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					Section 13

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Comprehensive historical data are published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in Labor Force Statistics Derived From the Current Population Survey, 1948-87, BLS Bulletin 2307. These data are supplemented on a current basis by the BLS monthly publications Employment and Earnings and the Monthly Labor Review. Detailed data on the labor force are also available from the Census Bureau’s decennial census of population. Types of data.—Most statistics in this section are obtained by two methods: household interviews or questionnaires, and reports of establishment payroll records. Each method provides data which the other cannot suitably supply. Population characteristics, for example, are readily obtainable only from the household survey, while detailed industrial classifications can be readily derived only from establishment records. Household data are obtained from a monthly sample survey of the population. The Current Population Survey (CPS) is used to gather data for the calendar week including the 12th of the month and provides current comprehensive data on the labor force (see text, section 1). The CPS provides information on the work status of the population without duplication since each person is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force. Employed persons holding more than one job are counted only once, according to the job at which they worked the most hours during the survey week. Monthly data from the CPS are published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in Employment and Earnings and the related reports mentioned above. Data presented include national totals of the number of persons in the civilian labor force by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age; the number employed; hours of work; industry and

In Brief
Labor force participation rate of married women with children under 6 years old: 1960 18.6% 1970 30.3% 1980 45.1% 1994 61.7% Fastest growing occupations, 1992–2005: Home health aids +138% Human services workers +136% Personal and home care aides +130% Computer engineers and scientists +112% occupational groups; and the number unemployed, reasons for, and duration of unemployment. Monthly data from the CPS are also presented for regions and 11 large States. Annual data shown in this section are averages of monthly figures for each calendar year, unless otherwise specified. In addition to monthly data, the CPS also produces annual estimates of employment and unemployment for each State, 50 large metropolitan statistical areas, and selected cities. These estimates are published by BLS in its annual Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment. More detailed geographic data (e.g., for counties and cities) are provided by the decennial population censuses. Data based on establishment records are compiled by BLS and cooperating State agencies as part of an ongoing Current Employment Statistics Program. Data, gathered from a sample of employers who voluntarily complete mail questionnaires monthly, are supplemented by data from other government agencies and adjusted at intervals to data from government social insurance program reports. The estimates exclude proprietors of unincorporated firms, self-employed persons, private household workers, unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and the Armed Forces. In March 1993, reporting

396

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
16 years old and over, are “not in the labor force.” Beginning in 1982, changes in the estimation procedures and the introduction of 1980 census data caused substantial increases in the population and estimates of persons in all labor force categories. Rates on labor force characteristics, however, were essentially unchanged. In order to avoid major breaks in series, some 30,000 labor force series were adjusted back to 1970. The effect of the 1982 revisions on various data series and an explanation of the adjustment procedure used are described in “Revisions in the Current Population Survey in January 1982,” in the February 1982 issue of Employment and Earnings. The revisions did not, however, smooth out the breaks in series occurring between 1972 and 1979, and data users should make allowances for them in making certain data comparisons. Beginning in January 1985, and again in January 1986, the CPS estimation procedures were revised due to the implementation of a new sample design (for the 1985 revision) and to reflect an explicit estimate of the number of undocumented immigrants (for the 1986 revision). The greatest impact of these revisions was on estimates of persons of Hispanic origin. Where possible, these estimates were revised back to January 1980. A description of the changes and an indication of their effect on the national estimates of labor force characteristics appear in the February 1985 and February 1986 issues of Employment and Earnings respectively. Beginning in January 1994, several of changes were introduced into the CPS that effect all data comparisons with prior years. These changes include the results of a major redesign of the survey questionnaire and collection methodology, revisions to some of the labor force concepts and definitions, and the introduction of 1990 census population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount. An explanation of the changes and their effects on the labor force data appears in “Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 1994” in the February 1994 issue of Employment and Earnings. Hours and earnings.—Average hourly earnings, based on establishment data, are gross earnings (i.e., earnings before

establishments employed 9 million manufacturing workers (51 percent of the total manufacturing employment at the time), 20 million workers in nonmanufacturing industries (27 percent of the total in nonmanufacturing), and 15 million Federal, State, and local government employees (77 percent of total government). The establishment survey counts workers each time they appear on a payroll during the reference week (as with the CPS, the week including the 12th of the month). Thus, unlike the CPS, a person with two jobs is counted twice. The establishment survey is designed to provide detailed industry information for the Nation, States, and metropolitan areas on nonfarm wage and salary employment, average weekly hours, and average hourly and weekly earnings. Establishment survey data are published in Employment and Earnings and the Monthly Labor Review, cited above. Historical national and geographic data are published in BLS Bulletin 2445, Employment, Hours, and Earnings, United States, 1909-94; and Bulletin 2411, Employment, Hours, and Earnings, States and Areas, 1987-92. Labor force.—According to the CPS definitions, the civilian labor force comprises all civilians in the noninstitutional population 16 years and over classified as “employed” or “unemployed” according to the following criteria: Employed civilians comprise (a) all civilians, who, during the reference week, did any work for pay or profit (minimum of an hour’s work) or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family enterprise, and (b) all civilians who were not working but who had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent for noneconomic reasons (illness, weather conditions, vacation, labor-management dispute, etc.) whether they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs. Unemployed persons comprise all civilians who had no employment during the reference week, who made specific efforts to find a job within the previous 4 weeks (such as applying directly to an employer, or to a public employment service, or checking with friends), and who were available for work during that week, except for temporary illness. Persons on layoff from a job and expecting recall are also classified as unemployed. All other civilian persons,

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
payroll deductions) and include overtime premiums; they exclude irregular bonuses and value of payments in kind. Hours are those for which pay was received. Wages and salaries from the CPS consist of total monies received for work performed by an employee during the income year. It includes wages, salaries, commissions, tips, piece-rate payments, and cash bonuses earned before deductions were made for taxes, bonds, union dues, etc. Persons who worked 35 hours or more are classified as working full time (see table 632). Industrial and occupational groups.— Establishments responding to the establishment survey are classified into industries on the basis of their principal product or activity (determined by annual sales volume) in accordance with the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual, Office of Management and Budget. The SIC is a classification structure for the entire national economy. The structure provides data on a division and industry code basis, according to the level of industrial detail. For example, manufacturing is a major industrial division; food and kindred products (code 20) is one of its major groups. One of the ways this group is further divided is into meat products (code 201) and meat packing plants (code 2011). Periodically, the SIC is revised to reflect changes in the industrial composition of the economy. The 1987 SIC Manual has been issued; the previous was the 1972 SIC Manual. Tables shown in this Abstract indicate which SIC Manual the data shown are based on. Industry data derived from the CPS for 1983-91 utilize the 1980 census industrial classification developed from the 1972 SIC. CPS data from 1971 to 1982 were based on the 1970 census classification system which was developed from the 1967 SIC. Most of the industry categories were not affected by the change in classification. The occupational classification system used in the 1980 census and in the CPS for 1983-91 evolved from the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system, first introduced in 1977. Occupational categories used in the 1980 census classification system are so radically different from the 1970 census system used in the CPS through 1982, that their implementation represented a break in historical data series. In cases where

397

data have not yet been converted to the 1980 classifications and still reflect the 1970 classifications (e.g., table 668), comparisons between the two systems should not be made. To help users bridge the data gap, a limited set of estimates was developed for the 1972-82 period based on the new classifications. The estimates were developed by means of applying conversion factors created by double coding a 20-percent sample of CPS occupational records for 6 months during 1981-82. For further details, contact BLS. Beginning in January 1992, the occupational and industrial classification system used in the 1990 census were introduced into the CPS. (These systems were largely based on the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification and the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification.) There were a few breaks in comparability between the 1980 and 1990 census– based systems, particularly within the “technical, sales, and administrative support” categories. The most notable changes in industry classification were the shift of several industries from “business services” to “professional services” and the splitting of some industries into smaller, more detailed categories. A number of industry titles were changed as well, with no change in content. Productivity.—The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) publishes data on productivity as measured by output per hour (labor productivity), output per combined unit of labor and capital input (multifactor productivity), and, for manufacturing industries, output per combined unit of capital, labor, energy, materials, and purchased service inputs. Labor productivity and related indexes are published for the business sector as a whole and its major subsectors: nonfarm business, manufacturing, nonfinancial corporations, 177 specific industries, and various functional areas of the Federal and State and local governments. Multifactor productivity and related measures are published for the private business sector and its major subsectors. Productivity indexes which take into account capital, labor, energy, materials, and service inputs are published for the 20 major two-digit industry groups which comprise the manufacturing sector and for the tire and inner tubes, footwear, steel, farm and garden machinery, motor vehicles, and railroad transportation industries. The

398

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
shift and involve 1,000 or more workers. All stoppages, whether or not authorized by a union, legal or illegal, are counted. Excluded are work slowdowns and instances where employees report to work late, or leave early, to attend mass meetings or mass rallies. Seasonal adjustment.—Many economic statistics reflect a regularly recurring seasonal movement which can be estimated on the basis of past experience. By eliminating that part of the change which can be ascribed to usual seasonal variation (e.g., climate or school openings and closings), it is possible to observe the cyclical and other nonseasonal movements in the series. However, in evaluating deviations from the seasonal pattern—that is, changes in a seasonally adjusted series— it is important to note that seasonal adjustment is merely an approximation based on past experience. Seasonally adjusted estimates have a broader margin of possible error than the original data on which they are based, since they are subject not only to sampling and other errors, but also are affected by the uncertainties of the adjustment process itself. Statistical reliability.—For discussion of statistical collection, estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau and BLS data, see Appendix III. Historical statistics.—Tabular headnotes provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. See Appendix IV.

major sector data are published in the BLS quarterly news release, Productivity and Costs and in the annual Multifactor Productivity Measures release. The specific industry productivity measures are published annually in the BLS Bulletin, Productivity Measures for Selected Industries and Government Services, and the Handbook of Labor Statistics. Detailed information on methods, limitations, and data sources appears in the BLS Handbook of Methods, BLS Bulletin 2414 (1992), chapters 10 and 11. Unions.—As defined here, unions include traditional labor unions and employee associations similar to labor unions. Data on union membership status provided by BLS are for employed wage and salary workers and relate to their principal job. Earnings by union membership status are usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers. The information is collected through the Current Population Survey. For a full description of the method of collection and comparability with earlier data, see “New Data on Union Members and Their Earnings” in the January 1985 issue of Employment and Earnings, and “Changing Employment Patterns of Organized Workers” in the February 1985 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Collective bargaining settlements data are available for bargaining situations involving 1,000 or more workers in private industry and State and local government. Work stoppages.—Work stoppages include all strikes and lockouts known to BLS which last for at least one full day or

Figure 13.1

Fastest Growing Occupations: 1992 to 2005
Home health aides Human services workers Personal and home care aides Computer engineers and scientists Systems analysts Physical and corrective therapy assistants Physical therapists Paralegals Occupational therapy assistants and aides Electronic pagination systems workers 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent change 120 140

Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Bureau of the Census. For data, see table 639.

Civilian Labor Force
No. 626. Employment Status of the Civilian Population: 1950 to 1994

399

[In thousands, except as indicated. Annual averages of monthly figures. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 11-19 and D 85-86] Civilian noninstitutional population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104,995 117,245 137,085 167,745 174,215 176,383 178,206 180,587 182,753 184,613 186,393 188,049 189,765 191,576 193,550 196,814 CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE Total 62,208 69,628 82,771 106,940 111,550 113,544 115,461 117,834 119,865 121,669 123,869 124,787 125,303 126,982 128,040 131,056 EmployPercent of Employed ment/ population population ratio 1 59.2 59.4 60.4 63.8 64.0 64.4 64.8 65.3 65.6 65.9 66.5 66.4 66.0 66.3 66.2 66.6 58,918 65,778 78,678 99,303 100,834 105,005 107,150 109,597 112,440 114,968 117,342 117,914 116,877 117,598 119,306 123,060 56.1 56.1 57.4 59.2 57.9 59.5 60.1 60.7 61.5 62.3 63.0 62.7 61.6 61.4 61.6 62.5 Unemployed Number 3,288 3,852 4,093 7,637 10,717 8,539 8,312 8,237 7,425 6,701 6,528 6,874 8,426 9,384 8,734 7,996 Percent of labor force 5.3 5.5 4.9 7.1 9.6 7.5 7.2 7.0 6.2 5.5 5.3 5.5 6.7 7.4 6.8 6.1 NOT IN LABOR FORCE Number 42,787 47,617 54,315 60,806 62,665 62,839 62,744 62,752 62,888 62,944 62,523 63,262 64,462 64,593 65,509 65,758 Percent of population 40.8 40.6 39.6 36.2 36.0 35.6 35.2 34.7 34.4 34.1 33.5 33.6 34.0 33.7 33.8 33.4

YEAR

1950 1960 1970 1980

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

1983 . . . . . . . . 1984 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1991 . . . . 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 2 . . .

1 Civilian employed as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population. 2 Data beginning 1994, not directly comparable with earlier years. See text, section 13, and February 1994 issue of Employment and Earnings.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

No. 627. Civilian Labor Force and Participation Rates, With Projections: 1970 to 2005
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Rates are based on annual average civilian noninstitutional population of each specified group and represent proportion of each specified group in the civilian labor force. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 42-48] CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE (millions) RACE, SEX, AND AGE Total 2 . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Black 3 . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Hispanic 4 . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . 20 to 24 years . . . 25 to 34 years . . . 35 to 44 years . . . 45 to 54 years . . . 55 to 64 years . . . 65 years and over Female . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . 20 to 24 years . . . 25 to 34 years . . . 35 to 44 years . . . 45 to 54 years . . . 55 to 64 years . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 82.8 73.6 46.0 27.5 9.2 5.2 4.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) 51.2 4.0 5.7 11.3 10.5 10.4 7.1 2.2 31.5 3.2 4.9 5.7 6.0 6.5 4.2 1.1 1980 106.9 93.6 54.5 39.1 10.9 5.6 5.3 6.1 3.8 2.3 61.5 5.0 8.6 17.0 11.8 9.9 7.2 1.9 45.5 4.4 7.3 12.3 8.6 7.0 4.7 1.2 1990 124.8 107.2 59.3 47.9 13.5 6.7 6.8 9.6 5.8 3.8 68.2 3.9 7.3 19.8 17.3 11.2 6.8 2.0 56.6 3.5 6.6 16.0 14.6 9.3 5.1 1.5 1994
1

PARTICIPATION RATE (percent) 1970 60.4 60.2 80.0 42.6 61.8 76.5 49.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) 79.7 56.1 83.3 96.4 96.9 94.3 83.0 26.8 43.3 44.0 57.7 45.0 51.1 54.4 43.0 9.7 1980 63.8 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 64.0 81.4 47.4 77.4 60.5 85.9 95.2 95.5 91.2 72.1 19.0 51.5 52.9 68.9 65.5 65.5 59.9 41.3 8.1 1990 66.4 66.8 76.9 57.5 63.3 70.1 57.8 67.0 81.2 53.0 76.1 55.7 84.3 94.2 94.4 90.7 67.7 16.4 57.5 51.8 71.6 73.6 76.5 71.2 45.3 8.7 1994
1

2000, proj. 141.8 118.8 63.8 55.1 16.0 7.8 8.2 14.3 8.7 5.8 75.3 4.4 7.2 17.2 20.7 15.8 7.7 2.1 66.6 4.0 6.4 14.9 18.8 14.7 6.2 1.6

2005, proj. 150.5 124.8 66.0 58.8 17.4 8.3 9.0 16.6 9.6 7.0 78.7 4.6 8.1 16.5 19.6 18.1 9.6 2.2 71.8 4.2 7.2 14.8 18.6 17.4 7.8 1.7

2000, proj. 68.2 68.7 76.0 61.8 65.5 70.8 61.2 68.0 80.2 55.8 75.3 55.4 84.0 73.1 93.7 90.4 69.1 15.0 61.6 52.0 72.5 78.1 83.0 79.7 50.3 8.5
3

2005, proj. 68.8 69.3 75.3 63.6 66.2 70.5 62.6 68.4 79.5 57.3 74.7 55.5 84.4 93.5 93.5 90.2 69.7 14.7 63.2 52.4 73.6 80.7 86.2 82.8 52.4 8.8

131.0 111.1 60.7 50.3 14.5 7.1 7.4 12.0 7.2 4.8 70.8 3.9 7.5 18.9 19.0 13.0 6.4 2.2 60.2 3.6 6.6 15.5 16.3 11.4 5.3 1.7

66.6 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 66.1 79.2 52.9 75.1 54.1 83.1 92.6 92.8 89.1 65.5 16.8 58.8 51.3 71.0 74.0 77.1 74.6 48.9 9.2

NA Not available. 1 See footnote 2, table 626. 2 Beginning 1980, includes other races not shown separately. Black and other. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

For 1970,

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; Monthly Labor Review, November 1993; and unpublished data.

400

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 628. Employment Status of the Civilian Population: 1960 to 1994

[In thousands, except as indicated. Annual averages of monthly figures. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 11-19 and D 85-86] Civilian noninstitutional population CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE Percent of population 59.4 60.4 63.8 64.8 66.4 66.0 66.3 66.2 66.6 83.3 79.7 77.4 76.3 76.1 75.5 75.6 75.2 75.1 37.7 43.3 51.5 54.5 57.5 57.3 57.8 57.9 58.8 58.8 60.2 64.1 65.0 66.8 66.6 66.7 66.7 67.1 60.2 61.0 62.9 63.3 62.6 63.3 62.4 63.4 64.0 64.6 67.0 66.1 66.5 65.9 66.1 67.0 68.3 67.5 67.0 67.7 53.8 55.6 57.4 56.7 55.4 67.7 65.1 61.1 59.8 60.3 Employment/ population ratio 1 56.1 57.4 59.2 60.1 62.7 61.6 61.4 61.6 62.5 78.9 76.2 72.0 70.9 71.9 70.2 69.7 69.9 70.4 35.5 40.8 47.7 50.4 54.3 53.7 53.8 54.1 55.3 55.9 57.5 60.0 61.0 63.6 62.6 62.4 62.7 63.5 54.5 52.2 53.4 56.2 54.9 54.3 54.4 56.1 57.6 57.8 61.6 59.6 58.9 58.9 59.5 59.5 62.7 59.6 59.9 60.9 46.3 50.5 49.2 49.4 48.9 63.3 60.4 56.3 55.1 55.4 Unemployed Number Percent of labor force 5.5 4.9 7.1 7.2 5.5 6.7 7.4 6.8 6.1 5.4 4.4 6.9 7.0 5.6 7.0 7.8 7.1 6.2 5.9 5.9 7.4 7.4 5.4 6.3 6.9 6.5 6.0 5.0 4.5 6.3 6.2 4.7 6.0 6.5 6.0 5.3 9.4 14.3 15.1 11.3 12.4 14.1 12.9 11.5 10.1 10.5 8.0 9.9 11.4 10.6 9.9 11.2 8.2 11.7 10.7 10.1 14.0 9.1 14.1 12.8 11.6 6.4 7.2 7.9 7.8 8.1 NOT IN LABOR FORCE Number Percent of population 40.6 39.6 36.2 35.2 33.6 34.0 33.7 33.8 33.4 16.7 20.3 22.6 23.7 23.9 24.5 24.4 24.8 24.9 62.3 56.7 48.5 45.5 42.5 42.7 42.2 42.1 41.2 41.2 39.8 35.9 35.0 33.2 33.4 33.3 33.3 32.9 39.8 39.0 37.1 36.7 37.4 36.7 37.6 36.6 36.0 35.4 33.0 33.9 33.5 34.1 33.9 33.0 31.7 32.5 33.0 32.3 46.2 44.4 42.6 43.3 44.6 32.3 34.8 38.9 40.2 39.7

YEAR, SEX, RACE, AND HISPANIC ORIGIN

Total

Employed

Total: 2 1960. . . . . . . 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . 1992. . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . Male: 1960. . . . . . . 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . 1992. . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . Female: 1960. . . . . . . 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . 1992. . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . White: 1960. . . . . . . 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . 1992. . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . Black: 1973. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . 1992. . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . Hispanic: 4 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . 1992. . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . Mexican: 1986 . . . . . 1990 . . . . . 1992 . . . . . 1993 . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . Puerto Rican: 1986 . . . . . 1990 . . . . . 1992 . . . . . 1993 . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . Cuban: 1986 . . . . . 1990 . . . . . 1992 . . . . . 1993 . . . . . 1994 3 . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117,245 137,085 167,745 178,206 188,049 189,765 191,576 193,550 196,814 55,662 64,304 79,398 84,469 89,650 90,552 91,541 92,620 94,355 61,582 72,782 88,348 93,736 98,399 99,214 100,035 100,930 102,460 105,282 122,174 146,122 153,679 160,415 161,511 162,658 163,921 165,555 14,917 17,824 19,664 21,300 21,615 21,958 22,329 22,879 9,598 11,915 14,297 14,770 15,244 15,753 18,117 7,377 8,742 9,368 9,693 11,174 1,494 1,546 1,628 1,676 1,854 842 847 867 927 1,002

69,628 82,771 106,940 115,461 124,787 125,303 126,982 128,040 131,056 46,388 51,228 61,453 64,411 68,234 68,411 69,184 69,633 70,817 23,240 31,543 45,487 51,050 56,554 56,893 57,798 58,407 60,239 61,915 73,556 93,600 99,926 107,177 107,486 108,526 109,359 111,082 8,976 10,865 12,364 13,493 13,542 13,891 13,943 14,502 6,146 7,698 9,576 9,762 10,131 10,377 11,975 4,941 5,970 6,319 6,499 7,567 804 859 934 950 1,026 570 552 529 554 604

65,778 78,678 99,303 107,150 117,914 116,877 117,598 119,306 123,060 43,904 48,990 57,186 59,891 64,435 63,593 63,805 64,700 66,450 21,874 29,688 42,117 47,259 53,479 53,284 53,793 54,606 56,610 58,850 70,217 87,715 93,736 102,087 101,039 101,479 102,812 105,190 8,128 9,313 10,501 11,966 11,863 11,933 12,146 12,835 5,527 6,888 8,808 8,799 8,971 9,272 10,788 4,387 5,478 5,581 5,805 6,800 691 780 802 828 907 533 512 488 511 555

3,852 4,093 7,637 8,312 6,874 8,426 9,384 8,734 7,996 2,486 2,238 4,267 4,521 3,799 4,817 5,380 4,932 4,367 1,366 1,855 3,370 3,791 3,075 3,609 4,005 3,801 3,629 3,065 3,339 5,884 6,191 5,091 6,447 7,047 6,547 5,892 846 1,553 1,864 1,527 1,679 1,958 1,796 1,666 620 811 769 963 1,160 1,104 1,187 555 492 739 693 766 113 79 132 122 119 36 40 42 43 49

47,617 54,315 60,806 62,744 63,262 64,462 64,593 65,509 65,758 9,274 13,076 17,945 20,058 21,417 22,141 22,356 22,987 23,538 38,343 41,239 42,861 42,686 41,845 42,321 42,237 42,522 42,221 43,367 48,618 52,523 53,753 53,237 54,025 54,132 54,562 54,473 5,941 6,959 7,299 7,808 8,074 8,067 8,386 8,377 3,451 4,217 4,721 5,008 5,113 5,377 6,142 2,436 2,773 3,049 3,194 3,608 690 687 694 725 828 272 295 337 373 398

1 Civilian employed as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 3 See footnote 2, table 626. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Includes persons of other Hispanic origin, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

Civilian Labor Force and Participation Rates

401

No. 629. Civilian Labor Force and Participation Rates, by Educational Attainment, Sex, and Race: 1970 to 1991
[As of March,. For civilian noninstitutional population 25 to 64 years of age. Beginning 1992, the method of computing educational attainment data was changed. See table 630 for later data. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE Percent distribution ITEM Total (1,000) Less than high school 36.1 20.6 13.4 13.0 37.5 22.2 15.1 14.7 33.5 18.4 11.3 10.9 33.7 19.1 12.6 12.2 55.5 34.7 19.9 19.5 High school graduate 38.1 39.8 39.5 39.4 34.5 35.7 37.2 37.5 44.3 45.4 42.4 41.6 39.3 40.2 39.6 39.3 28.2 38.1 42.5 42.9 College 1-3 years 11.8 17.6 20.7 21.1 12.2 17.7 19.7 20.2 10.9 17.4 21.9 22.2 12.2 17.7 20.6 21.1 8.0 16.3 22.1 22.1 4 years or more 14.1 22.0 26.4 26.5 15.7 24.3 28.0 27.6 11.2 18.7 24.5 25.2 14.8 22.9 27.1 27.4 8.3 11.0 15.5 15.4 70.3 73.9 78.6 78.6 93.5 89.4 88.8 88.6 49.0 59.5 68.9 69.1 70.1 74.2 79.2 79.4 72.0 71.5 74.6 73.9 Total PARTICIPATION RATE Less than high school 65.5 60.7 60.7 60.7 89.3 78.8 75.1 75.1 43.0 43.7 46.2 46.2 65.2 61.4 62.5 62.5 67.1 58.1 54.5 53.9 High school graduate 70.2 74.2 78.2 78.1 96.3 91.9 89.9 89.3 51.3 61.2 68.7 68.6 69.7 73.7 78.4 78.3 76.8 79.2 78.2 77.1
1

College 1-3 years 73.8 79.5 83.3 83.2 95.8 92.4 91.5 92.0 50.9 66.4 75.9 75.2 73.3 79.2 83.3 83.1 81.0 82.0 84.2 84.1 4 years or more 82.3 86.1 88.4 88.4 96.1 95.3 94.5 94.2 60.9 73.4 81.1 81.8 81.9 86.0 88.3 88.6 87.4 90.1 92.0 90.2

Total: 2 1970 1980. . . . 1990. . . . 1991. . . . Male: 1970 1980. . . 1990. . . 1991. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 61,765 . 78,010 . 99,175 . 100,480 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39,303 45,417 54,476 55,165 22,462 32,593 44,699 45,315 55,044 68,509 85,238 86,344 6,721 7,731 10,537 10,650

Female: 1970 1980. . . . . 1990. . . . . 1991. . . . . White: 1970 1980. . . . 1990. . . . 1991. . . . Black: 1970 . 1980. . . . 1990. . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Percent of the civilian population in each group in the civilian labor force. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. For 1970, White and Black races only. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and unpublished data.

No. 630. Civilian Labor Force and Participation Rates, by Educational Attainment, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1992 to 1994
[As of March. For the civilian noninstitutional population 25 to 64 years of age. See table 663 for unemployment data. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE (1,000) Percent distribution YEAR, SEX, AND RACE Total High Less school Less than than high graduate, a College school bachelor’s graduate no diploma degree degree 12.2 11.5 11.0 13.9 13.2 12.7 10.2 9.3 9.1 11.3 10.7 10.5 19.2 16.8 14.5 39.1 38.7 38.6 36.2 35.2 34.0 34.7 33.9 32.9 37.9 36.7 35.3 36.1 35.0 33.7 40.3 39.5 39.3 30.2 29.4 28.7 25.2 26.3 27.6 23.8 24.7 25.8 26.9 28.2 29.8 25.5 26.4 27.7 24.9 27.6 29.2 19.3 21.0 21.5 26.4 27.0 27.3 27.5 28.1 28.6 25.0 25.8 25.8 27.1 27.9 28.1 15.6 16.1 17.0 11.4 10.9 11.1 Total Less than high school diploma PARTICIPATION RATE
1

High school Lessathan gradu- bachelor’s ates, no degree degree

College graduate

Total: 2 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 3 . . . Male: 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 . Female: 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 . White: 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 . Black: 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 . Hispanic: 4 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

102,387 103,504 104,868 55,917 56,544 56,633 46,469 46,961 48,235 87,656 88,457 89,009 10,936 11,051 11,368 7,702 8,010 8,984

79.0 78.9 78.9 88.6 88.1 87.0 70.0 70.0 71.1 79.8 79.7 79.8 74.4 73.8 73.5 73.8 73.9 73.2
3

60.3 59.6 58.3 75.1 74.9 71.5 45.6 44.2 44.7 61.5 61.1 60.3 55.4 53.4 49.4 64.6 64.9 63.9

78.3 77.7 77.8 89.0 88.1 86.8 69.1 68.8 70.0 78.7 78.2 78.3 76.9 74.7 75.2 77.5 76.8 77.5

83.5 82.9 83.2 91.8 90.6 90.3 76.2 76.1 77.0 83.8 83.1 83.5 83.4 83.0 82.5 84.2 84.0 81.9
4

88.4 88.3 88.2 93.7 93.7 93.2 82.2 82.2 82.5 88.7 88.8 88.5 89.1 89.6 89.5 87.1 87.3 86.3 Persons of

1 See footnote 1, table 629. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

See footnote 2, table 626.

402

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings

No. 631. Civilian Labor Force—Percent Distribution, by Sex and Age: 1960 to 1994
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 29-41, for similar but not exactly comparable data] Civilian labor force (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69,628 82,771 106,940 115,461 124,787 125,303 126,982 128,040 131,056 46,388 51,228 61,453 64,411 68,234 68,411 69,184 69,633 70,817 23,240 31,543 45,487 51,050 56,554 56,893 57,798 58,407 60,239 PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 16 to 19 years 7.0 8.8 8.8 6.8 5.9 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.7 6.0 7.8 8.1 6.4 5.7 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.5 8.8 10.3 9.6 7.4 6.3 5.9 5.5 5.6 6.0 20 to 24 years 9.6 12.8 14.9 13.6 11.1 10.9 10.8 10.6 10.8 8.9 11.2 14.0 12.9 10.7 10.6 10.5 10.3 10.6 11.1 15.5 16.1 14.6 11.6 11.3 11.2 10.9 10.9 25 to 34 years 20.7 20.6 27.3 29.1 28.7 28.2 27.6 26.9 26.2 22.1 22.1 27.6 29.2 29.0 28.6 28.0 27.4 26.6 17.8 18.1 26.9 28.9 28.3 27.7 27.2 26.4 25.7 35 to 44 years 23.4 19.9 19.1 22.6 25.5 26.3 26.5 26.8 26.9 23.6 20.4 19.3 22.5 25.3 26.1 26.3 26.6 26.8 22.8 18.9 19.0 22.7 25.8 26.6 26.7 26.9 27.0 45 to 54 years 21.3 20.5 15.8 15.0 16.4 16.9 17.6 18.4 18.6 20.6 20.3 16.1 15.3 16.4 16.8 17.5 18.1 18.3 22.7 20.7 15.4 14.6 16.5 17.0 17.8 18.7 18.9 55 to 64 years 13.5 13.6 11.2 10.4 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.3 8.9 13.8 13.9 11.8 11.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.5 9.1 12.8 13.2 10.4 9.7 9.0 8.9 8.9 9.0 8.8 65 yrs. and over 4.6 3.9 2.9 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9 4.9 4.2 3.1 2.7 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.9 3.3 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.8

YEAR AND SEX Total: 1960 . 1970 . 1980 . 1985 . 1990 . 1991 . 1992 . 1993 . 1994 1 Male: 1960 . . . 1970 . . . 1980 . . . 1985 . . . 1990 . . . 1991 . . . 1992 . . . 1993 . . . 1994 1 . . Female: 1960 . 1970 . 1980 . 1985 . 1990 . 1991 . 1992 . 1993 . 1994 1
1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnote 2, table 626.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307, and Employment Earnings, monthly, January issues.

No. 632. Civilian Labor Force, by Selected Metropolitan Area: 1994
[For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Except as noted, data are derived from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program. For composition of metropolitan areas, see Appendix II] METROPOLITAN AREAS RANKED BY LABOR FORCE SIZE, 1994 U.S. total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA 2 . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA-NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boston, MA-NH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis-St. Paul, MI-WI. . . . . . . Nassau-Suffolk, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . Orange County, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . St. Louis, MO-IL 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Riverside-San Bernardino, CA . . . . . Phoenix-Mesa, AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . San Diego, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oakland, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH. . . . . . . Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Miami, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Denver, CO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newark, NJ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA . . . . . . San Francisco, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas City, MO-KS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civilian labor force (1,000) 131,056 4,396.0 3,964.6 3,830.2 2,585.3 2,434.8 2,131.0 1,958.8 1,846.6 1,753.9 1,672.6 1,580.4 1,359.1 1,342.1 1,279.3 1,273.7 1,267.0 1,234.5 1,218.2 1,193.8 1,137.0 1,135.7 1,085.6 1,083.4 1,039.2 1,014.7 981.9 937.0 910.4 894.2
2

Unemployment rate 1 6.1 9.4 5.5 8.1 4.1 5.9 5.7 6.4 4.7 5.2 5.3 3.3 5.7 5.8 4.8 9.4 5.0 7.2 6.0 5.7 6.2 6.3 5.8 5.5 8.0 3.9 7.0 4.4 5.7 4.6

METROPOLITAN AREAS RANKED BY LABOR FORCE SIZE, 1994 San Jose, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fort Worth-Arlington, TX . . . . . . . . . . . Indianapolis, IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI . . . . . . . . . . Columbus, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Orlando, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fort Lauderdale, FL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA-NC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . San Antonio, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC. . . Bergen-Passaic-NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT . . . . . . . . . . Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hartford, CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Orleans, LA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nashville, TN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Austin-San Marcos, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ . . . Providence-Fall River-Warwick, RI-MA . . Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY . . . . . . . . . . Las Vegas, NV-AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rochester, NY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC. . . . . . Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI . . Louisville, KY-IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

Civilian labor force (1,000) 857.2 805.1 803.8 801.6 776.0 767.8 751.5 713.5 713.1 711.8 700.4 696.4 650.0 627.1 614.6 604.8 600.9 595.4 582.9 582.3 580.6 576.1 573.3 569.1 552.8 528.7 523.0

Unemployment rate 1 6.3 5.6 4.1 4.8 4.5 4.1 5.8 6.5 5.5 7.3 4.9 3.8 7.1 3.5 3.6 5.9 7.4 3.3 3.6 5.2 7.5 6.2 6.3 5.2 3.0 4.7 4.6

1 Percent unemployed of the civilian labor force. Sullivan City in Crawford County, Missouri.

Derived from the Current Population Survey.

Excludes the part of

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, May 1995.

Civilian Labor Force Characteristics—States
No. 633. Characteristics of the Civilian Labor Force, by State: 1994

403

[In thousands, except ratio and rate. For civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Because of separate processing and weighting procedures, the totals for the United States may differ from results obtained by aggregating totals for States] TOTAL STATE Number Female EMPLOYED Female Employed/ population ratio 1 62.5 59.1 68.5 61.3 61.3 60.3 69.4 64.9 67.3 61.5 58.5 64.1 64.0 67.2 63.9 66.4 70.4 67.0 59.0 56.3 59.5 67.0 63.8 62.7 72.6 59.3 64.7 64.8 71.0 65.8 68.9 61.4 59.8 57.0 64.1 68.8 62.1 59.9 65.1 58.9 61.2 62.0 69.4 63.7 64.8 71.5 67.7 66.0 63.0 49.7 69.7 67.5 UNEMPLOYED Total Number 7,996 122 24 126 65 1,330 84 96 19 26 448 185 35 33 340 151 58 70 98 156 45 137 191 280 103 83 131 22 25 48 29 272 48 593 158 13 307 90 89 361 36 115 12 127 604 36 15 167 174 70 132 13 Female 3,629 70 9 64 34 576 37 48 9 12 219 90 14 15 153 78 25 31 42 80 18 58 80 129 41 40 60 10 14 22 14 123 18 245 83 5 139 37 37 153 16 61 6 66 275 18 7 82 78 26 55 6 Total 6.1 6.0 7.8 6.4 5.3 8.6 4.2 5.6 4.9 8.2 6.6 5.2 6.1 5.6 5.7 4.9 3.7 5.3 5.4 8.0 7.4 5.1 6.0 5.9 4.0 6.6 4.9 5.1 2.9 6.2 4.6 6.8 6.3 6.9 4.4 3.9 5.5 5.8 5.4 6.2 7.1 6.3 3.3 4.8 6.4 3.7 4.7 4.9 6.4 8.9 4.7 5.3 Rate
2

PARTICIPATION RATE 3 Male 75.1 72.1 81.2 74.1 72.7 75.4 79.4 76.9 78.3 74.0 70.7 76.0 74.1 79.2 76.5 78.3 80.9 78.4 70.3 70.1 70.3 77.8 75.7 75.2 81.6 72.7 75.9 75.2 79.8 77.8 78.8 75.1 72.8 70.5 74.6 77.9 75.0 73.4 75.4 71.7 73.5 74.2 78.2 74.4 78.9 83.3 77.5 76.4 75.0 63.5 79.2 78.8 Female 58.8 54.8 67.5 57.4 57.3 56.9 65.7 61.5 63.4 60.9 55.4 60.1 62.8 63.3 59.7 62.5 65.6 63.8 55.3 53.3 58.6 64.2 60.7 58.7 69.8 55.2 60.6 61.8 66.9 62.4 65.7 57.4 55.3 53.2 60.4 65.6 57.6 54.7 62.2 54.6 59.3 59.1 65.7 60.2 60.1 65.5 65.3 63.0 59.9 46.6 67.3 64.1

Total

Male 6.2 4.7 9.1 5.7 4.7 8.7 4.4 5.3 4.5 8.3 6.3 5.0 7.1 5.6 5.8 4.5 3.9 5.6 5.8 7.3 8.3 5.7 6.6 5.9 4.6 6.3 4.9 5.3 2.5 5.9 4.4 6.8 7.1 7.5 4.0 4.4 5.6 6.2 5.8 6.5 7.6 5.6 3.1 4.4 6.3 3.4 5.0 4.7 6.5 10.1 5.2 5.4

Female 6.0 7.5 6.2 7.1 6.1 8.4 4.0 5.9 5.3 8.0 6.9 5.4 5.0 5.6 5.5 5.4 3.4 5.0 4.9 9.0 6.3 4.5 5.4 5.9 3.4 6.9 4.8 4.8 3.3 6.5 4.8 6.8 5.3 6.2 4.8 3.3 5.4 5.4 5.0 5.8 6.5 7.0 3.6 5.2 6.6 4.2 4.4 5.1 6.3 7.5 4.2 5.2

United States Alabama . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia Hawaii . Idaho. . Illinois . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 131,056 60,239 123,060 56,610 . 2,031 938 1,909 868 . 305 140 282 132 . 1,988 900 1,862 836 . 1,207 554 1,142 520 . 15,471 6,819 14,141 6,243 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,996 1,726 384 314 6,824 3,566 583 591 6,000 3,056 1,565 1,331 1,825 1,939 613 2,691 3,179 4,753 2,565 1,254 2,695 437 876 779 628 3,991 770 8,571 3,609 338 5,537 1,540 1,643 5,829 505 1,828 374 2,664 9,385 975 321 3,422 2,708 788 2,795 249 915 818 173 153 3,164 1,676 284 265 2,775 1,455 721 624 853 897 290 1,292 1,482 2,181 1,212 578 1,244 205 416 345 287 1,811 342 3,965 1,722 158 2,562 693 739 2,639 244 873 175 1,267 4,166 435 155 1,622 1,229 353 1,299 114 1,912 1,630 365 289 6,376 3,381 547 558 5,660 2,905 1,508 1,261 1,727 1,783 567 2,554 2,988 4,473 2,462 1,171 2,564 414 851 731 599 3,719 722 7,978 3,451 324 5,231 1,451 1,553 5,468 470 1,713 362 2,537 8,780 938 306 3,255 2,534 717 2,663 236 878 769 164 140 2,945 1,586 270 250 2,623 1,377 697 593 811 817 272 1,235 1,402 2,052 1,171 537 1,184 195 403 323 273 1,688 324 3,720 1,639 153 2,434 655 702 2,486 228 812 169 1,201 3,891 417 148 1,539 1,151 326 1,244 108

Iowa . . . . Kansas . . Kentucky . Louisiana . Maine . . .

Maryland . . . . Massachusetts Michigan . . . . Minnesota . . . Mississippi . . .

Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire. New Jersey . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina. North Dakota . Ohio . . . . . . Oklahoma . . Oregon . . . . Pennsylvania Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

South Carolina South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia . . . . Washington . West Virginia Wisconsin. . . Wyoming . . .
3

. . . . . .

1 Civilian employment as a percent of civilian noninstitutional population. 2 Percent unemployed of the civilian labor force. Percent of civilian noninstitutional population of each specified group in the civilian labor force.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1994.

404

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 634. Hispanic Persons—Civilian Labor Force Participation: 1993 and 1994

[For civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] 1993 ITEM Total Mexican 9,693 81.5 51.9 5,805 100.0 11.5 23.3 19.1 14.4 23.7 8.0 10.2 11.4 Other Puerto HisCuban Rican panic origin 2 1,676 70.6 45.3 828 100.0 19.1 32.1 19.9 9.8 17.9 1.2 14.4 10.8 927 73.3 47.9 511 100.0 25.0 32.9 12.9 10.2 17.0 2.2 7.8 7.7 Total Mexican 1994
1

Puerto Cuban Rican 1,854 67.6 44.9 907 100.0 19.5 31.0 18.0 10.1 20.2 1.3 11.0 12.4 1,002 70.3 50.9 555 100.0 25.5 36.5 11.7 10.6 14.4 1.3 7.9 8.4

Other Hispanic origin 2 4,087 79.7 57.1 2,526 100.0 16.3 24.9 23.9 12.3 20.3 2.3 8.9 9.4

Total (1,000). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,753 Percent in labor force: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employed (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent by occupation . . . . . . . . . Managerial and professional . . . Tech., sales, and admin. support Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft, and repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operators, fabricators and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . 80.0 52.0 9,272 100.0 14.1 24.9 19.9 13.2 22.2 5.8 10.4 10.9

3,457 18,117 11,174 81.2 56.7 79.2 52.9 81.5 52.9 6,800 100.0 11.6 22.4 19.1 13.9 25.0 8.0 9.5 11.1

2,128 10,788 100.0 100.0 16.6 14.1 24.3 24.5 23.8 19.8 12.0 20.9 2.3 10.1 10.8 13.0 22.9 5.7 9.4 10.7

Percent of labor force unemployed: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

See footnote 2, table 626.

2

Includes Central or South American and other Hispanic origin.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

No. 635. School Enrollment and Labor Force Status: 1980 and 1993
[In thousands, except percent. As of October. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years old. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] POPULATION CHARACTERISTIC 1980 Total, 16 to 24 years . . . . . Enrolled in school 3 . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . College level . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . Below college College level . Black. . . . . . . . Below college College level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE 1980, total 24,918 7,454 4,836 2,618 3,825 3,629 3,996 2,854 6,687 3,095 3,592 595 294 300 17,464 15,121 2,055
2

EMPLOYED

UNEMPLOYED 1980, total 3,464 1,021 807 214 566 455 364 300 798 516 282 189 120 70 2,443 1,803 604
3

1993 Total 19,899 7,692 4,363 3,330 3,836 3,856 4,816 3,559 6,696 2,511 4,185 686 288 398 12,207 10,153 1,675 Percent 1 64.5 48.7 42.0 61.7 47.6 49.9 58.0 51.5 52.8 43.1 61.0 31.3 21.8 45.6 81.1 83.8 69.7 1980 21,454 6,433 4,029 2,404 3,259 3,174 3,632 2,554 5,889 2,579 3,310 406 174 230 15,021 13,318 1,451 1993 17,464 6,677 3,581 3,096 3,280 3,398 4,396 3,205 5,941 2,053 3,888 469 167 301 10,787 9,117 1,331

1993 Total 2,435 1,015 781 233 556 459 420 355 755 458 296 217 121 97 1,420 1,037 344 Rate
2

1993 30,844 15,790 10,396 5,394 8,063 7,727 8,311 6,906 12,689 5,830 6,859 2,195 1,323 872 15,054 12,122 2,401

37,103 15,713 11,126 4,587 7,997 7,716 7,664 6,396 13,242 6,566 6,678 2,028 1,282 747 21,390 18,103 2,864

12.2 13.2 17.9 7.0 14.5 11.9 8.7 10.0 11.3 18.3 7.1 31.7 41.9 24.3 11.6 10.2 20.5

Not enrolled 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Percent of civilian noninstitutional population. not shown separately.

Percent of civilian labor force in each category.

Includes other races,

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; News, USDL 94-252, May 20, 1994; and unpublished data.

Labor Force Participation—Marital Status

405

No. 636. Labor Force Participation Rates, by Marital Status, Sex, and Age: 1960 to 1994
[Annual averages of monthly figures. See table 633 for definition of participation rate. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] MARITAL STATUS AND YEAR Single: 1960 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MALE PARTICIPATION RATE Total 16-19 years 42.6 54.6 57.9 59.9 56.3 55.1 52.6 52.9 52.5 53.6 91.5 92.3 92.9 91.3 91.0 92.3 93.2 90.2 91.2 88.7 (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) 65.1 20-24 years 80.3 73.8 77.9 81.3 81.5 81.5 80.6 80.7 80.5 80.5 97.1 94.7 95.3 96.9 95.6 95.6 95.4 94.8 95.0 94.2 96.9 90.4 88.8 92.6 95.1 93.1 93.9 91.8 91.7 91.0 25-34 years 91.5 87.9 86.7 89.2 89.4 89.9 89.6 89.8 89.2 88.4 98.8 98.0 97.4 97.5 97.4 96.9 96.6 96.6 96.6 95.9 95.2 93.7 92.4 94.1 93.7 93.0 92.1 93.5 91.9 90.3 35-44 years 88.6 86.2 83.2 82.2 84.6 84.6 84.8 84.9 84.5 83.1 98.6 98.1 97.1 97.2 96.8 96.8 96.6 96.2 96.1 95.6 94.4 91.1 89.4 91.9 91.8 90.8 90.5 90.3 89.6 88.6 45-64 years 80.1 75.7 69.9 66.9 65.5 67.1 66.8 67.6 68.2 67.8 93.7 91.2 86.8 84.3 81.7 82.5 82.3 82.7 82.5 81.9 83.2 78.5 73.4 73.3 72.8 74.6 73.5 74.7 74.2 72.6 65 and over 31.2 25.2 21.0 16.8 15.6 15.7 14.0 16.3 15.0 17.8 36.6 29.9 23.3 20.5 16.8 17.6 16.8 17.2 16.6 18.1 22.7 19.3 15.4 13.7 11.4 12.0 12.3 12.2 12.0 11.9 Total FEMALE PARTICIPATION RATE 16-19 years 30.2 44.7 49.6 53.6 52.3 51.8 50.3 49.2 49.8 51.4 27.2 37.8 46.2 49.3 49.6 50.0 48.7 49.0 50.1 48.9 43.5 48.6 47.6 50.0 51.9 54.4 45.8 47.8 53.3 46.2 20-24 years 77.2 73.0 72.5 75.2 76.3 74.7 73.5 73.7 74.2 73.6 31.7 47.9 57.0 61.4 65.7 66.5 65.0 66.3 65.6 65.8 58.0 60.3 65.3 68.4 66.2 65.6 63.3 66.9 65.2 66.6 25-34 years 83.4 81.4 80.8 83.3 82.4 81.2 80.3 80.5 79.1 78.9 28.8 38.8 48.4 58.8 65.8 69.8 70.1 70.9 70.8 71.6 63.1 64.6 68.6 76.5 76.9 77.3 74.8 75.7 75.2 74.3
1

35-44 years 82.9 78.6 78.6 76.9 80.8 81.0 81.2 80.6 79.1 78.7 37.2 46.8 52.0 61.8 68.1 74.0 74.3 74.8 74.7 75.8 70.0 68.8 69.2 77.1 81.6 82.3 82.1 81.6 81.6 80.4

45-64 years 79.8 73.0 68.3 65.6 67.9 66.1 68.4 68.2 68.8 68.8 36.0 44.0 43.8 46.9 49.4 56.5 57.1 58.6 60.0 61.9 60.0 61.9 59.0 60.2 61.0 65.0 65.2 66.4 66.9 67.6

65 and over 24.3 19.7 15.8 13.9 9.8 12.2 12.7 11.3 12.5 12.7 6.7 7.3 7.0 7.3 6.6 8.5 8.3 7.9 7.6 9.4 11.4 10.0 8.3 8.2 7.5 8.5 8.4 8.4 8.2 8.7

1

69.8 65.5 68.7 72.6 73.8 74.9 74.2 74.6 74.2 73.9 89.2 86.1 83.0 80.9 78.7 78.2 77.8 77.6 77.3 77.4 63.1 60.7 63.4 67.5 68.7 68.3 67.7 68.0 67.4 66.8

58.6 56.8 59.8 64.4 66.6 66.9 66.5 66.4 66.4 66.7 31.9 40.5 44.3 49.8 53.8 58.4 58.5 59.2 59.4 60.7 41.6 40.3 40.1 43.6 45.1 47.2 46.8 47.0 47.1 47.5

Married: 2 1960 . . 1970 . . 1975 . . 1980 . . 1985 . . 1990 . . 1991 . . 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 1 . Other: 3 1960 . 1970 . 1975 . 1980 . 1985 . 1990 . 1991 . 1992 . 1993 . 1994 1
2

. . . . . . . . . .

B For 1960, percentage not shown where base is less than 50,000; beginning 1970, 35,000. Spouse present. 3 Widowed, divorced, and married (spouse absent). Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletins 2217 and 2340; and unpublished data.

See footnote 2, table 626.

No. 637. Marital Status of Women in the Civilian Labor Force: 1960 to 1994
[Annual averages of monthly figures. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 49-62] FEMALE LABOR FORCE (1,000) Total 1960 1965 1970 1975 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
1

YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

FEMALE PARTICIPATION RATE Other
2

3 2

Single 5,410 5,976 7,265 9,125 11,597 11,865 12,124 12,460 12,659 12,867 13,163 13,512 13,885 14,194 14,377 14,229 14,295 14,477 14,624 15,333

Married

1

Total 37.7 39.3 43.3 46.3 50.9 51.5 52.1 52.6 52.9 53.6 54.5 55.3 56.0 56.6 57.4 57.5 57.3 57.8 57.9 58.8

Single 58.6 54.5 56.8 59.8 64.6 64.4 64.5 65.1 65.0 65.6 66.6 67.2 67.4 67.7 68.0 66.9 66.5 66.4 66.4 66.7

Married

1

Other

23,240 26,200 31,543 37,475 44,235 45,487 46,696 47,755 48,503 49,709 51,050 52,413 53,658 54,742 56,030 56,554 56,893 57,798 58,407 60,239

12,893 14,829 18,475 21,484 24,378 24,980 25,428 25,971 26,468 27,199 27,894 28,623 29,381 29,921 30,548 30,970 31,175 31,720 31,978 32,888
3

4,937 5,396 5,804 6,866 8,260 8,643 9,144 9,324 9,376 9,644 9,993 10,277 10,393 10,627 11,104 11,354 11,423 11,601 11,805 12,018

31.9 34.9 40.5 44.3 49.0 49.9 50.5 51.1 51.8 52.8 53.8 54.9 55.9 56.7 57.8 58.4 58.5 59.2 59.4 60.7
4

41.6 40.7 40.3 40.1 43.1 43.6 44.6 44.8 44.4 44.7 45.1 45.6 45.7 46.2 47.0 47.2 46.8 47.0 47.1 47.5 See

4

Husband present. footnote 2, table 626.

Widowed, divorced, or separated.

See table 633 for definition of participation rate.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and unpublished data.

406

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings

No. 638. Employment Status of Women, by Marital Status and Presence and Age of Children: 1960 to 1994
[As of March. For 1960, civilian noninstitutional persons 14 years and over, thereafter 16 years old and over. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] TOTAL ITEM Single IN LABOR FORCE (mil.) 1960 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . . . PARTICIPATION RATE 4 1960 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . . . EMPLOYMENT (mil.) 1960 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . . . UNEMPLOYMENT RATE 5 1960 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . . . Married 1 Other
2

WITH ANY CHILDREN Total Single Married 1 Other
2

Children 6 to 17 only Single Married 1 Other
2

Children under 6 Single Married 1 Other
2

5.4 7.0 11.2 12.9 14.0 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.9

12.3 18.4 24.9 27.7 31.0 31.1 31.7 32.2 32.9

4.9 5.9 8.8 10.3 11.2 11.1 11.5 11.3 11.9

(NA) (NA) 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.2

6.6 10.2 13.7 14.9 16.5 16.6 16.8 16.9 17.6

1.5 1.9 3.6 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.4

(NA) (NA) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8

4.1 6.3 8.4 8.5 9.3 9.1 9.5 9.7 9.9

1.0 1.3 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.2

(NA) (NA) 0.3 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.4

2.5 3.9 5.2 6.4 7.2 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.7

0.4 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

44.1 53.0 61.5 65.2 66.4 65.1 64.7 64.5 65.1

30.5 40.8 50.1 54.2 58.2 58.5 59.3 59.4 60.6

40.0 39.1 44.0 45.6 46.8 46.2 46.7 45.9 47.3

(NA) (NA) 52.0 51.6 55.2 53.6 52.5 54.4 56.9

27.6 39.7 54.1 60.8 66.3 66.8 67.8 67.5 69.0

56.0 60.7 69.4 71.9 74.2 72.7 73.2 72.1 73.1

(NA) (NA) 67.6 64.1 69.7 64.8 67.2 70.2 67.5

39.0 49.2 61.7 67.8 73.6 73.6 75.4 74.9 76.0

65.9 66.9 74.6 77.8 79.7 79.5 80.0 78.3 78.4

(NA) (NA) 44.1 46.5 48.7 48.8 45.8 47.4 52.2

18.6 30.3 45.1 53.4 58.9 59.9 59.9 59.6 61.7

40.5 52.2 60.3 59.7 63.6 59.8 60.5 60.0 62.2

5.1 6.5 10.1 11.6 12.9 12.9 12.8 12.7 13.4

11.6 17.5 23.6 26.1 29.9 29.7 30.1 30.8 31.4

4.6 5.6 8.2 9.4 10.5 10.4 10.6 10.5 11.0

(NA) (NA) 0.4 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.7

6.2 9.6 12.8 13.9 15.8 15.7 15.9 16.1 16.8

1.3 1.8 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.0

(NA) (NA) 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7

3.9 6.0 8.1 8.1 8.9 8.8 9.1 9.3 9.5

0.9 1.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9

(NA) (NA) 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1

2.3 3.6 4.8 5.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 7.3

0.4 0.6 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0

6.0 7.1 10.3 10.2 8.2 8.8 9.1 9.8 10.0

5.4 4.8 5.3 5.7 3.5 4.6 4.9 4.4 4.5

6.2 4.8 6.4 8.5 5.7 6.8 7.6 6.9 7.4

(NA) (NA) 23.2 23.8 18.4 17.9 17.3 19.2 19.5

6.0 6.0 5.9 6.6 4.2 5.3 5.7 4.8 5.0

8.4 7.2 9.2 12.1 8.5 9.1 10.8 8.5 9.8

(NA) (NA) 15.6 15.4 14.5 10.7 14.1 13.7 13.2

4.9 4.8 4.4 5.5 3.8 4.2 4.6 3.8 4.5

6.8 5.9 7.9 10.6 7.7 7.7 8.6 7.0 7.7

(NA) (NA) 29.2 28.5 20.8 22.0 19.4 22.8 23.0

7.8 7.9 8.3 8.0 4.8 6.7 7.0 6.2 5.6

12.5 9.8 12.8 16.1 10.2 12.7 16.3 12.5 15.1

NA Not available. 1 Husband present. 2 Widowed, divorced, or separated. 3 See footnote 2, table 626. 4 Percent of women in each specific category in the labor force. 5 Unemployed as a percent of civilian labor force in specified group. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and unpublished data.

No. 639. Labor Force Participation Rates for Wives, Husband Present, by Age of Own Youngest Child: 1975 to 1994
[As of March. For civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years old and over. For definition of participation rate, see table 638. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] PRESENCE AND AGE OF CHILD Wives, total . . No children under 18 . With children under 18 Under 6, total . . . . . Under 3 . . . . . . . 1 year or under 2 years. . . . . . 3 to 5 years . . . . 3 years. . . . . . 4 years. . . . . . 5 years. . . . . . 6 to 13 years . . . . . 14 to 17 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL 1975 44.4 43.8 44.9 36.7 32.7 30.8 37.1 42.2 41.2 41.2 44.4 51.8 53.5 1985 54.2 48.2 60.8 53.4 50.5 49.4 54.0 58.4 55.1 59.7 62.1 68.2 67.0 1994
1

WHITE 1975 43.6 43.6 43.6 34.7 30.7 29.2 35.1 40.1 39.0 38.7 43.8 50.7 53.4 1985 53.3 47.5 59.9 52.1 49.4 48.6 52.7 56.6 52.7 58.4 59.9 67.7 66.6 1994
1

BLACK 1975 54.1 47.6 58.4 54.9 50.1 50.0 56.4 61.2 62.7 64.9 56.3 65.7 52.3 1985 63.8 55.2 71.7 69.6 66.2 63.7 69.9 73.8 72.3 70.6 79.1 73.3 74.4 1994
1

60.6 53.2 69.0 61.7 59.7 58.8 64.5 64.6 62.9 63.9 67.1 75.5 77.2

60.3 53.0 68.7 61.2 59.3 58.8 63.2 63.9 61.7 62.4 67.5 75.3 77.8

65.6 55.6 75.2 70.6 68.3 64.2 80.5 74.0 74.8 77.7 70.5 81.2 73.7

1 See footnote 2, table 626. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2340; and unpublished data.

Employment Status—Weekly Hours

407

No. 640. Civilian Labor Force—Employment Status, by Sex, Race, and Age: 1994
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] MALE (1,000) AGE AND RACE TOTAL (1,000) Total 70,817 3,896 7,540 18,854 18,966 12,962 6,423 2,176 60,727 3,315 6,294 15,879 16,188 11,327 5,726 1,998 7,089 443 891 2,068 1,975 1,102 484 125 7,210 463 1,184 2,430 1,713 922 410 89 Employed 66,450 3,156 6,771 17,741 18,111 12,439 6,142 2,089 57,452 2,776 5,738 15,052 15,562 10,910 5,490 1,925 6,241 276 718 1,850 1,795 1,030 455 115 6,530 341 1,056 2,227 1,600 847 379 79
2

FEMALE (1,000) Total 60,239 3,585 6,592 15,499 16,259 11,357 5,289 1,658 50,356 3,042 5,394 12,702 13,439 9,699 4,593 1,487 7,413 409 909 2,131 2,093 1,206 523 142 4,765 345 679 1,435 1,252 704 288 62 Employed 56,610 3,005 5,987 14,545 15,488 10,908 5,085 1,592 47,738 2,622 4,997 12,049 12,880 9,338 4,423 1,429 6,595 275 731 1,882 1,926 1,147 497 136 4,258 268 587 1,290 1,137 648 268 59 Unemployed 3,629 580 605 954 772 449 204 66 2,617 420 397 652 558 361 170 58 818 133 178 249 166 59 26 6 508 77 92 145 115 57 21 2

PERCENT OF LABOR FORCE Employed Male 93.8 81.0 89.8 94.1 95.5 96.0 95.6 96.0 94.6 83.7 91.2 94.8 96.1 96.3 95.9 96.3 88.0 62.3 80.6 89.5 90.9 93.5 94.0 91.8 90.6 73.7 89.2 91.6 93.4 91.9 92.6 89.5 Female 94.0 83.8 90.8 93.8 95.3 96.0 96.1 96.0 94.8 86.2 92.6 94.9 95.8 96.3 96.3 96.1 89.0 67.4 80.4 88.3 92.0 95.1 95.1 95.6 89.3 77.8 86.5 89.9 89.8 92.0 92.9 96.4 Unemployed Male 6.2 19.0 10.2 5.9 4.5 4.0 4.4 4.0 5.4 16.3 8.8 5.2 3.9 3.7 4.1 3.7 12.0 37.6 19.4 10.6 9.1 6.5 6.0 8.2 9.4 26.3 10.8 8.4 6.6 8.1 7.4 10.5 Female 6.0 16.2 9.2 6.2 4.7 4.0 3.9 4.0 5.2 13.8 7.4 5.1 4.2 3.7 3.7 3.9 11.0 32.6 19.6 11.7 8.0 4.9 4.9 4.4 10.7 22.2 13.5 10.1 9.2 8.0 7.1 3.6

Unemployed 4,367 740 768 1,113 855 522 281 88 3,275 540 555 827 626 417 236 74 848 167 173 218 180 72 29 10 680 121 128 203 113 75 30 9

16 20 25 35 45 55 65 16 20 25 35 45 55 65 16 20 25 35 45 55 65 16 20 25 35 45 55 65

All workers to 19 years . . . to 24 years . . . to 34 years . . . to 44 years . . . to 54 years . . . to 64 years . . . years and over White . . . . . to 19 years . . . to 24 years . . . to 34 years . . . to 44 years . . . to 54 years . . . to 64 years . . . years and over Black . . . . . to 19 years . . . to 24 years . . . to 34 years . . . to 44 years . . . to 54 years . . . to 64 years . . . years and over

1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 131,056 . 7,481 . 14,131 . 34,353 . 35,226 . 24,318 . 11,713 . 3,834 . 111,082 . 6,357 . 11,688 . 28,580 . 29,626 . 21,026 . 10,319 . 3,486 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,502 852 1,800 4,199 4,068 2,308 1,007 267 11,975 807 1,863 3,865 2,965 1,626 698 151

Hispanic 2 . . to 19 years . . . to 24 years . . . to 34 years . . . to 44 years . . . to 54 years . . . to 64 years . . . years and over
1

Includes other races not shown separately.

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1995.

No. 641. Employed Civilians and Weekly Hours: 1970 to 1994
[In thousands, except as indicated. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] ITEM Total employed . . . . . . . . . . . . Age: 16 20 25 35 45 55 65 to 19 years old . . . to 24 years old . . . to 34 years old . . . to 44 years old . . . to 54 years old . . . to 64 years old . . . years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 78,678 6,144 9,731 16,318 15,922 16,473 10,974 3,118 75,215 69,491 5,221 502 3,463 1,154 1,810 499 1980 99,303 7,710 14,087 27,204 19,523 16,234 11,586 2,960 95,938 88,525 7,000 413 3,364 1,425 1,642 297 1985 107,150 6,434 13,980 31,208 24,732 16,509 11,474 2,813 103,971 95,871 7,811 289 3,179 1,535 1,458 185 1990 117,914 6,261 12,622 33,831 30,543 19,765 11,464 3,428 114,728 105,715 8,760 252 3,186 1,679 1,400 107 1991 116,877 5,628 12,233 32,914 31,286 20,164 11,268 3,384 113,644 104,520 8,899 225 3,233 1,673 1,442 118 1992 117,598 5,398 12,157 32,441 31,662 21,246 11,267 3,427 114,391 105,540 8,619 232 3,207 1,696 1,398 113 1993 119,306 5,530 12,137 32,107 32,402 22,412 11,311 3,409 116,232 107,011 9,003 218 3,074 1,637 1,332 105 1994
1

123,060 6,161 12,758 32,286 33,599 23,348 11,228 3,681 119,651 110,517 9,003 131 3,409 1,715 1,645 49

Class of worker: Nonagriculture . . . . . . . . . Wage and salary worker Self-employed . . . . . . . Unpaid family workers . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . Wage and salary worker Self-employed . . . . . . . Unpaid family workers . .

Weekly hours: Nonagriculture: Wage and salary workers. Self-employed . . . . . . . . Unpaid family workers . . . Agriculture: Wage and salary workers. Self-employed . . . . . . . . Unpaid family workers . . .
1

....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

38.3 45.0 37.9 40.0 51.0 40.0

38.1 41.2 34.7 41.6 49.3 38.6

38.7 41.1 35.1 40.8 48.2 38.5

39.2 40.8 33.9 41.3 46.9 38.5

39.0 40.4 35.4 41.0 46.8 40.3

38.8 40.1 34.5 40.6 47.1 40.5

39.3 40.5 34.2 40.8 46.5 36.9

39.1 39.5 33.7 41.0 43.0 39.0

See footnote 2, table 626.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

408

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 642. Persons At Work, by Hours Worked: 1994

[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] PERSONS AT WORK (1,000) HOURS OF WORK Total 117,441 30,851 1,271 4,992 15,115 9,473 86,590 8,684 40,587 37,319 14,075 13,366 9,878 39.2 43.4 NonAgriculture agriculture industries industries 3,208 1,063 84 262 493 225 2,144 168 624 1,352 242 381 729 41.9 49.9 114,233 29,788 1,187 4,730 14,623 9,248 84,445 8,516 39,963 35,966 13,832 12,985 9,149 39.1 43.3 PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Total 100.0 26.3 1.1 4.3 12.9 8.1 73.7 7.4 34.6 31.8 12.0 11.4 8.4 (X) (X) Agriculture industries 100.0 33.1 2.6 8.2 15.4 7.0 66.9 5.2 19.4 42.2 7.6 11.9 22.7 (X) (X) Nonagriculture industries 100.0 26.1 1.0 4.1 12.8 8.1 73.9 7.5 35.0 31.5 12.1 11.4 8.0 (X) (X)

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 to 34 hours . . . 1 to 4 hours . . 5 to 14 hours . 15 to 29 hours 30 to 34 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35 hours and over . . . 35 to 39 hours . . . . 40 hours . . . . . . . . 41 hours and over . . 41 to 48 hours. . . 49 to 58 hours. . . 60 hours and over

Average weekly hours: Total at work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Persons usually working full time . . . . . . . . . . X Not applicable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1995.

No. 643. Self-Employed Workers, by Industry and Occupation: 1970 to 1994
[In thousands. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Data from 1992 forward are not fully comparable with data for prior years because of the introduction of the occupational and industrial classification used in the 1990 census. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] ITEM Total self-employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industry: Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonagriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 7,031 1,810 5,221 14 687 264 196 1,667 254 2,140 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1975 7,427 1,722 5,705 16 839 273 223 1,709 335 2,310 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1980 8,642 1,642 7,000 28 1,173 358 282 1,899 458 2,804 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1985 9,269 1,458 7,811 20 1,301 347 315 1,792 558 3,477 2,585 2,059 980 1,611 568 1,465 1990 10,160 1,400 8,760 24 1,463 429 302 1,859 635 4,048 3,067 2,252 1,213 1,680 568 1,380 1992 10,017 1,398 8,619 23 1,466 392 337 1,776 630 3,995 2,919 2,192 1,079 1,803 626 1,390 1993 10,335 1,332 9,003 17 1,555 442 372 1,890 664 4,062 3,102 2,336 1,043 1,891 632 1,331 1994
1

10,648 1,645 9,003 13 1,506 426 385 1,906 625 4,142 3,106 2,380 1,178 1,740 639 1,605

Occupation: Managerial and professional specialty. . . . . Technical, sales, and administrative support. Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft, and repair . . . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available.
1

See footnote 2, table 626.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

No. 644. Persons With a Job But Not at Work: 1970 to 1994
[In thousands, except percent. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 116-126, for related but not comparable data] REASON FOR NOT WORKING All industries, number . . . . . . Percent of employed . . . . Reason for not working: Vacation . . . . . . . . . Illness . . . . . . . . . . Bad weather . . . . . . Industrial dispute . . . All other . . . . . . . . .
1

1970 4,645 5.9 2,341 1,324 128 156 696

1975 5,221 6.1 2,815 1,343 139 95 829

1980 5,881 5.9 3,320 1,426 155 105 876

1985 5,789 5.4 3,338 1,308 141 42 960

1988 5,831 5.1 3,236 1,364 122 30 1,080

1989 6,170 5.3 3,437 1,405 133 63 1,132

1990 6,157 5.2 3,531 1,341 89 24 1,172

1991 5,909 5.1 3,297 1,302 118 17 1,175

1992 6,082 5.2 3,414 1,258 126 19 1,265

1993 6,028 5.1 3,330 1,290 151 24 1,233

1994

1

5,619 4.6 2,877 1,184 165 15 1,378

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

See footnote 2, table 626.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

Part-time Workers—Multiple Jobholders
No. 645. Part-time Workers, by Reason: 1994

409

[In thousands, except hours. For persons working 1 to 34 hours per week. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual average of monthly figures. Based on the Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] ALL INDUSTRIES REASON Total 30,851 4,625 2,432 1,871 135 188 26,226 819 5,531 673 6,022 1,822 2,971 1,087 1,005 6,295 22.6 21.5 Usually Work— Full-time 9,980 1,392 1,128 77 188 8,588 68 721 75 2,971 1,087 1,005 2,660 23.8 26.0 Part-time 20,871 3,232 1,304 1,871 58 17,638 751 4,810 673 5,947 1,822 3,635 22.0 19.3 NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES Total 29,788 4,414 2,311 1,824 95 183 25,374 805 5,349 639 5,875 1,665 2,919 1,077 938 6,106 22.6 21.6 Usually Work— Full-time 9,680 1,314 1,077 54 183 8,367 67 697 72 2,919 1,077 938 2,596 23.9 26.1 Part-time 20,107 3,100 1,235 1,824 41 17,007 738 4,652 639 5,803 1,665 3,511 22.1 19.4

Total working fewer than 35 hours. . . . . Economic reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack work or business conditions . . . Could find only part-time work . . . . . . Seasonal work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job started or ended during the week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Noneconomic reasons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child-care problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other family or personal obligations . . . . . Health or medical limitations . . . . . . . . . . In school or training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retired or Social Security limit on earnings Vacation or personal day . . . . . . . . . . . . Holiday, legal, or religious. . . . . . . . . . . . Weather related curtailment . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average hours per week: Economic reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noneconomic reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Represents or rounds to zero.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1995.

No. 646. Multiple Jobholders: 1994
[Annual average of monthly figures. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Multiple jobholders are employed persons who, either 1) had jobs as wage or salary workers with two employers or more; 2) were self-employed and also held a wage and salary job; or 3) were unpaid family workers on their primary jobs but also held wage and salary job. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] TOTAL CHARACTERISTIC Total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age: 16 20 25 55 65 to 19 years old . . . to 24 years old . . . to 54 years old . . . to 64 years old . . . years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number (1,000) 7,260 307 880 5,478 509 85 6,392 630 394 4,096 1,159 2,005 4,182 1,602 242 1,193 Percent of employed 5.9 5.0 6.9 6.1 4.5 2.3 6.1 4.9 3.7 5.6 6.2 6.4 (X) (X) (X) (X) MALE Number (1,000) 3,924 129 428 3,016 295 57 3,462 337 243 2,516 407 1,001 2,509 513 179 705 Percent of employed 5.9 4.1 6.3 6.2 4.8 2.7 6.0 5.4 3.7 6.1 5.5 5.7 (X) (X) (X) (X) FEMALE Number (1,000) 3,336 178 452 2,462 215 29 2,930 293 151 1,580 752 1,003 1,673 1,089 63 488 Percent of employed 5.9 5.9 7.6 6.0 4.2 1.8 6.1 4.4 3.6 5.0 6.7 7.2 (X) (X) (X) (X)

Race and Hispanic White . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 2

origin: ..................... ..................... .....................

Marital status: Married, spouse present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Widowed, divorced, or separated . . . . . . . . . . Single, never married . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full- or part-time status: Primary job full-time, secondary job part-time Both jobs part-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Both jobs full-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hours vary on primary or secondary job . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their X Not applicable. secondary job(s), not shown separately. Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1995.

410

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 647. Workers on Flexible and Shift Schedules: 1985 and 1991

[In thousands, except percent. As of May. For employed persons 16 years old and over who usually work full-time and who were at work during the survey reference week. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] WORK SCHEDULES—PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Total employed 1 Regular daytime schedules Workers on flexible schedules 2 12.3 15.1 10.6 12.0 15.7 16.5 15.3 12.2 16.4 15.5 14.5 15.5 12.1 10.6 15.7 14.7 15.7 22.1 17.7 10.5 8.1 7.3 11.3 Shift workers

CHARACTERISTIC

Total

Total

Evening

Night

Rotating

Other

3

Total, 1985 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total, 1991 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age: 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin: White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marital status: Single . . . . . . . . . . . . . Married, spouse present . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupation: Managerial and professional . . . . . . Technical, sales, administrative. . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft, and repair Operators, fabricators, and laborers . Farming, forestry, and fisheries. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73,395 80,452 1,413 8,332 25,523 22,749 14,306 7,197 933 46,308 34,145 68,795 8,943 6,598 18,420 49,101 12,932 22,630 24,116 8,389 10,270 13,514 1,533

84.1 81.8 70.6 74.8 81.3 83.7 83.6 84.1 88.1 79.5 85.0 82.6 76.0 80.3 77.6 83.9 80.1 89.6 85.9 57.1 85.3 73.4 89.2

15.9 17.8 28.6 25.0 18.3 16.0 16.2 15.3 11.7 20.2 14.6 17.1 23.3 19.1 22.0 15.8 19.4 10.0 13.8 42.5 14.4 26.2 10.4

6.3 5.1 12.0 8.5 5.0 4.1 4.6 4.2 2.3 5.4 4.6 4.6 8.4 6.4 7.0 4.2 5.8 1.6 3.5 14.7 4.3 8.6 1.1

2.7 3.7 5.5 4.7 3.9 3.5 2.9 3.4 2.7 4.2 2.9 3.4 5.6 4.6 4.0 3.3 4.4 1.4 2.4 8.7 3.7 6.8 1.2

4.3 3.4 3.2 4.6 3.8 3.2 2.9 2.4 1.1 4.0 2.6 3.3 4.7 2.7 4.0 3.2 3.4 1.8 2.7 7.9 3.4 4.8 0.7

2.6 5.7 7.9 7.2 5.6 5.2 5.7 5.3 5.7 6.5 4.6 5.9 4.7 5.5 6.9 5.2 5.9 5.1 5.3 11.2 3.0 5.9 7.4

1 Includes a small number of workers who did not report data on shift worked. 2 A flexible schedule allows workers to vary the time they begin and end their work day. 3 Includes employer arranged irregular schedules. 4 Data for 1985 are not strictly comparable to those for 1991 because of the addition of the ‘‘irregular’’ category in the May 1991 survey. Includes other races, not shown separately. 5 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL 92-491, August 14, 1992; and unpublished data.

No. 648. Persons Not in the Labor Force: 1994
[In thousands. Annual average of monthly figures. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] AGE STATUS AND REASON Total 16 to 24 years old 10,937 8,635 2,302 1,263 1,040 400 639 143 44 213 21 219 25 to 54 years old 18,720 15,790 2,930 1,611 1,319 379 939 278 153 52 92 364 55 years old and over 36,101 35,116 985 714 272 44 228 79 17 1 36 94 Male 23,538 21,089 2,449 1,311 1,138 308 830 296 31 137 69 298 SEX Female 42,221 38,452 3,769 2,277 1,492 515 977 204 183 129 81 379

Total, not in the labor force . . . . . . . . . . . Do not want a job now. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Want a job now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In the previous year— Did not search for a job. . . . . . . . . . . . Did search for a job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not available for work now . . . . . . . . Available for work now, not looking for work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reason for not currently looking: Discouraged over job prospects 1 Family responsibilities . . . . . . . . In school or training . . . . . . . . . Ill health or disability . . . . . . . . . Other 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65,758 59,540 6,218 3,588 2,630 823 1,807 500 213 267 150 677

1 Includes believes no work available, could not find work, lack necessary schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination. 2 Includes such things as child care and transportation problems.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1995.

Employed Civilians
No. 649. Employed Civilians, by Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1983 and 1994

411

[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual average of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See headnote, table 643] 1983 OCCUPATION Total employed (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100,834 . 23,592 . 10,772 . 417 . 357 . 106 . 82 . 396 . 415 . 91 . 305 . 2,966 . 1,105 . 12,820 . 103 . 1,572 . 80 . 67 . 211 . 450 . 210 . 259 . 463 . 276 . 142 . 357 . 98 . 65 . 55 . 735 . 519 . 126 . 1,900 . 1,372 . 158 . 71 . 247 . 69 . 55 . 51 . 51 . 606 . 3,365 . 299 . 1,350 . 1,209 . 81 . 184 . 213 . 193 . 261 . 98 . 135 . 831 . 407 . 65 . 293 . 651 . 612 . 1,544 . 62 . (3) . 393 . 155 . 60 . . . . . 186 113 204 157 58 Percent of total Female 43.7 40.9 32.4 38.5 38.6 43.9 23.6 21.8 41.4 57.0 42.8 40.3 38.7 48.1 12.7 5.8 6.9 6.1 4.0 6.1 11.0 2.8 29.6 27.8 31.3 20.5 23.3 18.0 40.8 13.3 15.8 6.7 85.8 95.8 26.7 90.8 76.3 69.4 77.0 90.5 36.3 36.3 70.9 98.2 83.3 51.8 82.2 53.1 84.4 87.3 46.8 37.9 57.1 43.1 64.3 71.9 5.6 15.8 15.3 42.7 46.7 (3) 52.7 28.0 30.8 47.4 20.7 48.4 50.1 17.6 Black 9.3 5.6 4.7 8.3 3.5 4.9 5.1 2.7 11.3 5.0 5.5 5.8 5.5 6.4 1.6 2.7 1.5 3.0 1.9 3.4 3.3 3.2 5.4 6.2 4.9 2.6 4.3 1.1 2.4 2.7 3.2 2.4 7.1 6.7 3.8 21.0 7.6 6.5 9.7 1.5 7.7 4.4 9.1 11.8 11.1 7.2 10.2 13.9 7.8 7.9 7.1 6.3 8.6 12.1 18.2 15.7 4.9 2.7 2.6 4.8 2.1 (3) 3.1 7.9 6.6 2.1 4.0 2.9 6.2 9.4 Hispanic Total employed (1,000) 1994
1

Percent of total Female 46.0 48.1 43.0 46.1 49.1 61.6 37.0 34.3 62.0 79.7 50.6 53.7 51.8 52.8 16.8 8.3 14.5 7.3 8.2 6.7 14.7 5.1 33.6 31.4 41.4 31.0 36.8 13.2 36.5 21.5 22.3 13.3 86.2 93.8 38.3 92.0 74.3 57.8 66.2 94.6 54.3 42.5 74.9 98.1 85.6 55.6 83.7 68.1 81.6 84.1 53.6 47.4 58.6 51.4 69.3 70.5 11.1 24.8 24.6 47.8 53.3 57.8 55.3 31.8 41.2 50.5 28.4 48.8 63.1 21.8 Black 10.4 7.1 6.8 12.7 7.0 8.9 1.7 2.6 12.2 5.4 6.3 8.8 9.0 7.4 1.4 3.7 0.9 1.8 2.8 4.2 5.9 3.1 6.5 7.2 3.9 3.8 4.5 0.9 4.5 3.7 4.2 3.7 8.8 9.3 2.6 14.3 8.3 11.1 3.7 3.3 5.5 5.0 8.9 11.0 10.2 7.6 6.9 13.7 9.5 10.5 7.0 3.8 8.3 17.3 24.0 14.4 8.7 3.3 3.3 5.3 2.8 4.0 3.4 10.2 3.8 4.6 4.6 5.4 5.0 10.5 Hispanic 8.8 4.5 4.9 4.2 5.7 6.1 4.3 4.3 4.7 4.0 8.7 5.0 4.4 4.0 3.7 3.3 4.5 1.3 2.9 2.2 3.9 4.9 3.7 3.5 4.9 1.6 1.4 0.2 0.6 4.4 5.2 4.5 3.4 2.9 4.1 2.1 4.5 8.2 3.7 1.6 7.8 2.9 4.3 5.4 4.2 4.0 3.8 8.1 3.7 3.7 4.1 3.3 4.9 5.7 7.0 3.8 3.2 3.0 3.1 5.3 2.9 0.2 5.8 6.1 3.2 5.2 5.1 3.6 3.9 2.8

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managerial and professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . Executive, administrative, and managerial 2 . . . . . . . . . Officials and administrators, public . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel and labor relations managers . . . . . . . . . Purchasing managers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managers, marketing, advertising and public relations Administrators, education and related fields . . . . . . . Managers, medicine and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managers, properties and real estate . . . . . . . . . . . Management-related occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accountants and auditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional specialty 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Architects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineers 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aerospace engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civil engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical and electronic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematical and computer scientists 2 . . . . . . . . . . Computer systems analysts, scientists . . . . . . . . . Operations and systems researchers and analysts . Natural scientists 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemists, except biochemists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geologists and geodesists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological and life scientists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health diagnosing occupations 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dentists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health assessment and treating occupations . . . . . . Registered nurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pharmacists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dietitians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Therapists 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inhalation therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speech therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians’ assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, college and university . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, except college and university 2 . . . . . . . . . Prekindergarten and kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary school. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counselors, educational and vocational . . . . . . . . . . Librarians, archivists, and curators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Librarians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social scientists and urban planners 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Economists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social, recreation, and religious workers 2 . . . . . . . . Social workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recreation workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lawyers and judges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lawyers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Writers, artists, entertainers, and athletes 2 . . . . . . . Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Designers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Musicians and composers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actors and directors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photographers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editors and reporters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public relations specialists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Athletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table.

5.3 123,060 2.6 33,847 2.8 16,312 3.8 598 3.1 608 2.6 111 1.4 130 1.7 564 2.4 701 2.0 614 5.2 479 3.5 4,269 3.3 1,483 2.5 17,536 1.5 141 2.2 1,866 2.1 75 1.4 56 3.2 240 3.1 556 2.4 245 1.1 341 2.6 1,186 2.7 916 2.2 222 2.1 535 1.2 144 2.6 57 1.8 120 3.3 932 4.5 628 1.0 148 2.2 2,708 1.8 1,956 2.6 182 3.7 86 2.7 430 3.7 98 1.5 106 92 4.4 53 1.8 838 2.7 4,330 3.4 496 3.1 1,634 2.3 1,197 2.3 308 3.2 237 1.6 219 1.8 196 2.1 440 2.7 106 1.1 280 3.8 1,209 6.3 667 2.0 105 1.4 371 1.0 861 0.9 821 2.9 2,011 0.9 112 (3) 72 2.7 548 4.4 164 3.4 86 2.3 3.4 2.1 1.9 1.7 225 148 267 142 81

412

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 649. Employed Civilians, by Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1983 and 1994—Continued
[See headnote, page 411] 1983 OCCUPATION Total employed (1,000) 31,265 3,053 1,111 255 66 (3) 101 443 822 260 273 (3) 202 52 82 917 69 443 128 11,818 2,958 1,853 551 570 212 124 1,442 5,511 2,009 54 16,395 676 605 597 4,861 3,891 906 1,174 602 866 188 64 147 287 157 2,457 1,970 192 146 96 (3) 68 256 244 799 248 259 170 122 1,562 157 182 421 532 79 112 675 199 301 69 106 2,397 648 480 311 96 348 Percent of total Female 64.6 48.2 84.3 76.2 98.6 (3) 71.7 97.0 18.4 12.5 17.5 (3) 29.1 37.7 26.9 35.3 2.1 32.5 74.0 47.5 28.4 37.2 25.1 48.9 23.6 47.9 15.1 69.7 84.4 58.7 79.9 53.4 63.9 63.7 98.2 99.0 95.6 88.9 96.8 82.4 78.1 91.1 81.9 83.5 82.8 89.4 91.0 82.2 88.4 75.6 (3) 62.6 89.1 90.4 31.6 36.7 17.1 50.0 26.2 37.5 45.7 44.0 22.6 38.7 47.2 57.5 69.9 65.0 70.1 88.7 66.4 85.2 80.6 91.0 93.6 75.7 93.7 Black 7.6 8.2 12.7 10.5 1.6 (3) 8.6 17.7 6.1 8.2 5.5 (3) 6.6 2.9 9.5 5.0 4.4 4.3 4.7 3.6 2.7 3.8 1.3 3.1 4.5 2.1 6.7 10.1 2.8 9.6 9.3 12.5 12.1 7.3 5.8 13.8 8.5 7.5 13.9 10.6 14.9 15.4 16.7 11.6 4.6 4.3 5.9 6.2 5.9 (3) 16.0 17.0 17.0 18.1 26.2 12.5 15.8 16.7 10.9 11.4 6.1 9.1 13.3 16.9 8.4 11.1 11.5 11.3 12.9 8.5 12.5 12.7 7.5 18.6 7.5 17.8 Hispanic 4.3 3.1 3.1 2.9 (3) 4.5 3.1 3.5 4.6 2.3 (3) 2.8 2.0 3.5 2.7 1.6 2.1 3.6 3.7 3.4 2.2 2.5 1.5 1.1 3.3 2.2 4.8 5.4 1.3 5.0 5.0 6.0 6.0 4.5 4.0 6.4 5.5 6.6 4.8 4.4 4.6 2.5 6.1 5.6 3.7 3.3 5.0 3.9 5.3 (3) 6.1 4.4 4.3 4.5 5.2 2.7 5.9 5.2 6.6 4.3 2.2 11.1 5.5 5.8 4.3 5.1 3.3 4.8 9.4 6.5 5.9 5.2 4.3 5.6 3.4 12.6 Total employed (1,000) 1994
1

Percent of total Female Black 9.7 9.7 13.9 13.9 0.2 (3) 8.1 18.7 7.4 9.9 4.1 1.5 9.5 10.4 8.8 5.7 1.5 6.0 5.4 7.1 5.3 4.8 5.9 2.6 4.2 4.5 2.8 10.3 14.2 3.6 11.8 13.6 14.1 14.2 9.2 8.4 14.6 10.6 10.1 15.6 18.5 17.3 10.8 16.8 13.4 6.0 4.9 9.5 11.9 (3) 8.4 17.2 20.8 21.7 18.5 28.2 11.6 24.2 8.1 12.6 7.6 8.0 14.7 13.5 15.8 11.4 13.9 13.3 12.3 18.7 20.6 13.9 13.0 10.4 18.3 23.4 14.3 Hispanic 7.1 5.3 5.3 4.4 2.9 (3) 7.6 4.3 6.2 5.9 4.5 3.8 4.3 1.2 6.6 4.8 0.4 3.5 9.4 6.8 5.8 4.1 4.1 3.9 2.9 2.6 4.2 9.1 10.1 6.4 7.6 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.7 6.2 9.6 9.2 10.2 9.2 8.5 11.9 5.0 12.7 6.4 5.5 5.0 4.7 8.3 (3) 8.8 9.5 8.2 8.3 7.9 7.8 8.5 5.9 8.9 9.8 6.6 8.2 12.9 9.9 5.2 7.5 6.8 4.1 6.0 16.8 9.9 8.4 8.1 9.2 7.2 7.9 14.6

Technical, sales, and administrative support . . . . . . . . . . Technicians and related support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health technologists and technicians 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians . . . . Dental hygienists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health record technologists and technicians . . . . . . . Radiologic technicians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Licensed practical nurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and related technologists and technicians 2 . Electrical and electronic technicians. . . . . . . . . . . . . Drafting occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surveying and mapping technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . Science technicians 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technicians, except health, engineering, and science 2 . . Airplane pilots and navigators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer programmers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors and proprietors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales representatives, finance and business services 2 Insurance sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Securities and financial services sales . . . . . . . . . . Advertising and related sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales representatives, commodities, except retail . . . . Sales workers, retail and personal services . . . . . . . . Cashiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales-related occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative support, including clerical . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer equipment operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secretaries, stenographers, and typists 2 . . . . . . . . Secretaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receptionists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records processing occupations, except financial 2 . Order clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel clerks, except payroll and time keeping Library clerks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records clerks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37,306 64.3 3,869 52.0 1,590 81.6 341 77.2 97 100.0 ( 3) (3) 154 74.1 397 95.1 916 19.5 316 15.1 239 19.8 68 7.8 266 36.7 89 52.9 77 25.5 1,098 40.0 104 2.6 549 29.3 262 79.9 14,817 4,443 2,361 601 708 391 147 1,476 6,440 2,745 96 18,620 753 550 546 4,163 3,397 661 1,755 931 890 202 66 147 280 181 2,278 1,829 155 177 (3) 70 58 179 165 982 311 354 170 147 1,798 226 200 571 459 71 196 1,414 364 788 109 153 3,799 696 441 627 75 582 49.1 37.5 40.0 35.1 48.4 29.9 51.6 23.3 66.1 79.8 67.3 78.9 59.7 60.7 60.6 98.0 98.9 94.1 88.4 96.4 78.5 75.1 86.6 77.7 78.9 78.0 91.4 91.9 91.7 90.0 (3) 90.7 41.5 86.6 88.8 38.9 44.4 34.0 50.5 25.7 43.6 51.4 56.0 28.7 44.1 50.9 65.9 74.5 74.6 74.5 80.6 69.7 81.6 80.2 90.4 83.8 81.6 90.3

Financial records processing 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks . . . . Payroll and time keeping clerks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Billing clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost and rate clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators . Duplicating, mail and other office machine operators . Communications equipment operators . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mail and message distributing occupations . . . . . . . . Postal clerks, except mail carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . Mail carrier, postal service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mail clerks, except postal service . . . . . . . . . . . . Messengers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material recording, scheduling, and distributing 2 4 . . Dispatchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Production coordinators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks . . . . . . . . . Stock and inventory clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weighers, measurers, and checkers . . . . . . . . . Expediters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusters and investigators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators Investigators and adjusters, except insurance . . . Eligibility clerks, social welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bill and account collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous administrative support 2 . . . . . . . . . General office clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bank tellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data entry keyers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers’ aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Employed Civilians
No. 649. Employed Civilians, by Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1983 and 1994—Continued
[See headnote, page 411] 1983 OCCUPATION Total employed (1,000) 13,857 980 408 512 1,672 127 58 189 170 645 412 87 146 711 602 11,205 4,860 338 1,357 1,452 326 138 364 1,739 154 316 1,269 2,736 531 2,031 1,870 92 622 131 63 77 (NA) (NA) 12,328 4,158 3,906 1,683 800 95 674 98 247 4,289 3,784 1,160 196 3,685 16,091 7,744 1,414 806 141 1,715 794 4,201 2,978 2,195 212 1,011 369 4,147 1,488 1,024 3,700 1,450 2,072 1,149 126 53 Percent of total Female 60.1 96.1 96.9 95.8 12.8 4.7 4.2 1.0 1.0 9.4 5.7 13.2 17.8 20.6 13.0 64.0 63.3 48.4 87.8 50.0 76.0 77.0 38.8 89.2 98.1 86.8 88.7 38.8 81.2 28.6 79.2 12.9 88.7 40.2 74.3 92.5 (NA) (NA) 8.1 3.0 2.8 0.8 0.5 2.5 7.4 9.3 9.9 1.8 1.9 1.4 2.3 21.5 26.6 42.1 82.1 94.0 66.4 33.7 53.8 7.8 9.2 3.1 2.4 4.8 5.6 16.8 15.4 19.4 16.0 12.1 19.9 24.8 1.4 4.5 Black 16.6 27.8 7.9 42.4 13.6 7.7 9.3 6.7 7.3 13.1 9.5 11.5 24.0 17.0 18.9 16.0 10.5 2.7 4.1 15.8 9.1 13.7 12.6 23.5 6.1 16.5 27.3 24.4 32.3 22.6 11.1 8.4 7.0 7.1 11.3 24.2 (NA) (NA) 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.8 4.0 7.3 6.1 7.8 6.6 7.1 5.0 3.3 7.3 14.0 14.0 18.7 15.5 27.1 11.3 13.0 13.0 13.5 12.3 6.7 12.9 19.6 15.1 15.3 16.0 7.5 1.3 11.7 11.6 12.8 1.8
2

413

1994 Total employed (1,000) 16,912 817 286 500 2,249 219 109 210 195 968 532 130 305 851 717 13,847 5,960 322 1,446 2,071 351 265 433 2,157 188 333 1,636 2,948 680 2,048 2,782 98 753 201 104 81 428 416 13,489 4,419 4,183 1,734 864 129 666 163 191 5,008 4,304 1,265 142 3,921 17,876 7,754 1,139 619 127 1,994 749 5,136 3,882 2,815 176 1,078 483 4,986 2,024 1,240 3,629 1,453 1,992 748 132 52

1

Percent of total Female 59.6 96.3 97.3 95.8 16.7 12.0 12.2 2.1 2.1 15.6 13.2 16.4 19.3 22.9 15.8 64.3 57.9 55.1 78.6 43.3 70.2 73.7 47.6 87.9 96.6 78.1 88.8 45.2 83.3 34.0 80.1 21.8 90.6 39.0 81.1 84.8 98.7 96.4 9.3 4.5 4.2 1.2 1.0 4.6 12.4 18.0 16.8 2.2 2.3 1.0 1.0 23.9 24.3 38.1 74.4 86.0 62.8 31.5 52.9 9.4 11.0 4.5 2.1 4.7 6.9 18.1 20.1 18.2 19.3 25.4 15.3 16.6 7.0 6.2 Black 17.1 16.7 8.4 20.0 18.1 12.4 12.3 9.7 9.1 17.8 13.8 12.2 27.1 22.0 24.1 16.9 12.4 2.9 5.5 17.9 11.2 9.7 12.8 26.4 2.7 25.6 29.3 22.4 27.9 20.8 13.6 27.6 10.3 10.2 13.9 29.6 10.8 14.4 7.7 7.9 8.1 6.6 6.8 6.3 9.8 7.6 9.9 6.5 6.9 4.6 5.9 9.0 15.0 15.1 21.8 19.4 18.7 12.4 16.0 14.6 14.7 12.4 12.0 14.6 23.3 15.3 16.4 15.1 5.1 0.2 8.3 6.7 9.9 1.9 Hispanic 12.6 27.2 20.5 31.0 7.4 4.5 4.7 5.5 5.4 5.6 6.2 5.6 4.5 10.8 11.4 12.6 13.4 4.4 7.6 16.8 8.9 9.8 21.8 8.9 10.2 7.8 8.9 17.7 20.2 17.1 8.3 10.3 8.0 6.7 5.7 15.2 9.0 7.5 10.4 8.2 8.3 9.7 11.4 7.0 7.0 3.6 7.5 11.4 12.5 9.9 8.5 11.8 13.8 14.8 20.0 24.1 21.6 13.0 13.1 10.0 10.4 10.7 2.3 9.5 12.2 16.3 12.9 15.4 17.1 2.0 27.1 37.9 11.9 7.4

Hispanic 6.8 8.5 3.6 11.8 4.6 3.1 1.2 4.1 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.0 2.8 5.6 6.2 6.9 6.8 4.4 3.6 6.5 6.7 8.1 14.2 4.8 5.7 4.8 4.7 9.2 10.1 8.9 6.0 12.1 5.7 4.3 5.9 10.5 (NA) (NA) 6.2 5.3 5.5 6.0 6.0 7.6 4.5 4.5 3.7 6.0 6.1 5.0 6.0 7.4 8.3 9.4 12.5 14.5 14.2 8.7 7.7 5.9 6.0 5.7 3.0 6.3 8.2 8.6 7.1 8.6 8.2 0.7 14.0 15.9 2.1 2.5

Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child care workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaners and servants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors, protective service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors, police and detectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firefighting and fire prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firefighting occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Police and detectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Police and detectives, public service . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers . . Correctional institution officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guards and police, except public service . . . . . . . . . Service except private household and protective. . . . . . . . Food preparation and service occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . Bartenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waiters and waitresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food counter, fountain, and related occupations . . . . Kitchen workers, food preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waiters’ and waitresses’ assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dental assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health aides, except nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning and building service occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . Maids and housemen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Janitors and cleaners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal service occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hairdressers and cosmetologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities . . . . . Public transportation attendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welfare service aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family child care providers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early childhood teachers’ assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft, and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers, except supervisors 2 . . . . . . . Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics/repairers 2 . Automobile mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aircraft engine mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical and electronic equipment repairers 2. . . . . . Data processing equipment repairers . . . . . . . . . . Telephone installers and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades, except supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . Carpenters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extractive occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors 2 . . . . . . . Textile, apparel, and furnishings machine operators 2 . . . Textile sewing machine operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressing machine operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fabricators, assemblers, and hand working occupations . Production inspectors, testers, samplers, and weighers . Transportation and material moving occupations. . . . . . . . Motor vehicle operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trucks, heavy and light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation occupations, except motor vehicles. . . . . Material moving equipment operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial truck and tractor operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers 2. . . . Freight, stock, and material handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laborers, except construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farm operators and managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other agricultural and related occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . Farm workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forestry and logging occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fishers, hunters, and trappers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available. separately. 3 Level of total employment below 50,000.
1 See 4

footnote 2, table 626. Includes clerks.

Includes other occupations, not shown

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

414

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings

No. 650. Civilian Employment in Occupations With the Largest Job Growth: 1992 to 2005
[Occupations are in descending order of absolute employment change 1992-2005 (moderate growth). Includes wage and salary jobs, self-employed, and unpaid family members. Estimates based on the Current Employment Statistics estimates and the Occupational Employment Statistics estimates. See source for methodological assumptions. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] EMPLOYMENT (1,000) OCCUPATION 1992 Total, all occupations
2

PERCENT CHANGE 1992-2005 Low 14.8 13.1 35.1 16.5 16.9 18.6 29.8 39.4 13.4 35.8 95.7 128.7 29.9 60.6 41.7 13.1 36.6 6.2 21.2 30.3 15.6 13.6 27.1 24.3 16.3 39.0 65.9 33.4 29.0 127.6 93.9 48.9 37.6 31.2 5.0 20.2 15.7 60.0 29.5 24.7 33.3 18.1 21.3 15.9 122.0 48.3 1.0 26.8 7.9 23.8 24.3 63.5 -1.5 29.7 4.8 19.3 21.5 39.0 55.4 28.1 13.6 41.9 31.6 31.9 17.2 14.0 35.8 29.5 Moderate 21.8 21.5 41.7 24.4 24.3 27.1 36.3 45.4 19.1 42.9 110.1 138.1 36.6 65.8 50.8 20.0 43.1 13.2 27.8 35.2 21.3 19.7 33.8 32.3 23.8 45.8 74.4 39.7 36.0 135.9 111.9 54.3 43.5 34.7 12.4 26.4 20.2 69.9 35.0 31.1 39.5 24.8 30.4 22.7 129.8 57.1 8.8 36.1 17.8 29.8 29.2 70.5 4.3 36.5 13.1 27.6 31.5 45.2 62.7 36.1 19.3 46.1 36.2 40.0 26.5 24.2 42.7 36.3
3

2005 Low

1

Moderate

High

High 27.5 26.0 43.7 28.1 29.8 35.3 37.5 48.0 23.0 45.1 120.0 140.6 41.7 72.8 56.2 26.0 47.8 19.0 34.7 42.7 25.6 21.2 37.7 38.6 28.0 47.5 81.0 41.6 37.0 139.2 129.2 57.2 48.0 39.4 21.3 31.1 34.6 78.1 38.3 35.8 43.0 30.7 36.8 29.8 132.0 59.9 13.6 42.6 25.4 31.5 41.8 73.0 9.2 41.1 19.7 31.5 41.1 47.0 64.6 41.7 34.7 49.2 39.3 44.5 31.2 35.4 50.2 40.6 Includes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121,099 139,007 147,482 154,430 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,660 1,835 2,747 2,688 2,391 1,756 1,308 2,862 1,223 455 347 1,263 684 803 2,036 885 2,871 1,145 884 1,456 1,564 904 939 1,267 602 358 659 714 189 211 434 532 628 1,757 812 978 282 556 626 484 701 555 739 127 280 1,782 432 824 441 440 181 2,810 305 845 395 337 235 162 281 518 207 260 235 352 370 208 242
2

Salespersons, retail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Registered nurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cashiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General office clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . Truck drivers light and heavy. . . . . . . . Waiters and waitresses . . . . . . . . . . . Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants Janitors and cleaners 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Food preparation workers . . . . . . . . . . Systems analysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,137 2,479 3,201 3,143 2,836 2,280 1,824 3,246 1,661 891 794 1,640 1,100 1,138 2,303 1,209 3,050 1,388 1,152 1,683 1,776 1,149 1,167 1,473 837 594 879 921 429 409 646 732 824 1,844 976 1,131 452 720 781 645 828 673 857 283 415 1,801 548 889 546 547 296 2,766 396 885 471 410 326 252 360 588 294 343 309 412 422 283 314

4,446 2,601 3,417 3,342 3,039 2,394 1,903 3,410 1,748 956 827 1,724 1,135 1,211 2,443 1,266 3,251 1,464 1,195 1,767 1,872 1,210 1,243 1,568 879 625 920 971 445 447 669 764 846 1,974 1,026 1,176 479 751 821 676 875 723 907 293 439 1,940 588 971 572 569 308 2,930 416 955 504 444 341 264 383 618 303 355 328 445 459 297 331

4,611 2,637 3,520 3,489 3,235 2,415 1,937 3,519 1,775 1,001 835 1,789 1,183 1,255 2,565 1,308 3,418 1,542 1,261 1,830 1,895 1,245 1,301 1,622 889 648 933 978 451 484 682 787 876 2,131 1,064 1,317 503 769 850 693 917 759 960 296 447 2,024 616 1,034 580 624 313 3,067 430 1,011 519 476 345 267 398 698 309 363 339 462 501 313 341

Home health aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . . Child care workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marketing and sales worker supervisors . . . . Teacher aides and educational assistants . . . General managers and top executives . . . . . Maintenance repairers, general utility . . . . . . Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm . Teachers, elementary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food counter, fountain, and related workers . Receptionists and information clerks . . . . . . Accountants and auditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clerical supervisors and managers . . . . . . . Cooks, restaurant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, special education . . . . . . . . . . . Licensed practical nurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooks, short order and fast food . . . . . . . . Human services workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer engineers and scientists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Teachers, preschool and kindergarten . . . . . . Food service and lodging managers . . . . . . . Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists . Blue collar worker supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . College and university faculty . . . . . . . . . . . Carpenters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correction officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lawyers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Financial managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer programmers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automotive mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal and home care aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal secretaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stock clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers . . . . Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bar helpers . . . . Painters and paperhangers, construction and maintenance . Medical assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secretaries, except legal and medical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers and instructors, vocational ed. and training . . . . Freight, stock, and material movers, hand . . . . . . . . . . . Bus drivers, school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering, mathematical, and natural science managers Medical secretaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiologic technologists and technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists . . . . . . Electricians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation attendants . . . . Instructors and coaches, sports and physical Bill and account collectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjustment clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical and electronics engineers . . . . . . Management analysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counter and rental clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... training . ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Based on low, moderate, or high trend assumptions. maids and housekeepers.

Includes other occupations, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, November 1993.

Employment Projections, by Occupation
No. 651. Civilian Employment in the Fastest Growing and Fastest Declining Occupations: 1992 to 2005

415

[Occupations are in order of employment percent change 1992-2005 (moderate growth). Includes wage and salary jobs, self-employed, and unpaid family members. Estimates based on the Current Employment Statistics estimates and the Occupational Employment Statistics estimates. See source for methodological assumptions. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] EMPLOYMENT (1,000) OCCUPATION 1992 Total, all occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTEST GROWING Home health aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human services workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal and home care aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer engineers and scientists . . . . . . . . . . . . Systems analysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical and corrective therapy assistants and aides Physical therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paralegals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational therapy assistants and aides . . . . . . . Electronic pagination systems workers . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, special education . . . . . . . . . Medical assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detectives, except public . . . . . . . . . . . Correction officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child care workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Travel agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiologic technologists and technicians Nursery (farm) workers . . . . . . . . . . . . Medical records technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low 2005
1

PERCENT CHANGE 1992-2005 Low 14.8 128.7 127.6 122.0 93.9 95.7 84.6 80.2 75.8 70.5 65.1 65.9 63.5 60.1 60.0 60.6 45.2 55.4 53.1 54.4 50.1 52.9 48.1 48.3 48.9 51.2 46.6 47.0 44.6 30.3 41.7 43.1 39.3 41.4 42.1 -77.4 -76.6 -62.6 -54.9 -54.7 -54.7 -48.3 -43.2 -46.3 -41.3 -37.1 -39.4 -38.4 -37.0 -34.6 -41.2 -33.6 -39.1 -30.7 -31.7 -29.3 -29.4 -28.1 -26.5 -29.4 -27.1 -25.7 -25.9 -23.7 -27.8 -25.7 Moderate 21.8 138.1 135.9 129.8 111.9 110.1 92.7 88.0 86.1 78.1 77.9 74.4 70.5 70.2 69.9 65.8 65.7 62.7 62.0 61.5 61.4 59.6 57.2 57.1 54.3 54.1 53.8 53.5 51.3 51.0 50.8 50.1 49.1 48.3 48.0 -75.3 -74.6 -60.2 -50.6 -50.3 -50.3 -40.1 -39.3 -38.4 -35.6 -35.1 -35.0 -33.2 -32.8 -32.5 -32.4 -29.5 -29.2 -26.5 -26.4 -25.8 -24.4 -22.6 -22.6 -22.3 -22.3 -22.3 -21.3 -21.2 -20.8 -20.2
3

Moderate

High

High 27.5 140.6 139.2 132.0 129.2 120.0 95.1 91.4 89.8 80.1 84.0 81.0 73.0 76.8 78.1 72.8 69.9 64.6 71.3 63.6 68.0 62.5 64.9 59.9 57.2 58.3 55.4 58.7 55.7 55.5 56.2 51.6 49.5 49.9 54.7 -74.7 -72.9 -59.0 -49.4 -49.1 -49.1 -39.4 -36.6 -35.8 -34.1 -31.0 -33.2 -2.0 -29.8 -28.2 -22.1 -27.0 -28.7 -23.3 -23.8 -24.0 -18.7 -19.5 -18.4 -19.0 -19.4 -10.3 -18.8 -16.0 -14.3 -12.7 Includes

. . . . . . 121,099 139,007 147,482 154,430 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 189 127 211 455 61 90 95 12 18 358 181 59 282 684 115 162 72 76 45 40 22 280 434 35 6 129 73 93 803 12 147 74 143 11 3 30 27 48 40 11 266 16 70 350 15 33 21 483 20 93 556 11 16 9 165 94 9 14 319 59 239 1,088 155 35 794 429 283 409 891 113 163 166 20 29 594 296 94 452 1,100 167 252 110 118 67 61 33 415 646 54 9 190 105 121 1,138 17 205 104 204 2 1 11 12 22 18 5 151 9 41 220 9 20 13 316 12 62 338 7 11 7 117 68 7 10 232 44 177 831 112 26 827 445 293 447 956 118 170 176 21 32 625 308 100 479 1,135 191 264 116 123 72 64 35 439 669 55 10 198 110 140 1,211 18 220 109 212 3 1 12 13 24 20 6 161 10 45 227 10 22 14 326 14 66 393 8 12 7 125 73 7 11 248 46 188 857 123 28 835 451 296 484 1,001 119 173 180 21 33 648 313 104 503 1,183 196 267 123 125 75 65 37 447 682 56 10 205 113 144 1,255 18 220 110 222 3 1 12 14 24 20 6 168 10 46 242 10 32 15 347 16 68 396 8 12 7 134 76 8 12 257 53 194 914 133 30

Operations research analysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subway and streetcar operators . . . . . . . . . . . Legal secretaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, preschool and kindergarten . . . . . . . Manicurists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EEG technologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Producers, directors, actors, and entertainers . . Speech-language pathologists and audiologists . Flight attendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear medicine technologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators Respiratory therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTEST DECLINING Frame wirers, central office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal or track switch maintainers . . . . . . . . . . . Peripheral EDP equipment operators . . . . . . . . . Directory assistance operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central office operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Station installers and repairers, telephone. . . . . . Portable machine cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer operators, except peripheral equipment Shoe sewing machine operators and tenders . . . Central office and PBX installers and repairers . .

Child care workers, private household . . . . . . . . . Job printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roustabouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Separating and still machine operators and tenders Cleaners and servants, private household. . . . . . . Coil winders, tapers, and finishers . . . . . . . . . . . . Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators . Sewing machine operators, garment . . . . . . . . . . Compositors and typesetters, precision . . . . . . . . Data entry keyers, composing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Motion picture projectionists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone and cable TV line installers and repairers. . . . . . Cutting and slicing machine setters 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Watchmakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tire building machine operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders . . . . . Head sawyers and sawing machine operators and tenders 4 Switchboard operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farmers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine forming operators and tenders, metal and plastic . . Cement and gluing machine operators and tenders . . . . . .

1 Based on low, moderate, or high trend assumptions. 2 Includes other occupations, not shown separately. operators and tenders. 4 Includes setters and set-up operators.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, November 1993.

416

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 652. Occupations of the Employed, by Selected Characteristics: 1994

[In thousands. Annual averages of monthly figures. For civilian noninstitutional population 25 to 64 years old. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] SEX, RACE, AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Male, total 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . . . . . High school graduates, no college . . . . Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . High school graduates, no college Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . High school graduates, no college Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . Female, total 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . . . . . High school graduates, no college . . . . Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . High school graduates, no college Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . High school graduates, no college Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . .
4

Total employed 54,434 6,392 17,811 14,183 16,047 47,013 5,242 15,267 12,277 14,227 5,131 787 1,976 1,417 950 46,026 3,858 16,069 13,755 12,344 38,690 2,969 13,577 11,524 10,619 5,453 641 1,970 1,795 1,047

Managerial/ professional 16,069 311 1,923 3,285 10,550 14,458 270 1,751 2,957 9,480 909 26 113 234 536 14,784 195 2,145 3,839 8,605 12,903 162 1,907 3,340 7,492 1,297 24 170 388 715

Tech./ sales/ administrative 10,667 456 2,864 3,782 3,565 9,315 380 2,496 3,297 3,142 892 52 274 353 213 18,746 753 7,827 7,196 2,969 16,135 645 6,952 6,029 2,509 1,960 71 684 952 254

Service

1

Precision production 2 10,736 1,727 5,185 3,130 694 9,618 1,509 4,710 2,807 592 786 139 364 224 60 1,107 185 554 274 94 870 146 433 219 71 158 23 88 38 9

Operators/ fabricators 3 10,357 2,434 5,288 2,155 480 8,371 1,953 4,318 1,725 374 1,566 355 796 348 67 3,627 1,022 1,930 551 124 2,755 782 1,471 406 96 668 157 376 122 14
3

Farming, forestry, fishing 2,061 659 802 398 201 1,853 557 727 374 194 131 62 52 14 1 548 125 221 130 71 514 104 213 126 70 17 10 4 1 -

4,544 806 1,748 1,433 558 3,399 573 1,265 1,116 445 847 152 378 246 71 7,214 1,579 3,392 1,762 481 5,513 1,130 2,600 1,403 381 1,353 357 649 292 55
2

- Represents or rounds to zero. 1 Includes private household workers. Includes other races, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

Includes craft and repair.

Includes laborers.

No. 653. Employment, by Industry: 1970 to 1994
[In thousands, except percent. See headnote, table 634. Data from 1985 to 1990, and also beginning 1994, not strictly comparable with other years due to changes in industrial classification] 1994 INDUSTRY 1970 1980 1985 1990 Total 123,060 3,409 669 7,493 20,157 8,692 25,699 4,713 20,986 8,141 42,986 7,304 272 849 804 1,017 477 1,546 4,339 976 1,328 2,134 29,030 5,009 5,579 6,447 2,743 3,046 1,286 5,814
1

Percent Female 46.0 25.1 15.7 9.6 32.1 28.4 47.2 28.9 51.3 58.9 61.8 36.3 52.6 49.2 61.3 34.5 17.6 13.5 69.0 89.3 54.7 42.6 68.8 76.5 78.9 74.6 52.3 81.3 55.0 43.0 Black 10.4 4.0 4.5 6.4 10.1 13.7 8.5 6.5 8.9 9.1 11.9 11.2 5.6 16.4 20.5 7.1 24.0 8.9 13.6 17.5 16.1 8.4 12.0 16.4 13.3 11.8 9.7 17.5 5.2 16.4 Hispanic2 8.8 16.4 5.5 10.5 9.9 7.8 9.7 9.2 9.9 6.7 7.8 10.0 4.2 20.3 6.7 3.8 10.6 12.9 15.2 25.4 17.8 7.9 6.0 5.5 6.8 7.1 4.7 7.8 5.3 5.8

Total employed . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, communication, and other public utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . . . . . . Services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business and repair services 3 . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services to dwellings and buildings Personnel supply services . . . . . . Computer and data processing . . . Detective/protective services. . . . . Automobile services . . . . . . . . . . Personal services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Private households . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and lodging places . . . . . . Entertainment and recreation . . . . . . Professional and related services 3 . . Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health services, except hospitals . . Elementary, secondary schools . . . Colleges and universities . . . . . . . Social services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public administration 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78,678 3,463 516 4,818 20,746 5,320 15,008 2,672 12,336 3,945 20,385 1,403 147 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 600 4,276 1,782 979 717 12,904 2,843 1,628 6,126 (4) 828 429 4,476

99,303 3,364 979 6,215 21,942 6,525 20,191 3,920 16,270 5,993 28,752 3,848 191 370 235 221 213 952 3,839 1,257 1,149 1,047 19,853 4,036 3,345 5,550 2,108 1,590 776 5,342

107,150 3,179 939 6,987 20,879 7,548 22,296 4,341 17,955 7,005 33,322 5,969 263 571 590 549 318 1,322 4,352 1,254 1,451 1,278 21,563 4,269 3,641 5,431 2,281 1,682 995 4,995

117,914 3,186 730 7,696 21,184 8,136 24,269 4,651 19,618 8,021 39,084 7,409 277 813 704 799 373 1,429 4,667 1,023 1,780 1,503 25,335 4,690 4,757 6,028 2,609 2,234 1,217 5,608

NA Not available. 1 See footnote 2, table 626. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 3 Includes industries not shown separately. 4 Included with elementary/secondary schools. 5 Includes workers involved in uniquely governmental activities, e.g., judicial and legislative. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

Employment Projections, by Industry
No. 654. Employment by Selected Industry, With Projections: 1979 to 2005

417

[Figures may differ from those in other tables since these data exclude establishments not elsewhere classified (SIC 99); in addition, agriculture services (SIC 074, 5, 8) are included in agriculture, not services. See source for details. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] EMPLOYMENT (1,000) 1979 1992 2005, proj. 2 ANNUAL GROWTH RATE 19791992 1.4 1.4 -1.0 -3.2 -1.2 -1.7 -1.1 -0.3 -2.1 -4.5 -6.1 -2.0 -2.0 0.8 -1.2 -3.4 0.6 -0.9 -1.5 -0.6 -2.8 3.2 -1.5 -0.5 -0.4 -2.7 -2.1 -2.0 -0.1 1.5 -0.2 -2.1 0.5 -5.4 2.3 0.8 1.1 -0.2 1.3 1.1 2.0 3.0 2.2 4.1 3.1 2.4 6.3 3.4 3.9 9.5 9.0 3.3 1.6 4.5 (NA) 3.5 4.2 5.4 3.8 2.9 10.3 5.4 3.5 4.7 2.1 4.5 1.2 0.5 1.4 -0.2 -1.0 1.5 19922005, proj. 2 1.5 1.6 0.2 -0.9 1.8 -0.2 -0.4 0.2 0.7 -1.2 -0.9 -0.9 -0.8 -0.2 -3.0 -0.9 -2.3 0.2 -0.2 -0.5 -0.3 -1.2 2.4 -0.6 -2.1 -1.2 -2.1 0.4 1.2 0.1 -1.6 1.6 -3.9 2.0 1.0 1.6 -1.0 0.9 1.3 1.6 2.2 1.5 3.0 2.6 1.7 3.6 1.9 1.7 3.5 5.3 3.0 2.0 1.6 -1.2 2.6 3.0 3.2 3.1 2.3 5.0 3.1 1.9 5.0 1.6 3.1 1.3 -0.4 1.6 0.1 -2.5 1.3

INDUSTRY

1987 SIC 1 code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm wage and salary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goods-producing (excluding agriculture) . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lumber and wood products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Furniture and fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stone, clay and glass products . . . . . . . . . . Primary metal industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blast furnaces/basic steel products . . . . . . Fabricated metal products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial machinery and equipment . . . . . . . Computer equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic and other electric equipment 3 . . . . Telephone and telegraph apparatus . . . . . . Semiconductors and related devices . . . . . Transportation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicles and equipment . . . . . . . . . Instruments and related products 3 . . . . . . . . Measuring/controlling devices, watches . . . Medical instruments and supplies . . . . . . . Miscellaneous manufacturing industries . . . . . Nondurable manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobacco manufactures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apparel and other textile products . . . . . . . . Paper and allied products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Printing and publishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemicals and allied products . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum and coal products . . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber/misc. plastics products. . . . . . . . . . . Leather and leather products . . . . . . . . . . . . Service producing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, communications, utilities. . . . . . . . Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, and sanitary services . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eating and drinking places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate . . . . . . . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and other lodging places . . . . . . . . . . . Personal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services to buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel supply services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer and data processing services . . . . Auto repair, services, and garages . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous repair shops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motion pictures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video tape rental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation services . . . . . . . . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offices of health practitioners. . . . . . . . . . . . Nursing and personal care facilities. . . . . . . . Hospitals, private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health services, n.e.c. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Museums, zoos, and membership organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering, management, and services, n.e.c. 4 Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State and local government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonagriculture self-employed and unpaid family . . . . . .
2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(X) (X) (X) 10-14 15,16,17 20-39 24,25,32-39 24 25 32 33 331 34 35 3571,2,5,7 36 3661 3674 37 371 38 382 3841-3 39 20-23,26-31 20 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 30 31 (X) 40-42,44-49 40-42,44-47 48 49 50,51 52-59 58 60-67 70-87,89 70 72 73 731 734 736 737 75 76 78 784 79 80 801,2,3,4 805 806 807,8,9 81 82 83 84,86,8733 87,89 (X) (X) (X) 01,02,07,08,09 88 (X)

101,363 121,093 147,484 89,491 107,888 132,960 26,461 23,142 23,717 958 631 562 4,463 4,471 5,632 21,040 18,040 17,523 12,730 10,237 9,673 782 674 690 498 476 523 674 512 437 1,254 693 618 571 250 224 1,713 1,322 1,196 2,508 1,922 1,868 318 353 237 1,793 1,526 1,354 171 108 81 201 218 224 2,059 1,822 1,765 990 809 759 1,006 925 887 431 300 255 144 216 295 445 363 334 8,310 7,804 7,851 1,733 1,655 1,648 70 49 37 885 671 571 1,304 1,005 760 697 687 729 1,235 1,504 1,751 1,109 1,083 1,090 210 159 128 821 872 1,066 246 119 71 63,030 84,746 109,243 5,136 5,709 6,497 3,019 3,486 4,310 1,309 1,268 1,116 807 955 1,072 5,221 6,045 7,191 14,972 19,346 23,777 4,513 6,602 8,778 4,975 6,571 7,969 16,779 28,422 41,788 1,060 1,572 2,209 821 1,111 1,382 2,410 5,313 8,370 146 226 288 487 805 1,000 508 1,649 2,581 271 831 1,626 575 878 1,293 282 345 449 228 404 499 (NA) 125 107 751 1,169 1,626 4,993 8,523 12,539 1,200 2,387 3,617 951 1,543 2,306 2,608 3,760 5,040 234 833 1,577 460 915 1,355 1,090 1,700 2,162 1,081 1,958 3,691 1,652 1,341 15,947 2,773 13,174 3,398 1,264 7,210 2,164 2,370 18,653 2,969 15,683 3,295 1,116 8,794 2,674 3,538 22,021 2,815 19,206 3,325 802 10,397

. . . . . .

.. . . . . . . .

- Rounds to zero. NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, section 13. Based on assumptions of moderate growth; see source. 3 Includes other industries, not shown separately. 4 N.e.c. means not elsewhere classified. 5 Excludes SIC 8733. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, November 1993.

418

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 655. High Technology Industries—Summary: 1993

[For workers on private industry payrolls and excludes the self-employed. Based on surveys of the Occupational Employment Statistics Program and subject to sampling error; for details see source] 1987 SIC 1 code
2

INDUSTRY All high technology industries Level I industries
3

Establishments (1,000) 363.2 327.2 9.4 (Z) 1.6 1.0 1.8 2.6 1.5 1.0 1.2 2.7 0.7 0.5 1.3 4.2 2.7 1.9 2.3 6.5 5.8 2.8 0.3 0.9 5.3 4.4 0.9 66.0 66.1 24.3 98.3 9.0 36.0 1.0 0.1 3.1 0.4 0.5 4.6 22.2 1.2 1.8 1.1

EMPLOYMENT Total (1,000) 9,600 8,329 172 33 135 165 264 156 58 149 56 92 113 13 161 148 366 153 240 528 837 540 123 206 283 269 91 894 761 577 707 42 1,272 51 13 243 60 88 237 299 83 151 46 Percent distribution 100.0 86.8 1.8 0.3 1.4 1.7 2.8 1.6 0.6 1.6 0.6 1.0 1.2 0.1 1.7 1.5 3.8 1.6 2.5 5.5 8.7 5.6 1.3 2.1 3.0 2.8 1.0 9.3 7.9 6.0 7.4 0.4 13.3 0.5 0.1 2.5 0.6 0.9 2.5 3.1 0.9 1.6 0.5

Average annual pay (dol.) 41,595 42,842 56,814 50,758 46,530 44,222 49,112 40,569 36,653 51,152 42,320 40,763 53,863 36,259 36,350 36,467 49,780 31,302 42,547 36,480 42,215 44,556 49,633 47,200 37,718 35,520 47,373 45,172 41,750 38,996 42,508 48,235 33,428 28,265 46,827 32,890 35,172 43,055 34,164 30,052 35,968 33,860 29,719

. . . . . . . . . . . (X)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 211 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 289 291 299 335 355 357 362 366 367 371 372 376 381 382 384 386 737 871 873 874 899

Crude petroleum and natural gas operations Cigarettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial inorganic chemicals . . . . . . . . . . Plastics materials and synthetics . . . . . . . . Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods . . . . . . . . Paints and allied products . . . . . Industrial organic chemicals . . . . Agricultural chemicals . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous chemical products . Petroleum refining . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous petroleum and coal Nonferrous rolling and drawing . . Special industry machinery . . . . . Computer and office equipment . . Electrical industrial apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

products . ....... ....... ....... ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Communications equipment . . . . . . . . Electronic components and accessories Motor vehicles and equipment . . . . . . . Aircraft and parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guided missiles, space vehicles, parts . Search and navigation equipment . . . . Measuring and controlling devices . . . . Medical instruments and supplies. . . . . Photographic equipment and supplies. . Computer and data-processing services Engineering and architectural services Research and testing services. . . . . . Management and public relations. . . . Services, n.e.c. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Level II industries 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) Miscellaneous textile goods . . . . . . . . . Pulp mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous converted paper products . Ordinance and accessories, n.e.c. 4 . . . . Engines and turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 261 267 348 351 356 359 365 369 379

General industry machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial machines, n.e.c. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Household audio and video equipment . . . . . . . Miscellaneous electrical equipment and supplies. Miscellaneous transportation equipment . . . . . .

Z Less than 50. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, section 13. 2 Those industries whose proportion of R&D employment is at least equal to the average proportion of all industries surveyed. 3 Industries whose proportion of R&D employment is at least 50 percent higher than the average of all industries surveyed. 4 N.e.c. means not 5 elsewhere classified. Industries whose proportion of R&D employment is at least equal to the average of all industries surveyed, but less than 50 percent higher than the average. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Wages, Annual Averages 1993, BLS Bulletin 2449.

Occupational/Employer Tenure—Displaced Workers
No. 656. Occupational and Employer Tenure, by Occupation: 1991

419

[As of January. For the 35 occupations with the longest occupational tenure. Covers occupations with 50,000 or more workers. Based on Current Population Survey; see text section 1, and Appendix III] OCCUPATIONAL TENURE 1 Total (years) 6.5 12.2 12.1 27.2 12.6 12.6 13.2 13.7 12.9 15.1 12.6 12.3 21.8 12.3 15.1 13.7 19.8 12.3 11.6 12.5 15.2 12.0 12.7 13.1 12.5 15.2 15.4 12.4 15.0 12.9 12.0 14.1 12.9 11.5 15.1 14.0 Rank (X) 30 31 1 21 21 15 13 17 7 21 27 2 27 7 13 3 27 34 24 5 32 20 16 24 5 4 26 10 17 32 11 17 35 7 12 EMPLOYER TENURE 2 Total (years) 4.5 4.5 3.1 11.0 5.1 6.4 7.4 6.1 5.5 13.7 12.5 4.9 20.2 7.3 11.4 6.7 19.7 6.6 8.9 6.2 5.4 5.7 5.8 5.5 8.2 18.8 11.8 1.1 20.3 15.1 8.4 9.5 16.5 3.5 12.6 10.2 Rank (X) 32 34 12 30 22 18 24 27 7 9 31 2 19 11 20 3 21 15 23 29 26 25 27 17 4 10 35 1 6 16 14 5 33 8 13
3

CURRENT OCCUPATION

Number (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114,979 116 202 111 160 72 284 77 59 136 128 718 1,037 60 50 158 58 526 145 79 143 247 182 427 60 56 120 52 65 69 1,592 1,392 193 68 125 66

Median age 3 37.2 36.2 34.1 51.7 38.2 38.0 42.0 41.9 39.9 40.5 39.2 38.3 48.0 40.8 45.7 38.1 46.5 39.3 36.9 43.1 36.8 37.8 39.1 38.4 39.2 43.1 42.2 36.5 44.5 41.5 41.3 42.0 40.3 33.3 39.5 39.5

Total employed, 16 years old and over 4 . . . Airplane pilots and navigators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automobile body and related repairers . . . . . . . . Barbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brickmasons and stonemasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical engineers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civil engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crane and tower operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dental laboratory & medical appliance technicians Dentists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical power installers and repairers . . . . . . . Electricians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farmers, except horticultural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geologists and geodesists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health specialties teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heavy equipment mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locomotive operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machinists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managers, farms, except horticultural . . . . . . . . . Millwrights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Musicians and composers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pharmacists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters . . . . . . . . Public transportation attendants. . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad conductors and yardmasters . . . . . . . . . Stationary engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural metal workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors, firefighting & fire prevention. . . . . . . Supervisors, police and detectives . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, elementary school. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone installers and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . Timber cutting and logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tool and die makers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Veterinarians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

X Not applicable. 1 Cumulative tenure in current occupation. 2 Continuous tenure with current employer. of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. 4 Includes other occupations, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL 92-386; and unpublished data.

For definition

No. 657. Displaced Workers, by Selected Characteristics: 1994
[As of February. In percent, except total. For persons 20 years old and over with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between January 1991 and December 1993 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the abolishment of their positions. Based on Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see source and Appendix III] EMPLOYMENT STATUS SEX, AGE, RACE, AND HISPANIC ORIGIN Total (1,000) Unemployed 19.1 19.9 35.6 19.1 21.5 (2) 17.9 13.1 18.0 23.0 9.1 17.9 18.4 17.2 26.1 32.1 19.8 30.5 34.0 23.1 Not in the labor force 12.9 8.4 5.6 4.7 21.6 (2) 19.2 18.3 13.6 29.6 71.4 12.8 8.2 19.5 12.4 8.7 16.4 13.9 8.1 25.9 REASON FOR JOB LOSS Plant or company closed down or moved 42.3 40.9 43.7 40.7 42.9 (2) 44.3 47.4 42.3 54.4 45.9 41.2 40.2 42.7 51.4 50.7 52.1 49.2 44.9 58.0
3

Employed

Slack work 29.9 33.0 42.2 32.8 31.0 (2) 25.6 30.3 27.1 16.2 23.4 30.2 33.1 25.9 25.3 25.2 25.3 35.5 42.0 21.8

Position or shift abolished 27.7 26.1 14.1 26.4 26.0 (2) 30.1 22.4 30.6 29.4 30.6 28.6 26.6 31.4 23.3 24.0 22.6 15.4 13.1 20.2

Total 1 . . . . . . . . Males . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 54 years old . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over . Females . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 54 years old . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over . White . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 3 . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,473 2,614 77 2,097 383 57 1,859 76 1,443 228 112 3,859 2,291 1,568 427 219 209 361 243 118

68.0 71.6 58.7 76.2 57.0 (2) 62.9 68.6 68.4 47.4 19.5 69.3 73.4 63.3 61.5 59.3 63.7 55.6 57.8 51.0

1 Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000. origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL 94-434.

Persons of Hispanic

420

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 658. Unemployed Workers—Summary: 1980 to 1994

[In thousands, except as indicated. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. For data on unemployment insurance, see table 602. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 87-101] AGE, SEX, RACE, HISPANIC ORIGIN UNEMPLOYED Total 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . White 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . Black 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . Hispanic 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . Full-time workers. . . . . . . . . Part-time workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 7,637 1,669 1,835 2,964 1,075 94 4,267 913 1,076 1,619 600 58 3,370 755 760 1,345 473 36 5,884 1,291 1,364 1,553 343 426 620 145 138 6,269 1,369 1985 8,312 1,468 1,738 3,681 1,331 93 4,521 806 944 1,950 766 55 3,791 661 794 1,732 566 39 6,191 1,074 1,235 1,864 357 455 811 141 171 6,793 1,519 1989 6,528 1,194 1,218 3,010 1,016 91 3,525 658 660 1,572 585 49 3,003 536 558 1,437 430 41 4,770 863 856 1,544 300 322 750 132 158 5,211 1,317 1990 6,874 1,149 1,221 3,273 1,124 107 3,799 629 666 1,774 668 61 3,075 519 555 1,498 456 46 5,091 856 844 1,527 258 335 769 131 135 5,541 1,332 1991 8,426 1,290 1,477 4,106 1,437 116 4,817 709 849 2,331 862 66 3,609 581 628 1,775 575 50 6,447 977 1,063 1,679 270 362 963 149 172 6,932 1,494 1992 9,384 1,352 1,546 4,603 1,748 135 5,380 761 884 2,603 1,062 69 4,005 591 662 1,999 686 66 7,047 983 1,084 1,958 313 401 1,160 185 193 7,746 1,638 1993 8,734 1,296 1,421 4,220 1,686 111 4,932 728 808 2,348 983 65 3,801 568 613 1,871 703 46 6,547 943 991 1,796 302 371 1,104 173 191 7,146 1,588 1994
1

7,996 1,320 1,373 3,694 1,456 153 4,367 740 768 1,968 803 88 3,629 580 605 1,726 653 66 5,892 960 952 1,666 300 351 1,187 198 220 6,513 1,483

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (percent) 5 Total 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experienced workers 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women maintaining families 2 . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Married men, wife present 2 . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent without work for— Fewer than 5 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 10 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 14 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 to 26 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unemployment duration, average (weeks)

7.1 17.8 11.5 6.0 3.7 3.1 6.9 18.3 12.5 5.6 3.5 3.1 7.4 17.2 10.4 6.4 4.0 3.1 6.3 15.5 9.9 14.3 38.5 23.6 10.1 22.5 12.1 6.9 9.2 7.3 14.0 4.2 3.9 7.4 43.1 23.4 9.0 13.8 10.7 11.9

7.2 18.6 11.1 6.2 4.5 3.2 7.0 19.5 11.4 5.9 4.5 3.1 7.4 17.6 10.7 6.6 4.6 3.3 6.2 15.7 9.2 15.1 40.2 24.5 10.5 24.3 12.6 6.8 10.5 8.1 16.4 4.3 4.0 8.0 42.1 22.2 8.0 12.3 15.4 15.6

5.3 15.0 8.6 4.5 3.2 2.6 5.2 15.9 8.8 4.3 3.3 2.4 5.4 14.0 8.3 4.8 3.1 2.9 4.5 12.7 7.2 11.4 32.4 18.0 8.0 19.4 10.7 5.0 8.1 6.1 13.0 3.0 2.8 5.8 48.6 22.2 8.1 11.2 9.9 11.9

5.5 15.5 8.8 4.8 3.5 3.0 5.6 16.3 9.1 4.8 3.7 3.0 5.4 14.7 8.5 4.9 3.2 3.1 4.7 13.4 7.2 11.3 31.1 19.9 8.0 19.5 9.1 5.3 8.2 6.3 13.1 3.4 3.1 6.2 46.1 23.5 8.6 11.8 10.1 12.1

6.7 18.6 10.8 6.0 4.4 3.3 7.0 19.8 11.7 6.2 4.7 3.3 6.3 17.4 9.8 5.7 3.9 3.3 6.0 16.4 9.2 12.4 36.3 21.6 9.9 22.9 11.6 6.5 9.1 7.2 13.9 4.4 4.2 6.5 40.1 22.9 9.5 14.5 13.0 13.8

7.4 20.0 11.3 6.7 5.1 3.8 7.8 21.5 12.2 6.9 5.6 3.3 6.9 18.5 10.2 6.4 4.4 4.5 6.5 17.1 9.4 14.1 39.8 23.9 11.4 27.5 13.2 7.1 9.9 7.8 14.7 5.0 4.7 8.3 34.8 20.9 8.5 15.2 20.6 17.9

6.8 19.0 10.5 6.1 4.8 3.2 7.1 20.4 11.3 6.2 5.1 3.2 6.5 17.4 9.6 6.0 4.4 3.1 6.0 16.2 8.7 12.9 38.9 22.0 10.6 26.2 13.1 6.5 9.5 7.7 13.7 4.4 4.1 7.2 36.2 20.6 8.3 14.6 20.4 18.1

6.1 17.6 9.7 5.3 4.0 4.0 6.2 19.0 10.2 5.2 4.1 4.0 6.0 16.2 9.2 5.4 3.9 4.0 5.3 15.1 8.1 11.5 35.2 19.5 9.9 24.5 11.8 5.9 8.9 (NA) (NA) 3.7 3.4 6.0 34.1 20.6 9.5 15.5 20.3 18.8

NA Not available. 1 See footnote 2, table 626. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 3 Includes other ages, not shown separately. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 5 Unemployed as percent of civilian labor force in specified group. 6 Wage and salary workers. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

Unemployed Persons
No. 659. Unemployed Persons, by Sex and Reason: 1970 to 1994

421

[In thousands. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] SEX AND REASON Male, total. . . Job losers 2. . . . Job leavers . . . . Reentrants . . . . New entrants . . . Female, total . Job losers 2. . . . Job leavers . . . . Reentrants . . . . New entrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 2,238 1,199 282 533 224 1,855 614 267 696 279 1980 4,267 2,649 438 776 405 3,370 1,297 453 1,152 468
2

1985 4,521 2,749 409 876 487 3,791 1,390 468 1,380 552

1986 4,530 2,725 520 805 480 3,707 1,308 494 1,355 549

1987 4,101 2,432 494 761 413 3,324 1,134 471 1,213 506

1988 3,655 2,078 503 697 376 3,046 1,014 480 1,112 440

1989 3,525 1,975 495 726 328 3,003 1,008 529 1,117 349

1990 3,799 2,208 511 782 298 3,075 1,114 503 1,101 357

1991 4,817 3,105 492 865 356 3,609 1,503 487 1,222 398

1992 5,380 3,518 479 950 433 4,005 1,773 496 1,278 457

1993 4,932 3,091 490 914 437 3,801 1,677 456 1,230 438

1994

1

4,367 2,416 408 1,265 278 3,629 1,399 383 1,521 326

1 See footnote 2, table 626. included as job losers.

Beginning 1994, persons who completed temporary jobs are identified separately and are

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; Bulletin 2307; and unpublished data.

No. 660. Unemployment Rates, by Industry, 1975 to 1994, and by Sex, 1980 and 1994
[In percent. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Rate represents unemployment as a percent of labor force in each specified group. Data for 1985-90, and also beginning 1993, not strictly comparable with other years due to changes in industrial classification] INDUSTRY All unemployed . . . . . . . . . . Industry: 3 Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . Wholesale and retail trade . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

1975 . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 10.4 4.1 18.0 10.9 5.6 8.7 4.9 7.1 4.1

1980 7.1 11.0 6.4 14.1 8.5 4.9 7.4 3.4 5.9 4.1

1985 7.2 13.2 9.5 13.1 7.7 5.1 7.6 3.5 6.2 3.9

1990 5.5 9.7 4.8 11.1 5.8 3.8 6.4 3.0 5.0 2.6

1993 6.8 11.6 7.3 14.3 7.2 5.1 7.8 4.1 6.1 3.3

19941 6.1 11.3 5.4 11.8 5.6 4.8 7.4 3.6 5.9 3.4

MALE 1980 6.9 9.7 6.7 14.6 7.4 5.1 6.6 3.2 6.3 3.9 19941 6.2 11.2 5.9 12.2 5.0 5.2 6.8 3.1 6.2 3.5

FEMALE 1980 7.4 15.1 4.5 8.9 10.8 4.4 8.3 3.5 5.8 4.3 19941 6.0 11.5 2.7 7.3 6.7 4.0 8.1 3.9 5.7 3.3

1 2 See footnote 2, table 626. Includes the self-employed, unpaid family workers, and persons with no previous work experience, not shown separately. 3 Covers unemployed wage and salary workers. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

No. 661. Unemployment by Occupation, 1985 to 1994, and by Sex, 1994
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly data. Rate represents unemployment as a percent of the labor force for each specified group. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. See also headnote, table 643 concerning 1994 data] NUMBER (1,000) OCCUPATION 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,312 645 329 316 1,694 110 702 882 1,386 69 85 1,233 1,038 225 531 281 2,140 980 422 739 186 315 1990 6,874 662 348 314 1,605 115 702 788 1,110 45 73 992 847 173 475 199 1,673 711 325 637 172 226 1994
1

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE 1985 7.2 2.4 2.6 2.3 4.9 3.3 5.3 4.9 8.8 6.4 4.7 9.5 7.2 4.8 10.1 6.4 11.3 11.1 8.5 14.3 21.3 8.3 1990 5.5 2.1 2.3 1.9 4.2 2.9 4.7 4.1 6.6 5.5 3.5 7.1 5.8 3.7 8.4 4.7 8.6 8.1 6.3 11.6 18.1 6.2 1994 Total 6.1 2.6 2.7 2.5 5.0 3.2 5.8 4.7 8.0 10.0 4.1 8.5 6.3 4.3 9.4 4.5 9.0 8.0 6.6 12.7 18.9 8.4 Male 6.2 2.4 2.4 2.5 4.3 3.2 4.3 5.0 8.4 19.2 3.9 9.9 6.4 4.3 9.3 4.2 8.7 6.9 6.7 12.7 18.9 8.3
1

Female 6.0 2.8 3.1 2.6 5.4 3.1 7.3 4.7 7.7 9.6 4.8 7.7 6.0 5.2 11.2 5.6 9.9 9.6 6.1 12.5 (B) 9.0

......................... Managerial and professional specialty . . . . . . . . . Executive, administrative, and managerial . . . . . Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical sales, and administrative support . . . . . . Technicians and related support . . . . . . . . . . . Sales occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative support, including clerical . . . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service except private household and protective. Precision production, craft, and repair . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other precision production, craft, and repair. . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, inspectors . . . . Transportation and material moving occupations. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, laborers . Construction laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total

2

7,996 907 454 453 1,962 127 907 928 1,471 91 96 1,285 910 201 518 191 1,761 672 364 725 172 333

2 Includes persons with no previous work experience and those B Base is less than 35,000. 1 See footnote 2, table 626. whose last job was in the Armed Forces. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

422

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings

No. 662. Unemployment Rates, by Educational Attainment, Sex, and Race: 1970 to 1991
[In percent. As of March. For the civilian noninstitutional population 25 to 64 years of age. Due to a change in the method of reporting educational attainment, 1992 are not comparable with data for earlier years. See table 663 for data beginning 1992. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] ITEM Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 4 years of high school 1 . 4 years of high school, only . . . . . College: 1-3 years. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 years or more. . . . . . . . . . . . Male: Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 4 years of high school 1 . 4 years of high school, only . . . . . College: 1-3 years. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 years or more. . . . . . . . . . . . Female: Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 4 years of high school 1 . 4 years of high school, only . . . . . College: 1-3 years. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 years or more. . . . . . . . . . . . White: Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 4 years of high school 1 . 4 years of high school, only . . . . . College: 1-3 years. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 years or more. . . . . . . . . . . . Black: Total 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 4 years of high school 1 . 4 years of high school, only . . . . . College: 1-3 years. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 years or more. . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 4.6 2.9 2.9 1.3 2.9 4.0 2.4 2.7 1.1 4.0 5.7 3.6 3.1 1.9 3.1 4.5 2.7 2.8 1.3 4.7 5.2 5.2 3.5 0.9

1975 6.9 10.7 6.9 5.5 2.5 6.7 10.5 6.7 5.1 2.2 7.4 10.5 7.1 6.3 3.4 6.5 10.1 6.5 5.1 2.4 10.9 13.5 10.7 9.8 3.9

1980 5.0 8.4 5.1 4.3 1.9 4.9 8.2 5.3 4.4 1.7 5.0 8.9 5.0 4.1 2.2 4.4 7.8 4.6 3.9 1.8 9.6 11.7 9.5 9.0 4.0
2

1984 6.6 12.1 7.2 5.3 2.7 6.9 12.3 8.1 5.2 2.7 6.1 11.7 6.3 5.3 2.7 5.7 10.9 6.4 4.6 2.4 13.3 17.4 14.5 9.7 6.2

1985 6.1 11.4 6.9 4.7 2.4 6.1 11.2 7.2 4.5 2.4 6.0 11.7 6.5 4.8 2.5 5.3 10.6 6.1 3.9 2.1 12.0 15.3 13.0 10.6 5.4

1986 6.1 11.6 6.9 4.7 2.3 6.2 11.7 7.4 4.7 2.3 5.8 11.4 6.3 4.8 2.4 5.5 10.9 6.2 4.2 2.2 10.7 15.3 11.7 8.7 3.2

1987 5.7 11.1 6.3 4.5 2.3 6.0 11.2 6.7 5.0 2.5 5.2 10.9 5.8 4.0 2.1 5.0 10.2 5.5 4.1 2.2 10.6 14.8 11.7 7.6 4.2

1988 4.7 9.4 5.4 3.7 1.7 5.1 10.0 6.2 3.9 1.6 4.2 8.5 4.6 3.4 1.9 4.0 8.3 4.6 3.2 1.5 10.0 14.6 11.2 7.4 3.3

1989 4.4 8.9 4.8 3.4 2.2 4.7 9.4 5.4 3.2 2.3 4.0 8.1 4.2 3.7 2.0 3.8 7.7 4.2 3.0 2.0 9.2 14.6 9.2 6.9 4.7

1990 4.5 9.6 4.9 3.7 1.9 4.8 9.6 5.3 3.9 2.1 4.2 9.5 4.6 3.5 1.7 4.0 8.3 4.4 3.3 1.8 8.6 15.9 8.6 6.5 1.9

1991 6.1 12.3 6.7 5.0 2.9 6.8 13.4 7.7 5.2 3.2 5.2 10.7 5.5 4.8 2.5 5.6 11.6 6.2 4.6 2.7 10.1 15.9 10.3 8.0 5.2

Includes persons reporting no school years completed.

For 1970 and 1975, data refer to Black and other workers.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and unpublished data.

No. 663. Unemployed and Unemployment Rates, by Educational Attainment, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1992 to 1994
[As of March. For the civilian noninstitutional population 25 to 64 years old. See table 630 for civilian labor force and participation rate data Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] UNEMPLOYED (1,000) YEAR, SEX, AND RACE Less than high school diploma 1,693 1,550 1,463 1,151 1,059 920 542 490 543 1,285 1,175 1,092 361 321 286 408 449 465 High school Less than a College gradu- bachelor’s graduate ates, no degree degree 2,851 2,666 2,388 1,709 1,667 1,333 1,142 999 1,055 2,146 2,025 1,738 619 542 546 224 215 215 1,521 1,492 1,453 854 882 779 666 609 674 1,176 1,166 1,109 291 266 277 88 117 139 782 888 823 493 543 466 289 345 357 641 763 659 81 72 94 36 46 52 UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
1

Total

Total

High Less school Less than than high graduate, a College school bachelor’s graduate no diploma degree degree 13.5 13.0 12.6 14.8 14.1 12.8 11.4 11.2 12.4 12.9 12.4 11.7 17.2 17.3 17.4 13.6 14.5 13.4 7.7 7.3 6.7 8.8 8.7 7.2 6.5 5.8 6.2 6.8 6.5 5.8 14.1 12.4 12.2 9.6 9.1 8.3
3

Total: 2 1992. . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . 1994 3 . . . . . Male: 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 . Female: 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 . White: 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 . Black: 1992 . . 1993 . . 1994 3 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

6,846 6,596 6,126 4,207 4,152 3,498 2,639 2,444 2,628 5,247 5,129 4,598 1,353 1,201 1,202 757 826 871

6.7 6.4 5.8 7.5 7.3 6.2 5.7 5.2 5.4 6.0 5.8 5.2 12.4 10.9 10.6 9.8 10.3 9.7

5.9 5.5 5.0 6.4 6.3 5.3 5.3 4.6 4.7 5.3 5.0 4.5 10.7 8.7 8.3 5.9 7.0 7.2

2.9 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.4 2.9 2.5 2.9 2.9 2.7 3.1 2.6 4.8 4.1 4.9 4.2 5.2 5.2

Hispanic: 4 1992 . . . . . 1993 . . . . . 1994 3 . . . .
1

626.

Percent unemployed of the civilian labor force. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

See footnote 2, table

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

Insured Unemployed—Help Wanted
No. 664. Total Unemployed and Insured Unemployed—States: 1980 to 1993

423

[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Total unemployment estimates based on the Current Population Survey (CPS); see text, section 1, and Appendix III. U.S. totals derived by independent population controls; therefore State data may not add to U.S. totals. See table 633 for 1994 unemployment] TOTAL UNEMPLOYED STATE 1980 United States . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . Kansas. . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine. . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . Massachusetts. . . . Michigan. . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . New York . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . North Dakota . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Oregon. . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . Rhode Island . . . . . South Carolina. . . . South Dakota . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,637 147 18 83 76 790 88 94 22 24 251 163 21 34 459 252 82 53 133 121 39 140 162 534 125 79 167 23 31 27 22 260 42 597 187 15 426 66 107 425 34 96 16 152 352 40 16 128 156 74 167 9 Number (1,000) 1985 8,312 160 24 96 91 934 101 83 17 27 320 188 27 37 513 215 112 62 161 229 30 104 120 433 133 116 158 31 44 41 21 217 57 544 168 20 455 112 116 443 25 107 18 180 565 43 13 160 170 100 171 18 1990 6,874 128 18 96 77 850 87 93 19 22 383 179 15 29 362 148 61 56 103 114 32 120 194 345 115 88 149 23 18 32 36 201 44 459 142 13 305 84 82 311 35 82 13 124 530 35 15 138 124 63 113 13 1993 8,734 149 23 113 71 1,410 99 110 20 27 463 199 24 34 444 157 62 66 111 139 50 164 218 327 125 77 170 26 22 53 41 292 56 663 173 14 356 92 115 413 40 137 13 141 641 35 17 168 203 85 127 13 1980 7.1 8.8 9.7 6.7 7.6 6.8 5.9 5.9 7.7 7.3 5.9 6.4 4.9 7.9 8.3 9.6 5.8 4.5 8.0 6.7 7.8 6.5 5.6 12.4 5.9 7.5 7.2 6.1 4.1 6.2 4.7 7.2 7.5 7.5 6.6 5.0 8.4 4.8 8.3 7.8 7.2 6.9 4.9 7.3 5.2 6.3 6.4 5.0 7.9 9.4 7.2 4.0 Percent 1985 7.2 8.9 9.7 6.5 8.7 7.2 5.9 4.9 5.3 8.4 6.0 6.5 5.6 7.9 9.0 7.9 8.0 5.0 9.5 11.5 5.4 4.6 3.9 9.9 6.0 10.3 6.4 7.7 5.5 8.0 3.9 5.7 8.8 6.5 5.4 5.9 8.9 7.1 8.8 8.0 4.9 6.8 5.1 8.0 7.0 5.9 4.8 5.6 8.1 13.0 7.2 7.1
1

INSURED UNEMPLOYED Number (1,000) 1993 6.8 7.5 7.6 6.2 6.2 9.2 5.2 6.2 5.3 8.5 7.0 5.8 4.2 6.1 7.4 5.3 4.0 5.0 6.2 7.4 7.9 6.2 6.9 7.0 5.1 6.3 6.4 6.0 2.6 7.2 6.6 7.4 7.5 7.7 4.9 4.3 6.5 6.0 7.2 7.0 7.7 7.5 3.5 5.7 7.0 3.9 5.4 5.0 7.5 10.8 4.7 5.4 1992
4

2

Percent 1992
4

3

1990 5.5 6.8 6.9 5.3 6.9 5.6 4.9 5.1 5.1 6.6 5.9 5.4 2.8 5.8 6.2 5.3 4.2 4.4 5.8 6.2 5.1 4.6 6.0 7.1 4.8 7.5 5.7 5.8 2.2 4.9 5.6 5.0 6.3 5.2 4.1 3.9 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 6.7 4.7 3.7 5.2 6.2 4.3 5.0 4.3 4.9 8.3 4.4 5.4

1993
4

1993
4

3,245 38.8 13.9 34.2 31.5 552.5 26.4 57.3 7.9 11.0 127.0 56.4 11.6 14.3 156.0 42.3 24.8 22.7 33.9 40.9 19.3 59.9 100.8 133.7 44.2 27.3 61.7 8.8 9.3 20.2 10.7 131.7 13.5 281.2 60.8 4.7 127.5 22.8 51.1 195.5 20.5 37.6 2.6 55.4 152.3 10.7 9.5 41.8 83.9 21.4 62.0 4.2

2,751 33.4 12.2 28.0 27.1 478.6 23.9 49.5 6.8 9.8 122.5 45.1 12.7 13.4 136.9 33.6 22.4 20.1 29.1 32.1 14.2 47.2 78.7 108.4 39.1 20.4 51.5 9.2 8.4 17.8 7.0 109.9 11.8 223.8 41.5 4.1 96.3 18.9 46.3 164.0 16.4 30.5 2.4 42.8 137.5 9.5 7.9 30.8 83.9 18.9 53.9 3.6

3.1 2.5 6.4 2.3 3.6 4.5 1.8 3.8 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.0 2.3 3.7 3.1 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.7 4.0 3.1 3.7 3.6 2.2 3.1 2.8 3.1 1.3 3.3 2.3 4.0 2.5 3.7 2.0 2.0 2.8 2.0 4.3 4.1 5.0 2.6 0.9 2.7 2.2 1.6 4.0 1.6 4.0 3.7 2.8 2.3

2.6 2.1 5.5 1.9 3.0 3.9 1.6 3.3 2.1 2.3 2.3 1.6 2.5 3.3 2.7 1.4 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.9 2.5 2.9 2.9 1.9 2.2 2.3 3.2 1.2 2.9 1.5 3.3 2.2 3.0 1.4 1.7 2.1 1.6 3.8 3.4 4.0 2.1 0.9 2.0 2.0 1.4 3.3 1.2 3.9 3.2 2.4 1.9

1 2 Total unemployment as percent of civilian labor force. Source: U.S. Employment and Training Administration, Unemployment Insurance, Financial Data, annual updates. 3 Insured unemployment as percent of average covered employment 4 Includes 55,100 in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands in 1992 and 57,600 in 1993. in the previous year. Source: Except as noted, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, annual.

No. 665. Job Openings and Placements and Help-Wanted Advertising: 1970 to 1993
[Openings 1970 and 1980, for years ending Sept. 30; beginning 1985, for years ending June 30] ITEM Job openings: 1 Received (1,000) . . Average per month . . . . . . . . . . Nonagricultural placements 1 (1,000) Index of help-wanted advertising in newspapers 2 (1967=100) . . . . .
1

1970 . . . . 6,130 511 4,604 93

1980 8,122 677 5,610 128

1985 7,529 627 3,270 138

1988 7,240 603 4,503 158

1989 6,998 583 4,284 151

1990 5,651 471 3,714 129

1991 5,635 470 3,507 93

1992 5,752 479 3,396 92

1993 6,355 530 3,340 101

As reported by State employment agencies. Beginning 1985, all placements. Placements include duplication for individuals placed more than once. 2 Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, monthly. Based on data from the The Conference Board, New York, NY. Index based on the number of advertisements in classified sections of 51 newspapers, each in a major employment area. Source: Except as noted, U.S. Employment and Training Administration, unpublished data.

424

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 666. Nonfarm Establishments, Employees, Hours, and Earnings, by Industry: 1960 to 1994

[Based on data from establishment reports. Includes all full- and part-time employees who worked during, or received pay for, any part of the pay period reported. Excludes proprietors, the self-employed, farm workers, unpaid family workers, private household workers, and Armed Forces. Establishment data shown here conform to industry definitions in the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification and are adjusted to March 1993 employment benchmarks, and reflect historical corrections to previously published data. Based on the Current Employment Statistics Program; see Appendix III. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 127-141 and D 803, 878, 881, 884, and 890] GOODS-PRODUCING ITEM AND YEAR Total Construction Manufacturing SERVICE-PRODUCING Transportation Wholeand sale public trade utilities Retail trade Finance, insurance, and real estate Services Government

Total

Mining

Total

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985

EMPLOYEES (1,000) ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

. . . . . .

54,189 60,765 70,880 76,945 90,406 97,387 109,419 108,256 108,604 110,525 113,429 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 38.6 38.8 37.1 36.1 35.3 34.9 34.5 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 $2.09 2.46 3.23 4.53 6.66 8.57 10.01 10.32 10.57 10.83 11.12 $81 95 120 164 235 299 345 354 364 374 385

20,434 21,926 23,578 22,600 25,658 24,842 24,905 23,745 23,231 23,256 23,584 37.7 36.1 33.3 29.4 28.4 25.5 22.8 21.0 21.4 21.0 20.8 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

712 632 623 752 1,027 927 709 689 635 611 605 1.3 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 40.4 42.3 42.7 41.9 43.3 43.4 44.1 44.4 43.9 44.3 44.7 $2.60 2.92 3.85 5.95 9.17 11.98 13.68 14.19 14.54 14.60 14.89 $105 124 164 249 397 520 603 630 638 647 666

2,926 3,232 3,588 3,525 4,346 4,668 5,120 4,650 4,492 4,642 4,916 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.6 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.3 36.7 37.4 37.3 36.4 37.0 37.7 38.2 38.1 38.0 38.4 38.8 $3.07 3.70 5.24 7.31 9.94 12.32 13.77 14.00 14.15 14.37 14.69 $113 138 195 266 368 464 526 533 538 552 570

16,796 18,062 19,367 18,323 20,285 19,248 19,076 18,406 18,104 18,003 18,063 31.0 29.7 27.3 23.8 22.4 19.8 17.4 17.0 16.7 16.3 15.9 39.7 41.2 39.8 39.5 39.7 40.5 40.8 40.7 41.0 41.4 42.0 $2.26 2.61 3.35 4.83 7.27 9.54 10.83 11.18 11.46 11.74 12.06 $90 108 133 191 289 386 442 455 470 486 507

33,755 38,839 47,302 54,345 64,748 72,544 84,514 84,511 85,377 87,269 89,844 62.3 63.9 66.7 70.6 71.6 74.5 77.2 78.1 78.6 79.0 79.2 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

4,004 4,036 4,515 4,542 5,146 5,233 5,793 5,762 5,721 5,787 5,843 7.4 6.6 6.4 5.9 5.7 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.2 (NA) 41.3 40.5 39.7 39.6 39.5 38.9 38.7 38.9 39.6 39.9 (NA) $3.03 3.85 5.88 8.87 11.40 12.97 13.22 13.45 13.63 13.88 (NA) $125 156 233 351 450 505 512 523 540 554

3,153 8,238 3,477 9,239 4,006 11,034 4,430 12,630 5,292 15,018 5,727 17,315 6,173 6,081 5,997 5,958 6,060 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 40.5 40.8 39.9 38.6 38.4 38.4 38.1 38.1 38.2 38.2 38.3 $2.24 2.60 3.43 4.72 6.95 9.15 10.79 11.15 11.39 11.73 12.01 $91 106 137 182 267 351 411 425 435 448 460 19,601 19,284 19,356 19,717 20,310 15.2 15.2 15.6 16.4 16.6 17.8 17.9 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.9 38.0 36.6 33.8 32.4 30.2 29.4 28.8 28.6 28.8 28.8 28.9 $1.52 1.82 2.44 3.36 4.88 5.94 6.75 6.94 7.12 7.29 7.49 $58 67 82 109 147 175 194 198 205 210 216

2,628 7,378 2,977 9,036 3,645 11,548 4,165 13,892 5,160 17,890 5,948 21,927 6,709 6,646 6,602 6,712 6,788 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 37.2 37.2 36.7 36.5 36.2 36.4 35.8 35.7 35.8 35.8 35.8 $2.02 2.39 3.07 4.06 5.79 7.94 9.97 10.39 10.82 11.35 11.83 $75 89 113 148 210 289 357 371 387 406 424 27,934 28,336 29,052 30,278 31,804 13.6 14.9 16.3 18.1 19.8 22.5 25.5 26.2 26.8 27.4 28.0 (NA) 35.9 34.4 33.5 32.6 32.5 32.5 32.4 32.5 32.5 32.5 (NA) $2.05 2.81 4.02 5.85 7.90 9.83 10.23 10.54 10.79 11.07 (NA) $74 97 135 191 257 319 331 343 351 360

8,353 10,074 12,554 14,686 16,241 16,394 18,304 18,402 18,645 18,817 19,040 15.4 16.6 17.8 19.1 18.0 16.8 16.7 17.0 17.2 17.0 16.8 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

1990 . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 1960 . . . . . . . . 1965 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . WEEKLY HOURS 1 1960 . . . . . . 1965 . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990 . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . HOURLY EARNINGS 1 1960 . . . . . . . 1965 . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . WEEKLY EARNINGS 1 1960 . . . . . . . 1965 . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 Average hours and earnings. Private production and related workers in mining, manufacturing, and construction; nonsupervisory employees in other industries. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2445, and Employment and Earnings, monthly, March and June issues.

Nonfarm Employment, States
No. 667. Employees in Nonfarm Establishments—States: 1980 to 1994

425

[In thousands. For coverage, see headnote, table 666. National totals differ from the sum of the State figures because of differing benchmarks among States and differing industrial and geographic stratification. Based on 1987 Standard Industrial Classification Manual, see text, section 13] 1994 STATE 1980 1993 Construction 4,916 82 13 109 42 466 97 49 17 9 298 141 2 29 29 213 128 53 50 75 105 21 126 87 143 81 44 111 15 33 55 18 122 42 248 166 13 206 47 62 202 13 85 14 101 381 48 12 164 124 35 98 14 Manufacturing 18,063 386 17 193 254 1,771 191 285 64 13 484 576 18 72 953 662 245 188 304 188 92 179 449 949 416 261 416 23 109 34 101 510 45 954 859 21 1,071 171 220 942 87 376 44 538 1,007 116 44 405 337 82 582 10 Transportation and public utilities 5,843 86 24 85 59 614 107 70 15 21 295 210 42 22 317 137 59 68 89 111 23 103 127 163 114 48 156 21 48 38 19 243 30 401 161 19 222 73 69 272 15 70 16 133 458 50 11 153 117 40 115 14 Whole- Finance, sale insurand ance, retail and real trade estate 26,370 393 53 411 233 2,821 426 335 78 53 1,506 814 133 117 1,276 645 331 283 379 401 135 514 667 968 559 218 588 93 199 144 134 835 156 1,575 764 77 1,225 301 343 1,166 95 366 85 564 1,874 206 63 676 565 154 570 50 6,788 77 12 111 42 790 111 136 39 31 376 173 39 24 394 131 77 59 64 80 27 134 209 197 140 40 147 16 52 34 30 231 30 738 142 14 270 64 89 310 26 68 18 108 442 46 12 164 125 26 134 8 Services 31,804 373 58 480 229 3,549 502 450 91 260 1,924 779 164 103 1,513 610 327 277 377 446 141 668 974 1,073 636 221 665 92 202 328 144 1,039 177 2,459 724 81 1,328 317 346 1,560 137 344 87 601 2,000 225 77 829 600 174 615 45 Government 19,040 345 74 285 172 2,094 300 217 51 270 907 563 112 93 783 392 226 233 282 350 94 420 392 639 358 217 386 76 151 92 77 568 163 1,420 541 67 740 270 234 715 62 297 68 370 1,416 161 45 603 438 137 365 58

Total

1

United States . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . Hawaii . . Idaho . . . Illinois . . Indiana . . Iowa . . . Kansas. . Kentucky Louisiana Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90,406 110,525 113,429 1,356 1,717 1,753 169 253 260 1,014 1,586 1,685 742 994 1,035 9,849 12,045 12,136 1,251 1,671 1,750 1,427 1,531 1,542 259 349 355 616 670 657 3,576 5,571 5,797 2,159 405 330 4,850 2,130 1,110 945 1,210 1,579 418 1,712 2,652 3,443 1,770 829 1,970 280 628 400 385 3,060 465 7,207 2,380 245 4,367 1,138 1,045 4,753 398 1,189 238 1,747 5,851 551 200 2,157 1,608 646 1,938 210 3,109 539 437 5,331 2,627 1,279 1,133 1,548 1,659 519 2,102 2,841 4,006 2,243 1,002 2,395 326 767 671 502 3,491 626 7,752 3,245 285 4,918 1,247 1,308 5,123 430 1,570 319 2,329 7,482 810 257 2,919 2,253 653 2,413 210
2

3,264 536 463 5,463 2,712 1,319 1,166 1,599 1,727 531 2,145 2,905 4,142 2,311 1,053 2,473 341 796 737 522 3,550 658 7,800 3,361 295 5,076 1,279 1,364 5,188 434 1,607 333 2,421 7,740 861 264 3,006 2,309 675 2,483 217

Maryland . . . . . Massachusetts. . Michigan. . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . Mississippi . . . . Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon. . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina. South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Includes mining, not shown separately.

Hawaii includes mining with construction.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, May issues. Compiled from data supplied by cooperating State agencies.

426

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 668. Nonfarm Industries—Employees and Earnings: 1980 to 1994

[Annual averages of monthly figures. Covers all full- and part-time employees who worked during, or received pay for, any part of the pay period including the 12th of the month. For mining and manufacturing, data refer to production and related workers; for construction, to employees engaged in actual construction work; and for other industries, to nonsupervisory employees and working supervisors. See also headnote table 666. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 127-151, D 802-810, and D 877-892, for related data] ALL EMPLOYEES TOTAL (1,000) 1980 Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private sector 2. . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas extraction. . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General building contractors . . . . . . . Heavy construction, except building . . Special trade contractors. . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . Lumber and wood products 3 . . . . . . . Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sawmills and planing mills . . . . . . . Millwork, plywood, and structural members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wood containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Furniture and fixtures 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Household furniture . . . . . . . . . . . Office furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partitions and fixtures . . . . . . . . . . Stone, clay, and glass products 3 . . . . Flat glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass and glassware, pressed and blown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Products of purchased glass . . . . . Cement, hydraulic. . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural clay products . . . . . . . . . Pottery and related products. . . . . . Concrete, gypsum, and plaster . . . . Primary metal industries 3 . . . . . . . . . Blast furnaces and basic steel products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iron and steel foundries . . . . . . . . . Primary nonferrous metals . . . . . . . Nonferrous rolling and drawing . . . . Nonferrous foundries (castings). . . . Fabricated metal products 3 . . . . . . . . Metal cans and shipping containers . Cutlery, handtools, and hardware . . Plumbing and heating, exc. electric . Fabricated structural metal products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Screw machine products . . . . . . . . Metal forgings and stampings . . . . . Industrial machinery and equipment 3 . Engines and turbines . . . . . . . . . . Farm and garden machinery. . . . . . Construction and related machinery . Metalworking machinery . . . . . . . . Special industry machinery. . . . . . . General industrial machinery . . . . . Computer and office equipment. . . . Refrigeration and service machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic and other elec. equip. 3 . . . Electric distribution equipment. . . . . Electrical industrial apparatus . . . . . Household appliances . . . . . . . . . . Electric lighting and wiring equip . . . Household audio and video equip . . Communications equipment . . . . . . Electronic components and accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation equipment 3 . . . . . . . . Motor vehicles and equipment . . . . Aircraft and parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ship and boat building and repairing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) (X) (B) 10 12 13 14 (C) 15 16 17 (D) (X) 24 241 242 243 244 2451 25 251 252 254 32 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 33 331 332 333 335 336 34 341 342 343 344 345 346 35 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 36 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 37 371 372 1990 1994 PRODUCTION WORKERS Total (1,000) 1980 1990 1994 Average hourly earnings (dollars) 1980 (NA) 6.66 9.17 10.26 10.86 8.59 7.52 9.94 9.22 9.20 10.63 7.27 7.75 6.57 8.64 6.70 6.44 4.95 6.08 5.49 5.12 5.91 6.68 7.50 9.65 7.97 6.50 10.55 6.14 6.25 7.45 9.77 11.39 8.20 10.63 8.81 7.30 7.45 9.84 7.02 6.59 7.27 6.96 8.56 8.00 9.73 8.78 8.60 8.13 7.53 7.95 6.75 7.23 (4) 6.96 (4) 6.95 6.43 6.42 (4) 6.05 9.35 9.85 9.28 8.22 9.93 9.22 1990 (NA) 10.01 13.68 14.05 16.71 12.94 11.58 13.77 13.01 13.34 14.20 10.83 11.35 9.08 11.22 9.22 9.04 6.64 8.67 8.52 7.87 9.64 9.77 11.12 15.15 12.40 9.75 13.90 9.55 9.62 10.76 12.92 14.82 11.55 14.36 12.29 10.21 10.83 14.27 10.78 9.75 10.16 10.70 12.70 11.77 14.55 10.99 11.92 12.27 11.90 11.32 11.51 10.93 10.30 10.15 10.00 10.26 10.12 9.68 11.03 10.00 14.08 14.56 14.79 10.94 13.41 14.39 1994 (NA) 11.12 14.89 16.13 17.74 14.10 13.08 14.69 13.95 14.42 15.02 12.06 12.67 9.83 11.46 10.05 9.88 7.39 9.79 9.55 9.02 10.35 10.77 12.11 18.34 13.65 10.63 15.57 10.69 10.53 11.62 14.31 16.86 13.24 15.43 13.39 11.35 11.93 15.42 11.91 10.56 11.01 11.78 14.41 12.98 16.27 12.52 12.91 13.65 13.47 12.75 13.06 11.60 11.51 11.24 10.90 10.89 11.25 11.46 12.28 11.32 16.49 16.97 17.98 12.49 15.60 17.48

INDUSTRY

1987 SIC 1 code

90,406 109,419 113,429 (NA) (NA) (NA) 74,166 91,115 94,389 60,331 73,800 77,042 1,027 709 605 762 509 431 98 58 51 74 46 41 246 147 114 204 119 92 560 395 339 389 261 222 123 110 101 96 83 76 4,346 5,120 4,916 3,421 3,974 3,802 1,173 1,298 1,166 900 938 827 895 770 722 720 643 603 2,278 3,051 3,029 1,802 2,393 2,372 20,285 19,076 18,063 14,214 12,947 12,445 12,159 11,109 10,267 8,416 7,363 6,978 704 733 731 587 603 604 88 85 77 71 70 63 215 198 184 190 172 160 206 43 46 466 301 51 63 629 18 124 45 31 46 47 204 1,142 512 209 71 211 90 1,609 75 164 71 506 109 260 2,517 135 169 389 398 194 300 420 175 1,771 117 232 162 211 109 (4) 539 1,881 789 633 221 71 111 262 45 41 506 289 68 78 556 17 83 60 18 36 39 206 756 276 132 46 172 84 1,419 50 131 60 427 96 225 2,095 89 106 229 330 159 247 438 177 1,673 97 169 124 189 85 264 582 1,989 812 712 188 33 185 265 47 56 496 281 63 78 529 15 75 60 18 33 41 199 687 234 125 40 163 83 1,366 40 128 59 403 95 229 1,945 88 104 210 317 152 239 338 190 1,552 81 159 124 178 86 235 536 1,728 885 479 158 32 108 170 37 36 376 253 40 47 486 14 105 32 25 34 39 157 878 396 167 53 151 72 1,194 63 125 52 351 84 205 1,614 87 116 255 290 125 196 181 120 (4) 82 163 128 157 79 (4) 325 1,220 575 344 176 53 35 210 38 33 400 241 51 57 432 13 72 46 14 28 31 157 574 212 105 34 124 66 1,045 43 96 43 303 73 178 1,260 58 78 141 236 94 158 137 125 1,055 67 119 99 136 59 133 329 1,224 617 345 141 25 57 213 40 47 393 235 46 58 409 11 63 46 14 25 32 152 528 178 101 30 121 67 1,020 35 96 43 290 74 183 1,208 56 76 132 224 88 153 117 135 1,000 57 112 101 128 57 120 316 1,129 684 220 123 24 31

. 373 . 374 . 376

Nonfarm Employment

427

No. 668. Nonfarm Industries—Employees and Earnings: 1980 to 1994—Continued
[See headnote, p. 426] ALL EMPLOYEES TOTAL (1,000) 1980 Durable goods—Continued Instruments and related products . . . Search and navigation equipment . Measuring and controlling devices . Medical instruments and supplies . Ophthalmic goods . . . . . . . . . . . Photographic equipment and supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Watches, clocks, watchcases, and parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Misc. manufacturing industries 3 . . . . Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toys and sporting goods . . . . . . . Pens, pencils, office and art supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Costume jewelry and notions . . . . Nondurable goods . . . . . . . Food and kindred products 3 . . . . . . Meat products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dairy products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preserved fruits and vegetables . . Grain mill products . . . . . . . . . . . Bakery products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sugar and confectionery products . Fats and oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobacco products . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cigarettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Broadwoven fabric mills, cotton . . . Broadwoven fabric mills, synthetics Broadwoven fabric mills, wool . . . . Narrow fabric mills . . . . . . . . . . . Knitting mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile finishing, except wool. . . . . Carpets and rugs . . . . . . . . . . . . Yarn and thread mills . . . . . . . . . Apparel and other textile products 3 . Men’s and boys’ suits and coats . . Men’s and boys’ furnishings . . . . . Women’s and misses outerwear . . Women’s and children’s undergarments . . . . . . . . . . . . . Girls’ and children’s outerwear . . . Paper and allied products 3 . . . . . . . Papermills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paperboard mills . . . . . . . . . . . . Paperboard containers and boxes . Misc. converted paper products . . Printing and publishing 3 . . . . . . . . . Newspapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial printing . . . . . . . . . . Blankbooks and bookbinding . . . . Chemicals and allied products 3 . . . . Industrial inorganic chemicals . . . . Plastics materials and synthetics . . Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods . . Paints and allied products . . . . . . Industrial organic chemicals . . . . . Agricultural chemicals . . . . . . . . . Petroleum and coal products 3 . . . . . Petroleum refining . . . . . . . . . . . Asphalt paving and roofing materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber and misc. plastics products 3. Tires and inner tubes . . . . . . . . . Rubber and plastics footwear . . . . Leather and leather products 3 . . . . . Leather tanning and finishing . . . . Footwear, except rubber . . . . . . . Luggage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handbags and personal leather goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table. . . . . . . . . . . (X) 38 381 382 384 385 1,022 (4) (4) (4) 44 135 22 418 56 117 37 (4) 8,127 1,708 358 175 246 144 230 108 44 234 69 46 848 150 116 19 23 224 74 54 125 1,264 77 362 417 90 64 685 178 65 205 220 1,252 420 90 101 410 62 1,107 161 205 196 141 65 174 72 198 155 31 764 115 22 233 19 144 16 30 1990 1,006 284 323 246 43 100 11 375 52 104 34 34 7,968 1,661 422 155 247 128 213 99 31 184 49 35 691 91 77 17 24 205 62 61 103 1,036 50 274 328 62 56 697 180 52 209 241 1,569 474 129 121 552 72 1,086 138 180 237 159 61 155 56 157 118 27 888 84 11 133 15 74 11 15 1994 855 181 276 266 38 86 9 378 51 110 32 29 7,797 1,667 446 152 246 126 211 102 31 177 39 27 672 84 70 17 22 196 72 64 95 954 40 264 283 53 45 684 167 50 213 241 1,529 453 129 124 548 68 1,054 130 159 265 152 58 144 56 148 110 26 935 79 11 115 15 60 11 12 PRODUCTION WORKERS Total (1,000) 1980 (4) (4) (4) 4 1990 499 94 180 144 30 43 8 272 37 76 24 25 5,584 1,194 359 95 206 89 133 78 22 78 36 26 593 82 68 14 20 179 50 50 92 869 42 235 274 51 47 522 136 40 162 174 871 166 47 66 401 56 600 70 116 105 98 31 86 34 103 75 21 687 62 9 109 12 63 8 12 1994 419 56 141 153 25 38 7 269 36 78 21 21 5,467 1,222 379 96 205 90 138 80 21 84 30 21 571 74 59 15 19 169 59 51 85 799 33 227 236 44 38 518 128 38 167 175 840 156 43 66 396 53 574 56 106 122 95 30 79 32 96 70 20 727 57 9 91 12 50 8 8 Average hourly earnings (dollars) 1980 (4 ) (4) (4 ) 4 1990 11.29 14.62 10.68 9.85 8.18 14.08 7.70 8.61 9.23 7.94 8.89 7.40 10.12 9.62 7.94 10.56 8.95 11.52 10.85 10.26 10.10 13.51 16.23 19.57 8.02 8.31 8.63 8.61 7.39 7.37 8.45 8.25 7.68 6.57 7.34 6.06 6.26 6.18 5.95 12.31 15.10 15.26 10.39 10.79 11.24 11.17 11.95 10.10 11.52 8.83 13.54 14.66 13.97 12.90 11.71 11.99 15.97 13.73 16.24 17.58 12.87 9.76 15.42 6.66 6.91 9.04 6.61 6.91 6.08 1994 12.47 16.77 12.25 11.13 9.30 15.01 8.52 9.65 9.88 9.06 10.67 8.23 11.25 10.67 8.71 12.01 10.20 13.09 11.74 11.54 11.28 15.05 18.76 23.37 9.14 9.53 10.06 9.60 8.37 8.35 9.36 9.15 8.88 7.33 7.93 6.97 6.95 6.96 6.57 13.76 17.06 17.32 11.71 12.01 12.13 12.02 13.47 11.30 12.31 9.56 15.18 16.81 15.61 14.83 12.68 12.98 18.19 15.27 19.11 19.76 14.04 10.70 17.74 7.81 7.97 10.59 7.49 7.89 7.25

INDUSTRY

1987 SIC 1 code

( ) 31 67 17 313 40 88 27 (4) 5,798 1,175 298 96 202 99 139 81 32 105 54 35 737 135 104 16 20 194 62 44 113 1,079 67 310 360 76 55 519 133 51 157 163 699 164 16 52 304 51 626 88 137 97 86 33 88 45 125 93 24 588 81 20 197 16 123 12 25

( ) 5.30 8.83 5.24 5.46 5.76 5.01 5.58 (4) 6.56 6.85 6.99 6.86 5.94 7.67 7.14 6.56 7.03 8.12 7.74 9.23 5.07 5.25 5.30 5.21 4.63 4.77 5.39 5.20 4.76 4.56 5.34 4.23 4.61 4.15 4.20 7.84 9.05 9.28 6.94 6.89 7.53 7.72 7.16 6.76 7.85 5.78 8.30 9.07 8.21 7.69 7.67 7.39 9.67 8.12 10.10 10.94 7.69 6.58 9.74 4.43 4.58 6.10 4.42 4.90 4.33

. . 386 . . 387 . . 39 . . 391 . . 394 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 396 (X) 20 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 21 211 22 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 23 231 232 233 234 236 26 262 263 265 267 27 271 272 273 275 278 28 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 29 291 295 30 301 302 31 311 314 316

. . 317

428

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings

No. 668. Nonfarm Industries—Employees and Earnings: 1980 to 1994—Continued
[See headnote, p. 426] ALL EMPLOYEES TOTAL (1,000) 1980 Transp. and public utilities 3 . . . . Railroad transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . Class I railroads 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local and interurban passenger transit . Trucking and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . Water transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation by air . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipelines, except natural gas . . . . . . . . Transportation services . . . . . . . . . . . . Communication 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone communication . . . . . . . . Radio and television broadcasting . . . Cable and other pay television services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, and sanitary services 3 . . . Electric services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas production and distribution . . . . . Combination utility services . . . . . . . Sanitary services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General merchandise stores . . . . . . . . Food stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automotive dealers and service stations. Apparel and accessory stores . . . . . . . Furniture and home furnishings stores . . Eating and drinking places. . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . . Depository institutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondepository institutions . . . . . . . . . . Security and commodity brokers . . . . . . Insurance carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance, agents, brokers, service . . . . Real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holding and other investment offices . . . Services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and other lodging places . . . . . . Hotels and motels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laundry, cleaning, garment services . Beauty shops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel supply services . . . . . . . . Employment agencies . . . . . . . . . Help supply services . . . . . . . . . . Computer and data processing services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepackaged software . . . . . . . . . Data processing and preparation . . Auto repair, services, and parking . . . . . Automotive repair shops . . . . . . . . . Motion pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motion picture theaters . . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation services . . . Health services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offices and clinics of medical doctors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nursing and personal care facilities . . Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home health care services . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership organizations . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and management services . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (E) 40 4011 41 42 44 45 46 47 48 481 483 484 49 491 492 493 495 (F) (G) 53 54 55 56 57 58 (H) 60 61 62 63 64 65 67 (I) 70 701 72 721 723 73 731 736 7361 7363 737 7372 7374 75 753 78 783 79 80 801 805 806 808 81 82 83 86 87 (J) (X) (X) (X) 5,146 532 482 265 1,280 211 453 21 198 1,357 1,072 192 1990 5,793 279 241 338 1,625 177 745 19 345 1,309 913 234 1994 5,843 246 214 387 1,749 166 734 18 367 1,255 858 233 PRODUCTION WORKERS Total (1,000) 1980 4,293 (4) (4) 244 1,121 (4) (4) 15 159 1,014 779 154 1990 4,807 (4) (4) 308 1,416 (4) (4) 14 278 978 658 193 1994 4,890 (4) (4) 355 1,517 (4) (4) 14 290 963 638 195 Average hourly earnings (dollars) 1980 8.87 ( 4) 6 9.92 6.34 9.13 ( 4) ( 4) 10.50 6.94 8.50 8.72 7.44 (4) 8.90 9.12 8.27 9.64 7.16 6.95 4.88 4.77 6.24 5.66 4.30 5.53 3.69 5.79 (4) (4 ) ( 4) 6.29 ( 4) ( 4) ( 4) 5.85 ( 4) 4.45 ( 4) 4.47 4.26 (4) 8.07 ( 4) ( 4) (4) 7.16 ( 4) ( 4) 6.10 6.52 (4 ) ( 4) (4) 5.68 (4) 4.17 6.06 (4 ) 7.35 ( 4) (4) ( 4) (4) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1990 12.97 (4) 6 16.08 9.23 11.71 (4) (4) 17.04 10.43 13.51 14.13 12.71 10.50 15.23 15.80 14.25 17.58 11.55 10.79 6.75 6.83 7.31 8.92 6.25 8.53 4.97 9.97 8.43 10.40 (4) 11.18 (4) (4) (4) 9.83 (4) 6.98 (4) 6.82 7.10 9.48 13.51 (4) (4) 8.09 15.11 (4) (4) 8.77 9.67 10.95 (4) 8.11 10.41 10.58 7.24 11.79 8.72 14.16 (4) 7.11 (4) 13.56 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1994 13.88 (4) 16.76 10.16 12.60 (4) (4) 20.04 11.67 15.25 15.94 14.85

INDUSTRY

1987 SIC 1 code

6

126 140 (4) 105 118 (4) 829 957 921 678 759 726 391 454 416 316 351 324 168 165 159 138 129 124 197 193 182 162 156 140 50 115 133 44 99 115 5,292 6,173 6,060 4,328 4,959 4,890 15,018 19,601 20,310 13,484 17,358 17,858 2,245 2,540 2,473 2,090 2,380 2,311 2,384 3,215 3,244 2,202 2,953 2,951 1,689 2,063 2,147 1,430 1,718 1,787 957 1,183 1,149 820 991 939 606 820 895 502 670 726 4,626 6,509 7,056 4,256 5,905 6,363 5,160 6,709 6,788 3,907 4,860 4,943 (4) 1,632 1,472 (4) 2,251 2,041 (4) 373 477 (4) 270 352 (4) (4) 227 424 503 (4) 1,224 1,462 1,517 854 982 1,071 464 663 665 (4) (4) (4) 989 1,315 1,353 (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) 115 221 233 (4) 17,890 27,934 31,804 15,921 24,387 27,783 1,076 1,631 1,607 (4) (4) (4) 1,038 1,578 1,551 954 1,398 1,365 818 1,104 1,137 (4) (4) (4) 356 426 432 318 379 383 284 372 383 264 333 343 2,564 5,139 6,447 (4) 4,522 5,741 153 235 240 116 169 176 (4) (4) 543 1,535 2,341 (4) (4) 246 321 (4) (4) (4) 4 4 ( ) 1,288 2,021 ( ) 1,245 1,963 304 (4) (4) 571 350 (4) 124 (4) 5,278 772 113 197 914 524 408 112 1,076 7,814 989 155 232 1,044 591 483 115 1,269 9,032 254 (4) (4) 488 297 (4) (4) (4) 4,712 (4) 898 2,522 (4) 427 (4) (4) (4) (4) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 603 (4) (4) 756 429 344 (4) 944 6,948 1,105 1,279 3,248 269 748 (4) 1,494 (4) 1,886 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 801 (4) (4) 860 479 401 (4) 1,110 7,996 1,274 1,471 3,465 493 755 (4) 1,948 (4) 2,004 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

11.72 17.33 18.06 16.81 20.77 12.29 12.01 7.49 7.45 7.93 10.07 7.18 9.82 5.47 11.83 9.39 12.41 (4) 14.00 (4) (4) (4) 11.07 (4) 7.72 (4) 7.33 8.13 10.36 15.53 (4) (4) 8.46 17.01 (4) (4) 9.61 10.65 13.86 (4) 8.62 12.10 12.22 8.47 13.83 10.67 15.66 (4) 8.11 (4) 15.36 (4) ( 4) ( 4) ( 4)

802 1,338 1,562 997 1,415 1,633 2,750 3,549 3,790 (4) 291 533 498 908 942 1,138 1,661 1,745 1,134 1,734 2,249 1,539 1,946 2,054 (4) 2,478 2,610 16,241 18,304 19,040 2,866 3,085 2,870 3,610 4,305 4,552 9,765 10,914 11,617

2 Excludes NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification, see text, section 13. 4 5 government. 3 Includes industries not shown separately. Included in totals; not available separately. For changes in 6 Includes all employees except executives, officials, and staff assistants who ‘‘Class I’’ classification, see text, section 21. received pay during the month.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2445, and Employment and Earnings, March and June issues.

Indexes of Output per Hour
No. 669. Indexes of Output per Hour—Selected Industries: 1975 to 1993

429

[See text, section 13. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series W 14, 17, and 19, W 30-54, and 62-65] INDEXES (1987=100) INDUSTRY 1987 SIC code (B) 12 1311 14 (D) 2011,13 2015 202 203 204 2051,52 2086 2211,21 2251,52 2281 2421 2431 2434 251 252 2611,21,31 2653 281 2819 (pt.) 2823,24 2844 2869 2911 3011 308 314 3271,72 3273 331 3321 3441 3442 3465,66,69 3491,92,94 352 3531 3561,63,94 3585 3621 3631,32,33,39 3645,46,47,48 371 3721 3825 3861 (E,G,H,I) 4011 4512,13,22 (pts) 481 491,2,3 5251 5311 5331 54 5511 5531 5541 56 57 581 5912 5921 602 7011 721 7231,41 753
1

1975

1980

1985

1990

1992

1993, prel. 144.4 106.5 111.1 (NA) (NA) 111.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) 144.6 (NA) 122.9 (NA) 107.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 104.1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 120.9 125.8 (NA) 95.9 (NA) (NA) 130.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 108.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) 150.9 100.5 135.9 116.4 108.7 106.3 135.3 92.9 106.7 120.2 108.9 109.0 132.7 103.9 112.5 98.1 129.9 97.4 96.4 90.0 102.0

AVERAGE ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGE 2, 1975-92 5.0 -2.0 1.9 2.4 3.8 3.1 1.4 (NA) 0.6 5.8 3.4 2.1 3.4 3.0 -0.6 2.0 1.5 1.8 3.3 1.5 1.8 1.3 4.0 0.7 2.1 2.3 4.8 3.1 -0.1 1.0 0.4 3.8 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.1 2.0 1.3 1.8 2.8 1.3 2.4 2.9 3.3 3.0 7.1 2.9 5.7 0.5 1.5 2.7 -0.3 -0.7 1.4 3.2 3.5 2.5 4.0 -0.2 1.2 1.4 2.6 -0.2 -0.9 0.6 -0.2

Mining: Coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crude petroleum and natural gas . . . . . . Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels . . . . . Manufacturing: Red meat products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poultry dressing and processing . . . . . . Dairy products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preserved fruits and vegetables. . . . . . . Grain mill products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bakery products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottled and canned soft drinks . . . . . . . Cotton and synthetic broadwoven fabrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hosiery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yarn spinning mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sawmills and planing mills, general . . . . Millwork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wood kitchen cabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . Household furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills . . . . . Corrugated and solid fiber boxes . . . . . . Industrial inorganic chemicals . . . . . . . . Industrial inorganic chemicals, n.e.c. 3 . . Synthetic fibers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cosmetics and other toiletries . . . . . . . . Industrial organic chemicals, n.e.c. 3. . . . Petroleum refining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tires and inner tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous plastics products, n.e.c. 3 . Footwear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ready-mixed concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gray and ductile iron foundries . . . . . . . Fabricated structural metal . . . . . . . . . . Metal doors, sash, and trim. . . . . . . . . . Metal stampings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valves and pipe fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . Farm and garden machinery . . . . . . . . . Construction machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . Pumps and compressors . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigeration and heating equipment . . . Motors and generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Major household appliances . . . . . . . . . Lighting fixtures and equipment . . . . . . . Motor vehicles and equipment . . . . . . . . Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instruments to measure electricity . . . . . Photographic equipment and supplies. . . Service producing: Railroad transportation, revenue traffic . . Air transportation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone communications . . . . . . . . . . Gas and electric utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardware stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variety stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New and used car dealers . . . . . . . . . . Auto and home supply stores . . . . . . . . Gasoline service stations . . . . . . . . . . . Apparel and accessory stores . . . . . . . . Home furniture, furnishings, & equipment stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eating and drinking places . . . . . . . . . . Drug stores and proprietary stores . . . . . Liquor stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and motels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laundry, cleaning, and garment services . Beauty and barber shops . . . . . . . . . . . Automotive repair shops. . . . . . . . . . . .

57.8 142.9 79.4 69.1 64.6 66.3 77.8 58.4 81.2 55.7 65.2 81.5 65.3 67.4 103.8 83.6 82.4 71.8 62.8 78.1 69.6 74.3 53.7 94.7 64.9 77.0 53.1 67.0 94.6 88.7 93.3 61.3 90.3 82.4 86.2 80.8 83.0 90.4 85.8 75.1 85.0 82.7 70.0 79.9 69.6 84.0 72.0 71.2 43.4 59.9 50.0 101.6 84.0 64.3 143.3 106.0 83.9 70.8 58.8 72.6 64.6 107.5 89.5 89.9 76.3 100.2 112.5 83.2 107.0

61.9 97.5 84.6 87.6 77.8 77.4 83.7 70.4 81.5 66.6 79.0 92.9 64.3 70.9 97.0 95.0 84.5 94.1 76.1 90.1 75.9 79.9 73.4 84.2 75.4 81.6 59.2 74.3 92.5 87.2 89.0 67.5 84.5 86.4 87.3 86.7 92.5 86.3 89.1 82.4 88.7 85.7 79.0 83.5 71.9 101.0 81.6 84.4 52.0 72.8 68.6 103.2 95.9 74.5 126.1 107.5 87.9 84.0 72.3 81.4 75.3 106.5 101.5 95.2 78.6 103.8 105.9 86.8 100.7

85.2 83.4 93.9 99.7 98.2 93.3 94.6 93.8 95.5 85.2 94.1 101.3 87.5 92.3 95.5 85.2 94.6 98.6 89.1 99.3 86.1 87.4 86.2 88.9 85.7 84.3 88.1 88.0 100.3 97.3 93.2 91.4 96.1 99.6 102.5 90.6 94.4 93.3 96.7 89.6 98.3 95.9 93.0 96.4 95.0 92.4 98.3 90.3 78.4 93.6 90.5 97.4 96.0 93.1 129.1 102.4 99.8 95.0 93.7 102.0 92.4 96.2 101.4 101.6 94.3 101.1 103.2 94.7 99.4

118.4 96.8 105.0 92.3 106.1 104.5 97.0 104.1 93.8 126.7 106.1 105.7 107.1 100.3 98.3 94.4 100.8 95.6 103.2 100.3 90.3 86.5 99.1 100.3 98.0 109.9 108.3 100.1 92.6 105.8 99.6 110.4 103.7 97.2 98.3 98.3 102.1 117.7 114.5 105.9 105.9 102.6 102.6 94.4 102.0 106.2 108.0 109.5 122.4 92.4 113.3 106.3 110.5 95.0 132.0 94.8 106.0 114.2 101.1 101.4 111.3 103.2 106.6 107.8 108.5 90.6 99.0 92.2 106.4

132.5 102.2 109.0 103.0 121.5 112.2 99.3 (NA) 89.8 144.1 116.0 117.0 114.7 111.1 94.1 116.5 106.6 97.9 109.2 100.9 94.5 93.2 105.4 105.8 92.2 112.6 117.6 113.4 92.7 105.5 99.4 116.1 106.2 104.3 102.5 106.4 102.3 113.9 102.8 105.0 105.5 112.4 112.1 98.8 104.8 137.4 124.1 118.0 140.3 97.3 127.5 110.1 107.4 101.3 136.3 93.4 106.3 120.4 106.2 109.8 126.1 104.1 109.2 113.0 117.2 97.5 97.1 92.8 102.9

NA Not available. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, section 13. 2 Average annual percent change based on compound rate formula. 3 N.e.c. means not elsewhere classified. 4 Refers to output per employee. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2461, Productivity Measures for Selected Industries and Government Services, April 1995.

430

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 670. Productivity and Related Measures: 1970 to 1994
[See text, section 13. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 689-704 and W 22-25] ITEM 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.0 88.5 (NA) 75.8 75.7 (NA) 87.2 85.6 (NA) 36.7 37.0 (NA) 91.3 92.0 (NA) 42.2 41.8 (NA) 1.4 1.0 (NA) -0.5 -0.6 (NA) -1.8 -1.5 (NA) 7.5 7.2 (NA) 1.7 1.4 (NA) 6.1 6.2 (NA) 1975 95.5 96.7 (NA) 85.0 84.9 (NA) 89.0 87.9 (NA) 54.5 54.9 (NA) 97.8 98.4 (NA) 57.1 56.8 (NA) 2.4 2.3 (NA) -1.9 -2.0 (NA) -4.2 -4.2 (NA) 10.0 10.0 (NA) 0.8 0.8 (NA) 7.5 7.5 (NA) 1980 98.6 99.0 92.9 100.5 100.8 102.0 101.9 101.8 109.8 85.0 84.9 83.3 99.5 99.4 97.5 86.2 85.7 89.7 -0.8 -0.9 -2.2 -1.6 -1.7 -6.7 -0.9 -0.8 -4.6 10.7 10.7 11.9 -2.5 -2.5 -1.4 11.5 11.7 14.3 1985 106.3 105.6 106.7 116.7 116.8 114.0 109.8 110.7 106.8 113.2 112.8 111.3 101.5 101.1 99.8 106.5 106.8 104.2 1.4 0.8 3.2 3.6 3.4 2.4 2.1 2.5 -0.7 4.5 4.1 5.0 0.9 0.6 1.4 3.0 3.3 1.8 1990 110.7 109.1 122.1 133.3 133.5 130.6 120.5 122.4 107.0 140.6 139.2 134.7 103.8 102.8 99.5 127.1 127.6 110.4 0.7 0.4 1.8 0.7 0.6 -0.4 0.1 0.2 -2.2 5.7 5.5 5.3 0.3 0.1 -0.1 5.0 5.1 3.5 1991 112.1 110.7 124.9 132.0 132.2 128.2 117.7 119.5 102.6 147.4 146.2 141.9 104.4 103.6 100.5 131.5 132.1 113.7 1.3 1.5 2.3 -1.0 -1.0 -1.9 -2.3 -2.4 -4.1 4.8 5.0 5.3 0.6 0.8 1.1 3.5 3.5 3.0 1992 115.5 113.7 127.5 135.5 135.5 130.1 117.4 119.2 102.0 154.9 153.7 147.9 106.6 105.7 101.7 134.2 135.2 116.0 3.0 2.7 2.1 2.7 2.4 1.5 -0.3 -0.3 -0.6 5.1 5.1 4.2 2.0 2.0 1.2 2.1 2.4 2.1 1993 117.2 115.4 131.6 140.6 141.0 135.4 120.0 122.2 102.9 160.5 158.7 152.8 107.2 106.0 102.0 136.9 137.5 116.1 1.5 1.5 3.2 3.8 4.1 4.1 2.2 2.5 0.8 3.6 3.3 3.3 0.6 0.2 0.3 2.0 1.7 0.1 1994 119.9 117.9 138.0 148.1 148.3 143.7 123.5 125.7 104.2 165.6 163.6 157.1 107.8 106.6 102.3 138.1 138.8 113.8 2.3 2.2 4.9 5.3 5.2 6.1 2.9 2.9 1.2 3.2 3.1 2.8 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.9 -2.0

INDEXES (1982=100) Output per hour, business sector. . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Output, 1 business sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hours, 2 business sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensation per hour, 3 business sector . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real hourly compensation, 3 business sector. Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit labor costs, 4 business sector. . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGE 5 Output per hour, business sector. . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Output, 1 business sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hours, 2 business sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensation per hour, 3 business sector . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real hourly compensation, 3 business sector. Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit labor costs, 4 business sector. . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 Refers to gross domestic product originating in the sector, in 1987 prices. 2 Hours at work of all persons engaged in the business and nonfarm business sectors (employees, proprietors, and unpaid family workers); employees’ and proprietors’ hours in manufacturing. 3 Wages and salaries of employees plus employers’ contributions for social insurance and private benefit plans. Also includes an estimate of same for self-employed. Real compensation deflated by the consumer price index for all urban consumers, see text, section 15. 4 Hourly compensation divided by output per hour. 5 All changes are from the immediate prior year. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly; and unpublished data.

No. 671. Workers Using Computers on the Job: 1993
[In percent. For workers 18 years old and over. Based on the Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see Appendix III and source] Number Perusing Bookcent of keeping/ Word comprototal puters 1 invencessing (1,000) tory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51,106 4,965 8,424 14,969 13,854 6,881 2,014 24,414 26,692 43,020 4,016 2,492 1,578 1,190 13,307 11,548 5,274 13,162 4,628 1,999 45.8 34.4 48.3 50.7 51.3 43.9 27.2 40.3 52.4 48.7 36.2 29.3 43.9 10.0 34.2 50.4 58.2 68.8 71.2 66.9 36.1 25.0 37.2 38.8 38.6 34.5 28.0 41.1 31.6 37.2 27.5 29.1 39.7 19.1 23.7 33.5 37.5 46.9 47.9 42.8 45.0 45.3 45.2 45.4 45.1 44.3 42.7 45.2 44.8 45.8 38.3 45.6 39.4 54.4 52.5 49.5 47.0 40.0 29.3 27.9 TYPE OF APPLICATION Com- Analysis/ munica- spread- Datations 2 sheets bases 38.7 27.1 38.7 40.4 42.0 38.8 31.6 39.4 38.1 39.3 37.3 32.1 37.2 20.4 29.4 38.5 39.7 45.1 48.5 45.9 34.5 27.1 35.0 36.0 36.8 33.3 27.4 35.2 33.8 35.2 31.2 27.6 33.5 22.2 25.8 33.9 34.7 41.5 41.9 39.2 22.3 15.9 22.8 25.0 23.4 20.4 15.0 25.3 19.6 23.0 16.8 18.7 22.6 9.9 13.3 20.6 21.7 28.8 35.3 28.3 Desktop publishing 16.2 19.9 17.0 16.4 14.5 15.0 16.9 18.1 14.5 16.7 12.9 16.0 10.2 20.6 17.6 18.0 14.9 17.0 10.4 5.2
2

CHARACTERISTIC

Sales and telemarketing 44.4 34.7 45.7 45.0 47.5 43.9 40.0 40.7 47.8 45.9 35.5 33.6 44.5 16.0 30.8 40.9 41.6 54.8 63.8 66.5 Includes

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age: 18 to 25 years old . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 29 years old . . . . . . . . . . 30 to 39 years old . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 49 years old . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 59 years old . . . . . . . . . . 60 years old and over . . . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race/ethnicity: White 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational attainment: Not a high school graduate . . . . High school graduate . . . . . . . . Some college . . . . . . . . . . . . . Associate’s degree . . . . . . . . . . Bachelor’s degree . . . . . . . . . . Master’s degree. . . . . . . . . . . . Doctorate or professional degree

1 Includes other applications, not shown separately. A person may be counted in more than one application. bulletin boards and electronic mail. 3 Non-Hispanic. Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1994.

Compensation

431

No. 672. Annual Total Compensation and Wages and Salaries Per Full-Time Equivalent Employee, by Industry: 1985 to 1993
[In dollars. Wage and salary payments include executives’ compensation, bonuses, tips, and payments-in-kind; total compensation includes in addition to wages and salaries, employer contributions for social insurance, employer contributions to private and welfare funds, director’s fees, jury and witness fees, etc. 1985 based on 1972 Standard Industrial Classification Code (SIC); beginning 1990, based on the 1987 SIC. See text, section 13] INDUSTRY Domestic industries . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, and sanitary services . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government and government enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANNUAL TOTAL COMPENSATION 1985 25,263 13,084 38,883 26,721 30,145 30,638 39,635 39,179 29,195 15,694 27,873 21,441 27,839 1990 31,398 17,672 46,216 32,826 36,572 35,430 47,926 47,936 37,147 18,588 37,049 28,381 35,616 1992 34,583 18,449 52,114 34,920 40,472 38,766 53,670 53,757 40,451 20,372 42,602 31,053 39,748 1993 35,803 18,973 54,047 35,247 42,069 39,944 57,004 56,413 42,152 20,848 46,485 31,970 41,334 ANNUAL WAGES AND SALARIES 1985 21,059 11,773 32,054 22,775 24,600 25,240 31,342 31,653 25,016 13,603 23,724 18,698 21,988 1990 26,138 15,299 37,903 27,679 29,746 28,916 38,382 38,930 31,772 16,036 31,682 24,801 27,772 1992 28,455 15,977 42,127 29,264 32,400 31,439 42,081 43,030 34,255 17,411 36,171 26,831 30,538 1993 29,367 16,363 43,561 29,363 33,604 32,339 44,389 44,929 35,568 17,761 39,536 27,517 31,533

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, The National Income and Product Accounts of the United States, Volume 2, 1958-88; and Survey of Current Business, July 1994; and unpublished data.

No. 673. Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings, by Private Industry Group: 1980 to 1994
[Average earnings include overtime. Data are for production and related workers in mining, manufacturing, and construction, and nonsupervisory employees in other industries. Excludes agriculture. See headnote, table 666. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series D 877-892] PRIVATE INDUSTRY GROUP Average hourly earnings . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, public utilities . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average weekly earnings Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, public utilities . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

CURRENT DOLLARS 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.66 9.17 9.94 7.27 8.87 6.95 4.88 5.79 5.85 235 397 368 289 351 267 147 210 191 1985 8.57 11.98 12.32 9.54 11.40 9.15 5.94 7.94 7.90 299 520 464 386 450 351 175 289 257 1990 10.01 13.68 13.77 10.83 12.97 10.79 6.75 9.97 9.83 345 603 526 442 505 411 194 357 319 1993 10.83 14.60 14.37 11.74 13.63 11.73 7.29 11.35 10.79 374 647 552 486 540 448 210 406 351 1994 11.12 14.89 14.69 12.06 13.88 12.01 7.49 11.83 11.07 385 666 570 507 554 460 216 424 360

CONSTANT (1982) DOLLARS 1980 7.78 10.71 11.61 8.49 10.36 8.12 5.70 6.76 6.83 275 464 430 337 410 312 172 245 223 1985 7.77 10.86 11.17 8.65 10.34 8.30 5.39 7.20 7.16 271 471 421 350 408 318 158 262 233 1990 7.52 10.28 10.35 8.14 9.74 8.11 5.07 7.49 7.39 259 453 395 332 379 309 146 268 240 1993 7.39 9.96 9.80 8.01 9.30 8.00 4.97 7.74 7.36 255 441 376 332 368 306 143 277 239

1

1994 7.40 9.91 9.77 8.02 9.23 7.99 4.98 7.87 7.37 256 443 379 337 368 306 144 282 239

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Earnings in current dollars divided by the Consumer Price Index (CPI-W) on a 1982 base; see text, section 15.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2445, and Employment and Earnings, monthly, March and June issues.

No. 674. Annual Percent Changes in Earnings and Compensation: 1980 to 1994
[Annual percent change from immediate prior year. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] ITEM Current dollars: Hourly earnings, total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Hourly earnings, manufacturing . . . . . . . Compensation per employee-hour 1 . . . . Constant (1982) dollars: Hourly earnings, total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Hourly earnings, manufacturing . . . . . . Compensation per employee-hour 1 . . . Consumer Price Index 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1980 8.1 8.5 10.6 -4.8 -4.5 -2.6 13.5

1985 3.0 3.8 4.1 -0.4 0.3 0.5 3.6

1988 3.3 2.8 4.2 -0.5 -1.2 0.1 4.1

1989 4.1 2.8 3.3 -0.7 -1.9 -1.4 4.8

1990 3.6 3.3 5.5 -1.6 -1.7 0.1 5.4

1991 3.1 3.2 5.0 -0.9 -0.9 0.8 4.2

1992 2.4 2.5 5.1 -0.5 -0.4 2.0 3.0

1993 2.5 2.4 3.2 -0.3 -0.4 0.2 3.0

1994 2.7 2.7 3.0 0.1 0.1 0.5 2.6

. . . .

Nonfarm business sector.

2

See text, section 15.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review; and unpublished data.

432

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 675. Average Annual Pay, by State: 1992 and 1993

[In dollars, except percent change. For workers covered by State unemployment insurance laws and for Federal civilian workers covered by unemployment compensation for Federal employees, approximately 96 percent of wage and salary civilian employment in 1993. Excludes most agricultural workers on small farms, all Armed Forces, elected officials in most States, railroad employees, most domestic workers, most student workers at school, employees of certain nonprofit organizations, and most self-employed individuals. Pay includes bonuses, cash value of meals and lodging, and tips and other gratuities] AVERAGE ANNUAL PAY 1992 United States. . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Arkansas. . . . . . . . California. . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware. . . . . . . . District of Columbia . Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,897 22,340 31,825 23,153 20,108 28,902 25,040 32,603 26,596 37,951 23,145 24,373 25,538 20,649 27,910 23,570 20,937 21,982 21,858 22,342 21,808 27,145 29,664 27,463 25,324 19,237 1993
1

STATE

Percent change, 1992-93 1 1.8 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.1 2.0 2.6 1.7 2.1 3.3 1.8 2.0 3.1 2.6 1.8 2.3 2.4 2.0 1.4 1.3 1.0 2.0 1.9 2.9 1.5 2.4

STATE Missouri . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico. . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee. . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AVERAGE ANNUAL PAY 1992 23,550 19,378 20,355 24,743 24,866 32,073 21,051 32,399 22,249 18,945 24,845 21,698 23,514 25,785 24,315 21,398 18,016 22,807 25,088 21,976 22,360 24,940 25,553 22,168 23,008 21,215 1993
1

Percent change, 1992-93 1 1.5 2.9 2.3 2.9 0.4 2.0 3.2 1.6 2.3 2.3 2.0 1.4 2.5 1.9 2.4 2.5 3.3 2.5 1.8 1.2 1.5 2.2 0.8 0.9 2.6 2.5

26,362 22,786 32,336 23,501 20,337 29,468 25,682 33,169 27,143 39,199 23,571 24,867 26,325 21,188 28,420 24,109 21,441 22,430 22,170 22,632 22,026 27,684 30,229 28,260 25,711 19,694

23,898 19,932 20,815 25,461 24,962 32,716 21,731 32,919 22,770 19,382 25,339 22,003 24,093 26,274 24,889 21,928 18,613 23,368 25,545 22,250 22,704 25,496 25,760 22,373 23,610 21,745

1 Preliminary. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Wages Annual Averages 1993; and USDL News Release 94-451, Average Annual Pay by State and Industry, 1993.

No. 676. Average Annual Pay, by Selected Metropolitan Areas: 1992 and 1993
[In dollars. Metropolitan areas ranked by average pay 1993. Includes data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas defined as of June 30, 1993. In the New England areas, the New England County Metropolitan Area (NECMA) definitions were used. See source for details. See also headnote table 675] METROPOLITAN AREA Metropolitan areas . . . . . . . . . . . . New York, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . San Jose, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ . . . . . San Francisco, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newark, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Haven-Bridgeport-Stamford-DanburyWaterbury, CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trenton, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bergen-Passaic, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anchorage, AK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV. . . . . . . . . . Jersey City, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hartford, CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA . . . . . . . . . Oakland, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit, MI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boston-Worcester-Lawrence-LowellBrockton, MA-NH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flint, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nassau-Suffolk, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Orange County, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA-NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dutchess County, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kokomo, IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA . . . . . . . . . Huntsville, AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wilmington-Newark, DE-MD . . . . . . . . . . New London-Norwich, CT . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27,051 38,802 37,068 34,796 34,364 34,302 34,517 33,960 33,555 33,007 32,337 31,638 31,967 31,165 30,623 30,534 30,210 30,100 29,672 29,708 29,794 29,353 29,392 29,262 28,676 28,813 29,466 28,944 28,635 27,926

1993

1

METROPOLITAN AREA Denver, CO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brazoria, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI . . . . Monmouth-Ocean, NJ . . . . . . . . . Ann Arbor, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saginaw-Bay City-Midland, MI . . . Rochester, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rochester, MN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . Honolulu, HI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yolo, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Springfield, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH . . . . . Lansing-East Lansing, MI . . . . . . Fort Worth-Arlington, TX . . . . . . . Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY . . . Indianapolis, IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ventura, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . St Louis, MO-IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . San Diego, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN . . . . . . . . . Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA. . . . . West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL Bloomington-Normal, IL . . . . . . . . Boulder-Longmont, CO . . . . . . . . Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI . . . . . . Melbourne-Titusville-Palm Bay, FL . Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC . . Decatur, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1992 27,734 27,979 27,925 27,938 27,488 27,195 26,650 27,256 27,416 27,105 26,534 26,795 26,099 25,706 26,501 26,548 25,745 26,099 25,896 26,267 26,198 26,153 25,872 26,023 25,703 26,055 25,581 25,829 25,541 26,032 25,503 25,292

1993

1

27,540 39,381 38,040 35,573 35,278 35,129 35,058 34,365 34,126 33,782 33,170 32,815 32,555 31,760 31,701 31,622 30,720 30,642 30,512 30,226 30,069 29,916 29,839 29,730 29,672 29,489 29,399 29,243 29,232 28,630

28,607 28,453 28,359 28,345 28,045 27,930 27,686 27,645 27,624 27,476 27,253 27,236 27,187 26,998 26,989 26,848 26,622 26,604 26,587 26,567 26,544 26,531 26,478 26,465 26,360 26,348 26,285 26,215 26,202 26,095 26,063 26,040

Preliminary.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, USDL News Release 94-516, Average Annual Pay Levels in Metropolitan Areas, 1993.

Workers and Earnings

433

No. 677. Full-Time Wage and Salary Workers—Number and Earnings: 1983 to 1994
[In current dollars of usual weekly earnings. Data represent annual averages of quarterly data. See text, section 13, and headnote table 643, for a discussion of occupational data. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] NUMBER OF WORKERS (1,000) 1983 All workers 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family relationship: Husbands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women who maintain families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men who maintain families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other persons in families: Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All other men 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All other women 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupation, male: Managerial and professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exec., admin., managerial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical, sales, and administrative support . . . . . . . . Tech. and related support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, incl. clerical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operators, fabricators and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors . . . . Transportation and material moving . . . . . . . . . . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupation, female: Managerial and professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exec., admin., managerial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical, sales, and administrative support . . . . . . . . Tech. and related support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, incl. clerical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors . . . . Transportation and material moving . . . . . . . . . . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers and laborers . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,976 42,309 6,702 35,607 28,667 5,345 23,322 61,739 37,378 24,361 7,373 3,883 3,490 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1985 77,002 45,589 6,956 38,632 31,414 5,621 25,793 66,481 40,030 26,452 8,393 4,367 4,026 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1990 85,082 49,015 6,313 42,702 36,068 5,001 31,066 72,637 42,563 30,075 9,642 4,909 4,733 6,993 4,410 2,583 1994
1

CHARACTERISTIC

MEDIAN WEEKLY EARNINGS (dol.) 1983 313 378 223 406 252 197 267 319 387 254 261 293 231 (NA) (NA) (NA) 410 257 256 377 219 201 350 274 516 530 506 385 424 389 362 255 (B) 355 217 387 377 375 408 308 319 335 251 200 357 339 367 247 299 204 248 173 116 250 176 256 337 (B) 244 204 202 253 211 169 1985 343 406 240 442 277 210 296 355 417 281 277 304 252 (NA) (NA) (NA) 455 285 278 396 238 213 380 305 583 593 571 420 472 431 391 272 (B) 391 230 408 400 394 433 325 341 369 261 216 399 383 408 269 331 226 270 185 130 278 188 268 392 265 253 216 216 252 209 185 1990 415 485 283 514 348 254 370 427 497 355 329 360 308 307 322 280 532 363 339 444 296 271 442 376 731 742 720 496 570 505 440 320 (B) 477 273 488 477 480 510 378 391 418 308 263 511 485 534 332 417 292 332 230 171 405 231 316 459 394 300 262 260 314 250 216 1994
1

87,379 49,992 6,040 43,952 37,386 4,403 32,983 73,500 42,816 30,685 10,199 5,099 5,100 8,274 5,295 2,979 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

467 522 294 576 399 276 421 484 547 408 371 400 346 324 343 305 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 803 797 809 548 622 575 482 350 (B) 538 293 515 519 492 553 406 415 469 319 290 592 541 623 376 466 324 374 257 177 430 256 370 520 408 342 293 292 361 279 234

28,720 30,260 31,326 14,884 16,270 18,666 3,948 4,333 5,007 1,331 1,313 1,786 5,518 4,032 6,740 5,803 6,173 4,309 7,841 6,503 6,434 4,475 9,468 7,920

10,312 11,078 12,263 13,021 5,344 5,835 6,401 6,785 4,967 5,243 5,863 6,236 8,125 8,803 9,596 9,764 1,428 1,563 1,747 1,638 3,853 4,227 4,666 4,836 2,844 3,013 3,183 3,289 3,723 3,947 4,476 4,784 11 13 12 14 1,314 1,327 1,523 1,674 2,398 2,607 2,942 3,096 9,180 10,026 10,169 9,824 3,418 3,752 3,669 3,593 2,966 3,308 3,603 3,407 2,796 2,966 2,897 2,824 9,833 10,585 11,257 11,333 4,138 4,403 4,510 4,469 3,199 3,459 3,721 3,854 2,496 2,724 3,027 3,010 1,137 1,150 1,253 1,266 7,139 8,302 10,595 12,187 2,772 3,492 4,764 5,548 4,367 4,810 5,831 6,639 13,517 14,622 16,202 15,954 1,146 1,200 1,470 1,536 2,460 2,929 3,531 3,633 9,911 10,494 11,202 10,785 3,598 3,963 4,531 4,702 267 330 298 311 139 156 216 277 3,193 3,477 4,017 4,115 784 906 893 970 120 144 139 160 45 53 50 52 619 709 704 758 3,486 3,482 3,675 3,412 2,853 2,778 2,840 2,563 159 189 227 242 474 514 608 608 143 138 171 161

B Data not shown where base is less than 50,000. NA Not available. 1 See footnote 2, table 626. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 4 The majority of these persons are living alone or with nonrelatives. Also included are persons in families where the husband, wife or other person maintaining the family is in the Armed Forces, and persons in unrelated subfamilies. 5 Includes craft and repair. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307, and Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

434

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 678. Families With Earners—Number and Earnings: 1980 to 1993

[In current dollars of usual weekly earnings. Annual averages of quarterly figures based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. For families with wage and salary earners] NUMBER OF FAMILIES (1,000) 1980 TOTAL Total families with earners 1 . . . Married-couple families . . . . . . . . . . . . . One earner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Husband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other family member . . . . . . . . . . . Two or more earners 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Husband and wife only . . . . . . . . . . Husband and other family member(s) Wife and other family member(s) . . . Other family members only . . . . . . . Families maintained by women . One earner . . . . . . . . . . . . Householder . . . . . . . . . . Other family member . . . . Two or more earners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41,162 33,825 14,797 12,127 2,059 611 19,028 12,990 2,369 426 139 5,690 4,022 3,104 918 1,668 1,647 1,016 631 41,616 33,459 13,347 10,346 2,243 758 20,112 14,019 2,159 514 176 6,470 4,397 3,432 965 2,073 1,688 1,031 656 43,759 34,219 12,166 8,994 2,407 764 22,053 15,934 1,751 527 176 7,323 4,983 3,937 1,045 2,340 2,218 1,352 866 44,383 34,257 12,185 8,643 2,773 769 22,071 16,349 1,509 574 150 7,792 5,452 4,402 1,050 2,340 2,334 1,523 811 400 433 303 336 159 163 535 507 557 350 356 222 184 188 168 370 360 283 502 522 582 385 440 217 204 715 684 689 454 468 297 234 243 200 487 450 346 625 653 732 455 520 267 280 880 844 825 557 554 363 288 296 254 607 514 396 778 707 804 481 565 314 282 973 944 875 613 605 393 307 315 263 655 523 429 763 1985 1990 1993 1980 MEDIAN WEEKLY EARNINGS (dollars) 1985 1990 1993

CHARACTERISTIC

Families maintained by men . . . . . . . . . . . One earner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two or more earners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHITE Total families with earners 1 Married-couple families . . . . . . . . . . One earner 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Husband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two or more earners . . . . . . . . . . Husband and wife only . . . . . . . Families maintained by women . . . . . Families maintained by men . . . . . . . BLACK Total families with earners 1 Married-couple families . . . . . . . . . . One earner 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Husband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two or more earners . . . . . . . . . . Husband and wife only . . . . . . . Families maintained by women . . . . . Families maintained by men . . . . . . . HISPANIC ORIGIN
3

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

35,786 30,316 13,437 11,152 1,740 16,878 11,448 4,140 1,331

35,848 29,899 12,097 9,496 1,925 17,802 12,394 4,616 1,333

37,239 30,361 10,856 8,162 2,044 19,505 14,148 5,127 1,751

37,458 30,288 10,790 7,755 2,383 19,497 14,546 5,355 1,816

411 438 311 343 160 542 511 233 374

543 589 395 452 218 723 691 311 475

681 745 473 535 270 892 855 382 539

739 816 492 583 313 984 954 415 547

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

4,503 2,802 1,103 769 279 1,700 1,238 1,438 263

4,668 2,671 902 580 257 1,769 1,258 1,703 294

5,082 2,724 893 527 290 1,831 1,297 1,986 372

5,268 2,698 909 539 287 1,789 1,285 2,168 403

299 366 210 244 151 472 461 192 307

378 487 257 292 206 622 603 259 360

459 601 304 345 243 748 713 314 397

490 674 344 381 321 846 819 334 413

Total families with earners 1 Married-couple families . . . . . . . . . . One earner 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Husband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two or more earners . . . . . . . . . . Husband and wife only . . . . . . . Families maintained by women . . . . . Families maintained by men . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

3,624 2,599 1,050 814 164 1,549 924 691 334

3,879 2,800 1,177 912 183 1,622 1,032 749 330

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

496 555 322 356 236 716 672 326 468

505 566 334 365 262 744 733 353 432

NA Not available. 1 Excludes families in which there is no wage or salary earner or in which the husband, wife, or other person maintaining the family is either self-employed or in the Armed Forces. 2 Includes other earners, not shown separately. 3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

Earnings—Employment Cost Index

435

No. 679. Workers With Earnings, by Occupation of Longest Job Held and Sex: 1993
[Covers persons 15 years old and over as of March 1994. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] ALL WORKERS MAJOR OCCUPATION OF LONGEST JOB HELD Women Men YEAR ROUND FULL-TIME Women Men

Median Median Median Number earn- Number earn- Number earn- Number Median (1,000) (1,000) (1,000) (1,000) earnings ings ings ings 63,660 7,402 9,629 2,429 8,653 16,233 1,414 3,273 560 1,070 12,118 1,045 11,073 794 13,896 25,282 25,865 21,583 8,238 15,733 17,340 12,046 12,125 7,465 6,684 2,446 7,127 3,106 73,198 9,294 8,577 1,982 7,967 4,341 13,181 5,093 5,005 5,009 8,393 77 8,316 3,521 22,443 40,335 40,505 31,081 25,319 20,733 23,175 20,277 21,987 9,913 10,795 2,340 10,872 8,416 33,524 5,503 5,521 1,533 3,514 9,456 956 1,955 218 397 4,165 190 3,976 237 21,747 28,876 31,906 26,324 18,743 20,683 21,357 15,379 19,652 14,826 13,126 8,460 13,419 10,581 49,818 7,873 6,597 1,481 5,807 2,924 9,234 3,664 3,382 2,005 4,205 16 4,189 1,702 30,407 42,722 45,136 35,048 32,327 26,746 27,653 23,378 26,532 17,556 20,860 (B) 20,868 15,655

Total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Executive, administrators, and managerial . . . . Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical and related support . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, incl. clerical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft and repair . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors . Transportation and material moving . . . . . . . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service, except private household . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B Base less than 75,000. 1 Includes persons whose longest job was in the Armed Forces. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, P60-188.

No. 680. Employment Cost Index (ECI), by Industry and Occupation: 1982 to 1994
[As of December. The ECI is a measure of the rate of change in employee compensation (wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits). Data are not seasonally adjusted: 1982-1985 based on fixed employment counts from 1970 Census of Population; thereafter, based on fixed employment counts from the 1980 Census of Population] INDEXES (June 1989=100) 1982 Civilian workers 1 . . . . . Workers, by occupational group: White-collar occupations . . . . Blue-collar occupations . . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . Workers, by industry division: Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmanufacturing . . . . . . . . Service industries . . . . . . . Public administration 2 . . . . ..... ..... ..... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.8 72.9 78.2 74.3 76.9 73.9 70.5 71.9 75.8 73.7 78.4 76.3 76.9 75.1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 79.6 74.3 70.8 70.4 73.9 70.0 69.0 68.6 (NA) 73.1 71.9 1985 1990 1992 1993 1994 1985 4.3 4.9 3.3 3.9 3.3 4.7 4.7 4.9 3.9 4.9 3.1 3.0 3.3 4.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2.6 4.6 5.6 5.8 5.3 5.9 6.2 6.4 (NA) 4.7 4.9 PERCENT CHANGE FOR 12 MONTHS ENDING— 1990 4.9 5.2 4.4 5.1 5.1 4.9 6.3 5.3 4.6 4.9 4.4 4.7 5.1 4.5 6.2 6.0 6.8 7.0 4.3 4.8 5.8 6.0 4.8 6.3 6.0 6.3 5.3 6.8 5.3 1992 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.2 3.8 3.3 4.0 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.1 3.8 3.2 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.3 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.3 3.7 3.3 1993 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.3 4.1 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.1 4.1 3.4 3.5 2.3 3.4 3.3 4.3 3.5 2.8 2.5 3.1 2.5 2.5 2.4 3.0 2.8 3.2 1994 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.8 3.5 3.1 3.2 2.8 2.8 3.1 3.0 2.8 3.7 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.3 4.0 3.0 3.5

ITEM

86.8 107.6 85.8 108.3 88.4 106.5 87.2 108.0 87.8 107.2 86.4 107.8 84.1 110.2 85.4 108.7 87.3 107.0 86.4 107.4 88.5 106.4 88.4 107.3 87.8 87.0 84.1 (NA) 83.7 (NA)

116.1 120.2 123.8 116.6 120.6 124.4 115.2 119.4 122.7 116.7 120.5 124.3 116.5 121.3 125.1 116.0 119.8 123.4 119.2 122.9 126.4 116.3 120.0 124.2 115.6 119.8 123.5

Private industry workers 3. Workers, by occupational group: White-collar occupations . . . . . . Blue-collar occupations . . . . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . Workers, by industry division: Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmanufacturing . . . . . . . . . . Service industries . . . . . . . . . Business services . . . . . . . Health services . . . . . . . . . Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . Workers by bargaining status: Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonunion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115.9 120.2 124.1 115.0 119.3 122.6 115.9 119.5 122.9 125.1 122.6 126.6 123.0 128.7 128.6

107.2 116.5 121.3 106.9 115.1 119.0 109.3 118.9 123.1 107.4 115.9 118.6 110.8 121.8 126.0 110.7 121.6 125.6

... ... .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

90.1 106.2 86.3 107.3 84.6 110.4

115.9 120.9 124.2 115.5 119.5 123.2 118.6 121.9 125.6 118.9 121.9 125.5 117.8 121.4 124.7

State and local government. Workers, by occupational group: White-collar occupations . . . . . . . Blue-collar workers . . . . . . . . . . . Workers, by industry division: Service industries . . . . . . . . . . . . Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary and secondary . . Colleges and universities . . . Services, excluding schools 4 . . Public administration 2 . . . . . . . . .

84.2 110.9 86.7 108.7

84.0 111.3 119.6 122.6 126.1 83.6 111.6 119.9 122.9 126.3 83.6 112.1 120.7 123.6 126.5 (NA) 110.2 117.2 120.7 125.5 85.2 110.2 118.6 121.9 125.6 85.4 108.7 116.3 120.0 124.2

NA Not available. 1 Includes private industry and State and local government workers and excludes farm, household, and Federal government workers. 2 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities. 3 Excludes farm and household workers. 4 Includes library, social, and health services. Formerly called hospitals and other services. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, Employment Cost Index, quarterly.

436

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 681. Effective Federal Minimum Hourly Wage Rates: 1950 to 1994

[The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and subsequent amendments provide for minimum wage coverage applicable to specified nonsupervisory employment categories. Exempt from coverage are executives and administrators or professionals] MINIMUM RATES FOR NONFARM IN EFFECT Laws prior to 1966 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $0.75 1.00 1.15 1.25 1.40 1.60 (5) (5) (5) 2.00 2.10 Percent, average earnings 2 54 52 50 51 50 54 51 49 46 46 45 1966 and later 3 (X) (X) (X) (X) $1.00 1.15 1.30 1.45 1.60 1.90 2.00 Minimum rates for farm workers 4 (X) (X) (X) (X) $1.00 1.15 1.30 (5) (5) 1.60 1.80 MINIMUM RATES FOR NONFARM IN EFFECT Laws prior to 1966 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.30 (5) 2.65 2.90 3.10 3.35 3.80 4.25 (5) ( 5) ( 5) Percent, average earnings 2 46 42 44 45 44 43 35 38 37 36 35 1966 and later 3 2.20 2.30 2.65 2.90 3.10 3.35 3.80 4.25 (5) (5) (5) Minimum rates for farm workers 4 2.00 2.20 2.65 2.90 3.10 3.35 3.80 4.25 (5) (5) (5)

Jan. 25, 1950 Mar. 1, 1956 . Sept. 3, 1961 Sept. 3, 1963 Feb. 1, 1967 . Feb. 1, 1968 . Feb. 1, 1969 . Feb. 1, 1970 . Feb. 1, 1971 . May 1, 1974 . Jan. 1, 1975 .

. . . . . . . . . . .

Jan. 1, 1976 . Jan. 1, 1977 . Jan. 1, 1978 . Jan. 1, 1979 . Jan. 1, 1980 . Jan. 1, 1981 . Apr. 1, 1990 . Apr. 1, 1991 . Apr. 1, 1992 . Apr. 1, 1993 . Apr. 1, 1994 .

. . . . . . . . . . .

X Not applicable. 1 Applies to workers covered prior to 1961 amendments and, after Sept. 1965, to workers covered by 1961 amendments. Rates set by 1961 amendments were: Sept. 1961, $1.00; Sept. 1964, $1.15; and Sept. 1965, $1.25. 2 Percent of gross average hourly earnings of production workers in manufacturing. 3 Applies to workers newly covered by amendments of 1966, 1974, and 1977, and Title IX of Education amendments of 1972. 4 Included in coverage as of 1966, 1974, and 1977 amendments. 5 No change in rate. Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Standards Administration, Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, 1981, annual; and unpublished data.

No. 682. Workers Paid Hourly Rates, by Selected Characteristics: 1994
[Annual average of monthly figures; for employed wage and salary workers. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] NUMBER OF WORKERS CHARACTERISTIC Total paid hourly rates 66,549 15,258 5,493 51,291 33,528 7,939 2,773 25,589 33,021 7,319 2,720 25,702 55,151 8,586 7,130 49,682 16,773 57,927 18,295 39,632 8,623
1

(1,000)

PERCENT OF ALL WORKERS PAID HOURLY RATES At or below $4.25 Total 6.2 14.5 23.6 3.7 4.7 12.0 21.0 2.4 7.8 17.2 26.2 5.1 6.1 6.5 8.6 3.1 15.5 6.6 2.4 8.6 3.3 At $4.25 3.2 8.3 14.0 1.7 2.7 7.8 13.7 1.1 3.8 8.9 14.2 2.3 3.0 4.1 5.6 1.5 8.3 3.4 1.3 4.3 2.1 Below $4.25 3.0 6.2 9.6 2.0 2.0 4.3 7.3 1.3 4.0 8.3 11.9 2.8 3.1 2.4 3.0 1.6 7.2 3.3 1.0 4.3 1.2

At or below $4.25 Total 4,127 2,217 1,295 1,911 1,565 955 583 610 2,563 1,262 712 1,301 3,384 561 612 1,519 2,602 3,847 435 3,412 281 At $4.25 2,132 1,271 767 861 891 617 380 274 1,241 654 387 587 1,657 356 401 734 1,395 1,953 246 1,707 180 Below $4.25 1,995 946 528 1,050 674 338 203 336 1,322 608 325 714 1,727 205 211 785 1,207 1,894 189 1,705 101

Median hourly earnings of workers paid hourly rates 2 $8.01 5.62 4.91 9.12 9.00 5.88 4.98 10.29 7.25 5.32 4.83 8.05 8.11 7.29 6.93 8.98 5.65 7.81 9.32 7.07 10.16

Total, 16 years and over 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . . . . . . . 25 years and over . . . . . . . . Male, 16 years and over 16 to 24 years . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . . 25 years and over . . . Women, 16 years and 16 to 24 years . . . 16 to 19 years . . 25 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

over. .... .... ....

White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-time workers . . . . . . . . . . . . Part-time workers 5 . . . . . . . . . . . Private sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goods-producing industries 6 . . Service-producing industries 7 . . Public sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Excludes the incorporated self-employed. 2 For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. 3 Includes races not shown separately. Includes a small number of multiple jobholders whose full- part- time status can not be determined for their principal job. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 5 Working fewer than 35 hours per week. 6 Includes 7 agriculture, mining, construction, and manufacturing. Includes transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; private households; and other service industries, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

Compensation Costs—Health and Pension Plans
No. 683. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation per Hour Worked: 1994

437

[In dollars. As of March, for private industry workers. Based on a sample of establishments; see source for details] COMPENSATION COMPONENT Total compensation . . Wages and salaries . . . . . . Total benefits . . . . . . . . . . . Paid leave . . . . . . . . . . . Vacation. . . . . . . . . . . Holiday . . . . . . . . . . . Sick . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplemental pay . . . . . . Premium pay . . . . . . . Nonproduction bonuses Shift pay . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . Health insurance . . . Retirement and savings Pensions . . . . . . . . Savings and thrift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goods producing 1 20.85 13.87 6.98 1.38 0.72 0.50 0.11 0.05 0.71 0.40 0.23 0.08 1.85 1.70 0.85 0.68 0.17 2.08 1.20 0.03 0.17 0.68 0.11 NonService Manufacproducturing manufacturing ing 2 15.82 11.56 4.26 1.02 0.48 0.34 0.15 0.05 0.36 0.12 0.19 0.05 1.03 0.95 0.41 0.32 0.09 1.44 0.95 0.03 0.11 0.32 0.02 20.72 13.69 7.03 1.55 0.79 0.57 0.13 0.06 0.72 0.40 0.22 0.10 1.96 1.79 0.81 0.63 0.17 1.87 1.20 0.03 0.16 0.48 0.12 16.19 11.76 4.43 1.00 0.48 0.33 0.14 0.05 0.38 0.14 0.19 0.04 1.06 0.98 0.45 0.35 0.09 1.53 0.97 0.03 0.12 0.39 0.02 Union members 23.26 14.76 8.51 1.66 0.90 0.53 0.16 0.08 0.75 0.50 0.11 0.14 2.46 2.28 1.23 1.12 0.12 2.30 1.27 0.03 0.17 0.75 0.11 Nonunion members 16.04 11.70 4.34 1.02 0.48 0.36 0.14 0.04 0.39 0.14 0.21 0.04 1.03 0.94 0.40 0.29 0.11 1.48 0.97 0.03 0.12 0.35 0.03 Fulltime workers 19.28 13.52 5.77 1.33 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.52 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1.48 (NA) 0.63 (NA) (NA) 1.75 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.05 Parttime workers 8.80 6.97 1.83 0.27 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.14 (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.30 (NA) 0.11 (NA) (NA) 1.02 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (Z)

Total 17.08 12.14 4.94 1.11 0.54 0.38 0.14 0.05 0.44 0.19 0.20 0.06 1.23 1.14 0.52 0.41 0.11 1.60 1.02 0.03 0.13 0.41 0.04

Legally required 3 . . . . . . Social Security . . . . . . Federal unemployment . State unemployment . . Workers compensation . Other benefits 4 . . . . . . .

1 2 Mining, construction, and manufacturing. Transportation, NA Not available. Z Represents or rounds to zero. communications, public utilities, wholesale trade, retail trade, finance, insurance, real estate, and services. 3 Includes railroad retirement, railroad unemployment, railroad supplemental unemployment, and other legally required benefits, not shown separately. 4 Includes severance pay, and supplemental unemployment benefits.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, USDL, 94-290.

No. 684. Employees With Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Plans or Group Health Plans: 1993
[For wage and salary workers 15 years old and over as of March 1994. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III. Data based on 1990 population controls] PERCENT WITH— Pension plan 39.2 51.5 58.2 54.4 26.4 45.8 40.1 41.1 40.5 23.6 20.9 1.0 22.0 8.6 70.3 Group health plan 51.9 66.7 66.9 15 25 67.1 45 41.6 65 57.3 56.5 60.5 57.1 36.2 30.5 5.1 32.0 20.4 25.7 CHARACTERISTIC PERCENT WITH— Total (1,000) Pension plan 39.2 11.0 43.7 51.0 22.0 39.2 47.1 53.4 30.4 16.1 11.7 17.6 11.9 4.8 15.5 32.8 46.5 54.1 58.6 Group health plan 51.9 23.4 57.2 61.9 37.5 51.9 61.6 68.6 45.9 23.8 18.2 25.5 18.0 9.8 29.3 51.6 62.2 65.1 66.9

OCCUPATION

Total (1,000)

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137,095 Executive, admin., managerial . . . 16,710 Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . 18,209 Technical/related support . . . . . . . Sales workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, inc. clerical . . . . . Precision prod., craft/repair . . . . . Mach. operators, assemblers . . . Transportation/material moving . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners 2 . . Service workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private households . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry and fishing . . . . Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

4,412 16,661 20,636 14,601 8,380 5,569 6,096 20,528 1,122 19,406 4,373 919

AGE Total . . . . . . . . . . . to 24 years . . . . . . . . to 44 years . . . . . . . . to 64 years . . . . . . . . years and over . . . . . . WORK EXPERIENCE Worked . . . . . . . . . Full-time . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 weeks or more . . . . 27 to 49 weeks . . . . . . 26 weeks or fewer . . . . Part-time . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 weeks or more . . . . 27 to 49 weeks . . . . . . 26 weeks or fewer . . . . EMPLOYER SIZE Under 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 499 . . . . . . . . . . . 500 to 999 . . . . . . . . . . . Over 1,000. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 137,095 . 23,858 . 71,056 . 37,270 . 4,912 . 137,095 . 106,406 . 83,390 . 13,057 . 9,960 . 30,689 . 12,902 . 6,823 . 10,965 . . . . . 44,467 18,239 19,250 8,250 46,889

1 Includes inspectors. 2 Includes helpers and laborers. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, unpublished data.

438

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 685. Employee Benefits in Private Establishments: 1992 and 1993

[Covers full-time employees in private industry. Medium and large establishments exclude establishments with fewer than 100 workers, executive and traveling operating employees, and Alaska and Hawaii. Small establishments include those with fewer than 100 employees. Covers only benefits for which the employer pays part or all of the premium or expenses involved, except unpaid parental leave and long-term care insurance. Based on a sample survey of establishments; for details, see sources. For data on employee benefits in State and local governments, see table 510] All MEDIUM AND LARGE PRIVATE ESTABLISHMENTS, employ1993 ees Percent of employees participating in— Paid: Vacations . . . . . . . . . Holidays . . . . . . . . . . . . Jury duty leave . . . . . . . Funeral leave. . . . . . . . . Rest time . . . . . . . . . . . Military leave . . . . . . . . . Sick leave . . . . . . . . . . . Personal leave . . . . . . . . Lunch time . . . . . . . . . . Maternity leave . . . . . . . Paternity leave . . . . . . . . Unpaid: Maternity leave. . . . Paternity leave . . . . . . . . Insurance plans: Medical care . . . . . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . . Hospital/room and board Inpatient surgery . . . . . Mental health care: Inpatient care . . . . . Outpatient care . . . . Dental . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended care facility . . Home health care . . . . Hospice care . . . . . . . Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . In HMO’s . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol abuse treatment: Inpatient detoxification Inpatient rehabilitation Outpatient . . . . . . . Drug abuse treatment: . Inpatient detoxification Inpatient rehabilitation Outpatient . . . . . . . Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . . Accident/sickness . . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . . Long-term disability . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . . Retirement and savings plans . Defined benefit pension . . . Earnings-based formula 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Defined contribution . . . . . . Savings and thrift . . . . . . Employee stock ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deferred profit sharing . . . Money purchase pension . Additional benefits: Parking 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational assistance . . . . Travel accident insurance . . Severance pay . . . . . . . . . Relocation allowance 2 . . . . Recreation facilities 2 . . . . . Nonproduction bonuses, cash Child care. . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexible benefits plans . . . . Reimbursement accounts 3 . Eldercare . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term care insurance . . Wellness programs. . . . . . . Employee assistance programs . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional, Cleri- Protechcal duction nical and and and sales service related All employees Professional, Cleritechcal nical and and sales related Blue collar and service

SMALL PRIVATE ESTABLISHMENTS, 1992 Percent of employees participating in— Paid: Vacations . . . . . . . . Holidays . . . . . . . . . . . Jury duty leave . . . . . . Funeral leave. . . . . . . . Rest time . . . . . . . . . . Military leave . . . . . . . . Sick leave . . . . . . . . . . Personal leave . . . . . . . Lunch time . . . . . . . . . Maternity leave . . . . . . Paternity leave . . . . . . . Unpaid: Maternity leave. . . Paternity leave . . . . . . . Insurance plans: Medical care . . . . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . Hospital/room and board Inpatient surgery . . . . Mental health care: Inpatient . . . . . . . . Outpatient . . . . . . Dental . . . . . . . . . . . Extended care facility . Home health care . . . Hospice care . . . . . . Vision . . . . . . . . . . . In HMO’s . . . . . . . . . Alcohol abuse treatment: Inpatient detoxification Inpatient . . . . . . . . rehabilitation . . . . Outpatient . . . . . . Drug abuse treatment: Inpatient detoxification Inpatient rehabilitation . . . . Outpatient . . . . . . Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . Accident/sickness . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . Long-term disability . . . . Noncontributory . . . . Retirement and savings plans: Defined benefit pension . . Earnings-based formula 1 . . . . . . . . . . Defined contribution . . . . . Savings and thrift . . . . . Employee stock ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deferred profit sharing . . Money purchase pension Additional benefits: Parking 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational assistance . . . Travel accident insurance . Severance pay . . . . . . . . Relocation allowance . . . . Recreation facilities . . . . . Nonproduction bonuses, cash Child care. . . . . . . . . . . . Flexible benefits plans . . . Reimbursement accounts 4 Eldercare . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term care insurance . Wellness programs. . . . . . Employee assistance programs . . . . . . . . . . .

97 91 90 83 68 53 65 21 9 3 1 60 53 82 37 82 82 80 80 62 67 71 53 26 19 80 66 67 80 64 66 91 87 44 75 41 73 78 56 40 49 29 3 13 8 88 72 44 42 31 26 38 7 12 52 31 6 37 62

97 89 95 86 54 66 85 27 5 4 2 63 55 84 31 84 84 83 82 68 71 74 56 27 24 82 66 69 82 65 68 95 84 28 65 64 69 83 57 50 60 38 3 12 13 86 85 59 56 50 34 37 12 21 68 33 8 51 74

98 93 92 85 66 54 80 31 5 3 1 60 51 79 32 79 79 77 77 63 68 70 54 26 21 77 63 65 77 60 64 92 87 37 67 50 71 78 54 45 54 34 4 16 7 85 72 52 48 30 25 38 6 13 62 32 8 38 64

96 92 85 80 76 44 45 13 13 1 (Z) 59 52 82 44 82 82 80 79 58 66 68 52 27 15 80 58 68 80 66 65 89 89 57 81 23 80 76 56 32 40 21 2 12 6 92 65 32 31 21 23 38 4 6 37 29 3 29 53

88 82 58 50 49 21 53 12 9 2 1 18 8 71 37 71 71 68 67 33 60 57 40 10 14 67 50 50 66 48 49 64 53 26 17 23 18 22 15 33 14 1 16 5 86 36 16 15 12 7 47 2 2 14 3 1 17 17

94 94 76 60 40 33 74 19 12 3 1 27 13 83 43 83 83 80 80 43 72 69 50 9 14 79 58 61 78 57 60 77 66 24 17 43 38 21 19 43 20 1 18 9 84 51 24 26 22 13 52 3 4 24 4 2 24 24

94 90 65 56 43 27 70 16 8 2 (Z) 20 9 78 40 78 78 76 74 37 66 66 44 10 13 74 52 55 71 50 53 73 62 27 16 31 26 25 20 38 17 1 19 5 85 43 19 21 15 7 50 3 4 20 5 1 21 21

81 74 47 43 56 13 35 7 8 1 (Z) 13 6 61 34 61 61 57 57 27 49 46 34 10 16 59 43 43 58 41 41 53 42 27 18 10 6 20 9 26 9 1 14 4 88 26 11 8 6 4 43 (Z) (Z) 7 2 1 12 12

1 Earnings-based formulas pay a percent of employee’s annual earnings (usually Z Represents or rounds to zero. earnings in the final years of employment) per year of service. 2 1991 data. 3 Account which is used throughout the year to pay for plan premiums or to reimburse the employee for benefit related expenses. Account may be financed by employer, employee, or both. 4 1990 data. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Private Establishments, 1993, Bulletin 2456; and Employee Benefits in Small Private Establishments, 1992, Bulletin 2441.

Collective Bargaining Agreements

439

No. 686. Major Collective Bargaining Agreements—Average Percent Wage Rate Changes Under All Agreements: 1970 to 1994
[In percent, except as indicated. Data represent all wage rate changes implemented under the terms of private nonfarm industry agreements affecting 1,000 workers or more. Series covers production and related workers in manufacturing and nonsupervisory workers in nonmanufacturing industries. Data measure all wage rate changes effective in the year stemming from settlements reached in the year, deferred from prior year settlements, and cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) clauses] CHANGES Average wage rate change (prorated over all workers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source: Current settlements . . . . . . . . . . . . Prior settlements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COLA provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industry: Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmanufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . Wholesale and retail trade . . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmanufacturing, excluding construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average wage rate increase for workers receiving an increase . Source: Current settlements . . . . . Prior settlements . . . . . . . COLA provisions . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 8.8 5.1 3.1 0.6 7.1 10.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 9.4 11.9 5.8 3.7 10.2 4.7 5.7 1.8 0.6 1975 8.7 2.8 3.7 2.2 8.5 8.9 8.1 9.7 9.2 6.4 9.3 9.0 10.2 5.2 4.8 9.7 2.7 7.3 4.7 0.4 1980 9.9 3.6 3.5 2.8 10.2 9.7 9.9 10.8 7.6 8.1 9.6 10.1 9.4 5.6 7.7 8.9 3.5 5.6 3.4 0.2 1985 3.3 0.7 1.8 0.7 2.8 3.6 3.0 3.6 3.3 5.1 3.7 4.2 4.1 3.7 2.2 5.5 1.4 3.4 2.3 1.5 1989 3.2 1.2 1.3 0.7 3.5 3.0 3.1 2.3 3.2 5.3 3.0 4.0 4.2 3.4 3.3 4.8 1.7 2.3 1.3 1.2 1990 3.5 1.3 1.5 0.7 4.4 3.0 3.4 2.2 3.6 4.3 2.9 4.2 4.1 3.3 2.7 4.9 1.9 2.7 1.4 1.0 1991 3.6 1.1 1.9 0.5 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.5 4.9 3.6 4.0 4.2 3.7 2.0 5.1 1.5 3.0 1.3 0.5 1992 3.1 0.8 1.9 0.4 3.1 3.1 3.4 2.7 3.5 3.7 3.0 3.7 3.6 3.8 2.0 4.7 1.3 2.8 1.0 0.9 1993 3.0 0.9 1.9 0.2 3.3 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.3 3.4 2.8 3.5 3.2 3.4 1.3 4.8 1.7 3.0 0.9 0.7 1994 2.7 0.6 1.9 0.2 2.4 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.3 2.9 3.3 3.2 3.4 1.7 4.6 1.1 3.0 0.8 0.8

..

......... ......... ......... ......... a ........ ........ ........ ........

Total number of workers receiving wage rate increase (mil.) . . . . . Source (mil.): Current settlements . . . . . . Prior settlements . . . . . . . . COLA provisions . . . . . . . .

Number of workers not receiving a wage rate increase (mil.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Compensation and Working Conditions, monthly.

No. 687. Major Collective Bargaining Settlements—Average Percent Changes in Wage and Compensation Rates Negotiated: 1970 to 1994
[In percent, except as indicated. Data represent private nonfarm industry settlements affecting production and related workers in manufacturing and nonsupervisory workers in nonmanufacturing industries. Wage data cover units with 1,000 workers or more. Compensation data relate to units of 5,000 or more. Data relate to contracts negotiated in each calendar year but exclude possible changes in wage rates under cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) clauses, except increases guaranteed by the contract. Includes all settlements, whether wage and benefit rates were changed or not. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] CHANGES Compensation rates: First year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Over life of contract 1. . . . . . . . . . . Wage rates: All industries: First year . . . . . . . . . . . . Contracts with COLA . . Contracts without COLA Over life of contract 1 . . . . Contracts with COLA . . Contracts without COLA Manufacturing: First year . . . . . . . . . . Over life of contract 1 . . Nonmanufacturing: First year . . . . . . . . . . Over life of contract 1 . . 1970 13.1 9.1 1975 11.4 8.1 1980 10.4 7.1 1985 2.6 2.7 1988 3.1 2.5 1989 4.5 3.4 1990 4.6 3.2 1991 4.1 3.4 1992 3.0 3.1 1993 3.0 2.4 1994 2.3 2.4

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

11.9 (NA) (NA) 8.9 (NA) (NA) 8.1 6.0 15.2 11.5 4.7 2.2 2.5

10.2 12.2 9.1 7.8 7.1 8.3 9.8 8.0 10.4 7.8 2.9 0.8 2.1

9.5 8.0 11.7 7.1 5.0 10.3 7.4 5.4 10.9 8.3 3.8 1.6 2.2

2.3 1.6 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.8 0.8 1.8 3.3 3.3 2.2 0.9 1.3

2.5 2.4 2.7 2.4 1.8 2.8 2.2 2.1 2.8 2.5 1.8 0.7 1.1

4.0 3.9 4.0 3.4 2.8 3.5 3.9 3.2 4.0 3.4 1.9 0.4 1.5

4.0 3.4 4.4 3.2 1.9 4.0 3.7 2.1 4.3 4.0 2.0 0.9 1.1

3.6 3.4 3.7 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.9 3.1 3.4 3.3 1.8 0.6 1.2

2.7 2.7 2.7 3.0 2.5 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.7 3.0 1.6 0.3 1.3

2.3 2.8 2.1 2.1 1.4 2.5 2.7 1.5 2.1 2.5 2.1 0.8 1.3

2.0 2.7 1.8 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.3 1.8 2.3 1.6 0.4 1.1

..... ..... ..... .....

Number of workers affected (mil.) . . Manufacturing (mil.) . . . . . . . . . . Nonmanufacturing (mil.) . . . . . . . NA Not available.
1

Average annual rate of change.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Compensation and Working Conditions, monthly.

440

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings

No. 690. Industries with the Highest Total Case Incidence Rates for Nonfatal Injuries and Illnesses: 1992 and 1993
[Rates per full-time employees. Industries shown are those with highest rates in 1993. See headnote, table 691] INDUSTRY 1987 SIC 1 code 1992 8.9 44.4 37.8 32.3 35.0 27.2 23.0 31.6 29.2 20.3 22.5 23.2 24.4 20.5 21.3 1993 8.5 39.0 34.3 31.2 29.0 28.0 27.5 27.5 27.0 26.7 25.9 23.8 23.2 23.1 22.8 22.8
1

INDUSTRY Truck trailers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Truck and bus bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . Malt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal barrels, drums, and pails. . . . . . Secondary nonferrous metals. . . . . . . Flat glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural wood members, n.e.c. 2 . . . Iron and steel forgings . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum foundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knit underwear mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor homes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leather tanning and finishing . . . . . . . Lawn and garden equipment . . . . . . . Sausages and other prepared meats . . Commerical laundry equipment . . . . . Nonferrous die-casting except aluminum Fresh or frozen prepared fish . . . . . . .

1987 SIC 1 code 3715 3713 2083 3412 3341 3211 2439 3462 3365 2254 3716 3111 3524 2013 3582 3364 2092

1992 25.0 22.3 26.6 21.3 21.1 22.4 21.1 20.1 18.9 19.5 20.5 17.0 21.0 17.4 20.3

1993 22.7 22.7 22.3 22.1 20.9 20.9 20.8 20.7 20.3 20.3 20.2 19.9 19.9 19.7 19.6 19.6 19.4
2

Private industry. . . . . . . . . . . . (X) Meat packing plants . . . . . . . . . Ship building and repairing . . . . Motor vehicles and car bodies . . Metal sanitary ware . . . . . . . . . Special product sawmills, n.e.c. 2 Household appliances, n.e.c. 2 . . Mobile homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gray and ductile iron foundries. . Automotive stampings . . . . . . . Malleable iron foundries . . . . . . Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts . Poultry slaughtering processing . Steel foundries, n.e.c. . . . . . . . . Aluminum die-castings . . . . . . . Prefabricated wood buildings . . . - Represents or rounds to zero. means not elsewhere classified. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2011 3731 3711 3431 2429 3639 2451 3321 3465 3322 3751 2015 3325 3363 2452

X Not applicable.

1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, section 13.

N.e.c.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry, annual.

Occupational illness and Fatalities

441

No. 691. Nonfatal Occupational Injury and Illness Incidence Rates: 1992 and 1993
[Rates per 100 full-time employees. For nonfarm employment data, see table 668. Rates refer to any occupational injury or illness resulting in (1) lost workday cases, or (2) nonfatal cases without lost workdays. Incidence rates were calculated as: Number of injuries and illnesses divided by total hours worked by all employees during year multiplied by 200,000 as base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks a year)] INDUSTRY Private sector 2 . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, fishing 2 . . Mining 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal mining 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Coal mining 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas extraction . . . . . . . Nonmetallic minerals, exc. fuels Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General building contractors . . . Heavy construction, except building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special trade contractors . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable goods . . . . . . . . . . Lumber and wood products . . . Furniture and fixtures . . . . . . . Stone, clay, and glass products. Primary metal industries . . . . . Fabricated metal products . . . . Industrial machinery and equip . Electronic/other electric equip . . Transportation equipment. . . . . Instruments/related products. . . Miscellaneous manufacturing industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondurable goods . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products. . . . Tobacco products . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products . . . . . . . . Apparel and other textile products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paper and allied products . . . . Printing and publishing . . . . . . Chemicals and allied products . Petroleum and coal products . . Rubber and misc. plastics products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leather and leather products . . Transportation/public utilities 3 . Railroad transportation 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 SIC 1 code (X) A B 10 12 13 14 C 15 16 17 D (X) 24 25 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 (X) 20 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 30 31 E 40 1992 8.9 11.6 7.3 6.1 12.5 6.0 6.5 13.1 12.2 12.1 13.8 12.5 13.4 16.3 14.8 13.6 17.5 16.8 11.1 8.4 18.7 5.9 10.7 11.3 18.8 6.0 9.9 9.5 11.0 7.3 6.0 5.9 14.5 12.1 9.1 6.6 1993 8.5 11.2 6.8 5.9 10.3 6.1 6.3 12.2 11.5 11.1 12.8 12.1 13.1 15.9 14.6 13.8 17.0 16.2 11.1 8.3 18.5 5.6 10.0 10.7 17.6 5.8 9.7 9.0 9.9 6.9 5.9 5.2 13.9 12.1 9.5 5.8 INDUSTRY Local passenger transit . . . . . . Trucking and warehousing . . . . Water transportation . . . . . . . . Transportation by air . . . . . . . . Pipelines, except natural gas . . Transportation services . . . . . . Communications. . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, sanitary services . Wholesale and retail trade. . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . Depository institutions . . . . . . . Nondepository institutions . . . . Security and commodity brokers Insurance carriers. . . . . . . . . . Insurance agents, brokers, and service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holding and other investment offices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and other lodging places Personal services . . . . . . . . . . Business services. . . . . . . . . . Auto repair, services, and parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous repair services . . Motion pictures . . . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services . . . . . . . . Social services. . . . . . . . . . . . Museums, botanical, zoological gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and management services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services, n.e.c. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 SIC 1 code 41 42 44 45 46 47 48 49 F, G F G H 60 61 62 63 1992 11.0 13.4 11.5 13.8 3.1 3.9 3.4 7.6 8.4 7.6 8.7 2.9 2.1 1.0 0.7 (NA) 1.4 6.8 2.7 7.1 11.2 5.1 5.4 7.8 8.7 (NA) 10.1 10.2 1.2 5.6 8.0 7.8 2.4 2.7 1993 11.5 13.8 10.4 15.1 3.8 4.0 3.9 7.5 8.1 7.8 8.2 2.9 2.5 1.3 0.9 2.4 1.5 6.2 2.4 6.7 10.7 4.3 5.0 7.5 8.2 3.3 10.3 9.6 1.3 4.6 7.3 9.1 2.6 2.4

. . 64 . . 65 . . . . . . . . . . 67 I 70 72 73

. . 75 . . 76 . . 78 . . . . . . . . . . 79 80 81 82 83

. . 84 . . 87 . . 89

NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, section 13. 2 Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees. 3 Data conforming to OSHA definitions for employers in the railroad industry and for mining operators in coal, metal, and nonmetal mining. Independent mining contractors are excluded from the coal, metal, and nonmetal mining industries. 4 Includes categories not shown separately. 5 N.e.c means not elsewhere classified. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry, annual.

No. 692. Fatal Work Injuries, by Cause: 1993
[For the 50 States and DC. Based on the 1993 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Due to methodological differences, data differ from those in table 688. For details, see source] CAUSE Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation accidents 1 . . . . . . . . . . Highway accidents 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noncollision accidents . . . . . . . . . Nonhighway accident (farm, industrial premises) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aircraft accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Workers struck by a vehicle . . . . . . . Water vehicle accidents . . . . . . . . . . Railway accidents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assaults and violent acts 1 . . . . . . . . . Homicides 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stabbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-inflicted injury . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Number of fatalities 6,271 2,482 1,232 652 333 392 280 361 119 85 1,309 1,063 874 95 215

Percent distribution 100 40 20 10 5 6 4 6 2 1 21 17 14 2 3

CAUSE Contacts with objects and equipment 1 Struck by object 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Struck by falling objects . . . . . . . Struck by flying object . . . . . . . . Caught in or compressed by— equipment or objects . . . . . . . . . . collapsing materials. . . . . . . . . . . Falls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exposure to harmful substances or environments 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contact with electric current . . . . . . Exposure to caustic, noxious or allergenic substances . . . . . . . Oxygen deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . Drowning, submersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of fatalities 1,039 563 345 81 308 138 611 590 324 116 111 89 201 38

Percent distribution 17 9 6 1 5 2 10 9 5 2 2 1 3 1

Fires and explosions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other events and exposures . . . . . . . .

Includes other causes, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Report, October, 1994.

442

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
No. 693. Fatal Occupational Injuries, by Industry and Event: 1993
[See headnote, table 692] EVENT OR EXPOSURE—PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Trans- Assaults/ Contact portation violent with incidents acts objects 3 40 38 51 27 12 33 25 23 37 20 29 35 28 65 18 79 87 38 55 18 7 28 15 31 35 32 22 52 21 21 5 3 4 4 5 3 4 9 10 2 16 78 5 7 15 70 89 54 76 40 28 26 32 23 17 18 26 42 70 32 20 21 29 16 36 24 63 8 9 5 19 13 5 8 3 3 10 9 22 7 Falls 10 10 6 8 10 30 38 11 36 8 10 3 3 2 4 6 8 2 2 3 2 15 9 15 3 7 Exposure 4 9 10 11 14 15 15 17 10 16 20 11 15 5 2 22 4 3 4 4 11 13 12 11 6 Rate
5

INDUSTRY

1987 SIC 1 code

Fatalities 2

Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) Private industry . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, fishing . . . . . Mining 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas extraction . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General building contractors . . . Heavy construction, except building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special trade contractors . . . . . Manufacturing 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . . Lumber and wood products . . . Transportation and public utilities 6 Local passenger transit . . . . . . Trucking and warehousing . . . . Transportation by air . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, sanitary services . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automotive dealer and service stations . . . . . . . . . . Eating and drinking places . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . . . Services 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business services . . . . . . . . . . Auto repair, services, and parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) A B 12 13 C 15 16 17 D 20 24 E 41 42 45 49 F G 54 55 58 H I 73

6,271 5,590 855 174 40 94 924 152 255 517 762 82 204 890 130 467 79 72 250 784 223 138 199 116 758 188 116 681

5 6 26 26 35 25 14 4 5 29 13 28 22 11 5 5 4 6 7 3 2 2 4 8 3

. . . 75 ... J

- No data reported or data do not meet publication standards. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification 2 Includes 77 fatalities, not available by type of industry. Includes fatalities caused by fires and code, see text section 13. explosions, not shown separately. 3 Includes equipment. 4 Exposure to harmful substances or environments. 5 Rate per 100,000 employed civilians 16 years old and over. 6 Includes other industries, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Report, October, 1994.

No. 694. Work Stoppages: 1960 to 1994
[Excludes work stoppages involving fewer than 1,000 workers and lasting less than 1 day. Information is based on reports of labor disputes appearing in daily newspapers, trade journals, and other public sources. The parties to the disputes are contacted by telephone, when necessary, to clarify details of the stoppages] DAYS IDLE YEAR Number of Workers work stop- involved 2 (1,000) pages 1 Number 3 (1,000) 13,260 15,140 29,397 52,761 35,538 16,764 16,260 31,809 17,563 23,962 21,258 23,774 20,409 20,844 Percent estimated working time 4 0.09 0.10 0.16 0.29 0.19 0.09 0.08 0.16 0.09 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.09 YEAR Number of Workers work stop- involved 2 (1,000) pages 1 DAYS IDLE Number 3 (1,000) 16,908 9,061 17,461 8,499 7,079 11,861 5 4,481 5 4,381 16,996 5,926 4,584 3,989 3,981 5,021 Percent estimated working time 4 0.07 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02

1960 . 1965 . 1969 . 1970 . 1971 . 1972 . 1973 . 1974 . 1975 . 1976 . 1977 . 1978 . 1979 . 1980 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

222 268 412 381 298 250 317 424 235 231 298 219 235 187

896 999 1,576 2,468 2,516 975 1,400 1,796 965 1,519 1,212 1,006 1,021 795

1981 . 1982 . 1983 . 1984 . 1985 . 1986 . 1987 . 1988 . 1989 . 1990 . 1991 . 1992 . 1993 . 1994 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

145 96 81 62 54 69 46 40 51 44 40 35 35 45

729 656 909 376 324 533 174 118 452 185 392 364 182 322

1 Beginning in year indicated. 2 Workers counted more than once if involved in more than one stoppage during the year. 3 Resulting from all stoppages in effect in a year, including those that began in an earlier year. 4 Agricultural and government employees are included in the total working time; private household and forestry and fishery employees are excluded. 5 Revised since originally published.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Compensation and Conditions, monthly.

Union Membership

443

No. 696. U.S. Membership in AFL-CIO Affiliated Unions, by Selected Union: 1979 to 1993
[In thousands. Figures represent the labor organizations as constituted in 1993 and reflect past merger activity. Membership figures based on average per capita paid membership to the AFL-CIO for the 2-year period ending in June of the year shown and reflect only actively-employed members. Labor unions shown had a membership of 50,000 or more in 1993] LABOR ORGANIZATION Total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Actors and Artists . . . . . . . Automobile, Aerospace and Agriculture (UAW) . . . . . . Bakery, Confectionery and Tobacco . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boiler Makers, Iron Shipbuilders 2 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Bricklayers . . . . . . . . . . . . Carpenters 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Clothing and Textile Workers (ACTWU) 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Communication Workers (CWA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Workers (IBEW) . . Electronic, Electrical and Salaried 2 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Operating Engineers . . . . . Fire Fighters . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW) 2 . . . . . . Garment Workers (ILGWU) . Glass, Molders, Pottery, and Plastics 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Government, American Federation (AFGE) . . . . . . Graphic Communications 2 . Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees . . . Ironworkers . . . . . . . . . . . Laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter Carriers (NALC) . . . . .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979 13,621 75 (X) 131 129 106 626 308 485 825 243 313 150 1,123 314 50 236 171 373 146 475 151 1989 1993 LABOR ORGANIZATION Longshoreman’s Association . Machinists and Aerospace (IAM) 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marine Engineers Beneficial Assn. . . . . . . . . . Mine Workers . . . . . . . . . . . Office and Professional Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil, Chemical, Atomic Workers (OCAW) . . . . . . . . Painters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paperworkers Int’l . . . . . . . . Plumbing and Pipefitting . . . . Postal Workers . . . . . . . . . . Retail, Wholesale Department Stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber, Cork, Linoleum, Plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seafarers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Employees (SEIU) 2 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Metal Workers . . . . . . Stage Employees, Moving Picture Machine Operators . State, County, Municipal (AFSCME) 5 . . . . . . . . . . . Steelworkers. . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers (AFT) . . . . . . . . . . Teamsters 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . Transit Union . . . . . . . . . . . Transport Workers . . . . . . . . Transportation Union, United . ... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979 63 688 23 (X) 83 146 160 262 228 245 122 158 84 537 120 50 889 964 423 (X) 94 85 121 1989 62 517 48 (X) 84 71 128 210 220 213 137 92 80 762 108 50 1,090 481 544 1,161 96 85 (X) 1993 58 474 52 75 89 86 106 188 220 249 80 81 80 919 108 51 1,167 421 574 1,316 94 78 60

14,100 13,299 97 93 917 103 75 84 613 180 492 744 171 330 142 999 153 86 156 124 278 111 406 201 771 99 58 84 408 143 472 710 143 305 151 997 133 73 149 95 258 91 408 210

... ... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

X Not applicable. 1 Includes other AFL-CIO affiliated unions, not shown separately. 2 Figures reflect mergers with one or 3 4 Includes Blacksmiths, Forgers, and Helpers. Includes Machine and more unions since 1979. For details see source. 5 Furniture Workers. Excludes Hospital and Health Care Employees which merged into both unions on June 1, 1989, 6 (membership of 23,000 in 1985; 60,000 in 1987; and 58,000 in 1989). Includes Chauffeurs, Warehousemen, and Helpers. Source: American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC, Report of the AFL-CIO Executive Council, biennual.

No. 698. Union Members, by Selected Characteristics: 1983 and 1994
[Annual averages of monthly data. Covers employed wage and salary workers 16 years old and over. Excludes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated although they technically qualify as wage and salary workers. See headnote table 643 regarding data by occupation and industry. Based on Current Population Survey, see text, section 1, and Appendix III] EMPLOYED WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS CHARACTERISTIC Total (1,000) 1983 Total 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-time workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part-time workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managerial and professional specialty . . . Technical sales, and admin. support . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision, production, craft, and repair . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . Agricultural wage and salary workers . . . . Private nonagri. wage and salary workers . Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade, total. . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88,290 19,305 25,978 18,722 13,150 9,201 1,934 47,856 40,433 77,046 42,168 34,877 8,979 4,477 4,502 (NA) (NA) (NA) 70,976 17,314 19,657 28,024 12,875 10,542 15,416 1,775 1,446 71,225 869 4,109 19,066 5,142 18,081 5,559 18,400 15,618 1994
1

MEDIAN USUAL WEEKLY EARNINGS Total
1

4

(dol.) Not represented by unions
1

Percent union members 1983 20.1 9.1 19.6 24.8 27.0 26.9 10.1 24.7 14.6 19.3 24.0 13.5 27.2 31.7 22.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) 22.9 8.4 17.1 12.1 15.3 32.9 35.4 5.5 3.4 16.8 20.7 27.5 27.8 42.4 8.7 2.9 7.7 36.7

2 1

Percent represented by unions 3 1983 23.3 11.1 23.1 28.6 30.5 30.3 12.1 27.7 18.0 22.3 26.9 16.7 31.7 36.1 27.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) 26.4 10.3 21.9 15.0 17.9 35.7 37.9 6.9 3.8 18.8 23.1 29.4 30.5 46.2 9.8 4.1 9.6 45.5 1994 1983

Union members 1994
1

2 1

Represented by unions 3 1983 383 275 376 407 402 390 330 414 307 391 421 313 324 360 287 (NA) (NA) (NA) 383 (X) 421 341 299 450 361 287 (B) 385 470 510 368 445 348 285 303 381 1994

1994

1983 388 281 382 411 404 392 338 416 309 396 423 314 331 366 292 (NA) (NA) (NA) 388 (X) 423 350 305 456 366 292 (B) 389 470 518 370 449 353 284 303 386

1994

1983 288 203 304 339 335 316 238 349 237 295 362 240 222 244 209 (NA) (NA) (NA) 288 (X) 446 270 182 322 226 189 195 286 488 296 315 386 242 297 268 316

1994

1

107,989 18,207 29,617 29,160 19,675 8,924 2,406 56,570 51,419 91,290 48,351 42,939 12,229 5,834 6,395 10,017 6,002 4,015 87,379 20,431 28,568 33,509 15,597 11,354 17,142 1,820 1,487 88,163 652 4,866 19,267 6,512 22,319 6,897 27,649 18,339

15.5 6.2 12.7 18.5 22.5 20.3 8.9 17.9 12.9 14.8 17.2 12.1 20.5 23.3 18.1 14.2 15.5 12.1 17.3 7.9 14.4 10.3 14.3 23.9 24.1 5.7 2.3 10.9 15.6 18.8 18.2 28.4 6.2 2.3 6.2 38.7

17.5 7.2 14.5 20.8 24.8 22.8 10.2 19.6 15.1 16.7 18.9 14.1 23.3 25.9 20.8 15.9 17.0 14.2 19.4 9.2 17.3 12.1 15.7 25.6 25.6 6.7 2.8 12.0 17.0 19.9 19.7 30.7 6.8 3.1 7.3 44.7

313 210 321 369 366 346 260 378 252 319 387 254 261 293 231 (NA) (NA) (NA) 313 (X) 437 281 205 377 275 196 198 307 481 348 335 417 252 296 272 351

467 286 439 537 566 501 384 522 399 484 547 408 371 400 346 324 343 305 467 (X) 683 420 294 504 373 282 282 448 639 477 482 584 359 484 425 564

592 366 532 623 639 588 549 621 522 609 640 546 493 524 452 470 506 402 592 (X) 729 518 483 672 514 416 (B) 562 664 696 533 665 453 471 485 623

587 364 522 618 636 589 549 620 517 604 638 538 487 518 446 468 501 413 587 (X) 720 511 470 663 510 406 (B) 556 656 687 533 657 439 467 488 617

432 281 421 508 520 472 361 495 377 451 513 386 338 359 323 307 316 289 432 (X) 672 407 268 458 327 273 279 427 634 425 464 531 352 485 420 493

Union Membership 445

B Data not shown where base is less than 50,000. NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 See footnote 2, table 626. 2 Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a labor union. 3 Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union as well as workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract. 4 For full-time employed wage and salary workers; 1983 revised since originally published. 5 Includes races not shown separately. For 1994, includes a small number of multiple jobholders whose full- part-time status can not be determined for their principal job. 6 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, January issues.