190 771 4,198 894 921 1,538 4,137 4,318 129 210 18,190 1,094 1,803 2,665 1,585 2,814 1,410 4,739 11,410 9,860 977 133 11,033 6,611 205 185 251 825 333 126 371 553 182 366 119 32 25 96 1991 3,803 1,942 1,698 19,030 787 4,191 884 1,069 1,529 4,750 4,549 142 215 19,030 1,681 1,500 2,698 1,741 3,257 1,441 5,277 11,436 9,966 920 137 11,087 6,654 201 193 258 733 334 129 345 536 191 350 116 29 21 93 1992 3,869 2,064 1,785 20,002 806 4,169 915 1,248 1,567 4,971 4,755 131 221 20,002 1,605 1,560 2,742 1,881 3,656 1,431 5,700 11,742 10,360 829 140 11,330 6,772 221 196 274 597 346 134 402 570 168 378 126 30 22 102 1993 3,965 2,145 1,902 21,816 812 4,532 947 1,290 1,627 5,701 4,969 137 230 21,816 1,466 1,569 2,871 2,042 4,223 1,662 (NA) 12,270 10,866 808 130 11,765 7,052 226 201 290 546 364 140 498 659 161 437 149 35 23 (NA) 1994 4,342 2,392 2,024 23,446 853 4,768 1,126 1,309 1,661 6,265 5,284 148 239 23,446 1,606 1,831 3,100 2,132 4,790 1,698 7,031 13,360 11,884 882 132 12,775 7,625 282 223 322 611 403 157 577 740 162 494 168 37 25 136

NA Not available. 1 Represents certain small corporations with up to 35 shareholders (15 in 1980), mostly individuals, electing to be taxed at the shareholder level. 2 Includes items not shown separately. 3 Payable in less than 1 year. 4 Payable 5 6 in 1 year or more. Appropriated and unappropriated. Except for 1980, receipts, deductions and net income of S corporations are limited to those from trade or business. Those from investments are excluded. 7 Beginning 1988, includes gross sales and cost of sales of securities, commodities, and real estate by exchanges, brokers, or dealers selling on their own accounts. Previously, net gain included in total receipts only. Excludes investment income. 8 Includes tax-exempt interest in State and local 9 10 government obligations. Excludes regulated investment companies. Consists of regular (and alternative tax) only. 11 Includes minimum tax, alternative minimum tax, adjustments for prior year credits, and other income-related taxes. Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income, Corporation Income Tax Returns, annual.

542

Business Enterprise
No. 842. Corporations—Selected Financial Items, by Industry: 1980 to 1994

[In billions of dollars, except as indicated. Covers active corporations only. Industrial distribution based on data collected from companies; see text, section 17. Excludes corporations not allocable by industry] INDUSTRY Agriculture, forestry, and fishing: Returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 2 . . . . . . . Mining: Returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 2 . . . . . . . Construction: Returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 2 . . . . . . . Manufacturing: Returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 2 . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities: Returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 2 . . . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade: Returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 2 . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate: Returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 2 . . . . . . . Services: Returns (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) 2 . . . . . . . ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGE RECEIPTS 4 Agriculture, forestry, and fishing . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . . Wholesale and retail trade . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 81 40.7 29.3 52.1 51.4 0.7 26 126.9 72.9 176.7 169.1 7.8 272 132.9 100.1 267.2 262.1 5.3 243 1,709.5 960.3 2,404.3 2,290.6 125.7 111 758.4 467.7 523.8 504.0 20.0 800 646.9 424.6 1,955.5 1,919.5 38.3 493 4,022.2 3,491.7 697.5 652.6 33.1 671 178.2 125.3 279.9 271.8 8.2 1985 103 52.7 37.2 70.5 70.6 -0.1 41 240.8 136.0 142.0 145.4 -2.5 318 215.3 160.6 387.2 382.8 4.4 277 2,644.4 1,544.7 2,831.1 2,733.1 113.8 138 1,246.4 755.9 772.4 747.8 25.1 917 1,010.0 723.7 2,473.9 2,440.4 33.1 518 7,029.5 5,867.5 1,182.0 1,104.6 60.7 939 331.0 241.1 534.6 528.7 5.9 1989 123 63.4 42.3 86.6 85.1 1.6 42 236.3 109.9 102.4 99.5 3.1 393 249.7 183.0 517.5 508.8 8.7 301 3,721.2 2,347.7 3,531.2 3,377.1 180.5 156 1,474.4 963.1 906.5 867.6 39.1 1,013 1,390.6 1,047.8 3,184.9 3,148.8 36.2 1990 126 68.3 45.0 88.1 86.9 1.2 40 219.2 108.9 111.4 106.5 5.3 407 243.8 180.0 534.7 527.8 6.8 302 3,921.3 2,529.1 3,688.7 3,545.1 171.4 160 1,522.0 1,013.4 936.3 901.0 35.4 1,023 1,447.3 1,092.5 3,309.0 3,279.1 30.1 1991 130 67.8 45.0 85.9 85.3 0.6 39 213.0 106.4 103.3 99.5 4.0 417 243.0 172.4 515.1 509.2 6.1 300 4,028.4 2,547.2 3,658.5 3,548.7 132.3 165 1,573.8 1,044.9 954.9 917.8 37.7 1,044 1,483.4 1,108.6 3,380.6 3,350.9 30.0 1992 138 71.8 46.7 95.6 94.0 1.6 37 218.2 112.1 112.8 110.3 2.7 408 231.1 159.5 499.4 493.9 5.5 300 4,113.1 2,701.2 3,760.3 3,633.8 143.6 178 1,642.0 1,106.3 997.6 956.5 41.8 1,053 1,581.9 1,177.7 3,503.9 3,463.4 41.3 1993 141 74.6 46.9 98.3 96.7 1.6 35 224.0 112.6 112.1 109.6 2.6 417 240.4 164.6 538.3 530.7 7.5 307 4,225.1 2,784.4 3,890.7 3,741.6 173.2 176 1,770.7 1,190.9 1,037.2 984.9 52.9 1,073 1,702.8 1,254.2 3,709.5 3,659.8 49.7 1994 147 79.9 50.6 100.9 99.6 1.3 35 239.7 121.1 115.7 112.3 3.6 433 249.1 170.9 592.8 581.2 11.6 312 4,525.5 2,936.6 4,218.8 4,024.3 219.1 187 1,826.3 1,207.2 1,103.2 1,036.1 68.3 1,106 1,795.2 1,303.1 4,052.2 3,984.0 68.5 682 13895.3 10053.1 1976.5 1773.1 169.3 1,424 833.9 570.3 1198.0 1162.5 35.6

593 609 618 635 641 9,957.5 10,193.3 10,780.7 11,480.5 12,831.7 7,929.3 8,051.3 8,267.1 8,531.3 9,288.5 1,868.0 1,954.7 1,924.3 1,900.4 1,940.3 1,730.5 1,809.9 1,771.2 1,724.3 1,723.3 108.9 109.9 124.5 147.0 185.2 990 552.1 419.8 735.5 724.9 11.0 1,029 572.8 429.7 779.3 769.0 10.6 1,062 636.8 459.1 809.7 800.2 9.8 1,100 661.6 465.0 869.5 851.1 18.5 1,158 744.8 508.6 941.6 916.5 25.4

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

-2.4 33.3 5.7 11.7 17.5 11.6 24.3 14.2

5.9 15.0 14.4 2.3 6.4 7.2 14.4 9.0

0.3 2.0 3.6 5.4 8.1 6.9 9.0 5.8

1.7 8.8 3.3 4.5 3.3 3.9 4.6 6.0

-2.5 -7.3 -3.7 -0.8 2.0 2.2 -1.6 3.9

11.3 9.2 -3.0 2.8 4.5 3.6 -1.2 7.4

2.8 -0.6 7.8 3.5 4.0 5.9 2.1 8.3

2.6 3.1 10.1 8.4 6.3 9.2 1.8 27.2

1 Liabilities does not include net worth. 2 Beginning 1989, receipts, deductions, and net income of S corporations are limited to those from trade or business; those from investments are generally excluded. S corporations are certain small corporations with up to 35 shareholders (15 in 1980), mostly individuals, electing to be taxed at the shareholder level. 3 Beginning 1989, includes gross sales (previously net sales) of securities, commodities, and real estate by exchanges, brokers, or dealers selling on their own account. 4 Change from preceding year.

Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income, Corporation Income Tax Returns, annual.

Corporations by Asset-Size Class and Industry
No. 843. Corporations, by Asset-Size Class and Industry: 1994

543

[In millions of dollars, except number of returns and percent distribution. Covers active corporations only Excludes corporations not allocable by industry. The industrial distribution is based on data collected from companies; see text, section 17. Detail may not add to total because of rounding] ASSET-SIZE CLASS INDUSTRY Agriculture, forestry, and fishing: Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . . . . . . Mining: Returns . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts . . . . . . . . . . Deductions . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . Construction: Returns . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts . . . . . . . . . . Deductions . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . Manufacturing: Returns . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts . . . . . . . . . . Deductions . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Under $10 mil. 1 146,425 53,726 72,825 72,259 533 34,444 16,768 18,957 18,483 464 430,614 145,726 425,618 417,074 8,506 299,618 212,162 516,707 503,937 12,721 183,748 64,411 167,125 164,095 3,017 1,094,953 457,508 1,716,710 1,698,817 17,830 $10-$24.9 mil. 345 4,942 5,287 5,293 -10 460 7,252 5,396 5,259 133 1,695 24,991 52,549 51,437 1,089 6,375 98,758 183,402 175,730 7,710 1,321 20,198 27,908 27,152 751 7,365 111,170 352,337 346,535 5,784 $25-$49.9 mil. 117 3,918 4,880 4,774 103 149 5,410 4,006 3,985 17 388 13,463 26,206 25,728 467 2,513 87,171 144,319 138,158 6,168 464 16,020 21,043 20,438 608 1,973 67,191 185,939 183,020 2,923 $50-$99.9 mil. 57 4,102 4,904 4,890 13 108 7,711 4,255 4,124 127 159 11,359 20,381 19,976 397 1,488 104,504 157,975 151,268 6,716 303 21,566 22,584 21,758 818 947 65,714 166,029 162,525 3,488 $100-$249.9 mil. 34 4,733 5,662 5,594 66 97 17,043 11,264 11,080 186 69 11,433 20,615 20,482 129 1,133 177,140 234,306 221,740 12,692 223 36,068 28,509 27,747 783 617 97,156 226,575 221,840 4,714 $250 mil. and over 17 8,472 7,350 6,804 609 112 185,544 71,809 69,336 2,719 39 42,121 47,391 46,526 986 1,256 3,845,722 2,982,083 2,833,469 173,107 415 1,668,010 836,042 774,885 62,288 507 996,429 1,404,636 1,371,237 33,735

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

146,996 79,893 100,907 99,615 1,314 35,371 239,728 115,687 112,267 3,645 432,965 249,094 592,760 581,224 11,574 312,383 4,525,456 4,218,792 4,024,301 219,115 186,474 1,826,273 1,103,212 1,036,075 68,265 1,106,363 1,795,168 4,052,226 3,983,974 68,473

Transportation and public utilities: Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade: Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Finance, insurance, and real estate: Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions . . . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . . . Services: Returns . . . . . . . . . . . Assets . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts . . . . . . . . . . Deductions . . . . . . . . Net income (less loss) . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. 681,671 . 13,895,295 . 1,976,491 . 1,773,052 . 169,303 . . . . . 1,424,394 833,930 1,198,030 1,162,499 35,569

655,726 272,127 220,073 220,100 -529 1,419,424 231,622 723,474 707,339 16,071

7,223 114,963 27,370 26,818 253 2,792 42,295 60,121 59,065 1,047

5,340 192,710 30,402 27,726 1,970 977 34,185 45,051 44,503 563

4,645 332,588 40,569 35,083 3,963 515 36,943 39,456 38,773 666

4,334 4,403 686,962 12,295,945 82,843 1,575,234 69,434 1,393,891 9,667 153,978 392 64,514 58,948 56,498 2,487 294 424,370 270,980 256,321 14,735

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION RECEIPTS Agriculture, forestry, and fishing . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities Wholesale and retail trade . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

. . . . . . . .

100 100 99 100 101 101 100 100
2

72 16 72 12 15 42 11 60

5 5 9 4 3 9 1 5

5 3 4 3 2 5 2 4

5 4 3 4 2 4 2 3

6 10 3 6 3 6 4 5

7 62 8 71 76 35 80 23

Includes returns with zero assets.

Includes investment income.

Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income, Corporation Income Tax Returns, annual.

544

Business Enterprise
No. 844. Employees and Payroll, by Employment-Size Class: 1980 to 1994

[Excludes government employees, railroad employees, self-employed persons, etc. See ‘‘General Explanation’’ in source for definitions and statement on reliability of data. An establishment is a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed] EMPLOYMENT-SIZE CLASS Employees, total 1 . Under 20 employees . . . . 20 to 99 employees . . . . . 100 to 499 employees . . . 500 to 999 employees . . . 1,000 or more employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 . . . . . . 1980 74,844 19,423 21,168 17,840 5,689 10,716 1,035 231 261 249 91 208 1985 81,111 21,810 23,539 19,410 5,716 10,645 1,514 352 388 362 126 286 1988 87,882 23,583 25,930 21,307 6,078 10,984 1,860 440 485 452 152 331 1989 91,631 23,992 26,829 22,387 6,442 11,981 1,990 461 514 488 163 364 1990 93,476 24,373 27,414 22,926 6,551 12,212 2,104 485 547 518 174 381 1991 92,302 24,482 26,906 22,369 6,325 12,220 2,145 502 555 523 175 390 1992 92,801 25,000 27,030 22,227 6,270 12,275 2,272 536 586 550 186 413 1993 94,789 25,233 27,443 23,195 6,449 12,470 2,363 554 611 582 191 424 1994 96,733 25,373 28,138 24,048 6,663 12,513 2,488 579 650 621 202 436

Annual payroll, total 1 Under 20 employees . . . . . . 20 to 99 employees . . . . . . . 100 to 499 employees . . . . . 500 to 999 employees . . . . . 1,000 or more employees . . .

Bil. dol Bil. dol. Bil. dol. Bil. dol. Bil. dol. Bil. dol.

1 Prior to 1987, totals for employees and annual payroll have been revised. Detail may not add to totals because revisions for size class are not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns, annual.

No. 845. Establishments, Employees, and Payroll, by Industry: 1980 to 1994
[Beginning 1990, data are based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Prior to 1990, data are based on the 1972 SIC] INDUSTRY All industries 1 . . . Agricultural services 2 . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . Transportation 3 . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . Finance and insurance 4 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESTABLISHMENTS (1,000) 1980 4,543 46 30 418 319 168 385 1,223 421 1,278 1985 5,701 64 37 476 358 203 438 1,407 488 1,712 1990 6,176 85 30 578 378 235 476 1,530 545 2,059 1994 EMPLOYEES (1,000) 1980 1985 1990 1994 1980 1,035 3 22 75 355 88 89 124 77 197 PAYROLL (bil. dol.) 1985 1,513 5 28 98 458 123 130 178 132 346
3

1990 2,104 9 27 132 544 166 181 242 197 599

1994 2,488 11 25 137 598 191 210 282 239 794

6,509 74,844 81,111 93,476 96,733 104 290 380 531 586 28 994 943 723 608 621 4,473 4,480 5,239 4,709 387 21,165 19,429 19,173 18,098 276 4,623 4,809 5,592 5,714 512 5,211 5,624 6,328 6,366 1,564 15,047 16,851 19,815 20,320 617 5,295 6,005 6,956 7,002 2,342 17,186 21,549 28,800 33,253
2

1 Includes nonclassifiable establishments not shown separately. utilities. 4 Includes real estate.

Includes forestry and fisheries.

Includes public

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns, annual.

No. 846. Establishments, Employees, and Payroll, by Employment-Size Class and Industry: 1994
[See headnote, table 844. Data are based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification] All industries 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,509 5,662 704 128 10 6 96,733 25,373 28,138 24,048 6,663 12,513 2,488 579 650 621 202 436 Agricultural services 2 104 100 4 (Z) (Z) (Z) 586 (D) 152 (D) 10 (D) 11.2 (D) 2.9 (D) 0.2 (D) Construction 621 574 42 4 (Z) (Z) Manu- Trans- WholeRetail facportasale turing tion 3 trade trade 387 262 88 32 4 2 276 228 39 8 6 (Z) 5,714 1,024 1,614 1,507 442 1,126 190.9 27.3 48.9 52.6 17.6 44.5 512 441 64 7 (Z) (Z) 1,564 1,321 217 25 1 (Z) Finance and insurance 4 617.0 560.0 49.0 7.0 1.0 (Z)

EMPLOYMENT SIZE-CLASS

Unit

Mining 28 23 4 1 (Z) (Z) 608 (D) 172 (D) 63 (D) 25.1 (D) 6.3 (D) 3.0 (D)

Services 2,342 2,096 197 43 4 3 33,253 8,727 7,890 8,084 2,514 6,039 794.0 221.0 180.0 171.0 59.0 163.0

Establishments, total . Under 20 employees . . . . . . 20 to 99 employees . . . . . . . 100 to 499 employees . . . . . 500 to 999 employees . . . . . 1,000 or more employees . . . Employees, total . . Under 20 employees . . . . 20 to 99 employees . . . . . 100 to 499 employees . . . 500 to 999 employees . . . 1,000 or more employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

4,709 18,098 2,151 1,502 1,566 3,892 722 6,517 115 2,381 155 3,807 136.5 54.3 48.8 24.8 41.0 4.6 597.9 39.1 110.7 198.6 80.9 168.6

6,366 20,320 7,002.0 2,255 6,929 2,263.0 2,426 8,529 1,887.0 1,262 4,225 1,463.0 217 392 527.0 206 245 861.0 210.2 69.1 78.3 45.4 8.9 8.5 282.3 92.1 110.0 64.9 8.3 6.9 239.0 64.9 64.0 53.5 20.1 36.5

Annual payroll, total Under 20 employees . . . . . 20 to 99 employees . . . . . . 100 to 499 employees . . . . 500 to 999 employees . . . . 1,000 or more employees . .

Bil. dol . Bil. dol . Bil. dol . Bil. dol . Bil. dol . Bil. dol .

3

D Withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies; data are included in higher-level totals. Z Less than 500 1 2 Includes nonclassifiable establishments not shown separately. Includes forestry and fisheries. establishments. Includes public utilities. 4 Includes real estate. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns, annual.

Business Enterprise

545

No. 847. Small Establishments—Summary by Employment-Size Class and Industry: 1994
[Establishments absolute employees in thousands and payroll in millions of dollars. See headnote, table 844. Data are based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification] Agricultural services 2 Transportation 3 276,188 146,993 46,488 34,671 48,036 5,714 245 307 472 4,689 190,877 7,389 7,510 12,428 163,550 Wholesale trade Finance and insurance 4

EMPLOYMENT SIZE-CLASS Establishments, total . 1 to 4 employees . 5 to 9 employees . 10 to 19 employees 20 + employees . . Employees, total . . . 1 to 4 employees . 5 to 9 employees . 10 to 19 employees 20 + employees . . Annual payroll . . . . . 1 to 4 employees . 5 to 9 employees . 10 to 19 employees 20 + employees . .

All industries 1 6,509,276 3,575,704 1,286,260 799,561 847,751 96,733 6,135 8,492 10,745 71,361 2,488,228 164,102 178,344 236,564 1,909,217

Mining

ConManustruction facturing 620,852 404,769 108,659 61,013 46,411 4,709 626 711 814 2,559 136,532 16,641 16,246 21,381 82,264 386,868 136,642 65,516 59,478 125,232 18,098 243 441 817 16,597 597,896 7,611 10,356 21,108 558,821

Retail trade

Services

104,390 28,313 71,526 14,430 18,647 4,583 9,571 3,879 4,646 5,421 586 101 (D) 126 162 608 24 (D) 53 349

512,489 1,564,175 253,265 716,811 109,360 369,284 78,536 235,166 71,328 242,914 6,366 466 727 1,061 4,111 210,157 15,805 21,063 32,210 141,080 20,320 1,312 2,459 3,159 13,391 282,293 22,718 30,868 38,550 190,157

617,374 2,342,302 383,065 1,396,052 111,517 449,333 65,375 250,922 57,417 245,995 7,002 654 735 874 4,740 239,030 19,584 19,819 25,523 174,104
1 4

33,253 2,430 2,941 3,356 24,526 793,953 70,337 69,338 81,208 573,070 Includes Includes

11,204 25,120 2,240 940 (D) (D) 2,342 1,724 3,135 14,376

D Withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies; data are included in higher-level totals. nonclassifiable establishments not shown separately. 2 Includes forestry and fisheries. 3 Includes public utilities. real estate. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns, annual.

No. 848. Women-Owned Firms by Major Industry Group: 1992
[Based on the 1987 SIC system. Includes individual proprietorships, partnerships and subchapter S corporations. Detail may not add to total due to rounding. N.e.c. not elsewhere classified] ALL FIRMS MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUP SIC code 1 Firms (number) 5,888,883 82,526 37,205 183,695 152,346 1,658 141,623 154,542 1,093,342 602,802 3,158,444 282,358 Sales and receipts ($1,000) 642,484,352 4,987,572 6,905,374 45,978,168 90,634,753 3,739,465 25,822,193 12,487,093 155,852,751 51,748,279 130,745,314 4,962,855 FIRMS WITH PAID EMPLOYEES Firms (number) 817,773 15,254 2,731 64,746 41,038 1,148 31,049 45,591 244,488 56,040 307,443 9,394 Sales and receipts ($1,000) 550,425,116 3,787,251 5,940,020 41,579,094 88,751,252 3,720,652 23,026,912 120,625,000 139,694,945 33,084,796 92,823,096 1,112,750 Employees (number) Annual payroll ($1,000)

All industries . . . . . . . . . . . Agri. services/forestry & fishing. . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber and misc. plastics products Transportation & public utilities . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance/insurance/ real estate . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industries not classified . . . . . . . X Not applicable.
1

. . . . . . . . . . . .

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 30 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

6,252,029 104,786,488 69,542 1,002,688 30,563 841,127 371,788 8,827,641 803,428 18,574,330 36,304 826,412 290,081 5,841,177 385,814 9,846,339 1,850,074 19,926,963 295,871 6,347,967 2,145,482 33,415,073 9,386 163,185

Standard Industrial Classification; see text, section 13.

No. 849. Minority-Owned Firms—Comparison of Business Ownership by Minority Group and Gender: 1987 and 1992
[Based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Data include individual proprietorships, partnerships and subchapter S corporations. Detail may not add to total due to rounding] FIRMS SEX AND RACE 1987 All minorities Men . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . API/AIAN 1 . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 Percent change, 19871992 61.9 51.2 84.8 46.4 29.3 75.2 82.7 70.9 114.2 61.0 53.9 76.5 PERCENT OF TOTAL 1987 (X) 68.0 32.0 34.9 21.9 13.0 34.8 25.3 9.5 31.0 21.3 9.7 1992 (X) 63.5 36.5 31.6 17.5 14.1 39.3 26.7 12.5 30.9 20.2 10.6 SALES/ RECEIPTS 1987 (mil. dol.) 1992 (mil. dol.) Percent change, 19871992 160.0 154.9 176.6 62.9 77.1 30.3 194.5 172.2 297.0 193.0 180.4 238.8 PERCENT OF TOTAL 1987 (X) 76.9 23.1 25.4 17.0 8.4 31.8 26.2 5.6 43.7 34.3 9.4 1992 (X) 75.4 24.6 15.9 11.7 4.2 36.0 27.5 8.5 49.4 37.1 12.3

. 1,213,750 1,965,565 . 825,441 1,248,130 . 388,309 717,435 . 424,165 620,912 . 265,887 343,666 . 158,278 277,246 . 422,373 771,708 . 307,348 525,330 . 115,025 246,378 . 376,711 606,426 . 258,514 397,779 . 118,197 208,647

77,840 202,011 59,847 152,245 17,993 49,767 19,763 32,197 13,232 23,688 6,531 8,510 24,732 72,824 20,403 55,645 4,328 17,180 34,036 99,710 26,700 74,856 7,336 24,853

X Not Applicable. 1 API/AIAN = Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, and Alaska Native. Source of tables 848-849: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Minority-Owned Businesses, Summary, 1992.

546

Business Enterprise
No. 850. Minority-Owned Firms, by Major Industry Group: 1992
ALL FIRMS ITEM Firms (Number) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipts ($1,000) Firms (Number) FIRMS WITH PAID EMPLOYEES Receipts ($1,000) Employees (Number) 1,872,870 1,332,917 539,953 345,193 244,077 101,116 691,056 490,622 200,435 860,408 614,089 246,319 28,702 4,444 143,879 166,339 72,360 89,561 554,434 82,326 726,984 3,840 Payroll ($1,000) 28,536,633 20,930,004 7,606,629 4,806,624 3,449,618 1,357,006 10,768,112 8,017,265 2,750,848 13,327,883 9,701,751 3,626,132 372,657 107,926 2,655,621 3,188,317 1,259,553 2,110,777 5,314,385 1,740,356 11,727,324 59,716

All industries . . . . . . . . . . . Minority men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minority women . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA/API 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agricultural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance insurance and real estate . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industries not specified . . . . . . . .

1,965,565 202,011,421 1,248,130 152,244,909 717,435 49,766,513 620,912 32,197,361 343,666 23,687,705 277,246 8,509,656 771,708 72,824,270 525,330 55,644,554 246,378 17,179,716 606,426 99,709,460 397,779 74,856,301 208,647 24,853,158 54,920 2,526,743 2,824 835,130 166,411 15,791,742 47,240 15,703,855 118,910 8,321,477 44,841 33,385,236 322,001 52,562,438 152,096 17,310,094 937,676 52,762,133 118,645 2,812,571

311,695 158,806,430 221,074 120,222,077 90,621 38,584,352 64,478 22,589,676 43,565 17,198,526 20,913 5,391,150 115,364 57,187,370 85,075 43,564,104 30,289 13,623,266 136,351 81,083,845 95,221 60,935,134 41,130 20,148,711 7,139 1,598,240 383 718,625 35,297 12,531,877 13,140 14,908,960 11,412 5,160,796 12,920 30,867,880 89,326 43,815,049 14,131 11,162,547 123,277 37,439,036 4,670 603,420

1 NA/API = Native Americans, Asians, and Pacific Islanders. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Minority-Owned Businesses, Summary, 1992.

No. 851. Statistics for Places With 5,000 or More Minority-Owned Firms: 1992
ALL FIRMS CITY Phoenix, Arizona . . . . . . Anaheim, California . . . . Long Beach, California . . Los Angeles, California . . Oakland, California . . . . . Sacramento, California . . San Diego, California . . . San Francisco, California . San Jose, California . . . . Santa Ana, California . . . Denver, Colorado . . . . . Washington, DC. . . . . . Hialeah, Florida . . . . . . Miami, Florida . . . . . . . Atlanta, Georgia . . . . . . Honolulu, Hawaii . . . . . Chicago, Illinois . . . . . . New Orleans, Louisiana. Baltimore (IC), Maryland Detroit, Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firms (number) 6,964 5,246 6,654 95,049 9,608 5,898 17,534 22,015 17,450 6,343 5,836 12,669 10,387 22,642 6,728 19,431 31,591 7,291 8,960 10,047 6,734 112,815 11,725 6,209 6,594 17,964 12,699 5,599 45,826 19,410 6,414 Receipts ($1,000) 633,996 749,154 934,571 11,791,263 897,458 689,825 1,691,645 3,335,669 1,635,629 540,106 645,593 1,065,994 1,167,744 3,224,827 775,363 3,344,032 3,443,906 640,149 428,834 644,231 581,311 11,155,716 1,214,412 334,217 455,465 2,132,552 1,051,726 336,204 4,289,818 1,676,347 1,291,046 Firms (number) 1,240 868 1,132 13,717 1,851 1,241 2,809 4,631 2,725 1,002 912 1,511 1,329 3,365 1,016 3,087 4,331 957 1,021 1,144 1,128 11,907 1,784 904 1,120 2,716 2,534 836 6,428 3,496 1,521 FIRMS WITH PAID EMPLOYEES Receipts ($1,000) 477,916 603,240 778,843 9,364,998 704,763 554,445 1,316,006 2,677,859 1,250,244 418,293 569,569 884,433 1,001,592 2,832,847 643,605 2,751,966 2,811,935 514,717 289,667 381,761 448,576 8,596,236 980,041 234,350 353,798 1,783,610 811,279 262,192 3,386,152 1,384,731 1,139,277 Employees (number) 7,766 7,164 6,789 93,477 9,526 6,268 16,486 31,970 13,251 5,365 7,448 9,898 9,437 22,078 11,104 28,266 30,304 6,048 4,902 6,392 6,442 64,335 11,926 4,564 6,136 19,505 12,807 3,291 28,112 25,183 15,796 Payroll ($1,000) 108,130 124,115 82,605 1,574,694 118,401 79,395 244,755 605,846 210,154 78,456 131,477 224,545 134,479 392,800 143,824 497,897 548,243 98,716 56,313 87,224 85,317 1,438,826 213,775 47,057 77,435 291,956 175,829 60,464 472,573 365,964 258,804

Albuquerque, New Mexico . New York, New York . . . . . Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Memphis, Tennessee . . . . Austin, Texas. . . . . . . . . . Dallas, Texas. . . . . . . . . . El Paso, Texas. . . . . . . . . Fort Worth, Texas. . . . . . . Houston, Texas . . . . . . . . San Antonio, Texas. . . . . . Seattle, Washington . . . . .

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Minority-Owned Businesses, Summary, 1992.

Business Starts, Employment—Incorporations, Failures
No. 852. Business Starts and Employment: 1985 to 1995
ITEM 1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 707 86,133 96 1994 741 71,558 86

547

1995 768 71,194 90

New incorporations (1,000) 664 686 685 677 647 629 667 Failures 1, total . . . . . . . 57,078 61,111 57,098 50,361 60,747 88,140 97,069 Rate per 10,000 concerns 115 102 98 65 74 107 110 Current liabilities 2 (mil. dol.) . . . . . . . . . 36,937 34,724 39,573 42,329 56,130 96,825 94,318 Business starts, total 249,770 233,710 199,091 181,645 158,930 155,672 164,086 Agriculture, forestry & fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,712 3,910 3,376 2,828 2,295 2,306 2,160 Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,351 1,600 1,330 1,041 1,054 944 805 Construction . . . . . . . . . 34,962 32,194 27,166 25,102 20,801 19,165 18,259 Manufacturing . . . . . . . . 21,976 20,368 18,130 17,142 15,315 14,927 14,043 Transportation & public utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,907 8,479 7,094 6,653 6,281 6,409 6,578 Wholesale trade . . . . . . . 29,200 25,466 21,650 19,091 18,170 18,284 18,419 Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . 72,744 66,166 56,291 50,793 43,109 40,653 40,318 Finance. insurance & real estate . . . . . . . . . . 16,271 16,910 13,044 11,151 9,550 9,139 9,581 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . 57,365 55,585 48,567 43,556 38,471 39,011 40,555 Unclassifiable establishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,282 3,032 2,443 4,288 3,884 4,834 13,368 Employment, total . 1,657,383 1,552,708 1,333,426 1,212,464 827,012 731,621 800,827 Agriculture, forestry & fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,267 17,268 14,753 14,571 8,518 7,344 7,422 Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,796 15,581 13,648 11,651 8,431 6,444 6,519 Construction . . . . . . . . . 185,029 159,461 135,328 125,327 80,096 63,495 59,361 Manufacturing . . . . . . . . 250,020 239,562 208,299 199,820 139,506 121,238 122,483 Transportation & public utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . 72,759 76,383 63,270 58,575 45,373 38,093 45,227 Wholesale trade . . . . . . . 153,521 139,833 115,602 102,822 75,914 69,235 79,247 Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . 463,416 411,353 356,949 322,013 207,752 184,698 203,698 Finance. insurance & real estate . . . . . . . . . . 121,793 119,106 90,935 81,727 54,872 46,831 56,665 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . 369,285 371,550 333,382 294,207 205,481 192,938 219,120 Unclassifiable establishments . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,497 2,611 1,260 1,751 1,069 1,305 1,085
1

47,755 28,978 37,507 166,154 188,387 168,158 2,195 772 17,533 13,789 6,846 17,958 38,707 10,314 41,349 2,644 680 18,213 12,927 7,683 16,409 38,949 11,746 49,328 2,199 564 16,980 12,172 7,161 14,956 36,381 10,362 44,586

16,691 29,808 22,797 780,804 758,134 738,606 5,198 7,099 6,146 6,164 4,312 3,184 53,432 54,210 53,118 119,487 105,255 104,660 44,885 41,617 43,583 78,924 66,186 59,933 191,484 174,270 176,159 57,199 55,857 54,610 222,054 243,296 233,482 1,977 6,032 3,731

Includes concerns discontinued following assignment, voluntary or involuntary petition in bankruptcy, attachment, execution, foreclosure, etc. 2 Liabilities exclude long-term publicly held obligations; offsetting assets are not taken into account. Source: Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, Murray Hill, NJ 07974-0027; A Decade of Business Starts; and Monthly Failure Report (copyright).

No. 853. Business Starts and Business Failures, by State: 1994 to 1995
REGION, DIVISION AND STATE United States . Northeast . . . . . . . . New England . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . Vermont. . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . Rhode Island . . . . Connecticut . . . . . Middle Atlantic . . . . New York . . . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . East North Central. . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . West North Central . Minnesota . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . South Dakota . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . South. . . . . . . . . . . South Atlantic. . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . District of Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BUSINESS STARTS 1994 1995 NUMBER OF FAILURES 1994 71,558 14,243 3,771 335 416 130 2,100 213 577 10,472 5,540 2,190 2,742 11,479 7,782 1,987 908 1,757 1,955 1,175 3,697 722 473 1,059 90 168 314 871 21,340 10,735 88 1,610 168 1995 71,194 13,990 3,389 315 385 149 1,931 127 482 10,601 5,059 2,781 2,761 11,571 7,436 2,134 799 1,681 1,684 1,138 4,135 904 570 1,113 98 182 322 946 21,000 9,874 45 1,813 155 REGION, DIVISION AND STATE Virginia . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . North Carolina . . . South Carolina . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Florida. . . . . . . . . East South Central . Kentucky . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . Alabama . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . West South Central . Arkansas . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . Mountain . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . Pacific . . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BUSINESS STARTS 1994 4,064 706 4,251 1,858 6,132 13,997 8,121 1,593 2,812 2,554 1,162 18,351 1,247 2,069 1,836 13,199 46,004 12,210 520 816 289 3,371 1,150 3,317 1,211 1,536 33,794 3,151 2,254 27,166 258 965 1995 3,542 584 3,975 1,954 5,471 12,344 7,643 1,534 2,894 2,191 1,024 16,435 1,155 1,975 1,490 11,815 40,428 11,115 485 642 276 3,086 1,005 3,061 1,120 1,440 29,313 2,926 1,897 23,554 291 645 NUMBER OF FAILURES 1994 1995

. 188,387 168,158 . 42,965 39,261 . 10,838 9,250 . 712 771 . 928 908 . 380 329 . 5,091 4,419 . 764 550 . 2,963 2,273 . 32,127 30,011 . 16,163 15,716 . 7,854 7,462 . 8,110 6,833 . 36,420 32,196 . 26,775 23,465 . 6,868 5,434 . 2,962 2,719 . 8,126 7,245 . 5,630 5,418 . 3,189 2,649 . 9,645 8,731 . 2,496 2,258 . 1,298 1,223 . 3,041 2,851 . 253 209 . 361 252 . 775 634 . 1,421 1,304 . 62,998 56,273 . 36,526 32,195 . 600 505 . 4,014 3,119 . 904 701

1,459 1,719 296 288 1,046 968 498 491 1,961 1,489 3,609 2,906 2,580 2,431 707 663 956 989 668 549 249 230 8,025 8,695 366 733 656 463 1,168 1,317 5,835 6,182 24,496 24,633 4,297 4,742 181 152 276 388 82 107 1,315 1,476 330 408 1,407 1,413 260 344 446 454 20,199 19,891 2,005 2,370 1,027 798 16,796 16,330 112 122 259 271

Source: Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, Murray Hill, NJ 07974-0027; A Decade of Business Starts; and Business Failure Record, annual (copyright).

548

Business Enterprise
No. 854. Business Failures, by Industry: 1990 to 1995
INDUSTRY NUMBER 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60,747 1,733 388 8,162 4,740 232 102 318 420 258 68 734 139 21 158 40 161 115 397 656 287 242 120 272 2,630 4,423 12,972 3,819 16,119 10 5,751 1992 97,069 2,871 430 12,452 7,120 350 171 566 554 398 88 1,245 219 35 185 35 215 141 662 951 421 263 175 446 3,922 6,744 19,084 6,260 26,871 30 11,285 1993 86,133 2,289 310 10,552 6,163 299 149 567 440 305 86 1,059 169 17 197 43 168 95 584 860 327 229 157 412 3,102 6,014 15,661 4,989 24,371 24 12,658 1994 71,558 1,880 241 8,341 4,652 207 100 409 327 235 71 821 142 15 152 44 133 83 399 615 272 168 150 309 2,454 4,648 12,602 3,939 20,619 19 12,163 1995 71,194 2,231 200 9,158 4,383 216 117 394 318 229 51 815 126 14 128 28 125 59 354 565 255 160 121 308 2,733 4,149 12,952 4,293 21,850 24 9,221 1990 74 50 88 91 92 91 97 114 97 151 105 74 86 83 101 113 80 123 90 84 114 147 68 74 94 77 65 60 49 (NA) (NA) RATE PER 10,000 FIRMS 1992 109 80 99 129 131 133 158 191 122 226 128 118 129 161 113 95 107 152 145 117 157 158 92 106 126 113 76 87 93 (NA) (NA) 1993 90 64 73 109 114 116 139 191 98 174 124 100 101 78 119 120 85 104 128 107 124 140 83 97 99 73 78 68 65 (NA) (NA) 1994 86 62 62 92 90 83 99 146 86 140 104 77 89 73 93 133 74 93 90 79 108 113 82 73 77 75 66 53 50 (NA) (NA) 1995 90 85 57 106 88 91 122 151 89 144 76 81 81 67 80 92 74 69 83 75 104 114 68 76 90 71 73 60 54 (NA) (NA)

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, fishing . . . . . Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . Textile mill products . . . . . . . . Apparel, other textile products . Lumber and wood products . . . Furniture and fixtures . . . . . . . Paper and allied products . . . . Printing and publishing . . . . . . Chemicals and allied products . Petroleum refining and coal prod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber and misc. products . . . Leather and leather products . . Stone, clay, and glass products Primary metal products . . . . . . Fabricated metal products . . . . Machinery, exc. electric. . . . . . Electric and electronic equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation equipment . . . . Instruments and related equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, public utilities . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public administration . . . . . . . . . Nonclassifiable establishments . . NA Not available.

Source: The Dun and Bradstreet Corporation, Murray Hill, NJ 07974-0027; Business Failure Record, annual (copyright).

No. 855. Bankruptcy Cases, by State: 1993 to 1996
[In thousands. For years ending June 30. Includes areas, not shown separately. Covers only bankruptcy cases filed under the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978. Bankrupt legal recognition that a company or individual is insolvent and must restructure or liquidate. Petitions ‘‘filed’’ means the commencement of a proceeding through the presentation of a petition to the clerk of the court] STATE United States . . . . . Alabama . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida. . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . Michigan . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 918.7 25.5 1.0 18.5 7.5 159.7 14.9 9.4 1.6 1.4 46.6 42.9 1.5 3.9 41.4 24.8 5.9 8.3 12.8 13.2 2.0 16.2 16.4 25.1 15.5 11.1 1994 845.3 23.7 0.9 17.0 6.7 150.9 13.2 8.7 1.3 1.3 41.9 40.5 1.5 3.4 38.4 22.0 5.3 7.9 11.6 12.3 1.8 15.4 14.8 22.9 13.9 9.8 1995 1996 STATE Missouri. . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont. . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 16.6 1.9 3.9 7.9 3.7 24.9 4.3 51.3 13.8 1.1 37.9 13.9 13.3 23.0 3.5 6.8 1.4 38.2 47.3 7.5 0.9 26.8 17.9 4.0 11.3 1.3 1994 14.4 1.9 3.6 7.7 3.3 23.8 3.5 47.8 13.0 1.1 32.5 13.0 12.7 20.2 3.1 6.4 1.3 35.6 41.8 6.6 0.8 24.4 17.5 3.6 10.2 1.2 1995 15.1 2.1 3.4 7.3 3.1 25.5 3.7 48.8 14.0 1.2 32.4 13.2 13.2 22.0 3.0 6.9 1.3 35.5 43.8 6.9 0.9 25.5 18.6 3.8 11.8 1.2 1996 19.8 2.5 4.6 8.9 3.4 30.6 5.2 56.1 18.9 1.5 38.8 16.1 15.1 28.2 3.8 8.5 1.7 43.7 54.2 8.0 1.2 31.7 25.0 4.9 14.4 1.5

858.1 1,042.1 24.3 29.3 0.9 1.0 14.8 18.0 7.9 11.2 140.4 164.3 13.1 14.9 8.5 10.2 1.4 1.9 1.4 1.6 43.4 51.9 42.1 50.9 1.8 2.4 3.7 4.8 39.2 48.5 22.3 26.0 5.9 7.6 8.5 10.1 13.0 16.6 13.4 17.1 1.9 2.6 16.3 20.4 14.3 15.9 22.7 28.0 14.1 16.3 10.6 13.3

Source: Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, unpublished data.

Bankruptcies—Small Business

549

No. 856. Bankruptcy Petitions Filed and Pending, by Type and Chapter: 1985 to 1996
[For years ending June 30. Covers only bankruptcy cases filed under the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978. Bankruptcy: legal recognition that a company or individual is insolvent and must restructure or liquidate. Petitions ‘‘filed’’ means the commencement of a proceeding through the presentation of a petition to the clerk of the court; ‘‘pending’’ is a proceeding in which the administration has not been completed] ITEM Total filed . . . . . . Business 1 . . . . . . . . . . Nonbusiness 2 . . . . . . . . Voluntary . . . . . . . . . . . Involuntary . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 3 . . Chapter 9 4 . . Chapter 11 5 . Chapter 12 6 . Chapter 13 7 . Section 304 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 364,536 66,651 297,885 362,939 1,597 244,650 3 21,425 (X) 98,452 6 608,945 1989 642,993 62,534 580,459 641,528 1,465 457,240 7 17,465 1,717 166,539 25 869,340 1990 725,484 64,688 660,796 723,886 1,598 505,337 7 19,591 1,351 199,186 12 1991 880,399 67,714 812,685 878,626 1,773 612,330 20 22,495 1,358 244,192 4 1992 972,490 72,650 899,840 971,047 1,443 679,662 15 24,029 1,634 267,121 29 1993 918,734 66,428 852,306 917,350 1,384 638,916 9 20,579 1,434 257,777 19 1994 845,257 56,748 788,509 844,087 1,170 578,903 17 17,098 976 248,246 17 1995 1996

858,104 1,042,110 51,288 806,816 52,938 989,172

856,991 1,040,915 1,113 1,195 581,390 12 13,221 904 262,551 26 712,129 10 12,859 1,063 316,024 24

Total pending . . . .

961,919 1,123,433 1,237,357 1,183,009 1,134,036 1,090,446 1,169,112

X Not applicable. 1 Business bankruptcies include those filed under chapters 7, 9, 11, or 12. 2 Bankruptcies include those filed under chapters 7, 11, or 13. 3 Chapter 7, liquidation of nonexempt assets of businesses or individuals. 4 Chapter 9, adjustment of debts of a municipality. 5 Chapter 11, individual or business reorganization. 6 Chapter 12, adjustment of debts of a family farmer with regular income, effective November 26, 1986. 7 Chapter 13, adjustment of debts of an individual with regular income. 8 Chapter 11 U.S.C., Section 304, cases ancillary to foreign proceedings. Source: Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, Annual Report of the Director.

No. 857. Small Business Administration Loans to Small Businesses: 1980 to 1996
[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. A small business must be independently owned and operated, must not be dominant in its particular industry, and must meet standards set by the Small Business Administration as to its annual receipts or number of employees. Loans include both direct and guaranteed loans to small business establishments. Does not include Disaster Assistance Loans] LOANS APPROVED Loans, all businesses . . . . . . . . . Loans, minority-owned businesses . Percent of all business loans . . . Value of total loans 1 . . . . . . . . . . Minority business loans 2 . . . . .
1

Unit . . . . . 1,000. . 1,000. . Percent Mil. dol. Mil. dol.

1980 1985 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

1996

. 31.7 19.3 17.1 17.0 18.8 20.6 26.4 29.4 40.4 60.1 52.7 . 6.0 2.8 2.2 2.4 2.4 3.1 3.9 4.5 6.8 10.4 9.1 . 19 15 13 14 13 15 15 15 18 19 19 . 3,858 3,217 3,434 3,490 4,354 4,861 6,596 7,591 9,527 9,854 10,177 . 470 324 343 385 473 764 1,033 1,178 1,754 1,885 2,124
2

Includes both SBA and bank portions of loans.

SBA direct loans and guaranteed portion of bank loans only.

Source: U.S. Small Business Administration, unpublished data.

No. 858. Venture Capital Commitments, by Source: 1980 to 1995
[Investment in venture capital partnerships] SOURCE Capital commitments (mil. dol.). . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Individuals/families . . . . . . Endowments/foundations . . Insurance companies/banks Foreign investors . . . . . . . Corporations . . . . . . . . . . Pension funds . . . . . . . . . 1980 661 1985 2,327 1988 2,947 1989 2,399 1990 1,847 1991 1,271 1992 2,548 1993 2,545 1994 3,764 1995 4,227

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

16 14 13 8 19 30

13 8 11 23 12 33

8 12 9 14 11 46

6 12 13 13 20 36

11 13 9 7 7 53

12 24 5 12 5 42

11 18 15 11 3 42

7 11 11 4 8 59

12 21 9 2 9 46

17 23 19 1 2 38

Source: Venture Economics Investor Services, Boston, MA, Venture Capital Journal, monthly.

550

Business Enterprise
No. 859. Mergers and Acquisitions—Summary: 1985 to 1996

[Covers transactions valued at $5 million or more. Values based on transactions for which price data revealed. All activity includes mergers, acquisitions, acquisitions of partial interest that involve a 40% stake in the target or an investment of at least $100 million, divestitures, and leveraged transactions that result in a change in ownership. Divestiture: sale of a business, division, or subsidiary by corporate owner to another party. Leveraged buyout: acquisition of a business in which buyers use mostly borrowed money to finance purchase price and incorporate debt into capital structure of business after change in ownership] ITEM All activity: Number . . . . . . . . Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Divestitures: Number. . . . . . Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leveraged buyouts: Number. Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign acquisitions of U.S. companies: Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. acquisitions overseas: Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available. Source: Securities Data Company, Newark, NJ, Merger & Corporate Transactions Database (copyright). Unit Number Bil. dol. Number Bil. dol. Number Bil. dol. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 1,719 149.6 780 51 154 16.3 1989 3,752 316.8 1,615 94.9 293 75.5 1990 4,239 205.6 1,907 90.8 177 17.6 1991 3,446 141.5 1,759 61.4 171 7.3 1992 3,502 125.3 1,598 57.2 199 7.2 1993 3,722 420.4 1,993 213.4 621 1.64 1994 4,383 524.9 2,005 236.9 173 10.6 1995 4,981 895.8 2,227 365.3 206 23.6 1996 5,639 1,059.3 2,423 319.0 169 17.4

Number . . Bil. dol. . . Number . . Bil. dol. . .

259 27.9 91 3.7

693 69.2 347 27.1

773 56.4 392 20.5

504 29.1 402 14.8

361 17.6 455 13.7

(NA) (NA) 197 19.5

(NA) (NA) 207 21.1

80 3.5 317 62.6

73 2.9 364 59.3

No. 860. Mergers and Acquisitions, by Industry: 1996
[See headnote table 859] U.S. COMPANY ACQUIRING U.S. COMPANY Number Total activity 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobacco products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile and apparel products . . . . . . . . . . . Wood products, furniture, and fixtures . . . . . Paper and allied products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemicals and allied products . . . . . . . . . . Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stone, clay, glass and concrete products . . . Metal and metal products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer and office equipment . . . . . . . . . Prepackaged software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic and electrical equipment. . . . . . . Communications equipment . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aerospace and aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring, medical, photo equip; clocks . . . Transportation and shipping (except air) . . . Air transportation and shipping. . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio & television broadcasting stations . . . Printing, publishing, and allied services . . . . Electric, gas, water distribution. . . . . . . . . . Sanitary services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and casinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation services . . . . . . Motion picture production and distribution . . Personal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade—durable goods . . . . . . . . Retail trade—general merchandise and apparel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial banks, bank holding companies Real estate, mortgage bankers and brokers . Investment & commodity firms, dealers, exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other financial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas; petroleum refining . . . . . . . . . Holding companies, except banks . . . . . . . Public administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Represents or rounds to zero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,670 18 28 2 19 20 15 33 27 7 66 49 39 84 59 33 28 10 92 51 2 58 178 34 41 27 135 41 17 5 263 14 13 86 19 185 122 73 86 2 16 17 138 1 3
1

INDUSTRY

FOREIGN COMPANY ACQUIRING U.S. COMPANY Number 73 3 3 (NA) 1 (NA) 1 (NA) 5 (NA) (NA) (NA) 7 1 7 1 (NA) (NA) 5 (NA) (NA) 6 3 (NA) 1 (NA) (NA) 1 3 (NA) 8 (NA) 1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 6 1 (NA) 1 2 3 (NA) (NA) Value (mil. dol.) 2,888.0 313.9 92.6 (NA) 120.0 (NA) 138.0 (NA) 65.2 (NA) (NA) (NA) 411.1 134.9 6.6 (NA) (NA) 83.4 (NA) (NA) 124.0 58.4 (NA) 195.5 (NA) (NA) 300.0 142.5 (NA) 134.7 (NA) 14.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 346.1 24.5 (NA) 5.0 20.5 63.2 (NA) (NA)

U.S. COMPANY ACQUIRING FOREIGN COMPANY Number 364 6 16 3 4 3 5 6 16 4 21 22 5 11 12 6 8 (NA) 10 4 2 14 4 6 17 2 9 2 1 1 33 2 6 9 1 3 3 10 11 1 5 15 29 (NA) 1 Value (mil. dol.) 59,302.4 1,842.5 4,921.6 601.9 74.6 528.7 469.7 482.8 1,905.4 123.8 1,214.3 1,786.6 202.8 474.0 1,157.4 172.3 1,623.1 (NA) 1,111.4 606.4 458.5 1,363.6 457.5 1,098.0 9,376.7 118.0 1,365.5 33.3 7.0 4,031.5 5,409.5 1,487.5 500.9 939.7 5.0 68.9 745.6 1,420.3 1,055.4 160.0 90.7 3,074.5 4,189.5 (NA) 475.7

Value (mil. dol.) 556,308.3 1,283.9 5,496.9 199.7 1,341.5 3,242.8 2,329.3 9,208.3 9,437.0 936.2 4,306.5 3,762.9 3,642.9 9,951.0 14,295.9 6,579.8 6,495.0 19,628.1 21,064.8 28,266.4 263.5 77,814.6 32,064.5 5,393.4 40,355.2 4,889.5 13,991.1 1,755.5 2,507.2 714.7 28,632.8 843.9 6,763.3 4,783.2 4,178.1 21,259.2 11,076.5 12,974.4 15,266.1 18.8 3,140.2 6,796.7 26,018.1 2,251.2 408.1

NA Not available.

Includes other items not shown separately.

Source: Securities Data Company, Newark, NJ, Merger & Corporate Transactions Database (copyright).

Patents and Trademarks
No. 861. Patents and Trademarks: 1980 to 1994

551

[In thousands. Calendar year data. Covers patents issued to citizens of the United States and residents of foreign countries. For data on foreign countries, see table 1366] ITEM Patent applications filed. Inventions . . . . . . . . Designs . . . . . . . . . Botanical plants . . . . Reissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 113.0 104.3 7.8 0.2 0.6 66.2 61.8 13.8 27.7 19.1 1.2 3.9 0.1 0.3 40.8 25.4 38.4 (Z) 46.8 24.7 18.9 5.9 1985 127.1 117.0 9.6 0.2 0.3 77.3 71.7 12.9 31.2 26.4 1.1 5.1 0.2 0.3 43.3 33.9 43.9 (Z) 65.1 71.7 65.8 5.9 1988 151.9 139.8 11.3 0.4 0.4 84.4 77.9 14.3 31.5 31.4 0.7 5.7 0.4 0.2 44.6 39.7 47.1 0.2 78.3 54.3 47.4 6.9 1989 166.3 152.8 12.6 0.4 0.5 102.7 95.5 18.0 38.7 38.0 0.9 6.1 0.6 0.3 54.6 47.9 46.7 0.2 94.4 63.1 55.3 7.8 1990 176.7 164.6 11.3 0.4 0.5 99.2 90.4 17.3 36.1 36.0 1.0 8.0 0.3 0.4 52.8 46.2 46.7 0.1 127.3 60.8 53.6 7.2 1991 178.4 164.3 13.1 0.4 0.6 106.8 96.5 18.1 39.2 38.1 1.2 9.6 0.4 0.3 57.7 49.0 46.0 0.1 123.3 52.4 46.6 5.8 1992 187.2 173.1 13.1 0.4 0.6 107.4 97.4 17.3 40.3 38.7 1.2 9.3 0.3 0.4 58.7 48.7 45.3 0.1 127.8 85.8 80.2 5.6 1993 189.4 174.7 13.6 0.4 0.6 109.7 98.3 16.5 41.8 38.8 1.2 10.6 0.4 0.3 61.1 48.7 44.3 0.1 150.4 86.9 80.6 6.3 1994 206.9 189.9 15.8 0.5 0.7 113.6 101.7 17.3 44.0 38.8 1.3 11.1 0.5 0.3 64.2 49.3 43.4 0.1 161.1 70.1 63.9 6.2

Patents issued . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporations: United States . Foreign 1 . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Government. . . . . . . . Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Botanical plants . . . . . . . . . . Reissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. residents
2

..............

Foreign country residents 2 . . . . . . . Percent of total . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other published documents 3 . . . . . . . Trademarks: Applications filed. . . . . Issued . . . . . . . . . . . Trademarks . . . . . . Trademark renewals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Z Less than 50. 1 Includes patents to foreign governments. 2 Includes patents for inventions, designs, botanical plants, 3 and reissues. Includes Defensive Publications, a practice which began in November 1968 and ended in July 1986; and Statutory Invention Registrations, the current practice, which began May 1985. These documents are patent applications, which are published to provide the defensive properties of a patent, but do not have the enforceable rights of a patent. Source: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Fiscal-year figures are published in the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks Annual Report.

No. 862. Patents, by State: 1995
[Includes only U.S. patents granted to residents of the United States and territories] REGION, DIVISION, AND STATE United States
1

Total

Inventions

De- Botan- Reical signs plants issues 8,251 1,729 620 24 51 21 258 55 211 1,109 557 282 270 2,338 1,763 549 163 590 251 210 575 268 65 141 5 11 14 71 1,987 1,166 13 98 201 15 7 2 2 3 8 2 3 3 18 13 5 1 3 3 1 5 1 4 36 28 208 60 18 1 1 6 2 8 42 21 14 7 48 31 4 6 8 9 4 17 12 3 2 43 17 1 3

REGION, DIVISION, AND STATE

Total

Inventions

De- Botan- Reical signs plants issues 5 112 16 213 77 193 439 281 66 112 70 33 540 37 41 70 392 2,189 401 19 21 26 102 24 117 44 48 1,788 217 148 1,398 9 16 5 1 4 18 4 4 4 4 132 2 2 130 2 14 112 2 1 2 4 1 1 4 8 3 2 3 18 1 3 14 57 13 1 8 1 1 2 44 4 3 36 1 -

. . 64,399 55,739 16,463 5,223 137 459 171 2,427 263 1,766 11,240 5,263 3,052 2,925 16,017 12,198 2,976 1,281 3,474 3,042 1,425 3,819 1,939 486 818 63 44 150 319 14,904 7,963 441 1,085
1

Northeast. . . . . . . . New England . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . Vermont . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . Rhode Island . . . . Connecticut . . . . . Middle Atlantic . . . . New York . . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . East North Central . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . West North Central . Minnesota . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . South Dakota . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . South Atlantic . . . . Delaware. . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . - Represents zero.

14,659 4,578 113 405 149 2,161 206 1,544 10,081 4,683 2,753 2,645 13,613 10,391 2,418 1,111 2,873 2,779 1,210 3,222 1,658 421 670 58 33 136 246 12,838 6,752 427 984

Dist. of Columbia . 63 57 Virginia . . . . . . . . 941 822 West Virginia . . . . 150 134 North Carolina . . . 1,255 1,038 South Carolina . . . 520 441 Georgia. . . . . . . . 1,045 847 Florida . . . . . . . . 2,463 2,002 East South Central . 1,545 1,252 Kentucky . . . . . . . 341 272 Tennessee . . . . . . 707 593 Alabama . . . . . . . 359 282 Mississippi . . . . . . 138 105 West South Central. 5,396 4,834 Arkansas . . . . . . . 143 106 Louisiana . . . . . . 412 370 Oklahoma . . . . . . 545 472 Texas . . . . . . . . . 4,296 3,886 West . . . . . . . . . . . 16,985 14,607 Mountain . . . . . . . . 3,918 3,502 Montana . . . . . . . 141 122 Idaho . . . . . . . . . 327 305 Wyoming . . . . . . . 75 49 Colorado . . . . . . . 1,207 1,097 New Mexico . . . . . 279 254 Arizona . . . . . . . . 1,120 1,000 Utah . . . . . . . . . . 554 508 Nevada . . . . . . . . 215 167 Pacific . . . . . . . . . . 13,067 11,105 Washington . . . . . 1,255 1,032 Oregon . . . . . . . . 870 705 California. . . . . . . 10,809 9,263 Alaska . . . . . . . . 49 39 Hawaii . . . . . . . . 84 66

Includes U.S. territories not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Data Base.

552

Business Enterprise
No. 863. Patents, by Industry: 1980 to 1995

[Based on the 1972 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Includes all patents for inventions granted to residents of the United States, its territories, and foreign citizens. Individual industries may not add to total since a patent may be recorded in more than one industry category. Except for total, data for all years have been revised to reflect the U.S. Patent Classification System as of 1993] INDUSTRY SIC code 1980 61,819 1,244 705 4,987 14,394 10,745 3,060 7,409 483 420 9,809 734 2,575 5,255
2

1985 71,661 1,320 779 5,526 16,919 13,896 3,676 8,856 546 503 10,228 966 3,020 5,428

1990 90,366 1,619 913 6,756 19,314 19,169 4,588 12,174 728 507 12,431 842 3,763 7,561

1993 98,344 1,786 1,048 6,043 21,425 21,684 4,515 13,489 636 597 694 789 4,186 7,451

1994 101,675 1,730 943 6,311 21,565 23,782 4,367 14,836 582 575 13,281 1,008 4,158 8,538

1995 101,419 1,535 902 5,864 21,399 25,427 4,314 14,277 600 615 13,598 804 3,888 8,197

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) . . . . . . Durable goods: Stone, clay, and glass products . . . . . . Primary metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fabricated metal products 1 . . . . . . . . Machinery, except electrical . . . . . . . . Electronic and other electric equipment . Transportation equipment . . . . . . . . . . Instruments and related products 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 33, 34 35 36, 37, 38 20 22 28 13, 30 ...... 3462-3 . ...... ...... 3825 . . 348 . . . ...... ... ... ... 29 . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Nondurable goods: Food and kindred products . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemicals and allied products . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas extraction, petroleum products . Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products
1

Other industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) . . . . . . X Not applicable.

Excludes SIC groups 3462, 3463, and 348.

Excludes SIC group 3825.

Source: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Patenting Trends in the United States, State Country Report, 1963-1995.

No. 864. New Product Introductions of Consumer Packaged Goods: 1980 to 1996
[Consumer packaged goods: consumable products packaged by the manufacturer for retail sale primarily through grocery and drug stores. New product: a product not previously offered for sale by a particular manufacturer including new varieties, formats, sizes, and packaging for existing products] ITEM Domestic and imports: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . 1996, total . . . . . . Percent: New brands 1 . . . . Brand extensions 2 . Line extensions 3 . . Types of new product Formulation 5 . . . . New market 6 . . . . Packaging 7 . . . . . Positioning 8 . . . . . Technology 9 . . . . . Food Beverages Health and beauty 834 1,222 1,531 1,614 1,869 2,068 2,655 2,419 3,051 18.0 0.8 81.2 52.8 1.0 8.7 34.0 3.5 Household products 331 463 432 422 417 376 378 314 369 14.5 1.4 84.1 46.7 2.6 15.6 32.5 2.6 Pet products 86 139 164 175 213 173 161 123 160 27.8 2.4 69.8 41.6 4.2 25.0 29.2 Miscellaneous products 197 294 154 113 127 161 97 134 148 38.3 2.7 59.0 44.4 18.5 31.5 5.6

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

1,192 2,327 3,453 3,130 2,987 3,107 3,883 3,891 3,889 20.2 1.5 78.3 55.6 0.3 19.5 23.0 1.6

256 585 630 589 587 767 807 809 977 32.1 1.1 66.8 61.6 19.2 18.2 1.0

................ ................ ................ innovation (percent): 4 ................ ................ ................ ................ ................

CUMULATIVE Domestic, except imports, 1980-96 . . . . . . . . Imports, 1980-96 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International, 1985-96 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44,069 4,019 16,656 8,913 1,289 5,091 26,106 1,311 14,304 6,092 250 2,861 2,361 73 2,861 2,845 178 950

-Represents or rounds to zero. 1 Product introduced under completely or partly new brand name. 2 Product introduced in a category with an existing brand name which has not been used in the category before. 3 Introduction of a new variety, format, size, or package of an existing product/brand name. 4 Product which offers consumers something significantly different from existing products. 5 Added or new ingredient which offers a benefit not previously provided by existing products in its category. 6 Special category for new products which do not compete with any existing category of products. 7 New product packaged in a way that makes it easier to store, handle, prepare, or dispense than others in its category. 8 New product presented for new users or uses compared to existing products in its category. 9 New product with added consumer benefits resulting from use of a new technology. 10 New products introduced in the United States by foreign companies. 11 New products introduced by U.S. and foreign companies outside the United States. Source: Marketing Intelligence Service Ltd., Naples, NY, Product Alert Weekly. Publication contains extract from data base, Product scan.

Private Capital Stock
No. 865. Gross Stock of Fixed Private Capital, by Industry: 1991 to 1994
[In billions of dollars. Estimates as of Dec. 31. Based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification] INDUSTRY Fixed private capital . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonresidential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, and fishing . . . . . Farms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agr. services, forestry, fishing . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetallic minerals, exc. fuels . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lumber and wood products . . . . . . . Furniture and fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . Stone, clay, glass products . . . . . . . Primary metal industries . . . . . . . . . Fabricated metal products . . . . . . . . Industrial machinery and equipment . Electronic and electric equipment . . . Motor vehicles and equipment . . . . . Other transportation equipment . . . . Instruments, related products . . . . . . Misc. manufacturing industries . . . . . Nondurable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . . . . . Tobacco products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products . . . . . . . . . . . . Apparel, other textile products . . . . . Paper and allied products . . . . . . . . Printing and publishing . . . . . . . . . . Chemicals, allied products . . . . . . . . Petroleum and coal products . . . . . . Rubber, misc. plastic products . . . . . Leather and leather products . . . . . . Transportation, communication, and public utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad transportation . . . . . . . . . . Local, interurban passenger transit . . Trucking and warehousing. . . . . . . . Water transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation by air . . . . . . . . . . . Pipelines, exc. natural gas. . . . . . . . Transportation services . . . . . . . . . . Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone and telegraph . . . . . . . . . Radio and television . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, and sanitary services. . . . Electric services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sanitary services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate. . . . . . . Depository institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondepository institutions . . . . . . . . . . Security and commodity brokers . . . . . Insurance carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance agents, brokers, and service . Real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holding, other investment offices . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels, other lodging places . . . . . . . . Personal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auto repair, services, parking . . . . . . . Misc. repair services . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motion pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amusement, recreation services . . . . . Other services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services . . . . . . . . . . . Other 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

553

CURRENT DOLLARS 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,437 9,745 416 364 51 527 40 48 409 29 115 2,177 1,161 41 20 64 207 129 202 174 123 100 82 20 1,016 201 15 52 18 151 85 286 132 71 4 2,442 613 246 12 104 55 110 42 44 622 535 88 1,206 930 214 63 415 636 2,136 439 114 13 133 6 1,404 27 882 131 33 234 157 15 22 42 248 136 27 6 80 7,692 163 7,530 1992 18,137 10,052 416 360 56 492 40 48 374 30 117 2,250 1,188 41 20 64 209 130 208 181 125 104 86 20 1,062 213 15 53 18 156 89 305 136 74 4 2,511 620 248 12 102 55 116 43 45 639 545 94 1,252 958 224 70 435 673 2,238 467 123 13 145 6 1,456 28 920 132 36 246 165 16 23 43 260 144 28 6 83 8,085 166 7,919 1993 19,090 10,490 423 362 61 477 40 49 358 30 120 2,347 1,234 42 21 65 212 134 216 190 132 110 91 21 1,113 225 15 54 19 161 94 324 140 78 4 2,600 636 259 12 101 55 120 44 46 663 561 102 1,300 991 233 77 458 726 2,372 497 135 14 159 6 1,533 29 966 135 39 259 172 17 25 45 274 153 29 7 86 8,600 171 8,429 1994 20,142 11,010 434 366 68 463 40 51 341 32 125 2,471 1,291 44 22 67 217 138 228 200 142 118 94 22 1,180 242 15 56 19 170 100 347 144 84 4 2,688 642 260 11 101 55 122 46 46 684 574 110 1,362 1,031 247 85 484 796 2,526 531 149 14 174 7 1,622 30 1,023 137 43 279 182 19 28 47 289 161 31 7 91 9,131 176 8,955

CONSTANT (1987) DOLLARS 1991 15,525 8,660 363 318 45 434 36 43 330 26 101 1,917 1,030 36 17 57 179 112 184 157 107 89 75 17 887 175 13 45 16 130 77 250 116 62 4 2,155 541 221 11 91 48 95 36 40 569 488 81 1,046 802 185 59 388 574 1,930 401 103 13 134 6 1,247 27 799 117 31 208 144 14 20 38 228 122 26 5 75 6,865 145 6,720 1992 15,803 8,814 356 308 49 414 35 42 312 25 100 1,952 1,040 35 18 56 177 112 188 161 107 91 78 17 912 182 13 45 16 132 80 261 117 64 4 2,173 534 217 11 87 47 98 36 40 575 488 86 1,065 811 189 65 404 600 1,995 423 111 13 148 6 1,268 27 821 115 33 215 150 14 22 38 236 126 27 6 77 6,989 143 6,846 1993 16,162 9,023 352 300 52 396 34 42 295 25 100 2,000 1,062 36 18 57 176 112 194 167 111 94 80 18 938 188 13 45 16 135 83 272 118 65 3 2,193 528 213 10 83 46 100 36 39 580 488 92 1,085 822 193 70 422 636 2,075 447 121 13 163 6 1,297 28 851 114 36 225 155 15 23 39 245 131 28 6 80 7,139 141 6,998 1994 16,599 9,298 351 295 57 377 33 42 277 26 101 2,065 1,093 36 19 58 176 112 203 173 117 98 82 18 972 198 12 45 15 138 88 285 118 68 3 2,221 523 211 10 82 45 101 36 39 590 493 98 1,108 835 197 77 444 685 2,163 471 133 14 179 7 1,331 29 891 113 39 240 163 17 26 40 255 135 29 6 84 7,301 140 7,161

Consists of social services, membership organizations, and miscellaneous professional services.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, January 1992, August 1992, September 1993, and August 1994.

554

Business Enterprise
No. 866. Fixed Nonresidential Private Capital: 1980 to 1994

[In billions of dollars. Stocks as of Dec. 31; depreciation over entire calendar year. Data refer to privately owned assets and are based on the fixed capital formation components of the gross domestic product. Excludes residential capital and government enterprises; includes nonprofit institutions. Gross stocks allow for retirement; net stocks allow for retirement and depreciation. Net stock and depreciation estimates are based on the straight-line depreciation formula] ITEM Gross stocks . . . Equipment . . . Structures . . . Net stocks. . . . . Equipment . . . Structures . . . Depreciation . . . Equipment . . . Structures . . . CURRENT DOLLARS 1980 5,072 2,389 2,683 2,974 1,360 1,615 240 161 78 1990 9,485 4,506 4,979 5,321 2,417 2,904 471 321 150 1991 9,745 4,636 5,109 5,420 2,463 2,957 489 335 154 1992 10,052 4,783 5,270 5,550 2,525 3,025 506 347 158 1993 10,490 4,974 5,516 5,770 2,631 3,139 519 357 162 1994 11,010 5,238 5,773 6,061 2,800 3,261 545 376 169 1980 6,264 3,009 3,255 3,677 1,709 1,968 308 211 97 CONSTANT (1987) DOLLARS 1990 8,491 4,091 4,400 4,773 2,202 2,571 436 303 132 1991 8,660 4,180 4,480 4,829 2,231 2,598 447 313 134 1992 8,814 4,274 4,541 4,877 2,268 2,609 461 324 137 1993 9,023 4,424 4,599 4,980 2,360 2,620 472 335 137 1994 9,298 4,640 4,658 5,145 2,512 2,633 493 354 138

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, August 1992, September 1993, and August 1994 issues, unpublished data.

No. 867. Gross Private Domestic Investment: 1988 to 1996
[In billions of dollars] ITEM CURRENT DOLLARS Gross private domestic investment Net private domestic investment . . . . Fixed investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonresidential . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Producers’ durable equipment. Residential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Change in business inventories . . . Gross government investment. . . . . . Net government investment. . . . . . Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAINED 1992 DOLLARS
1

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

773.9 296.0 763.1 530.6 181.3 349.3 232.5 10.9 172.9 68.7 99.0 73.9

829.2 314.1 797.5 566.2 192.3 373.9 231.3 31.7 182.7 72.4 102.0 80.7

799.7 265.4 791.6 575.9 200.8 375.1 215.7 8.0 199.4 82.2 112.6 86.8

736.2 179.8 738.5 547.3 181.7 365.6 191.2 -2.3 200.5 77.0 114.3 86.2

790.4 205.1 783.4 557.9 169.2 388.7 225.6 7.0 209.1 81.0 123.6 85.5

871.1 1,014.4 1,065.3 275.2 369.8 (NA) 850.5 954.9 1,028.2 598.8 667.2 738.5 171.8 180.2 199.7 427.0 487.0 538.8 251.7 287.7 289.8 20.6 59.5 37.0 210.6 212.3 (NA) 76.8 72.3 (NA) 129.9 134.4 (NA) 80.7 78.0 (NA)

1,117.0 (NA) 1,101.5 791.1 214.3 576.8 310.5 15.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

Gross private domestic investment Net private domestic investment . . . . Fixed investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonresidential . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gross government investment. . . . . . Net government investment. . . . . . Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State and local . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available.
1

828.2 311.6 818.3 566.0 196.8 252.5 186.2 72.6 14.8 57.8 107.6 78.7

863.5 322.6 832.0 588.8 201.2 243.2 192.5 74.7 14.2 60.5 107.7 84.7

815.0 267.3 805.8 585.2 203.3 220.6 204.6 83.0 15.6 67.4 115.3 89.3

738.1 177.3 741.3 547.7 181.6 193.4 202.2 77.0 12.2 64.8 115.3 86.9

790.4 205.1 783.4 557.9 169.2 225.6 209.1 81.0 11.1 69.9 123.6 85.5

857.0 273.0 836.4 593.6 166.3 242.7 206.6 75.9 3.2 72.7 126.8 79.7

979.3 1,009.4 361.4 (NA) 921.1 975.9 652.1 714.3 168.8 181.1 268.9 262.8 203.9 (NA) 71.1 (NA) -3.2 (NA) 74.3 (NA) 128.7 (NA) 75.2 (NA)

1,056.6 (NA) 1,042.1 766.8 190.0 276.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

See text, section 14.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts, volume 2, 1929-94, forthcoming, and Survey of Current Business, May 1997.

Business Investment Plans and Economic Cyclical Indicators
No. 868. Business Investment and Plans—Capital Expenditures: 1993 to 1996
[In millions of dollars. Based on 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)] INDUSTRY Expenditures, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) By industry . . . . . . . Mining and construction Manufacturing . . . . . . . Durable goods . . . . . Nondurable goods . . Transportation. . . Communications . Utilities . . . . . . . Electric. . . . . . Gas transmission, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) 10-17 (X) 24-25,32-3 20-23,26-3 40-42,44-4 48 49 491 492-497 SIC code 1993 489,682 488,249 31,227 134,066 66,361 67,705 30,610 37,050 41,257 21,029 20,228 60,316 18,963 41,353 40,242 26,024 14,218 111,760 57,376 30,857 23,527 1,722 1,433 1994 549,912 547,762 36,061 153,338 78,898 74,440 33,344 41,547 42,173 23,513 18,660 68,853 23,269 45,584 46,787 29,823 16,964 123,487 66,220 31,177 26,089 2,172 2,150 1995 594,465 591,680 35,985 172,308 91,381 80,927 37,021 46,040 42,816 21,410 21,405 75,093 21,851 53,242 57,260 30,971 26,289 123,696 68,406 31,291 23,999 1,462 2,785

555

1996, plans 603,395 600,701 33,565 184,786 100,151 84,634 35,171 46,319 40,599 18,932 21,667 71,855 19,654 52,202 57,655 34,581 23,074 129,429 67,429 34,758 27,243 1,321 2,694

........ ........ ........ ........ distribution,

... ... ... ... and

.... .... .... .... other

..... ..... ..... ..... utilities

Wholesale and retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-51 Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-59 Finance, insurance, and real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) Finance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-62,67 Insurance and real estate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63-65 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal and business services, incl. agricultural . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social, educational and other professional services Expenditures serving multiple industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) 07-09,70-7 80 81-87,89 (X)

Not distributed by industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) X Not applicable. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Annual Capital Exepnditures Survey.

No. 869. Composite Indexes of Economic Cyclical Indicators: 1980 to 1995
ITEM Leading index, composite . . . . . . . . . . . . Average weekly hours, manufacturing. . . Average weekly initial claims for unemployment insurance . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturers’ new orders, consumer goods and materials (1992 dol.) . . . . . . Vendor performance, slower deliveries diffusion index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturers’ new orders, nondefense capital goods (1992 dol.) . . . . . . . . . . Building permits, new private housing units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stock prices, 500 common stocks . . . . . Money supply, M2 (1992 dol.) . . . . . . . . Interest rate spread, 10-year treasury bonds less federal funds . . . . . Index of consumer expectations . . . . . . Coincident index, composite . . . . Employees on nonagricultural payrolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal income less transfer payments (1992 dol.) . . . . . . Industrial production . . . . . . . Manufacturing and trade sales (1992 dol.) . . . . . . . . . Unit 1992=100. . . Hours . . . . . 1,000. . . . . . 1980 89.4 39.7 391.7 1990 99.2 40.7 385.8 1992 100.0 41.1 405.8 1993 100.5 41.4 342.5 1994 101.4 41.9 341.9 1995 100.9 41.6 358.2 1996 102.1 41.5 351.7 141,232 50.5 42,123 1,418.8 670.8 3,413 1.1 85.7 112.3 119,552 4,892 115.2 684,240 104.6 16.7 1.4 -0.3 8.3 514,389 18.0 3.3

Mil. dol. . . . . 108,723 117,927 120,082 125,228 135,791 137,294 Percent . . . . Mil. dol. . . . . 48.0 28,758 47.9 34,585 50.2 31,475 51.6 31,142 60.1 34,754 52.8 39,439

1,000. . . . . . 1,780.9 1,155.1 1,128.8 1,241.1 1,366.9 1,338.9 1941-43=100 118.8 334.6 415.7 451.4 460.3 541.6 Bil. dol. . . . . 2,636 3,476 3,413 3,362 3,329 3,321 Percent . . . . Percent . . . . 2.5 56.8 79.8 0.5 70.2 100.1 3.5 70.3 100.0 2.9 72.8 102.3 2.9 83.8 106.1 0.7 83.2 109.3

. . . . . . . 1992=100. . . . . . . . . . Millions . . . . . . . . . . . Bil. dol. . . . . . . . . . . . 1992=100. . .

97,387 109,416 108,592 110,726 114,153 117,202 3,894 79.7 4,417 98.9 4,390 100.0 4,457 103.4 4,579 108.6 4,736 112.1

. . . . . . . Bil. dol. . . . . 490,385 562,978 573,725 595,332 633,177 655,673 . . . . 1992=100. . . . . . . Weeks . . . . . . . . . Ratio . . . . . . . . . . Percent . . . . . . . . Percent . . . . 103.8 11.9 1.4 1.8 15.3 106.6 12.0 1.5 2.8 10.0 100.0 17.8 1.4 -0.2 6.3 99.5 18.0 1.4 0.4 6.0 100.2 18.8 1.4 -0.8 7.1 103.8 16.6 1.4 0.6 8.8

Lagging index, composite . . . . . . . . Average duration of unemployment Inventories to sales ratio, manufacturing and trade . . . . . . . Labor cost per unit of output, manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average prime rate . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial and industrial loans (1992 dol.) . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumer installment credit to personal income ratio. . . . . . . . . Consumer price index for services .

. . . . Bil. dol. . . . . 446,862 542,600 449,621 440,173 445,358 497,375 . . . . Ratio . . . . . . . . . . Percent . . . . 15.8 14.6 16.6 5.8 14.8 3.8 14.8 3.9 15.7 3.2 17.0 3.4

Source: The Conference Board, New York, NY 10022-6601, Business Cycle Indicators, monthly.

556

Business Enterprise
No. 870. Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions—Months of Duration: 1919 to 1995

[A trough is the low point of a business cycle; a peak is the high point. Contraction, or recession, is the period from peak to subsequent trough; expansion is the period from trough to subsequent peak. Business cycle reference dates are determined by the the National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.] BUSINESS CYCLE REFERENCE DATE Trough March 1919. . . . July 1921 . . . . . July 1924 . . . . . November 1927 . March 1933. . . . June 1938 . . . . October 1945 . . October 1949 . . May 1954 . . . . . April 1958 . . . . . February 1961 . . November 1970 . March 1975. . . . July 1980 . . . . . November 1982 . March 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peak January 1920 . . May 1923 . . . . October 1926 . . August 1929. . . May 1937 . . . . February 1945 . November 1948 July 1953. . . . . August 1957. . . April 1960 . . . . December 1969 November 1973 January 1980 . . July 1981. . . . . July 1990. . . . . (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contraction (trough from previous peak)
1 7 18 14 13 43 13 8

Expansion (trough to peak) 10 22 27 21 50 80 37 45 39 24 106 36 58 12 92 (X) 35 50

LENGTH OF CYCLE Trough from previous trough
2

Peak from previous peak
1

51 28 36 40 64 63 88

17 40 41 34 93 93 45

11 10 8 10 11 16 6 16 8 18 11

48 55 47 34 117 52 64 28 100 53 61

56 49 32 116 47 74 18 108 (X) 53 61

Average, all cycles: 1919 to 1945 (six cycles) . . . . . 1945 to 1991 (nine cycles) . . . . X Not applicable.
1

...................... ......................
2

Previous peak: August 1918.

Previous trough: December 1914.

Source: National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA, unpublished data.

No. 871. Manufacturing and Trade—Sales and Inventories: 1980 to 1996
[In billions of dollars, except ratios] ITEM CURRENT DOLLARS Sales, average monthly . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Merchant wholesalers . . . . . . . Inventories 1 . . Manufacturing . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . Merchant wholesalers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 393 185 96 112 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1985 507 233 138 136 664 335 182 147 1.31 1.44 1.32 1.08 1990 651 287 184 179 834 399 240 196 1.28 1.39 1.30 1.09 1991 646 283 186 178 830 386 243 200 1.28 1.36 1.31 1.12 1992 674 293 195 185 839 379 252 208 1.24 1.29 1.29 1.12
2

1993 712 310 207 194 861 377 268 216 1.21 1.22 1.29 1.11

1994 768 337 224 207 917 392 290 235 1.19 1.16 1.29 1.14

1995 694 304 198 192 976 419 303 255 1.41 1.38 1.53 1.33

1996 714 310 203 201 1,008 438 314 256 1.41 1.41 1.55 1.27

Inventory-sales ratios 2 . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . Merchant wholesalers . . . . . .

1 Seasonally adjusted end-of-year data. See text, section 17. NA Not available. inventories to seasonally adjusted sales.

End-of-year seasonally adjusted

Source: Current dollars from U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Business Reports, ‘‘Manufacturing and Trade Inventories and Sales’’ February 1994, and unpublished data; constant dollars from U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business.

Manufacturing Corporations—Largest Public Companies

557

No. 872. Manufacturing Corporations—Number, Assets, and Profits, by Asset Size: 1980 to 1996
[Corporations and assets as of end of 4th quarter; profits for entire year. Based on complete canvass. The asset value for complete canvass was $25 million in 1980 and raised in 1988 to $50 million. Asset sizes less than these values are sampled, except as noted. For details regarding methodology, see source for first quarter, 1988] ASSET-SIZE CLASS YEAR Corporations: 1980. . . . . 1985. . . . . 1990. . . . . 1991. . . . . 1992. . . . . 1993. . . . . 1994. . . . . 1995. . . . . 1996. . . . . Assets: 1980. . . . . 1985. . . . . 1990. . . . . 1991. . . . . 1992. . . . . 1993. . . . . 1994. . . . . 1995. . . . . 1996. . . . . Net profit: 2 1980. . . . . 1985. . . . . 1990. . . . . 1991. . . . . 1992. . . . . 1993. . . . . 1994. . . . . 1995. . . . . 1996. . . . . Unit Total Under 1 $10 mil. (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 126,639 153,883 142,498 140,056 143,766 149,763 148,751 155,818 164,210 7,770 8,601 8,527 6,820 9,567 11,195 14,131 13,224 15,852 $10-$25 mil. 1,777 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 43,569 64,324 74,477 70,567 70,446 72,854 81,505 87,084 86,403 2,235 2,551 5,160 4,271 4,748 5,415 7,057 5,668 6,881 $25-$50 mil. 941 896 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 34,930 52,669 55,914 58,549 65,718 61,243 66,405 68,545 69,241 1,904 2,305 2,769 2,564 3,245 3,439 4,072 3,775 4,291 $50-$100 mil. 590 744 834 868 881 956 983 574 532 41,963 58,019 72,554 72,694 75,967 81,389 82,116 86,856 91,283 2,479 2,819 2,676 1,714 3,050 3,225 4,999 5,766 5,667 $100$250 mil.- $1 bil. and $250 mil. $1 bil. over 491 608 774 799 829 843 903 639 620 75,284 96,748 123,967 127,748 132,742 134,388 138,950 159,341 159,237 4,532 3,628 3,531 1,730 4,585 3,624 6,787 7,045 8,004 369 428 597 608 621 648 712 727 745 179,959 208,403 287,512 295,743 302,287 317,774 358,100 367,947 375,814 11,485 7,312 7,245 5,119 5,976 4,662 14,875 16,994 16,393 244 281 367 373 387 407 417 447 484 882,129 1,298,720 1,872,536 1,923,066 2,007,698 2,087,457 2,204,404 2,384,400 2,525,603 62,041 60,431 81,652 45,299 -7956 52,362 124,719 147,972 174,403

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol. dol.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,384,474 1,932,766 2,629,458 2,688,422 2,798,625 2,904,869 3,080,231 3,309,991 3,471,791 92,443 87,647 111,561 67,516 23,212 83,922 176,639 200,443 231,488

NA Not available. 1 Beginning 1986, excludes estimates for corporations with less than $250,000 in assets at time of sample selection. Prior periods include estimates for corporations in this size category. 2 After taxes. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing, Mining and Trade Corporations.

No. 873. U.S. Largest Public Companies—Profitability and Growth: 1994
[In percent, except ranks. For fiscal years ending in the 12 month period ending September 30. Included in the Forbes Universe of 1,305 companies is every firm with revenue of over $400 million in 1993, electric and banking firms $800 million. Represents industry medians; calculated by listing companies in rank order and selecting the midpoint. Where there is an even number of companies, an arithmetic average of the two middle companies is substituted. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] PROFITABILITY INDUSTRY Return Return on equity on capital, 2 Debt/ Latest latest capital 5-year 5-year 12 12 rank average months months
1

GROWTH Sales
3

Earnings per share

Latest Latest 5-year 5-year 5-year 5-year 12 12 rank average rank average months months (X) 1 7 4 2 19 8 12 16 6 3 18 9 21 11 15 10 13 14 20 17 5 5.5 12.7 6.4 8.0 12.1 3.4 6.2 4.5 3.8 6.8 12.0 3.5 5.3 -3.0 5.2 3.8 5.3 4.5 3.9 -2.4 3.7 7.6 6.3 8.1 4.3 5.2 8.5 6.1 3.9 3.2 4.4 9.9 15.2 3.3 7.0 -0.8 8.4 5.2 9.4 1.1 11.3 7.8 10.4 7.8 (X) 1 6 7 8 13 2 5 3 9 15 4 15 11 15 15 10 12 15 15 14 15 -18.8 9.5 -8.7 -11.5 -13.5 -29.6 7.7 -4.1 6.8 -15.5 (NS) -4.0 (NS) -20.8 (NS) (NS) -15.5 -23.4 (NS) (NS) -31.8 (NS) 11.8 16.5 1.7 3.0 9.4 14.8 5.1 10.7 12.0 15.8 31.1 -0.8 15.2 10.3 17.6 13.2 27.6 0.9 30.4 27.4 24.1 18.8

All industries, median. Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food, drink and tobacco . . Consumer nondurables . . . Retailing. . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . Food distribution . . . . . . . Financial services . . . . . . Bus. services/supplies . . . Computers/communicat. . . Electric utilities . . . . . . . . Entertainment/ information . Aerospace and defense . . Capital goods . . . . . . . . . Forest prod./packaging . . . Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumer durables . . . . . Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(X) 1 3 2 6 10 5 9 4 11 15 12 8 7 13 19 16 17 18 21 20 14

11.4 17.3 15.9 16.9 12.8 12.1 14.2 12.1 14.5 11.9 10.2 11.5 12.2 12.7 10.8 7.1 10.1 9.1 8.4 4.6 5.9 10.7

12.6 17.9 14.1 16.1 11.8 15.5 12.1 8.6 16.0 14.0 13.7 11.7 14.8 11.3 13.0 5.6 12.8 8.9 15.2 6.7 8.4 8.3

9.4 13.4 10.6 11.5 9.3 11.3 10.9 8.1 12.3 11.2 10.7 6.2 13.2 10.2 10.2 4.7 8.2 6.6 11.6 7.3 6.2 6.5

32.8 24.2 38.1 26.5 32.6 29.3 19.8 41.5 33.1 30.2 19.6 37.3 28.0 37.3 29.8 41.6 36.2 39.6 31.7 34.0 39.1 53.8

1 Represents primary earnings per share before extraordinary item divided by NS Not significant. X Not applicable. common shareholders’ equity per share. Common shareholders’ equity is total shareholders’ equity including the stated value of all preferred stock at the beginning of each year minus the involuntary liquidating value of nonconvertible preferred shares. 2 After-tax profits, the amount remaining if the interest paid on long-term debt was taxed, and minority interest divided by a firm’s total capitalization. Total capitalization is long-term debt, common and preferred equity, deferred taxes, investment tax credits, and minority interest in consolidated subsidiaries. 3 Net sales plus other operating revenue. Source: Forbes, Inc., New York, NY, Forbes Annual Report on American Industry (copyright).

558

Business Enterprise

No. 874. 500 Largest Industrial Corporations—Sales, Assets, and Profits by Sales Rank: 1990 to 1993
[The complete publication including this copyright table is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service]

No. 875. 500 Largest Industrial Corporations—Selected Financial Items: 1980 to 1995
[The complete publication including this copyright table is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service]

No. 876. 500 Largest Industrial Corporations—Selected Financial Items, by Industry: 1995 and 1996
[The complete publication including this copyright table is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service]

Corporate Profits
No. 877. Corporate Profits, Taxes, and Dividends: 1990 to 1996

559

[In billions of dollars. Covers corporations organized for profit and other entities treated as corporations. Represents profits to U.S. residents, without deduction of depletion charges and exclusive of capital gains and losses; intercorporate dividends from profits of domestic corporations are eliminated; net receipts of dividends, reinvested earnings of incorporated foreign affiliates, and earnings of unincorporated foreign affiliates are added] ITEM Profits before tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . Profits tax liability . . . . . . . . . . . Profits after tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dividends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Undistributed profits . . . . . . . . Inventory valuation adjustment (IVA) Capital consumption adjustment . . . . . Net interest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 372 141 231 152 79 -14 39 467 1991 374 133 241 163 78 4 33 448 1992 406 143 263 170 94 -8 29 414 1993 464 164 301 197 103 -7 34 399 1994 531 195 336 211 125 -13 36 395 1995 599 219 380 227 153 -28 34 404 1996 640 233 407 244 163 -9 39 403

Addenda: Corporate profits after tax with IVA/CCA 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net cash flow with inventory IVA/CCA 1 . Undistributed profits with IVA/CCA 1 . . Consumption of fixed capital. . . . . . . Less: Inventory valuation adjustment (IVA) Equals: Net cash flow . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

257 455 105 350 -14 469

278 479 115 365 4 475

285 492 116 376 -8 499

328 520 131 389 -7 527

359 564 148 416 -13 577

386 595 159 436 -28 623

437 651 193 458 -9 660

Inventory valuation adjustment/capital consumptiom adjustment.

No. 878. Corporate Profits, by Industry: 1990 to 1994
[In millions of dollars. Profits are without inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments. Minus sign (-) indicates loss. See headnote, table 877] INDUSTRY Corporate profits . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic industries . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, and fishing . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rest of the world. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEFORE TAXES 1990 371,685 305,945 1,619 2,459 10,999 115,543 934 20,014 19,839 24,382 65,354 20,241 65,740 1992 406,415 341,518 1,947 2,382 8,075 98,168 2,251 27,801 24,085 35,130 82,260 31,086 64,897 1993 464,267 394,712 2,055 2,326 10,631 110,236 7,169 33,050 28,134 41,604 92,788 36,853 69,555 1994 531,185 466,933 2,322 3,064 12,943 149,085 10,855 36,734 37,240 44,857 95,899 40,784 64,252 1990 231,221 165,481 993 876 8,781 67,503 -1,993 11,831 13,695 15,426 17,873 14,901 65,740 AFTER TAXES 1992 263,391 198,494 1,345 1,260 6,427 57,044 -605 19,090 17,523 25,296 27,856 24,695 64,897 1993 300,490 230,935 1,317 1,499 8,695 63,599 3,655 22,553 20,775 30,307 29,486 29,530 69,555 1994 335,884 271,632 1,487 2,224 9,964 85,459 6,825 25,089 27,208 32,664 25,822 33,008 64,252

1 Consists of receipts by all U.S. residents, including both corporations and persons, of earnings of unincorporated foreign affiliates, dividends from their incorporated foreign affiliates, and their share of their incorporated foreign affiliates, net of corresponding outflows.

No. 879. Corporate Profits With Inventory Valuation and Capital Consumption Adjustments—Financial and Nonfinancial Industries: 1980 to 1996
[In billions of dollars. Minus sign (-) indicates loss. See headnote, table 877] ITEM Corporate profits with IVA/CCA 1 . Domestic industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rest of the world. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporate profits with IVA 1 . . . . . . . Domestic industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfinancial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities. Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . 167.1 131.6 35.5 198.3 162.9 24.3 138.5 75.8 18.3 16.7 6.1 21.6

1985 304.0 270.6 33.4 230.5 197.1 29.0 168.1 81.6 34.3 20.6 22.5 9.1

1989 380.0 322.0 58.0 330.6 272.6 53.1 219.6 109.3 42.6 20.4 20.7 26.6

1990 397.1 331.3 65.7 358.2 292.5 68.6 223.8 112.3 43.2 17.2 20.6 30.6

1991 411.3 342.6 68.7 378.2 309.5 87.4 222.1 92.7 53.9 20.6 26.1 28.9

1992 428.0 363.1 64.9 398.9 334.0 83.7 250.3 96.3 57.8 23.0 32.2 41.0

1993 492.1 422.5 69.6 457.7 388.1 91.0 297.2 109.7 70.6 25.5 39.2 52.1

1994 554.1 489.9 64.3 517.9 453.7 94.4 359.3 142.7 81.3 34.5 42.2 58.6

1995 604.8 528.1 76.7 570.8 494.1 119.1 375.0 145.7 94.8 29.6 38.7 66.2

1996 670.2 588.2 82.0 631.0 548.9 131.9 417.0 166.5 99.0 36.6 41.8 73.1

Inventory valuation adjustment and capital consumption adjustment.

Source of tables 877-879: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts of the Unites States, 1929-94, forthcoming, and Survey of Current Business, May 1997.

560

Business Enterprise

No. 880. Manufacturing, Mining, and Trade Corporations—Profits and Stockholders’ Equity Ratios: 1990 to 1996
[Averages of quarterly figures at annual rates. Beginning 1990, manufacturing data exclude estimates for corporations with less than $250,000 in assets at time of sample selection. Data are not necessarily comparable from year to year due to changes in accounting procedures, industry classifications, sampling procedures, etc.; for detail, see source. Based on sample; see source for discussion of methodology. Minus sign (-) indicates loss] RATIO OF PROFITS TO STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (percent) PROFITS PER DOLLAR OF SALES (cents) RATIO OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY TO DEBT 1996 1.5 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.9 2.4 1.9 2.7 1.4 2.3 1.6 1.2 1.0 (1) 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.1 1.3 1.5 1.0 0.9

INDUSTRY

1990 1994 1995 1996 1990 1994 1995 1996 1990 1994 1995 Manufacturing corporations. . . . Durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lumber and wood products . . . . . . . Furniture and fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . Stone, clay, and glass products . . . . Primary metal industries . . . . . . . . . Iron and steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonferrous metals . . . . . . . . . . . Fabricated metal products . . . . . . . . Machinery, exc. electrical . . . . . . . . Electrical and electronic equipment . . Transportation equipment . . . . . . . . Motor vehicles and equipment . . . Aircraft, guided missiles and parts . Instruments and related products . . . Miscellaneous manufacturing . . . . . . Nondurable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products 1 . . . . . . Tobacco products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products . . . . . . . . . . . . Apparel (includes leather) . . . . . . . . Paper and allied products . . . . . . . . Printing and publishing . . . . . . . . . . Chemicals and allied products . . . . . Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residual of chemicals . . . . . . . . . Petroleum and coal products . . . . . . Rubber and misc. plastics products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7 8.0 (NA) (NA) 5.4 9.5 6.6 10.4 11.7 8.1 7.5 3.8 -1.0 11.5 12.9 (NA) 13.3 16.1 (1) 3.4 (NA) 10.6 8.3 17.3 13.8 27.1 (NA) 12.8 6.9 8.1 8.4 5.0 15.7 16.3 21.8 14.7 9.1 13.6 16.4 11.6 13.4 12.4 16.0 24.3 32.1 14.8 17.0 17.8 15.2 18.0 ( 1) 9.7 11.7 11.0 12.6 19.1 13.5 25.4 19.6 11.5 17.1 2.2 13.5 5.2 16.2 15.6 12.6 8.1 12.7 18.9 14.6 22.2 13.1 12.4 18.9 17.4 21.0 10.8 14.8 12.8 16.8 18.5 (1) 4.9 12.4 21.2 15.0 21.4 17.0 26.9 20.3 10.8 15.5 2.0 10.0 9.0 17.2 15.9 15.0 15.9 16.7 11.2 7.7 13.8 19.5 15.5 16.2 18.5 19.8 16.9 11.4 14.8 18.5 19.4 (1) 9.5 16.1 10.6 14.1 23.8 19.1 26.2 26.7 18.9 13.7 11.1 11.4 10.6 4.0 3.0 (NA) (NA) 1.8 2.6 1.0 4.0 3.4 4.4 3.0 1.3 -0.5 3.4 6.6 (NA) 4.9 4.1 ( 1) 0.8 (NA) 4.2 3.6 8.2 7.0 15.7 (NA) 5.7 1.8 5.7 1.1 0.6
2

5.4 5.2 5.7 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.4 3.7 4.4 6.7 5.1 5.4 4.7 9.2 4.9 5.5 5.0 (1) 2.8 2.6 3.7 5.1 8.5 6.0 14.3 6.9 5.6 4.3 1.9 2.1 0.7

5.7 5.3 3.5 2.3 4.6 5.4 3.8 6.8 3.5 4.4 8.5 4.5 4.7 3.6 8.3 4.1 6.1 5.5 (1) 1.3 2.7 7.0 6.2 9.1 6.9 14.5 7.2 5.0 4.1 1.8 1.6 1.2

6.2 5.5 3.7 4.2 5.3 3.6 2.2 4.8 5.5 5.6 7.2 4.9 4.6 5.7 6.2 4.9 6.9 5.6 ( 1) 2.7 2.7 4.0 6.3 10.9 7.8 15.1 11.0 8.3 4.0 10.2 1.9 1.5

1.3 1.6 (NA) (NA) 0.8 1.1 0.6 1.6 1.3 2.2 1.6 1.9 2.2 1.6 1.6 (NA) 1.2 0.8 (1) 0.7 (NA) 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.4 2.2 (NA) 1.7 1.0 1.3 0.6 1.0

1.4 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.7 2.2 1.8 2.0 1.6 2.1 1.7 1.2 0.9 (1) 1.0 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.8 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.4 0.9 0.8

1.4 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.8 2.4 2.1 2.6 1.7 2.4 1.5 1.2 1.0 ( 1) 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.0 0.8

Mining corporations 2 . . . . . . . . . Retail trade corporations 2 . . . . . Wholesale trade corporations 2 . . NA Not available. in 1985.
1

Tobacco included in food and kindred products.

Asset cut-off raised to $50 million from $25 million

No. 881. Manufacturing Corporations—Selected Finances: 1980 to 1996
[In billions of dollars. Data are not necessarily comparable from year to year due to changes in accounting procedures, industry classifications, sampling procedures, etc.; for detail, see source] ALL MANUFACTURING CORPS. YEAR Sales Profits Before After taxes taxes 145 108 133 166 137 129 173 216 189 160 100 33 119 244 277 313 92 71 86 108 88 83 116 155 136 112 68 23 84 175 200 231 Stock holders’ Debt equity 1 665 770 813 864 866 875 901 958 999 1,044 1,064 1,035 1,040 1,114 1,240 1,346 DURABLE GOODS INDUSTRIES Profits
1

NONDURABLE GOODS INDUSTRIES Profits
1

Sales

Before After taxes taxes 57 35 49 76 61 52 78 92 75 58 14 -34 39 121 133 146 36 22 30 49 39 33 53 67 56 41 7 -24 28 87 96 106

Stock holders’ Debt equity 1 316 356 372 396 421 436 444 469 501 515 507 474 483 533 618 669

Sales

Before After taxes taxes 88 74 84 90 76 77 95 124 114 102 86 66 79 123 144 167
2

Stock holders’ Debt equity 1 349 415 440 469 445 438 457 489 498 529 557 561 557 581 622 678

1

1980 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

2

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,897 2,039 2,114 2,335 2,331 2,221 2,378 2,596 2,745 2,812 2,761 2,890 3,014 3,261 3,586 3,753

292 371 368 405 454 501 553 622 733 782 814 819 819 815 862 911

883 913 973 1,108 1,143 1,126 1,178 1,285 1,357 1,357 1,304 1,390 1,490 1,660 1,804 1,934

143 177 168 166 187 203 229 265 308 328 338 335 327 316 333 359

1,014 1,126 1,141 1,228 1,189 1,096 1,200 1,312 1,388 1,454 1,457 1,500 1,524 1,601 1,715 1,820

57 49 56 59 49 51 63 88 81 71 60 47 56 89 104 125

149 193 200 239 267 298 324 357 425 453 476 485 492 500 529 552

1 Annual data are average equity or debt for the year using four end-of-quarter figures. estimates for corporations with less than $250,000 in assets at time of sample selection.

Beginning 1986, data exclude

Source of tables 880 and 881: Through 1981, U.S. Federal Trade Commission; thereafter, U.S. Bureau of Census, Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing, Mining, and Trade Corporations. In U.S. Council of Economic Advisers, Economic Report of the President, annual.

Multinational Companies
No. 882. U.S. Multinational Companies—Gross Product: 1989 and 1994

561

[In millions of dollars. Gross product measures valued added by a firm. Consists of nonbank U.S. parent companies and their nonbank foreign affiliates. A U.S. parent comprises the domestic operations of a multinational and is a U.S. person that owns or controls 10 percent or more of the voting securities, or the equivalent, of a foreign business enterprise. A U.S. person can be an incorporated business enterprise. A majority-owned foreign affiliate is a foreign business enterprise in which a U.S. parent company owns or controls 50 percent or more of the voting securities] U.S. MULTINATIONALS 1989 All industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . . . . . . . . Chemical and allied products. . . . . . . . . Primary and fabricated metals . . . . . . . . Industrial machinery and equipment 1 . . . Electronic and other electric equipment 1 . Transportation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,364,878 165,680 793,771 79,472 141,006 45,775 116,146 68,515 160,292 182,567 28,766 (1) (1) 41,233 668 2,808 66,999 6,676 24,067 3,960 193 6,361 (1) 4,998 3,465 8,965 (1) 1,702 13,629 246,946 1994 1,720,502 187,846 937,263 116,854 169,816 42,581 116,523 86,107 202,006 203,377 37,920 75,924 24,115 44,197 (D) 4,813 118,451 6,805 59,695 4,292 1,373 16,858 37,171 1,522 11,510 15,204 5,165 6,340 10,772 363,098 U.S. PARENTS 1989 1,044,884 93,128 586,568 60,310 97,119 37,556 70,887 56,139 121,141 143,417 22,587 (1) (1) 34,948 558 -75 57,090 5,780 18,756 2,349 175 5,353 (1) 4,212 2,663 8,559 (1) 1,180 12,943 234,975 1994 1,325,945 100,985 690,466 80,140 113,593 33,494 74,654 68,416 155,338 164,832 30,850 58,105 21,638 35,211 (D) (D) 102,520 5,982 50,338 2,574 1,218 13,969 32,576 1,522 10,436 14,066 4,395 5,009 10,772 343,019
1

INDUSTRY

MAJORITY-OWNED FOREIGN AFFILIATES 1989 319,994 72,552 207,203 19,162 43,887 8,219 45,259 12,376 39,151 39,150 6,179 (1) (1) 6,285 110 2,883 9,909 896 5,311 1,611 18 1,008 (1) 786 802 406 (1) 522 686 11,971 1994 394,557 86,861 246,797 36,714 56,223 9,087 41,869 17,691 46,668 38,545 7,070 17,819 2,477 8,986 (D) 4,813 15,931 823 9,357 1,718 155 2,889 4,595 (D) 1,074 1,138 770 1,331 (D) 20,079

Finance (exc. dep. inst.), insurance & real estate 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, except depository institutions . . . Insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holding companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and other lodging places . . . . . . . . Business services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment rental (exc. auto, computers) Computer and data processing . . . . . . . Business services, nec . . . . . . . . . . . . Automotive rental and leasing . . . . . . . . . Motion pictures, television tape and film . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and architectural services 1 . . Management and public relations . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D Figure withheld to avoid disclosure pertaining to a specific organization or individual. see text, section 17.

For changes in industry definition,

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, February 1994.

No. 883. U.S. Multinational Companies—Selected Characteristics: 1994
[Preliminary. In billions of dollars, except as indicated. Consists of nonbank U.S. parent companies and their nonbank foreign affiliates. U.S. parent is a U.S. person that owns or controls directly or indirectly, 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated foreign business enterprise, or an equivalent interest in an unincorporated foreign business enterprise. A U.S. person can be an incorporated business enterprise. A foreign affiliate is a foreign business enterprise owned or controlled by a U.S. parent company] U.S. PARENTS INDUSTRY
1

FOREIGN AFFILIATES Total assets

Total assets

Sales

EmEmployee ploycomment (1,000) pensation

Sales

U.S. U.S. exports Em- shipped imports Employee to for- shipped ployfrom comeign ment foreign affili- affiliates (1,000) pensation ates 221.3 11.1 128.4 13.1 22.0 5.7 20.8 11.2 27.5 28.1 25.5 9.5 24.9 22.0 154.1 2.5 97.7 2.7 11.5 2.4 14.9 11.7 42.6 11.9 48.9 1.7 3.2 130.2 105.6 2.5 5.5 2.4 21.2 14.0 48.7 11.3 11.7 0.2 -

All industries . . . . . . . . . . . 6,627.0 3,957.1 18,947.4 Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510.9 355.4 511.1 Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,287.6 1,905.3 9,111.4 Food and kindred products . . . . 248.0 261.7 1,278.2 Chemical and allied products . . . 404.0 292.1 1,082.6 Primary and fabricated metals . . 98.4 102.2 539.7 Industrial machinery and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225.7 208.6 1,038.6 Electronic and electric equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313.1 206.3 968.1 Transportation equipment . . . . . 547.0 437.5 1,698.0 Other manufacturing. . . . . . . . . 451.4 396.9 2,506.2 Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.3 264.8 467.1 Finance (deposit institutions), insurance, real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,481.0 468.2 1,104.9 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220.0 167.9 2,653.4 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000.2 795.5 5,099.4 - Represents zero.
1

826.1 2,360.0 1,754.9 6,957.7 31.6 448.8 40.2 64.1 24.3 53.8 45.7 111.1 109.6 18.2 63.3 78.0 186.1 252.5 681.1 92.6 147.0 31.6 98.9 53.1 118.9 139.0 185.0 979.9 100.2 161.4 293.7 228.1 845.5 4,116.2 104.9 559.6 151.4 578.5 29.8 189.7 128.6 73.4 207.9 149.6 314.2 488.6 605.5 738.7 955.5 556.5

91.3 172.8 82.0 746.7 128.2 1,137.4

Represents industry of U.S. parent or industry of foreign affiliate.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, December 1996.

562

Business Enterprise

No. 884. Gross Product, Employment, and Capital Expenditures of Nonbank U.S. MNC’s, U.S. Parents, and Foreign Affiliates: 1982 to 1994
[Gross product and capital expenditures in millions of dollars; employees in thousands] PERCENT CHANGE AT ANNUAL RATES 1982-94 1982-89 GROSS PRODUCT MNC’s worldwide: Parents and all affiliates. . . Parents and MOFA’s 2 Parents . . . . . . . . . . . . Affiliates, total . . . . . . . . MOFA’s . . . . . . . . . . Other. . . . . . . . . . . . EMPLOYEES MNC’s worldwide: Parents and all affiliates. . Parents and MOFA’s Parents . . . . . . . . . . . Affiliates, total . . . . . . . MOFA’s . . . . . . . . . Other. . . . . . . . . . . CAPITAL EXPENDITURES MNC’s worldwide: Parents and all affiliates. . Parents and MOFA’s Parents . . . . . . . . . . . Affiliates, total . . . . . . . MOFA’s . . . . . . . . . Other. . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available. affiliate. . . . . . . . . . . . . 248,262 233,078 188,266 59,996 44,812 15,184 (NA) 274,614 213,079 (NA) 61,535 (NA)
1

ITEM

1982

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1

1989-94

. (NA) . 1,019,734 . 796,017 . (NA) . 223,717 . (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 356,033 (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 355,963 (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 361,524 (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) 1,720,502 (NA) 1,325,945 (NA) (NA) 359,179 394,557 (NA) (NA)

(NA) 4.5 4.3 (NA) 4.8 (NA)

(NA) 4.3 4.0 (NA) 5.2 (NA)

(NA) 4.7 4.9 (NA) 4.3 (NA)

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

25,345 23,727 18,705 6,640 5,022 1,618

25,264 23,786 18,430 6,834 5,356 1,478

24,837 23,345 17,959 6,878 5,387 1,492

24,190 22,812 17,530 6,660 5,282 1,378

24,222 22,760 17,537 6,685 5,223 1,461

25,905 24,520 18,947 6,958 5,573 1,385

0.2 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.9 -1.3

(Z) 0.1 (Z) (Z) 0.3 -1.0

0.4 0.5 0.2 1.0 1.7 -1.7

(NA) 269,221 206,290 (NA) 62,931 (NA)

(NA) 272,049 208,834 (NA) 63,215 (NA)

(NA) 271,661 207,437 (NA) 64,224 (NA)

324,308 301,044 229,147 95,161 71,897 23,264

2.3 2.2 1.7 3.9 4.0 3.6
2

1.4 1.3 0.8 3.2 3.5 2.4

3.4 3.3 2.9 4.9 4.7 5.3

Z Less than .05 percent.

Break-in-series. See source, appendix for details.

Majority-owned foreign

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, December, 1996.

No. 885. Nonbank U.S. MNC’s, U.S. Parents, and MOFA’s by Industry of U.S. Parent: 1989 to 1994
[In billions of dollars, except employees, in thousands] MNC’s ITEM Gross product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,364.9 165.7 793.8 79.5 141.0 45.8 116.1 68.5 160.3 182.6 28.8 62.7 67.0 246.9 1,720.5 187.8 937.3 116.9 169.8 42.6 116.5 86.1 202.0 203.4 37.9 75.9 118.5 363.1 Profittype return 251.4 31.3 147.0 19.5 38.4 9.6 16.2 12.4 22.0 28.8 5.6 20.2 7.8 39.5 323.9 23.5 183.3 28.4 44.6 4.9 16.7 21.2 33.7 33.9 8.5 28.4 14.7 65.5 Capital expendi- Gross product tures 258.8 41.5 132.0 12.0 27.8 7.3 18.5 13.6 24.4 28.4 6.1 9.4 16.7 53.1 301.0 44.5 141.6 15.5 27.0 6.7 13.1 26.9 23.4 28.9 6.2 16.4 16.1 76.2 1,044.9 93.1 586.6 60.3 97.1 37.6 70.9 56.1 121.1 143.4 22.6 50.5 57.1 235.0 1,325.9 101.0 690.5 80.1 113.6 33.5 74.7 68.4 155.3 164.8 30.9 58.1 102.5 343.0 PARENTS Profittype return 164.9 15.8 86.2 14.6 23.4 6.3 1.8 9.2 11.6 19.3 3.2 16.4 5.9 37.4 238.0 9.7 124.9 18.9 26.9 2.8 10.0 16.1 23.9 26.3 6.2 21.9 12.7 62.6 Capital expendi- Gross product tures 201.8 26.8 98.7 9.4 20.3 5.4 11.5 11.0 18.6 22.4 5.0 7.6 13.6 50.2 229.1 27.6 102.6 9.8 18.0 5.4 8.5 22.2 15.2 23.6 5.1 12.1 13.7 58.1 320.0 72.6 207.2 19.2 43.9 8.2 45.3 12.4 39.2 39.2 6.2 12.2 9.9 12.0 394.6 86.9 246.8 36.7 56.2 9.1 41.9 17.7 46.7 38.5 7.1 17.8 15.9 20.1 MOFA’s Profittype return 86.5 15.5 60.8 5.0 15.0 3.3 14.4 3.2 10.4 9.5 2.5 3.8 1.8 2.1 85.9 13.8 58.5 9.5 17.7 2.1 6.7 5.1 9.8 7.6 2.2 6.5 2.0 2.9 Capital expenditures 57.0 14.7 33.3 2.7 7.5 1.9 6.9 2.6 5.7 6.0 1.1 1.9 3.1 3.0 71.9 16.9 39.0 5.7 9.1 1.3 4.6 4.7 8.2 5.4 1.2 4.4 2.4 8.1

1989: All industries . . . . . . . . Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . Chemicals and allied products . Primary and fabricated metals . Industrial machinery and equip. Electronic/other electric equip . Transportation equipment . . . . Other manufacturing . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance (except banking), insurance and real estate . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other industries . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994: All industries . . . . . . . . Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . Chemicals and allied products . Primary and fabricated metals . Industrial machinery and equip. Electronic/other electric equip . Transportation equipment . . . . Other manufacturing . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance (except banking), insurance and real estate . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other industries . . . . . . . . . . . .

... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... ... ...

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, December 1996.