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					Figure 13.1

Unemployment Rate, by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1980 to 1998
Unemployment rate 20

Black 15

Hispanic1 10

White

5

0

1980
1

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Census Bureau. For data, see Table 651.

Figure 13.2

Multiple Job Holders, by Reason: 1997
Meet regular household expenses To pay off debts To save for the future To get experience or build up business To help out a friend or relative Save to buy something special Enjoys the work Other reasons 0 5 10 15 Percent
Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Census Bureau. For data, see Table 669.

Male Female

20

25

30

35

406 Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

Section 13

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Comprehensive historical and current data are available from the BLS Internet site <http://stats.bls.gov/ cpshome.htm>. These data are published on a current basis by the BLS monthly publication Employment and Earnings. Detailed data on the labor force are also available from the Census Bureau’s decennial census of population. Types of data—Most statistics in this section are obtained by two methods: household interviews or questionnaires and reports of establishment payroll records. Each method provides data which the other cannot suitably supply. Population characteristics, for example, are readily obtainable only from the household survey, while detailed industrial classifications can be readily derived only from establishment records. Household data are obtained from a monthly sample survey of the population. The CPS is used to gather data for the calendar week including the 12th of the month and provides current comprehensive data on the labor force (see text, Section 1, Population). The CPS provides information on the work status of the population without duplication since each person is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force. Employed persons holding more than one job are counted only once, according to the job at which they worked the most hours during the survey week. Monthly, quarterly, and annual data from the CPS are published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in Employment and Earnings. Data presented include national totals of the number of persons in the civilian labor force by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age; the number employed; hours of work; industry and occupational groups; and the number unemployed, reasons for, and duration of unemployment. Annual data shown in this section are averages of monthly figures for each calendar year, unless otherwise specified. The CPS also produces annual estimates of employment and unemployment for each state, 50 large metropolitan statistical areas, and selected cities. These estimates are published by BLS in its annual Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment. More detailed geographic data (e.g., for counties and cities) are provided by the decennial population censuses. Data based on establishment records are compiled by BLS and cooperating state agencies as part of an ongoing Current Employment Statistics program. Survey data, gathered monthly from a sample of employers through mail questionnaires or electronic interviewing, are supplemented by data from other government agencies and adjusted at intervals to data from government social insurance program reports. The estimates exclude self-employed persons, private household workers, unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and the Armed Forces. In March 1998, reporting establishments employed 8 million manufacturing workers (44 percent of the total manufacturing employment at the time), 19 million workers in private nonmanufacturing industries (22 percent of the total in private nonmanufacturing), and 15 million Federal, state, and local government employees (76 percent of total government). The establishment survey counts workers each time they appear on a payroll during the reference period (as with the CPS, the Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings 407
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

week including the 12th of the month). Thus, unlike the CPS, a person with two jobs is counted twice. The establishment survey is designed to provide detailed industry information for the Nation, states, and metropolitan areas on nonfarm wage and salary employment, average weekly hours, and average hourly and weekly earnings. Establishment survey data also are published in Employment and Earnings. Historical national data are available on the site <http://stats.bls.gov/ceshome.htm>. Labor force—According to the CPS definitions, the civilian labor force comprises all civilians in the noninstitutional population 16 years and over classified as “employed” or “unemployed” according to the following criteria: Employed civilians comprise (a) all civilians, who, during the reference week, did any work for pay or profit (minimum of an hour’s work) or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family enterprise and (b) all civilians who were not working but who had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent for noneconomic reasons (illness, weather conditions, vacation, labor-management dispute, etc.) whether they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs. Unemployed persons comprise all civilians who had no employment during the reference week, who made specific efforts to find a job within the previous 4 weeks (such as applying directly to an employer, or to a public employment service, or checking with friends) and who were available for work during that week, except for temporary illness. Persons on layoff from a job and expecting recall also are classified as unemployed. All other civilian persons, 16 years old and over, are “not in the labor force.” Beginning in 1982, changes in the estimation procedures and the introduction of 1980 census data caused substantial increases in the population and estimates of persons in all labor force categories. Rates on labor force characteristics, however, were essentially unchanged. In order to avoid major breaks in series, some 30,000 labor force series were adjusted back to 1970. The effect of the 1982 revisions on

various data series and an explanation of the adjustment procedure used are described in “Revisions in the Current Population Survey in January 1982,” in the February 1982 issue of Employment and Earnings. The revisions did not, however, smooth out the breaks in series occurring between 1972 and 1979, and data users should make allowances for them in making certain data comparisons. Beginning in January 1985, and again in January 1986, the CPS estimation procedures were revised due to the implementation of a new sample design (for the 1985 revision) and to reflect an explicit estimate of the number of undocumented immigrants (for the 1986 revision). The greatest impact of these revisions was on estimates of persons of Hispanic origin. Where possible these estimates were revised back to January 1980. A description of the changes and an indication of their effect on the national estimates of labor force characteristics appear in the February 1985 and February 1986 issues of Employment and Earnings, respectively. Beginning in January 1994, several changes were introduced into the CPS that effect all data comparisons with prior years. These changes include the results of a major redesign of the survey questionnaire and collection methodology, revisions to some of the labor force concepts and definitions, and the introduction of 1990 census population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount. An explanation of the changes and their effects on the labor force data appears in “Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 1994” in the February 1994 issue of Employment and Earnings. Beginning 1996, 1990 census population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount, were extended back to January 1990. A discussion of the changes and their effects on the labor force data appears in “Revisions In Household Survey Data Effective February 1996" in the March 1996 issue of Employment and Earnings. Beginning in January 1997, the CPS reflects updated 1990 census-based population

408 Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

controls. The greatest impact of the new population controls was on estimates for persons of Hispanic origin. An explanation of the changes and their effects on labor force estimates appear in “Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 1997” in the February 1997 issue of Employment and Earnings. Beginning in January 1998, the CPS reflects the introduction of new composite estimation procedures and revised 1990 censusbased controls. An explanation of the changes and their effects on labor force estimates appear in “Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 1998” in the February 1998 issue of Employment and Earnings. Hours and earnings—Average hourly earnings, based on establishment data, are gross earnings (i.e., earnings before payroll deductions) and include overtime premiums; they exclude irregular bonuses and value of payments in kind. Hours are those for which pay was received. Wages and salaries from the CPS consist of total monies received for work performed by an employee during the income year. It includes wages, salaries, commissions, tips, piecerate payments, and cash bonuses earned before deductions were made for taxes, bonds, union dues, etc. Persons who worked 35 hours or more are classified as working full time. Industry and Occupational groups— Industry data derived from the CPS for 1983-91 utilize the 1980 census industrial classification developed from the 1972 SIC. CPS data from 1971 to 1982 were based on the 1970 census classification system which was developed from the 1967 SIC. Most of the industry categories were not affected by the change in classification. Establishments responding to the establishment survey are classified according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual. See text, Section 17, Business, for information about the SIC manual. The occupational classification system used in the 1980 census and in the CPS for 1983-91, evolved from the 1980 Standard

Occupational Classification (SOC) system, first introduced in 1977. Occupational categories used in the 1980 census classification system are so radically different from the 1970 census system used in the CPS through 1982, that their implementation represented a break in historical data series. In cases where data have not yet been converted to the 1980 classifications and still reflect the 1970 classifications (e.g., Table 704), comparisons between the two systems should not be made. To help users bridge the data gap, a limited set of estimates was developed for the 1972-82 period based on the new classifications. The estimates were developed by means of applying conversion factors created by double coding a 20-percent sample of CPS occupational records for 6 months during 1981-82. For further details, contact BLS. Beginning in January 1992, the occupational and industrial classification system used in the 1990 census were introduced into the CPS. (These systems were largely based on the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification and the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification.) There were a few breaks in comparability between the 1980 and 1990 census-based systems, particularly within the “technical, sales, and administrative support” categories. The most notable changes in industry classification were the shift of several industries from “business services” to “professional services” and the splitting of some industries into smaller, more detailed categories. A number of industry titles were changed as well, with no change in content. Productivity—BLS publishes data on productivity as measured by output per hour (labor productivity), output per combined unit of labor and capital input (multifactor productivity), and, for manufacturing industries, output per combined unit of capital, labor, energy, materials, and purchased service inputs. Labor productivity and related indexes are published for the business sector as a whole and its major subsectors: nonfarm business, manufacturing, nonfinancial corporations, 178 specific industries, and various functional areas of the Federal Government. Multifactor

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings 409
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

productivity and related measures are published for the private business sector and its major subsectors. Productivity indexes which take into account capital, labor, energy, materials, and service inputs are published for the 21 major industry groups which comprise the manufacturing sector, the utility services industry group, and for the following industries: cotton and synthetic broadwoven fabrics, household furniture, tire and inner tubes, footwear, steel, metal stampings, farm and garden machinery, refrigeration and heating equipment, motor vehicles, and railroad transportation industries. The major sector data are published in the BLS quarterly news release, Productivity and Costs and in the annual Multifactor Productivity Measures release. The specific industry productivity measures are published annually in the BLS Bulletin, Productivity Measures for Selected Industries and Government Services. Detailed information on methods, limitations, and data sources appears in the BLS Handbook of Methods, BLS Bulletin 2490 (1997), Chapters 10 and 11. Unions—As defined here, unions include traditional labor unions and employee associations similar to labor unions. Data on union membership status provided by BLS are for employed wage and salary workers and relate to their principal job. Earnings by union membership status are usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers. The information is collected through the Current Population Survey. Collective bargaining settlements data are available for bargaining situations involving 1,000 or more

workers in private industry and state and local government. Work stoppages—Work stoppages include all strikes and lockouts known to BLS which last for at least 1 full day or shift and involve 1,000 or more workers. All stoppages, whether or not authorized by a union, legal or illegal, are counted. Excluded are work slowdowns and instances where employees report to work late or leave early to attend mass meetings or mass rallies. Seasonal adjustment—Many economic statistics reflect a regularly recurring seasonal movement which can be estimated on the basis of past experience. By eliminating that part of the change which can be ascribed to usual seasonal variation (e.g., climate or school openings and closings), it is possible to observe the cyclical and other nonseasonal movements in the series. However, in evaluating deviations from the seasonal pattern—that is, changes in a seasonally adjusted series—it is important to note that seasonal adjustment is merely an approximation based on past experience. Seasonally adjusted estimates have a broader margin of possible error than the original data on which they are based, since they are subject not only to sampling and other errors, but also are affected by the uncertainties of the adjustment process itself. Statistical reliability—For discussion of statistical collection, estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau and BLS data, see Appendix III.

410 Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 649. Employment Status of the Civilian Population: 1950 to 1998
[In thousands (104,995 represents 104,995,000), except as indicated. Annual averages of monthly figures. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Civilian labor force Year Civilian noninstitutional population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104,995 117,245 137,085 167,745 170,130 172,271 174,215 176,383 178,206 180,587 182,753 184,613 186,393 189,164 190,925 192,805 194,838 196,814 198,584 200,591 203,133 205,220 Employment/ Percent of population Total population Employed ratio 1 62,208 69,628 82,771 106,940 108,670 110,204 111,550 113,544 115,461 117,834 119,865 121,669 123,869 125,840 126,346 128,105 129,200 131,056 132,304 133,943 136,297 137,673 59.2 59.4 60.4 63.8 63.9 64.0 64.0 64.4 64.8 65.3 65.6 65.9 66.5 66.5 66.2 66.4 66.3 66.6 66.6 66.8 67.1 67.1 58,918 65,778 78,678 99,303 100,397 99,526 100,834 105,005 107,150 109,597 112,440 114,968 117,342 118,793 117,718 118,492 120,259 123,060 124,900 126,708 129,558 131,463 56.1 56.1 57.4 59.2 59.0 57.8 57.9 59.5 60.1 60.7 61.5 62.3 63.0 62.8 61.7 61.5 61.7 62.5 62.9 63.2 63.8 64.1 Not in labor force Unemployed Percent of Number labor force 3,288 3,852 4,093 7,637 8,273 10,678 10,717 8,539 8,312 8,237 7,425 6,701 6,528 7,047 8,628 9,613 8,940 7,996 7,404 7,236 6,739 6,210 5.3 5.5 4.9 7.1 7.6 9.7 9.6 7.5 7.2 7.0 6.2 5.5 5.3 5.6 6.8 7.5 6.9 6.1 5.6 5.4 4.9 4.5 Number 42,787 47,617 54,315 60,806 61,460 62,067 62,665 62,839 62,744 62,752 62,888 62,944 62,523 63,324 64,578 64,700 65,638 65,758 66,280 66,647 66,837 67,547 Percent of population 40.8 40.6 39.6 36.2 36.1 36.0 36.0 35.6 35.2 34.7 34.4 34.1 33.5 33.5 33.8 33.6 33.7 33.4 33.4 33.2 32.9 32.9

1950 1960 1970 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

.... .... .... 2 ... ....

1996 . . . . . . . . 1997 2 . . . . . . . 1998 2 . . . . . . .

1 Civilian employed as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population. 2 Data not strictly comparable with data for earlier years. See text, this section, and February 1994, March 1996, February 1997, and February 1998 issues of Employment and Earnings.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and Employment and Earnings, monthly.

No. 650. Civilian Labor Force and Participation Rates, With Projections: 1970 to 2006
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over (82.8 represents 82,800,000). Annual averages of monthly figures. Rates are based on annual average civilian noninstitutional population of each specified group and represent proportion of each specified group in the civilian labor force. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Civilian labor force (millions) Race, sex, and age 1970 Total 2 . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Hispanic 4 . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . 20 to 24 years . . . 25 to 34 years . . . 35 to 44 years . . . 45 to 54 years . . . 55 to 64 years . . . 65 years and over Female . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . 20 to 24 years . . . 25 to 34 years . . . 35 to 44 years . . . 45 to 54 years . . . 55 to 64 years . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.8 73.6 46.0 27.5 3 9.2 5.2 4.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) 51.2 4.0 5.7 11.3 10.5 10.4 7.1 2.2 31.5 3.2 4.9 5.7 6.0 6.5 4.2 1.1
1 See 4

Participation rate (percent)
1

1980 1990 106.9 93.6 54.5 39.1 10.9 5.6 5.3 6.1 3.8 2.3 61.5 5.0 8.6 17.0 11.8 9.9 7.2 1.9 45.5 4.4 7.3 12.3 8.6 7.0 4.7 1.2

1

1995 1998 132.3 112.0 61.1 50.8 14.8 7.2 7.6 12.3 7.4 4.9 71.4 4.0 7.3 18.7 19.2 13.4 6.5 2.2 60.9 3.7 6.3 15.5 16.6 11.8 5.4 1.6

2006, proj. 148.8 123.6 66.0 57.6 17.2 8.0 9.2 17.4 10.2 7.2 78.2 4.6 8.3 16.5 18.5 18.0 9.9 2.6 70.6 4.4 7.2 14.4 17.0 17.2 8.8 1.7

1970 60.4 60.2 80.0 42.6 61.8 76.5 49.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) 79.7 56.1 83.3 96.4 96.9 94.3 83.0 26.8 43.3 44.0 57.7 45.0 51.1 54.4 43.0 9.7

1980 1990 63.8 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 64.0 81.4 47.4 77.4 60.5 85.9 95.2 95.5 91.2 72.1 19.0 51.5 52.9 68.9 65.5 65.5 59.9 41.3 8.1

1

1995 1998 66.6 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 65.8 79.1 52.6 75.0 54.8 83.1 93.0 92.3 88.8 66.0 16.8 58.9 52.2 70.3 74.9 77.2 74.4 49.2 8.8

1

2006, proj. 67.1 67.8 74.3 61.7 63.1 65.4 61.3 65.8 77.1 54.3 73.1 51.5 81.1 92.5 90.7 87.7 68.3 17.3 61.4 51.0 71.8 77.6 80.2 79.9 55.8 8.7
3

125.8 107.4 59.6 47.8 13.7 6.8 6.9 10.7 6.5 4.2 69.0 4.1 7.9 19.9 17.5 11.1 6.6 2.0 56.8 3.7 6.8 16.1 14.7 9.1 4.9 1.5

137.7 115.4 63.0 52.4 16.0 7.5 8.4 14.3 8.6 5.7 74.0 4.2 7.2 17.8 20.2 15.0 7.3 2.2 63.7 4.0 6.4 15.0 17.3 13.4 6.0 1.6

66.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 67.4 81.4 53.1 76.4 55.7 84.4 94.1 94.3 90.7 67.8 16.3 57.5 51.6 71.3 73.5 76.4 71.2 45.2 8.6

67.1 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 67.9 79.8 55.6 74.9 53.3 82.0 93.2 92.6 89.2 68.1 16.5 59.8 52.3 73.0 76.3 77.1 76.2 51.2 8.6

NA Not available. 1970, Black and other.

footnote 2, Table 649. 2 Beginning 1980, includes other races, not shown separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

For

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; Monthly Labor Review, November 1997; and unpublished data.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

411

No. 651. Employment Status of the Civilian Population: 1970 to 1998
[In thousands (137,085 represents 137,085,000), except as indicated. Annual averages of monthly figures. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Civilian labor force Year, sex, race, and Hispanic origin Civilian noninstitutional population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137,085 167,745 178,206 189,164 198,584 200,591 203,133 205,220 64,304 79,398 84,469 90,377 95,178 96,206 97,715 98,758 72,782 88,348 93,736 98,787 103,406 104,385 105,418 106,462 122,174 146,122 153,679 160,625 166,914 168,317 169,993 171,478 14,917 17,824 19,664 21,477 23,246 23,604 24,003 24,373 9,598 11,915 15,904 18,629 19,213 20,321 21,070 7,377 9,752 11,609 11,762 12,443 13,216 1,494 1,718 1,896 2,017 2,139 2,080 842 918 1,019 991 1,025 1,062 Employment/ population ratio 1 57.4 59.2 60.1 62.8 62.9 63.2 63.8 64.1 76.2 72.0 70.9 72.0 70.8 70.9 71.3 71.6 40.8 47.7 50.4 54.3 55.6 56.0 56.8 57.1 57.5 60.0 61.0 63.7 63.8 64.1 64.6 64.7 54.5 52.2 53.4 56.7 57.1 57.4 58.2 59.7 57.6 57.8 61.9 59.7 60.6 62.6 63.1 59.5 63.0 60.4 61.3 63.4 63.8 46.3 50.6 51.4 52.4 54.5 55.0 63.3 60.9 55.7 59.7 58.8 57.6 Not in labor force Unemployed Percent of labor force 4.9 7.1 7.2 5.6 5.6 5.4 4.9 4.5 4.4 6.9 7.0 5.7 5.6 5.4 4.9 4.4 5.9 7.4 7.4 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.0 4.6 4.5 6.3 6.2 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.2 3.9 9.4 14.3 15.1 11.4 10.4 10.5 10.0 8.9 10.1 10.5 8.2 9.3 8.9 7.7 7.2 11.2 8.4 9.7 9.2 7.7 7.3 14.0 9.5 11.2 9.6 9.8 8.3 6.4 7.2 7.4 7.2 6.6 6.0 Percent of Number population 54,315 60,806 62,744 63,324 66,280 66,647 66,837 67,547 13,076 17,945 20,058 21,367 23,818 24,119 24,454 24,799 41,239 42,861 42,686 41,957 42,462 42,528 42,382 42,748 48,618 52,523 53,753 53,178 54,965 55,209 55,301 56,064 5,941 6,959 7,299 7,737 8,429 8,470 8,474 8,391 3,451 4,217 5,184 6,362 6,439 6,526 6,753 2,436 3,045 3,844 3,819 3,897 4,121 690 758 798 848 846 832 272 315 406 354 379 411 39.6 36.2 35.2 33.5 33.4 33.2 32.9 32.9 20.3 22.6 23.7 23.6 25.0 25.1 25.0 25.1 56.7 48.5 45.5 42.5 41.1 40.7 40.2 40.1 39.8 35.9 35.0 33.1 32.9 32.8 32.5 32.7 39.8 39.0 37.1 36.0 36.3 35.9 35.3 34.4 36.0 35.4 32.6 34.2 33.5 32.1 32.1 33.0 31.2 33.1 32.5 31.3 31.2 46.2 44.1 42.1 42.0 39.6 40.0 32.3 34.3 39.8 35.7 37.0 38.7

Total 82,771 106,940 115,461 125,840 132,304 133,943 136,297 137,673 51,228 61,453 64,411 69,011 71,360 72,087 73,261 73,959 31,543 45,487 51,050 56,829 60,944 61,857 63,036 63,714 73,556 93,600 99,926 107,447 111,950 113,108 114,693 115,415 8,976 10,865 12,364 13,740 14,817 15,134 15,529 15,982 6,146 7,698 10,720 12,267 12,774 13,796 14,317 4,941 6,707 7,765 7,943 8,546 9,096 804 960 1,098 1,170 1,293 1,249 570 603 613 637 646 651

Percent of population Employed 60.4 63.8 64.8 66.5 66.6 66.8 67.1 67.1 79.7 77.4 76.3 76.4 75.0 74.9 75.0 74.9 43.3 51.5 54.5 57.5 58.9 59.3 59.8 59.8 60.2 64.1 65.0 66.9 67.1 67.2 67.5 67.3 60.2 61.0 62.9 64.0 63.7 64.1 64.7 65.6 64.0 64.6 67.4 65.8 66.5 67.9 67.9 67.0 68.8 66.9 67.5 68.7 68.8 53.8 55.9 57.9 58.0 60.4 60.0 67.7 65.7 60.2 64.3 63.0 61.3 78,678 99,303 107,150 118,793 124,900 126,708 129,558 131,463 48,990 57,186 59,891 65,104 67,377 68,207 69,685 70,693 29,688 42,117 47,259 53,689 57,523 58,501 59,873 60,771 70,217 87,715 93,736 102,261 106,490 107,808 109,856 110,931 8,128 9,313 10,501 12,175 13,279 13,542 13,969 14,556 5,527 6,888 9,845 11,127 11,642 12,726 13,291 4,387 6,146 7,016 7,209 7,884 8,431 691 870 974 1,057 1,166 1,145 533 559 568 591 603 612

Number 4,093 7,637 8,312 7,047 7,404 7,236 6,739 6,210 2,238 4,267 4,521 3,906 3,983 3,880 3,577 3,266 1,855 3,370 3,791 3,140 3,421 3,356 3,162 2,944 3,339 5,884 6,191 5,186 5,459 5,300 4,836 4,484 846 1,553 1,864 1,565 1,538 1,592 1,560 1,426 620 811 876 1,140 1,132 1,069 1,026 555 561 750 734 662 664 113 91 123 112 127 104 36 44 45 46 43 39

Total: 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . Male: 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . Female: 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . White: 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . Black: 1973. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . Hispanic: 4 1980. . . . . . . 1985. . . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . Mexican: 1986 . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . 1995 . . . . . 1996 . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . 1998 3 . . . . Puerto Rican: 1986 . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . 1995 . . . . . 1996 . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . 1998 3 . . . . Cuban: 1986 . . . . . 1990 3 . . . . 1995 . . . . . 1996 . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . 1998 3 . . . .

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Civilian employed as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 3 See footnote 2, Table 649. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Includes persons of other Hispanic origin, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

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No. 652. Civilian Labor Force—Percent Distribution, by Sex and Age: 1960 to 1998
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over (69,628 represents 69,628,000). Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Civilian labor force (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69,628 82,771 106,940 125,840 132,304 137,673 46,388 51,228 61,453 69,011 71,360 73,959 23,240 31,543 45,487 56,829 60,944 63,714 Percent distribution 16 to 19 years 7.0 8.8 8.8 6.2 5.9 6.0 6.0 7.8 8.1 5.9 5.7 5.7 8.8 10.3 9.6 6.5 6.1 6.3 20 to 24 years 9.6 12.8 14.9 11.7 10.3 9.9 8.9 11.2 14.0 11.4 10.3 9.8 11.1 15.5 16.1 12.0 10.4 10.1 25 to 34 years 20.7 20.6 27.3 28.6 25.8 23.8 22.1 22.1 27.6 28.8 26.2 24.1 17.8 18.1 26.9 28.3 25.5 23.6 35 to 44 years 23.4 19.9 19.1 25.5 27.0 27.3 23.6 20.4 19.3 25.3 26.9 27.4 22.8 18.9 19.0 25.8 27.2 27.1 45 to 54 years 21.3 20.5 15.8 16.1 19.1 20.6 20.6 20.3 16.1 16.1 18.8 20.2 22.7 20.7 15.4 16.1 19.4 21.0 55 to 64 years 13.5 13.6 11.2 9.2 9.0 9.6 13.8 13.9 11.8 9.6 9.1 9.8 12.8 13.2 10.4 8.7 8.8 9.4 65 yrs. and over 4.6 3.9 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.8 4.9 4.2 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.9 3.3 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5

Year and sex Total: 1960 . 1970 . 1980 . 1990 1 1995 . 1998 1 Male: 1960 . . . 1970 . . . 1980 . . . 1990 1 . . 1995 . . . 1998 1 . . Female: 1960 . 1970 . 1980 . 1990 1 1995 . 1998 1
1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnote 2, Table 649. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307, and Employment Earnings, monthly, January issues.

No. 653. Civilian Labor Force and Participation Rates, by Educational Attainment, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1992 to 1998
[As of March. For the civilian noninstitutional population 25 to 64 years of age (102,387 represents 102,387,000). See Table 684 for unemployment data. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Civilian labor force Percent distribution Year, sex, and race Less than high Total school (1,000) diploma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102,387 104,868 106,519 108,037 110,514 111,857 55,917 56,633 57,454 58,121 59,268 59,905 46,469 48,235 49,065 49,916 51,246 51,953 87,656 89,009 90,192 91,506 93,179 93,527 10,936 11,368 11,695 11,891 12,253 12,893 7,702 8,984 9,298 9,683 10,556 10,922 12.2 11.0 10.8 10.9 10.9 10.7 13.9 12.7 12.2 12.7 12.8 12.3 10.2 9.1 9.1 8.8 8.7 8.8 11.3 10.5 10.0 10.4 10.4 10.2 19.2 14.5 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.3 39.1 38.6 38.9 38.9 37.4 37.3 High Less than school a bachgraduate, elor’s no degree degree 36.2 34.0 33.1 32.9 33.0 32.8 34.7 32.9 32.3 32.2 32.2 32.3 37.9 35.3 34.1 33.7 34.0 33.3 36.1 33.7 32.8 32.8 32.8 32.7 40.3 39.3 38.6 37.2 37.8 37.3 30.2 28.7 28.2 28.5 28.1 29.1 25.2 27.6 27.8 27.7 27.4 27.4 23.8 25.8 25.7 26.0 25.8 25.8 26.9 29.8 30.2 29.7 29.3 29.3 25.5 27.7 27.8 27.5 27.3 27.4 24.9 29.2 29.6 31.2 31.3 30.1 19.3 21.5 21.3 21.2 22.1 20.3 Less than high school Total diploma 79.0 78.9 79.3 79.4 80.1 80.2 88.6 87.0 87.4 87.5 87.7 87.8 70.0 71.1 71.5 71.8 72.8 73.0 79.8 79.8 80.1 80.4 81.0 80.6 74.4 73.5 74.2 73.7 74.9 77.7 73.8 73.2 73.2 74.2 75.9 75.8
3

Participation rate

1

College graduate 26.4 27.3 28.3 28.5 28.6 29.1 27.5 28.6 29.7 29.1 29.2 29.6 25.0 25.8 26.6 27.8 28.0 28.6 27.1 28.1 29.3 29.3 29.5 29.8 15.6 17.0 17.7 17.4 16.6 18.2 11.4 11.1 11.6 11.3 12.4 13.3

High school Less than gradua bachates, no elor’s degree degree 78.3 77.8 77.3 77.9 82.5 78.4 89.0 86.8 86.9 86.9 86.4 86.7 69.1 70.0 68.9 69.8 71.4 70.9 78.7 78.3 77.9 78.6 79.2 78.6 76.9 75.2 74.5 74.3 75.0 77.0 77.5 77.5 75.9 78.2 79.4 78.8 83.5 83.2 83.2 83.7 83.7 83.5 91.8 90.3 90.1 90.0 90.6 90.0 76.2 77.0 77.3 78.1 77.6 77.8 83.8 83.5 83.4 83.9 83.9 83.5 83.4 82.5 82.8 83.0 83.8 85.0 84.2 81.9 81.9 83.7 85.3 82.3
4

College graduate 88.4 88.2 88.7 87.8 88.5 88.0 93.7 93.2 93.8 92.9 93.5 93.4 82.2 82.5 82.8 82.3 83.2 82.3 88.7 88.5 88.8 88.2 89.0 88.3 89.1 89.5 90.9 87.9 89.0 88.8 87.1 86.3 87.9 87.2 87.7 86.9 Persons of

Total: 1992 . 1994 3 1995 . 1996 . 1997 3 1998 3 Male: 1992 . . . 1994 3 . . 1995 . . . 1996 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . . Female: 1992 . . . 1994 3 . . 1995 . . . 1996 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . . White: 1992 . . . 1994 3 . . 1995 . . . 1996 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . . Black: 1992 . . . 1994 3 . . 1995 . . . 1996 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . . Hispanic: 4 1992 . . . 1994 3 . . 1995 . . . 1996 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . .

2

60.3 58.3 59.8 60.2 61.7 63.0 75.1 71.5 72.0 74.3 75.2 75.3 45.6 44.7 47.2 45.7 47.1 49.8 61.5 60.3 61.6 62.5 63.8 63.8 55.4 49.4 51.0 50.1 52.9 59.3 64.6 63.9 64.7 65.0 66.4 67.9

1 See headnote, Table 650. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

See footnote 2, Table 649.

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No. 654. Characteristics of the Civilian Labor Force, by State: 1997
[In thousands (136,297 represents 136,297,000), except ratio and rate. Preliminary. For civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Because of separate processing and weighting procedures, the totals for the United States may differ from results obtained by aggregrating totals for states] Total State Number Female Employed Employed/ population Total Female ratio 1 63.8 61.8 68.3 60.8 59.8 62.1 70.4 64.8 64.6 56.9 59.3 66.2 63.5 66.8 65.3 66.8 70.3 67.8 60.4 58.3 64.1 67.7 66.2 64.0 72.1 58.4 67.9 63.6 71.4 66.6 69.6 64.3 59.6 59.1 66.1 70.7 63.8 61.6 64.6 61.1 63.4 63.6 69.2 61.6 65.2 69.5 68.7 64.2 66.8 51.6 72.0 65.5 Total Number Female 6,739 110 25 102 64 1,004 70 88 15 20 339 177 38 34 291 108 51 52 103 123 36 141 131 209 86 72 123 24 24 36 20 216 51 566 139 9 262 66 101 311 27 87 12 146 530 32 13 135 142 55 108 13 3,162 59 9 50 28 449 32 36 7 11 160 93 16 16 129 49 23 27 57 65 16 67 56 98 33 41 54 10 11 16 10 99 23 269 69 4 130 35 44 141 13 53 6 63 247 15 6 72 65 22 51 6 Total 4.9 5.1 7.9 4.6 5.3 6.3 3.3 5.1 4.0 7.9 4.8 4.5 6.4 5.3 4.7 3.5 3.3 3.8 5.4 6.1 5.4 5.1 4.0 4.2 3.3 5.7 4.2 5.4 2.6 4.1 3.1 5.1 6.2 6.4 3.6 2.5 4.6 4.1 5.8 5.2 5.3 4.5 3.1 5.4 5.4 3.1 4.0 4.0 4.8 6.9 3.7 5.1 Unemployed Rate
2

Participation rate 3

Male Female 4.9 4.4 9.2 4.3 5.7 6.2 3.2 5.9 4.4 7.2 4.7 4.1 7.2 5.2 4.8 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.6 5.4 5.7 5.1 4.4 4.2 3.7 4.7 4.6 6.0 2.6 4.1 3.0 5.2 6.2 6.3 3.4 2.6 4.4 3.6 5.9 5.3 5.2 3.4 2.9 5.8 5.2 3.1 4.1 3.5 4.7 7.6 3.7 4.7 5.0 5.9 6.3 5.1 4.8 6.4 3.3 4.3 3.6 8.6 4.8 5.1 5.6 5.5 4.5 3.5 3.0 4.2 6.2 6.9 5.0 5.0 3.6 4.3 2.7 6.9 3.9 4.6 2.6 4.2 3.3 5.1 6.3 6.6 3.9 2.5 4.8 4.7 5.7 5.0 5.4 5.7 3.3 4.9 5.6 3.2 3.8 4.5 4.8 6.1 3.7 5.5

Male 75.0 72.7 80.4 72.6 69.9 75.2 78.8 73.9 72.2 66.5 69.8 77.9 72.8 77.8 77.0 78.0 78.6 77.6 70.7 69.5 73.5 77.0 75.5 74.6 81.1 68.7 77.4 72.8 80.8 77.1 79.0 76.7 70.9 71.8 75.8 78.4 74.0 73.2 76.4 73.1 74.3 74.7 77.9 71.7 78.3 81.5 77.0 73.5 78.4 64.1 79.8 76.2

Female 59.8 58.1 67.9 55.3 56.9 57.6 66.8 63.2 62.8 57.8 55.4 61.6 63.4 63.3 60.7 61.2 67.2 63.9 57.7 55.5 62.3 66.0 62.9 59.6 67.9 55.9 65.0 61.9 66.3 61.9 64.9 59.7 56.5 55.5 61.9 67.0 60.2 56.2 60.9 56.9 60.6 59.6 65.4 59.1 60.1 62.5 66.6 60.7 62.1 47.8 69.7 62.0

United States . 136,297 63,036 129,558 59,873 Alabama Alaska . . Arizona . Arkansas California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,168 315 2,185 1,214 15,941 2,152 1,723 382 258 7,119 3,907 597 633 6,196 3,086 1,579 1,368 1,917 2,014 659 2,784 3,260 4,962 2,625 1,262 2,893 455 906 883 646 4,198 815 8,835 3,844 348 5,707 1,601 1,728 5,979 502 1,931 390 2,708 9,850 1,040 327 3,413 2,989 803 2,949 251 1,005 143 972 573 7,048 988 836 186 132 3,302 1,833 294 285 2,850 1,417 754 641 912 952 310 1,342 1,548 2,309 1,203 600 1,395 212 421 392 297 1,950 370 4,108 1,799 164 2,672 739 771 2,805 243 920 186 1,286 4,419 466 159 1,618 1,337 368 1,389 114 2,058 290 2,083 1,150 14,937 2,081 1,635 366 238 6,781 3,730 559 599 5,904 2,978 1,528 1,317 1,814 1,891 624 2,642 3,129 4,753 2,539 1,190 2,770 431 883 847 625 3,982 764 8,269 3,705 339 5,445 1,535 1,627 5,668 476 1,843 378 2,562 9,320 1,008 314 3,278 2,847 748 2,841 239 945 134 923 545 6,598 956 800 179 121 3,142 1,740 278 269 2,721 1,368 732 614 855 887 295 1,275 1,493 2,210 1,171 559 1,341 203 410 376 287 1,851 347 3,839 1,729 160 2,542 704 727 2,664 230 868 180 1,223 4,172 451 153 1,545 1,272 346 1,338 108

Colorado . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . Delaware . . . . . . Dist. of Columbia . Florida . . . . . . . . Georgia Hawaii . Idaho. . Illinois . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Iowa . . . . Kansas . . Kentucky . Louisiana . Maine . . .

Maryland . . . . Massachusetts Michigan . . . . Minnesota . . . Mississippi . . .

Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire. New Jersey . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina. North Dakota . Ohio . . . . . . Oklahoma . . Oregon . . . . Pennsylvania Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

South Carolina South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia . . . . Washington . West Virginia Wisconsin. . . Wyoming . . .
3

. . . . . .

1 Civilian employment as a percent of civilian noninstitutional population. 2 Percent unemployed of the civilian labor force. Percent of civilian noninstitutional population of each specified group in the civilian labor force.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, ‘‘Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Geographic Profile’’ Internet site <http://146.142.4.24/ cgi-bin/surveymost?gp> (accessed 2 August 1999).

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No. 655. Civilian Labor Force, by Selected Metropolitan Area: 1998
[For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over (137,673 represents 137,673,000). Annual averages of monthly figures. Data are derived from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program. For composition of metropolitan areas, see Appendix II] Metropolitan areas ranked by labor force size, 1998 U.S. total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA PMSA . Chicago, IL PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York, NY PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV PMSA. . Philadelphia, PA-NJ PMSA . . . . . . . Detroit, MI PMSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX PMSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boston, MA-NH PMSA . . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA . . Phoenix-Mesa, AZ MSA . . . . . . . . . Orange County, CA PMSA. . . . . . . . Nassau-Suffolk, NY PMSA . . . . . . . Riverside-San Bernardino, CA PMSA Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA PMSA . St. Louis, MO-IL MSA. . . . . . . . . . . San Diego, CA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . Oakland, CA PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . Denver, CO PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH PMSA . . Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA PMSA. . Miami, FL PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newark, NJ PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas City, MO-KS MSA . . . . . . . . San Jose, CA PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . San Francisco, CA PMSA . . . . . . . . Fort Worth-Arlington, TX PMSA . . . . Orlando, FL MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnatti, OH-KY-IN PMSA . . . . . .
1

Civilian labor force (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137,673 4,641 4,164 4,092 2,559 2,493 2,255 2,129 2,123 1,870 1,817 1,678 1,507 1,435 1,399 1,382 1,382 1,321 1,319 1,299 1,191 1,173 1,151 1,128 1,106 1,048 1,037 1,010 967 963 949 879 842 839

Unemployment rate 1 4.5 6.5 4.3 7.3 3.2 4.3 3.5 4.1 3.3 3.2 2.8 2.0 2.7 2.9 3.2 6.1 3.1 4.3 3.5 5.1 3.9 3.0 4.6 3.2 4.4 4.2 6.5 4.5 3.8 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.0 3.4

Metropolitan areas ranked by labor force size, 1998 Indianapolis, IN MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Columbus, OH MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI PMSA . . . . . San Antonio, TX MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA PMSA. . . . . . . . . . . . Fort Lauderdale, FL PMSA . . . . . . . . . Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA-NC MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Las Vegas, NV-AZ MSA . . . . . . . . . . . Austin-San Marcos, TX MSA . . . . . . . . Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT MSA . . . . . . Bergen-Passaic, NJ PMSA . . . . . . . . . Nashville, TN MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ PMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC MSA . . New Orleans, LA MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hartford, CT MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rochester, NY MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY MSA. . . . . . . Providence-Fall River-Warwick, RI-MA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Memphis, TN-AR-MS MSA . . . . . . . . . Louisville, KY-IN MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma City, OK MSA . . . . . . . . . . . Jacksonville, FL MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monmouth-Ocean, NJ PMSA . . . . . . . . West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL MSA. Richmond-Petersburg, VA MSA . . . . . .

Civilian labor force (1,000) 835 812 809 759 758 757 746 735 698 682 681 673 642 633 632 622 621 595 581 575 575 573 552 549 534 534 515 508 507

Unemployment rate 1 2.5 2.7 3.3 3.7 4.9 4.5 2.7 3.5 4.2 2.6 3.6 4.4 2.7 3.3 2.7 1.7 4.9 3.0 3.5 4.0 5.3 4.9 3.7 3.3 3.8 3.1 4.3 5.5 2.6

Percent unemployed of the civilian labor force.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics program.

No. 656. School Enrollment and Labor Force Status: 1980 and 1998
[In thousands (37,103 represents 37,103,000), except percent. As of October. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years old. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Population Characteristic 1980 Total, 16 to 24 years 3 . . Enrolled in school 3 . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . College level . . . . . . . . . . Full-time. . . . . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . Below college College level . Black. . . . . . . . Below college College level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37,103 15,713 11,126 4,587 7,997 7,716 7,664 6,396 13,242 6,566 6,678 2,028 1,282 747 21,390 18,103 2,864
2

Civilian labor force

Employed 1980, total 3,464 1,021 807 214 566 455 364 300 798 516 282 189 120 70 2,443 1,803 604

Unemployed 1998 Total 2,116 967 756 211 520 446 396 324 701 400 301 214 139 75 1,149 804 300
1

1998

1

1980 24,918 7,454 4,836 2,618 3,825 3,629 3,996 2,854 6,687 3,095 3,592 595 294 300 17,464 15,121 2,055

1998

1

1980 21,454 6,433 4,029 2,404 3,259 3,174 3,632 2,554 5,889 2,579 3,310 406 174 230 15,021 13,318 1,451

1998

1

Rate

2

33,445 18,174 12,370 5,804 9,058 9,116 9,445 7,939 14,392 6,759 7,633 2,653 1,516 1,137 15,271 12,340 2,364

21,691 9,207 5,533 3,674 4,448 4,760 5,646 4,306 7,721 3,000 4,720 1,098 454 644 12,484 10,332 1,733

19,575 8,241 4,778 3,463 3,927 4,313 5,250 3,982 7,020 2,600 4,419 884 315 569 11,334 9,528 1,433
3

9.8 10.5 13.7 5.7 11.7 9.4 7.0 7.5 9.1 13.3 6.4 19.5 30.5 11.7 9.2 7.8 17.3

Not enrolled 3 . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 See footnote 2, Table 649. separately.

Percent of civilian labor force in each category.

Includes other races, not shown

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; News, USDL 99-75, June 25, 1999; and unpublished data.

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No. 657. Labor Force Participation Rates, by Marital Status, Sex, and Age: 1960 to 1998
[Annual averages of monthly figures. See Table 654 for definition of participation rate. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Marital status and year Single: 1960 . . 1970 . . 1975 . . 1980 . . 1985 . . 1990 1 . 1994 1 . 1995 . . 1996 . . 1997 1 . 1998 1 . Married: 2 1960 . . 1970 . . 1975 . . 1980 . . 1985 . . 1990 1 . 1994 1 . 1995 . . 1996 . . 1997 1 . 1998 1 . Other: 3 1960 . . 1970 . . 1975 . . 1980 . . 1985 . . 1990 1 . 1994 1 . 1995 . . 1996 . . 1997 1 . 1998 1 .
2

Male participation rate 16-19 years 42.6 54.6 57.9 59.9 56.3 55.1 53.6 54.4 52.8 51.9 52.9 91.5 92.3 92.9 91.3 91.0 92.1 88.7 89.2 84.4 84.6 83.8 (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) 60.8 66.2 20-24 years 80.3 73.8 77.9 81.3 81.5 81.6 80.5 80.3 79.8 80.1 79.7 97.1 94.7 95.3 96.9 95.6 95.6 94.2 94.9 94.5 94.9 95.0 96.9 90.4 88.8 92.6 95.1 93.1 91.0 92.7 90.6 89.9 89.1 25-34 years 91.5 87.9 86.7 89.2 89.4 89.9 88.4 88.7 89.1 89.0 89.1 98.8 98.0 97.4 97.5 97.4 96.9 95.9 96.3 96.4 96.1 96.4 95.2 93.7 92.4 94.1 93.7 93.0 90.3 90.9 92.0 92.1 93.0 35-44 years 88.6 86.2 83.2 82.2 84.6 84.5 83.1 81.4 82.1 82.1 82.5 98.6 98.1 97.1 97.2 96.8 96.7 95.6 95.4 95.4 95.7 95.8 94.4 91.1 89.4 91.9 91.8 90.7 88.6 88.2 88.8 89.6 89.1 45-64 years 80.1 75.7 69.9 66.9 65.5 67.3 67.8 67.0 67.4 68.5 70.2 93.7 91.2 86.8 84.3 81.7 82.6 81.9 82.4 83.2 83.6 83.7 83.2 78.5 73.4 73.3 72.8 74.9 72.6 72.4 73.1 74.7 73.7 65 and over 31.2 25.2 21.0 16.8 15.6 15.7 17.8 17.9 18.2 14.8 15.2 36.6 29.9 23.3 20.5 16.8 17.5 18.1 18.0 18.3 18.3 17.5 22.7 19.3 15.4 13.7 11.4 12.0 11.9 12.1 11.5 13.2 13.1 16-19 years 30.2 44.7 49.6 53.6 52.3 51.7 51.4 52.2 51.5 51.0 52.4 27.2 37.8 46.2 49.3 49.6 49.5 48.9 51.6 48.6 50.1 49.8 43.5 48.6 47.6 50.0 51.9 53.9 46.2 55.8 42.6 49.7 50.4

Female participation rate 20-24 years 77.2 73.0 72.5 75.2 76.3 74.5 73.6 72.9 73.3 75.1 75.3 31.7 47.9 57.0 61.4 65.7 66.1 65.8 64.7 66.0 66.1 66.1 58.0 60.3 65.3 68.4 66.2 65.4 66.6 67.2 70.7 70.4 73.7 25-34 years 83.4 81.4 80.8 83.3 82.4 80.9 78.9 80.2 80.9 82.3 83.0 28.8 38.8 48.4 58.8 65.8 69.6 71.6 72.0 71.7 71.9 71.6 63.1 64.6 68.6 76.5 76.9 77.0 74.3 77.1 78.5 80.2 81.0
1

Total 69.8 65.5 68.7 72.6 73.8 74.8 73.9 73.7 73.3 73.1 73.3 89.2 86.1 83.0 80.9 78.7 78.6 77.4 77.5 77.6 77.7 77.6 63.1 60.7 63.4 67.5 68.7 68.9 66.8 66.2 66.4 67.4 66.9

Total 58.6 56.8 59.8 64.4 66.6 66.7 66.7 66.8 67.1 67.9 68.5 31.9 40.5 44.3 49.8 53.8 58.4 60.7 61.0 61.2 61.6 61.2 41.6 40.3 40.1 43.6 45.1 47.2 47.5 47.4 48.1 48.6 48.8

35-44 years 82.9 78.6 78.6 76.9 80.8 80.8 78.7 79.5 79.4 80.1 80.9 37.2 46.8 52.0 61.8 68.1 74.0 75.8 75.7 75.8 76.0 74.5 70.0 68.8 69.2 77.1 81.6 82.1 80.4 80.7 82.1 81.9 82.8

45-64 65 and years over 79.8 73.0 68.3 65.6 67.9 66.2 68.8 67.3 68.5 70.8 69.9 36.0 44.0 43.8 46.9 49.4 56.5 61.9 62.7 63.7 64.6 64.9 60.0 61.9 59.0 60.2 61.0 65.0 67.6 67.2 67.7 68.6 68.6 24.3 19.7 15.8 13.9 9.8 12.1 12.7 11.6 12.2 11.5 9.7 6.7 7.3 7.0 7.3 6.6 8.5 9.4 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 11.4 10.0 8.3 8.2 7.5 8.4 8.7 8.4 8.0 8.1 8.4

B For 1960, percentage not shown where base is less than 50,000; beginning 1970, 35,000. Spouse present. 3 Widowed, divorced, and married (spouse absent). Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletins 2217 and 2340; and unpublished data.

See footnote 2, Table 649.

No. 658. Marital Status of Women in the Civilian Labor Force: 1960 to 1998
[Annual averages of monthly figures (23,240 represent 23,240,000). For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4

Female labor force (1,000) Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

Female participation rate Other
2

3

Single 5,410 5,976 7,265 9,125 11,865 12,460 12,659 12,867 13,163 13,512 13,885 14,194 14,377 14,612 14,681 14,872 15,031 15,333 15,467 15,842 16,492 17,087

Married

1

Total 37.7 39.3 43.3 46.3 51.5 52.6 52.9 53.6 54.5 55.3 56.0 56.6 57.4 57.5 57.4 57.8 57.9 58.8 58.9 59.3 59.8 59.8

Single 58.6 54.5 56.8 59.8 64.4 65.1 65.0 65.6 66.6 67.2 67.4 67.7 68.0 66.7 66.2 66.2 66.2 66.7 66.8 67.1 67.9 68.5

Married

1

Other

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23,240 26,200 31,543 37,475 45,487 47,755 48,503 49,709 51,050 52,413 53,658 54,742 56,030 56,829 57,178 58,141 58,795 60,239 60,944 61,857 63,036 63,714

12,893 14,829 18,475 21,484 24,980 25,971 26,468 27,199 27,894 28,623 29,381 29,921 30,548 30,901 31,112 31,700 31,980 32,888 33,359 33,618 33,802 33,857
3

4,937 5,396 5,804 6,866 8,643 9,324 9,376 9,644 9,993 10,277 10,393 10,627 11,104 11,315 11,385 11,570 11,784 12,018 12,118 12,397 12,742 12,771

31.9 34.9 40.5 44.3 49.9 51.1 51.8 52.8 53.8 54.9 55.9 56.7 57.8 58.4 58.5 59.3 59.4 60.7 61.0 61.2 61.6 61.2
4

41.6 40.7 40.3 40.1 43.6 44.8 44.4 44.7 45.1 45.6 45.7 46.2 47.0 47.2 46.8 47.1 47.2 47.5 47.4 48.1 48.6 48.8 See

... .... .... .... 4 ... .... .... 4 ... 4 ...

1 Husband present. footnote 2, Table 649.

Widowed, divorced, or separated.

See Table 654 for definition of participation rate.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and unpublished data.

416

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No. 659. Employment Status of Women, by Marital Status and Presence and Age of Children: 1960 to 1998
[As of March (5.4 represents 5,400,000). For 1960, civilian noninstitutional persons 14 years and over, thereafter 16 years old and over. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Total Item Single IN LABOR FORCE (mil.) 1960 . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . Married 1 Other
2

With any children Total Single Married 1 Other
2

Children 6 to 17 only Single Married 1 Other
2

Children under 6 Single Married 1 Other
2

. . . .

. . . .

5.4 7.0 11.2 12.9 14.0 15.0 15.4 16.2 16.9

12.3 18.4 24.9 27.7 31.0 33.6 33.4 33.9 34.1

4.9 5.9 8.8 10.3 11.2 12.0 12.4 12.8 12.9

(NA) (NA) 0.6 1.1 1.5 2.1 2.2 2.8 3.0

6.6 10.2 13.7 14.9 16.5 18.0 17.8 18.2 18.1

1.5 1.9 3.6 4.0 4.2 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.5

(NA) (NA) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2

4.1 6.3 8.4 8.5 9.3 10.2 10.2 10.6 10.5

1.0 1.3 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.3

(NA) (NA) 0.3 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.8 1.8

2.5 3.9 5.2 6.4 7.2 7.8 7.6 7.6 7.7

0.4 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2

1990 . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . . . PARTICIPATION RATE 4 1960 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . . . EMPLOYMENT (mil.) 1960 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . . . UNEMPLOYMENT RATE 5 1960 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . . . .

44.1 53.0 61.5 65.2 66.4 65.5 65.2 66.8 68.1

30.5 40.8 50.1 54.2 58.2 61.1 61.1 62.1 61.8

40.0 39.1 44.0 45.6 46.8 47.3 48.2 48.7 49.4

(NA) (NA) 52.0 51.6 55.2 57.5 60.5 68.1 72.5

27.6 39.7 54.1 60.8 66.3 70.2 70.0 71.1 70.6

56.0 60.7 69.4 71.9 74.2 75.3 77.0 79.1 79.7

(NA) (NA) 67.6 64.1 69.7 67.0 71.8 74.0 81.2

39.0 49.2 61.7 67.8 73.6 76.2 76.7 77.6 76.8

65.9 66.9 74.6 77.8 79.7 79.5 80.6 81.1 82.7

(NA) (NA) 44.1 46.5 48.7 53.0 55.1 65.1 67.3

18.6 30.3 45.1 53.4 58.9 63.5 62.7 63.6 63.7

40.5 52.2 60.3 59.7 63.6 66.3 69.2 74.2 72.5

5.1 6.5 10.1 11.6 12.9 13.7 14.1 14.7 15.6

11.6 17.5 23.6 26.1 29.9 32.3 32.3 32.8 33.0

4.6 5.6 8.2 9.4 10.5 11.3 11.7 12.1 12.2

(NA) (NA) 0.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 1.8 2.3 2.5

6.2 9.6 12.8 13.9 15.8 17.2 17.1 17.5 17.4

1.3 1.8 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.2

(NA) (NA) 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.1

3.9 6.0 8.1 8.1 8.9 9.8 9.8 10.3 10.1

0.9 1.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1

(NA) (NA) 0.2 0.5 0.7 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.4

2.3 3.6 4.8 5.9 6.9 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3

0.4 0.6 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1

6.0 7.1 10.3 10.2 8.2 8.7 8.6 8.8 7.5

5.4 4.8 5.3 5.7 3.5 3.9 3.4 3.2 3.2

6.2 4.8 6.4 8.5 5.7 5.8 5.5 5.8 5.0

(NA) (NA) 23.2 23.8 18.4 16.6 18.5 16.9 15.1

6.0 6.0 5.9 6.6 4.2 4.3 3.5 3.5 3.8

8.4 7.2 9.2 12.1 8.5 8.1 6.4 9.0 6.7

(NA) (NA) 15.6 15.4 14.5 11.8 15.7 13.5 11.8

4.9 4.8 4.4 5.5 3.8 3.6 3.2 2.9 3.2

6.8 5.9 7.9 10.6 7.7 7.1 5.1 7.9 5.3

(NA) (NA) 29.2 28.5 20.8 19.5 20.3 18.8 17.5

7.8 7.9 8.3 8.0 4.8 5.3 3.9 4.4 4.5

12.5 9.8 12.8 16.1 10.2 10.8 9.7 11.7 10.6

NA Not available. 1 Husband present. 2 Widowed, divorced, or separated. 3 See footnote 2, Table 649. 4 Percent of women in each specific category in the labor force. 5 Unemployed as a percent of civilian labor force in specified group. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; and unpublished data.

No. 660. Labor Force Participation Rates for Wives, Husband Present, by Age of Own Youngest Child: 1975 to 1998
[As of March. For civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years old and over. For definition of participation rate, see Table 659. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Presence and age of child Wives, total . . No children under 18 . With children under 18 Under 6, total . . . . . Under 3 . . . . . . . 1 year or under 2 years. . . . . . 3 to 5 years . . . . 3 years. . . . . . 4 years. . . . . . 5 years. . . . . . 6 to 13 years . . . . . 14 to 17 years . . . .
1

Total 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44.4 43.8 44.9 36.7 32.7 30.8 37.1 42.2 41.2 41.2 44.4 51.8 53.5 1985 54.2 48.2 60.8 53.4 50.5 49.4 54.0 58.4 55.1 59.7 62.1 68.2 67.0 1998
1

White 1975 43.6 43.6 43.6 34.7 30.7 29.2 35.1 40.1 39.0 38.7 43.8 50.7 53.4 1985 53.3 47.5 59.9 52.1 49.4 48.6 52.7 56.6 52.7 58.4 59.9 67.7 66.6 1998
1

Black 1975 54.1 47.6 58.4 54.9 50.1 50.0 56.4 61.2 62.7 64.9 56.3 65.7 52.3 1985 63.8 55.2 71.7 69.6 66.2 63.7 69.9 73.8 72.3 70.6 79.1 73.3 74.4 1998
1

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

61.8 54.1 70.6 63.7 61.4 61.8 61.8 67.1 63.8 67.8 70.9 76.1 78.4

61.0 53.5 70.0 62.6 60.5 60.7 61.5 65.9 63.8 66.0 69.5 75.8 78.3

69.6 59.0 79.4 76.2 74.6 76.9 73.2 78.3 70.9 80.9 82.6 82.0 81.0

See footnote 2, Table 649.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2340; and unpublished data.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

417

No. 661. Families With Own Children—Employment Status of Parents: 1995 and 1998
[Annual average of monthly figures (33,544 represents 33,544,000). For families with own children. Based on the Current Population Survey, see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Number (1,000) 1995 Percent distribution Number (1,000) 1995 Father employed, not mother . . . . . . . . . . . . Neither parent employed . . . Families maintained by women 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mother employed . . . . . . . . Mother not employed . . . . . Families maintained by men 1 . Father employed . . . . . . . . Father not employed . . . . . . WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 Total families . . . . . . . . . . . 15,275 15,023 100.0 100.0 Parent(s) employed . . . . . . . . 13,267 13,550 86.9 90.2 No parent employed . . . . . . . . 2,007 1,473 13.1 9.8 Married-couple families . . . . . . 11,604 11,324 100.0 100.0 Parent(s) employed . . . . . . 11,159 11,023 96.2 97.3 Mother employed . . . . . . 7,066 6,920 60.9 61.1 Both parents employed . 6,646 6,567 57.3 58.0 Mother employed, not father . . . . . . . . . 421 352 3.6 3.1 Father employed, not mother . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,092 4,103 35.3 36.2 Neither parent employed . . . 445 301 3.8 2.7 Families maintained by women 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mother employed . . . . . . . . Mother not employed . . . . . Families maintained by men 1 . Father employed . . . . . . . . Father not employed . . . . . . 3,073 1,613 1,460 598 496 102 2,936 100.0 100.0 1,867 52.5 63.6 1,068 47.5 36.4 763 100.0 100.0 660 82.8 86.5 104 17.1 13.6 2,921 517 4,360 3,142 1,219 908 766 143 Percent distribution

Characteristic

Characteristic

1998 1995 1998

1998 1995 1998 3,074 431 22.5 22.8 4.0 3.2

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 Total families . . . . . . . . . . . 33,544 34,232 100.0 100.0 Parent(s) employed . . . . . . . . 29,659 31,100 88.4 90.9 No parent employed . . . . . . . . 3,886 3,130 11.6 9.1 Married-couple families . . . . . . Parent(s) employed . . . . . . Mother employed . . . . . . Both parents employed . Mother employed, not father . . . . . . . . . Father employed, not mother . . . . . . . . . . . . Neither parent employed . . . Families maintained by women 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mother employed . . . . . . . . Mother not employed . . . . . Families maintained by men 1 . Father employed . . . . . . . . Father not employed . . . . . . 24,604 23,643 16,629 15,491 1,137 7,014 962 7,433 4,755 2,678 1,507 1,261 245 24,820 100.0 100.0 24,088 96.1 97.1 16,911 67.6 68.1 15,906 63.0 64.1 1,005 7,178 731 4.6 4.0

4,638 100.0 100.0 3,573 72.1 77.0 1,065 27.9 23.0 1,075 100.0 100.0 913 84.3 84.9 162 15.7 15.1

28.5 28.9 3.9 2.9

7,573 100.0 100.0 5,440 64.0 71.8 2,133 36.0 28.2 1,839 100.0 100.0 1,572 83.7 85.5 266 16.3 14.5

WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 to 17 Total families . . . . . . . . . . . 18,270 19,209 100.0 100.0 Parent(s) employed . . . . . . . . 16,391 17,551 89.7 91.4 No parent employed . . . . . . . . 1,878 1,658 10.3 8.6 Married-couple families . . . . . . 13,001 13,496 100.0 100.0 Parent(s) employed . . . . . . 12,484 13,065 96.0 96.8 Mother employed . . . . . . 9,562 9,991 73.6 74.0 Both parents employed . 8,846 9,338 68.0 69.2 Mother employed, not father . . . . . . . . . 717 653 5.5 4.8
1

No spouse present. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL97-195, June 16, 1997; and unpublished data.

No. 662. Employed Civilians and Weekly Hours: 1970 to 1998
[In thousands (78,678 represents 78,678,000, except as indicated. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Item Total employed . . . . . . . . . . . . Age: 16 20 25 35 45 55 65 to 19 years old . . . to 24 years old . . . to 34 years old . . . to 44 years old . . . to 54 years old . . . to 64 years old . . . years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 78,678 6,144 9,731 16,318 15,922 16,473 10,974 3,118 75,215 69,491 5,221 502 3,463 1,154 1,810 499 1980 99,303 7,710 14,087 27,204 19,523 16,234 11,586 2,960 95,938 88,525 7,000 413 3,364 1,425 1,642 297 1990
1

1994

1

1995 124,900 6,419 12,443 32,356 34,202 24,378 11,435 3,666 121,460 112,448 8,902 110 3,440 1,814 1,580 45

1996 126,708 6,500 12,138 32,077 35,051 25,514 11,739 3,690 123,264 114,171 8,971 122 3,443 1,869 1,518 56

1997

1

1998

1

118,793 6,581 13,401 33,935 30,817 19,525 11,189 3,346 115,570 106,598 8,719 253 3,223 1,740 1,378 105

123,060 6,161 12,758 32,286 33,599 23,348 11,228 3,681 119,651 110,517 9,003 131 3,409 1,715 1,645 49

129,558 6,661 12,380 31,809 35,908 26,744 12,296 3,761 126,159 116,983 9,056 120 3,399 1,890 1,457 51

131,463 7,051 12,557 31,394 36,278 27,587 12,872 3,725 128,085 119,019 8,962 103 3,378 2,000 1,341 38

Class of worker: Nonagriculture . . . . . . . . . Wage and salary worker Self-employed . . . . . . . Unpaid family workers . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . Wage and salary worker Self-employed . . . . . . . Unpaid family workers . .

Weekly hours: Nonagriculture: Wage and salary workers. Self-employed . . . . . . . . Unpaid family workers . . . Agriculture: Wage and salary workers. Self-employed . . . . . . . . Unpaid family workers . . .
1

....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

38.3 45.0 37.9 40.0 51.0 40.0

38.1 41.2 34.7 41.6 49.3 38.6

39.2 40.8 34.0 41.2 46.8 38.5

39.1 39.5 33.7 41.0 43.0 39.0

39.2 39.4 33.5 41.1 43.5 42.0

39.2 39.6 34.1 41.5 43.1 38.0

39.4 39.7 32.6 41.6 42.7 44.3

39.2 39.6 34.0 40.6 43.3 36.2

See footnote 2, Table 649. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

418

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No. 663. Employed Workers Actively Seeking a New Job: 1997
[As of February. In thousands (112,819 represents 112,819,000), except rate. For employed wage and salary workers 16 old and over (except as indicated) responding to the question on actively seeking work in the prior 3 months Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Persons responding to search question Characteristic Total employed Actively seeking PerTotal work cent 5,528 400 949 1,825 1,396 732 203 23 3,071 2,457 310 969 1,296 1,604 694 5.0 6.9 8.4 6.4 4.6 3.3 2.1 0.9 5.3 4.6 3.3 3.2 4.9 5.9 4.7 Characteristic Total employed Persons responding to search question Actively seeking PerTotal work cent 921 206 774 816 20 80 658 458 330 178 314 78 5.4 5.2 6.3 4.6 3.1 3.8 5.3 4.0 4.4 3.8 7.1 5.0

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112,819 110,546 Age: 16 to 19 years old . . . . . 5,951 5,828 20 to 24 years old . . . . . 11,645 11,326 25 to 34 years old . . . . . 29,278 28,590 35 to 44 years old . . . . . 31,126 30,579 45 to 54 years old . . . . . 22,474 22,078 55 to 64 years old . . . . . 9,843 9,698 65 years old and over . . . 2,502 2,447 Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . 58,797 57,655 Female . . . . . . . . . . . . 54,022 52,891 1 Educational attainment: Less than high school diploma . . . . . . . . . . . 9,669 9,389 High school diploma, no college . . . . . . . . . . . . 31,326 30,672 Some college or associate degree . . . . . . . . . 26,676 26,265 Bachelor’s degree or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27,552 27,065 Occupation: Executive, administrative, and managerial . . . . . . 14,887 14,639
1

Professional specialty . . . Technical and related support. . . . . . . . . . . . Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative support, including clerical. . . . . . Private household . . . . . Protective service. . . . . . Service, except private households and protective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft, and repair . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and material moving occupations . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . .

17,477 17,186 4,042 3,998 12,493 12,247 17,843 17,585 731 644 2,138 2,097 12,808 12,425 11,803 7,691 4,787 4,517 1,604 11,586 7,534 4,653 4,396 1,558

Persons 25 years old and over.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, February 1997, unpublished data.

No. 664. Persons At Work, by Hours Worked: 1998
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over (125,877 represents 125,877,000). Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Persons at work (1,000) Hours of work Total Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 to 34 hours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 to 4 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 14 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 to 29 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 to 34 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 hours and over . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 39 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 hours and over. . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . 49 to 58 hours . . . . . . . . . . . 60 hours and over . . . . . . . . . Average weekly hours: Total at work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Persons usually working full time . X Not applicable. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January, 1999 issue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125,877 33,132 1,336 4,914 15,545 11,337 92,745 8,731 44,224 39,790 14,608 14,520 10,663 39.3 43.2 Agriculture industries 3,217 987 71 218 465 232 2,231 174 760 1,297 268 387 642 41.6 47.9 Nonagriculture industries 122,660 32,146 1,265 4,696 15,081 11,105 90,514 8,556 43,464 38,494 14,340 14,133 10,020 39.2 43.1 Percent distribution Agriculture industries 100.0 30.7 2.2 6.8 14.4 7.2 69.3 5.4 23.6 40.3 8.3 12.0 20.0 (X) (X) Nonagriculture industries 100.0 26.2 1.0 3.8 12.3 9.1 73.8 7.0 35.4 31.4 11.7 11.5 8.2 (X) (X)

Total 100.0 26.3 1.1 3.9 12.3 9.0 73.7 6.9 35.1 31.6 11.6 11.5 8.5 (X) (X)

.. ..

No. 665. Persons With a Job But Not at Work: 1970 to 1998
[In thousands (4,645 represents 4,645,000), except percent. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Reason for not working All industries, number . Percent of employed Reason for not working: Vacation . . . . . . . . . . Illness . . . . . . . . . . . Bad weather . . . . . . . Industrial dispute . . . . All other . . . . . . . . . .
1

1970 4,645 5.9 2,341 1,324 128 156 696

1975 5,221 6.1 2,815 1,343 139 95 829

1980 5,881 5.9 3,320 1,426 155 105 876

1985 1990 5,789 5.4 3,338 1,308 141 42 960

1

1993 1994 6,041 5.0 3,328 1,295 153 24 1,241

1

1995 5,582 4.5 2,982 1,084 122 21 1,373

1996 1997 5,768 4.6 3,085 1,090 256 11 1,325

1

1998

1

..... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,160 5.2 3,529 1,341 90 24 1,177

5,619 4.6 2,877 1,184 165 15 1,378

5,555 4.3 2,942 1,114 146 20 1,334

5,586 4.2 3,033 1,095 130 10 1,318

See footnote 2, Table 649.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
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419

No. 666. Self-Employed Workers, by Industry and Occupation: 1970 to 1998
[In thousands (7,031 represents 7,031,000). For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Data from 1994 forward are not fully comparable with data for prior years because of the introduction of the occupational and industrial classification used in the 1990 census. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Item Total self-employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industry: Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonagriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 7,031 1,810 5,221 14 687 264 196 1,667 254 2,140 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1980 8,642 1,642 7,000 28 1,173 358 282 1,899 458 2,804 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1990
1

1994

1

1995 10,482 1,580 8,902 16 1,460 433 396 1,772 660 4,166 3,147 2,341 1,190 1,618 631 1,556

1996 10,490 1,518 8,971 15 1,496 406 432 1,760 674 4,189 3,288 2,304 1,198 1,595 634 1,471

1997

1

1998

1

10,097 1,378 8,719 24 1,457 427 301 1,851 630 4,030 3,050 2,240 1,207 1,675 567 1,358

10,648 1,645 9,003 13 1,506 426 385 1,906 625 4,142 3,106 2,380 1,178 1,740 639 1,605

10,513 1,457 9,056 14 1,492 422 438 1,761 629 4,300 3,432 2,219 1,179 1,651 629 1,403

10,303 1,341 8,962 21 1,519 428 430 1,640 609 4,317 3,400 2,117 1,198 1,697 584 1,307

Occupation: Managerial and professional specialty. . . . . Technical, sales, and administrative support. Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft, and repair . . . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available.
1

See footnote 2, Table 649.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

No. 667. Self-Employed Persons With Home-Based Businesses: 1997
[As of May (4,125 represents 4,125,000). For persons at work 16 years and over in nonagricultural industries who worked in home-based businesses as part of their primary job. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Percent distribution by hours worked at home Characteristic Total 1 (1,000) Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEX Male. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OCCUPATION Managerial and professional . . . . . . . Exec., admin., and managerial. . . . Professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical, sales and administrative 3 . Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative support . . . . . . . . . Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft, and repair. Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . INDUSTRY Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 193 132 185 532 291 2,054 49.5 13.6 52.8 28.9 38.9 22.5 23.0 50.5 86.4 47.2 71.1 61.1 77.5 77.0 14.3 38.5 18.0 30.2 19.2 23.6 37.8 14.3 29.1 14.9 22.3 19.1 20.9 27.4 44.3 36.5 35.7 39.4 30.5 34.5 36.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,714 1,014 700 1,016 722 259 616 564 215 28.3 28.3 28.3 33.4 34.4 33.1 12.0 50.1 36.1 71.7 71.7 71.7 66.6 65.6 66.9 88.0 49.9 63.9 28.2 29.0 27.1 22.5 24.1 15.5 58.3 15.1 22.4 23.1 23.8 22.1 19.5 20.2 16.7 36.9 14.8 20.0 37.0 39.6 33.2 32.0 35.8 20.1 42.1 41.9 38.0 3,868 135 156 30.5 29.2 27.8 69.5 70.8 72.2 29.0 47.0 31.3 22.9 29.1 23.8 36.9 42.7 35.9 2,157 1,968 36.2 24.2 63.8 75.8 25.5 33.5 20.4 25.9 42.1 31.9 4,125 Less than 8 hours 30.4 8 hours or more Total 69.6 35 hours or more 29.3 Worked at home 23.0 Mean hours Total at work on primary job 37.3

1 Includes persons who worked at home but did not report the number of hours worked. These persons are excluded from the distribution. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 3 Includes other occupations, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL 98-93, March 11, 1998.

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No. 668. Multiple Jobholders: 1998
[Annual average of monthly figures (7,926 represents 7,926,000). For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Multiple jobholders are employed persons who, either 1) had jobs as wage or salary workers with two employers or more; 2) were self-employed and also held a wage and salary job; or 3) were unpaid family workers on their primary jobs but also held wage and salary job. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Total Characteristic Total Age: 16 20 25 55 65
1

Male Number (1,000) 4,178 138 363 3,228 378 71 3,622 406 299 2,664 498 1,016 2,608 512 188 848 Percent of employed 5.9 3.9 5.5 6.3 5.4 3.3 6.0 5.9 3.7 6.2 5.8 5.3 (X) (X) (X) (X)

Female Number (1,000) 3,748 198 425 2,783 303 39 3,210 396 204 1,750 887 1,110 1,870 1,124 78 656 Percent of employed 6.2 5.7 7.2 6.3 5.2 2.5 6.4 5.2 3.9 5.3 7.3 7.0 (X) (X) (X) (X)

Number (1,000) 7,926 335 788 6,011 682 109 6,832 802 503 4,414 1,385 2,127 4,478 1,635 266 1,504

Percent of employed 6.0 4.8 6.3 6.3 5.3 2.9 6.2 5.5 3.8 5.8 6.7 6.1 (X) (X) (X) (X)

....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

to 19 years old . . . to 24 years old . . . to 54 years old . . . to 64 years old . . . years old and over .

Race and Hispanic origin: White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marital status: Married, spouse present . . . . . . . . . . . . . Widowed, divorced, or separated . . . . . . . Single, never married . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full- or part-time status: Primary job full time, secondary job . . . . Both jobs part time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Both jobs full time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hours vary on primary or secondary job . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their X Not applicable. secondary job(s), not shown separately. Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1999 issue.

No. 669. Reasons for Multiple Jobholding: 1997
[As of May (8,751 represents 8,751,000). See headnote, Table 668] Percent distribution by reason To get experience or build up a business 7.7 5.2 8.5 5.0 8.0 5.6 5.4 8.4 8.0 8.2 9.8 7.0 3.6 9.9 5.1 1.6 To get extra money to buy something special 7.9 13.0 6.7 9.4 8.0 7.0 11.1 7.4 10.2 6.3 7.2 8.5 12.9 7.4 5.4 6.1

Characteristic

Meet regular Total houshold (1,000) expenses .. .. .. .. 8,751 1,274 6,648 829 7,566 874 557 4,720 1,238 2,910 573 4,031 1,145 1,941 946 577 30.9 24.7 33.0 23.6 29.7 38.9 39.5 29.4 24.5 31.2 30.6 32.7 28.7 28.8 45.4 52.5

To pay off debts 10.5 18.2 9.8 4.6 9.8 14.1 9.5 10.4 15.6 8.1 10.5 10.7 15.5 7.2 12.2 12.0

To save for the future 8.7 11.4 8.4 6.2 8.8 7.9 9.7 10.1 11.1 10.1 7.9 6.9 9.4 6.5 4.9 5.0

To help out a friend or relative 3.2 2.3 3.3 3.7 3.5 1.4 3.1 2.8 2.3 3.0 2.8 3.7 2.5 4.1 4.3 2.1

Enjoys the work on the second job 14.5 6.5 14.4 26.9 15.2 11.4 4.7 15.9 10.3 19.2 11.0 12.8 9.0 16.5 9.9 8.3

Other reasons 16.6 18.5 15.7 20.7 17.1 13.8 17.1 15.7 18.0 13.9 20.3 17.6 18.3 19.5 12.8 12.5

Total 1 . . . . . . . . . Age: 16 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 54 years old . . . 55 years old and over .

Race and Hispanic origin: White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 2 . . . . . . Males . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single . . . . . . . . . . . . Married, spouse present Widowed, divorced, or separated . . . . . . . . . Females . . . . . . . . . . . . Single . . . . . . . . . . . . Married, spouse present Widowed, divorced, or separated . . . . . . . . . Women who maintain families. . . . . . . . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . .

Due to estimation procedures, the number of multiple jobholders differs from the regularly published monthly data. Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

421

No. 670. Distribution of Workers, by Tenure With Current Employer, by Selected Characteristic: 1998
[As of February (115,892 represents 115,892,000). For employed wage and salary workers 16 years old and over. Based on the Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see source and Appendix III] Percent distribution by tenure with current employer Number em12 13 to 10 to 15 to 20 ployed months 23 3 to 4 5 to 9 14 19 years (1,000) or less months 2 years years years years years or more 27.8 7.9 4.9 15.8 17.9 10.7 6.1 9.0

Characteristic

Median years 1 3.6

Total

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115,892

AGE AND SEX 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 years old and over . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . 25 to 34 years old . . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . . 65 years old and over . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . 20 years old and over . . 20 to 24 years old . . 25 to 34 years old . . 35 to 44 years old . . 45 to 54 years old . . 55 to 64 years old . . 65 years old and over Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . 20 years old and over . . 20 to 24 years old . . 25 to 34 years old . . 35 to 44 years old . . 45 to 54 years old . . 55 to 64 years old . . 65 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,461 . 109,431 . 11,967 . 29,291 . 31,684 . 23,482 . 10,377 . 2,631 . 60,113 . 3,143 . 56,970 . 6,270 . 15,637 . 16,568 . 11,866 . 5,333 . 1,297 . 55,779 . 3,318 . 52,461 . 5,697 . 13,654 . 15,116 . 11,616 . 5,044 . 1,334 77.9 24.8 53.5 31.3 20.5 14.7 11.6 16.1 26.9 78.3 24.1 52.1 30.6 19.2 14.3 11.3 16.5 28.7 77.4 25.6 55.0 32.2 21.9 15.2 11.9 15.7 10.2 7.7 13.1 10.4 6.7 5.2 4.0 3.5 7.5 10.4 7.3 12.1 9.6 6.5 4.6 3.9 4.9 8.3 10.0 8.2 14.2 11.3 6.8 5.8 4.2 2.1 6.1 4.8 9.1 6.0 4.0 3.4 2.6 3.6 4.7 5.0 4.7 10.3 5.7 3.5 3.1 2.6 4.3 5.1 7.2 5.0 7.7 6.4 4.5 3.8 2.6 3.0 5.5 16.4 18.4 21.9 15.6 12.5 11.0 13.1 15.9 5.9 16.4 19.4 22.6 14.7 12.2 10.1 14.2 15.8 5.2 16.4 17.3 21.2 16.6 12.8 11.9 12.0 0.3 18.9 5.9 21.5 22.0 18.7 17.3 18.6 17.4 0.4 18.3 6.0 22.2 21.8 16.2 15.9 17.7 18.3 0.2 19.5 5.7 20.8 22.3 21.3 18.9 19.6 11.3 (Z) 8.0 15.9 13.6 14.2 13.9 10.5 11.1 (Z) 8.4 16.7 11.5 12.2 15.1 10.9 11.6 (Z) 7.4 15.0 15.7 16.3 12.6 6.5 0.9 9.7 10.2 10.4 9.5 6.2 6.6 1.0 10.8 10.7 8.3 6.3 6.0 6.3 0.7 8.6 9.7 12.6 12.6 9.5 5.6 21.7 28.9 21.7 10.9 11.5 6.8 27.5 35.8 20.9 6.9 7.4 4.2 15.8 21.6 22.4 0.7 4.0 1.1 2.7 5.0 8.1 10.1 7.8 3.8 0.7 4.2 1.2 2.8 5.5 9.4 11.2 7.1 3.4 0.7 3.8 1.1 2.5 4.5 7.2 9.6 8.7

RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN White . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . Female . . . . Black . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . Female . . . . Hispanic origin 3 Male . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97,341 51,234 46,108 13,298 6,123 7,175 12,695 7,468 5,227 27.5 26.6 28.4 29.1 28.7 29.5 31.4 30.7 32.5 8.0 7.5 8.6 6.3 6.1 6.5 8.4 7.9 9.1 4.8 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.2 5.6 6.5 6.1 7.0 15.7 15.7 15.6 16.6 16.5 16.6 19.6 19.9 19.0 18.0 17.3 18.7 16.8 17.3 16.3 17.4 18.1 16.5 10.8 10.7 11.0 10.0 9.2 10.7 8.6 8.1 9.3 6.2 6.4 5.9 6.4 6.0 6.7 3.6 4.0 3.2 9.2 11.2 6.9 9.4 11.1 8.0 4.4 5.2 3.3
2

3.6 3.9 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4 2.8 3.0 2.6 Includes

- Represents zero. Z Less than 0.05 percent. 1 For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. other races, not shown separately. 3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL 98-387, September 23, 1998, and unpublished data.

No. 671. Part-Time Workers, by Reason: 1998
[In thousands (33,132 represents 33,132,000), except hours. For persons working 1 to 34 hours per per week. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual average of monthly figures. Based on the Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] All industries Reason Total Total working fewer than 35 hours . . . Economic reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack work or business conditions . . . . . . Could find only part-time work . . . . . . . . . Seasonal work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job started or ended during the week . . . . Noneconomic reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child-care problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other family or personal obligations . . . . . Health or medical limitations . . . . . . . . . . In school or training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retired or Social Security limit on earnings Vacation or personal day . . . . . . . . . . . . Holiday, legal, or religious . . . . . . . . . . . . Weather related curtailment. . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average hours per week: Economic reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noneconomic reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,132 3,665 2,095 1,258 135 177 29,467 856 5,551 717 6,394 1,889 3,487 3,399 489 6,685 22.9 22.1 Usually work— Full time 12,260 1,322 1,056 89 177 10,938 89 688 97 3,487 3,399 489 2,689 23.9 26.6 Part time 20,872 2,343 1,038 1,258 47 18,530 767 4,863 717 6,297 1,889 3,997 22.4 19.5 Total 32,146 3,501 1,997 1,228 102 174 28,645 843 5,390 683 6,245 1,775 3,420 3,357 426 6,508 23.0 22.2 Nonagricultural industries Usually work— Full time 11,929 1,238 998 66 174 10,691 87 673 94 3,420 3,357 426 2,634 24.0 26.7 Part time 20,217 2,263 999 1,228 37 17,954 755 4,716 683 6,151 1,775 3,874 22.4 19.6

... ...

- Represents or rounds to zero. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1999 issue.

422

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 672. Displaced Workers, by Selected Characteristics: 1998
[In percent, except total (3,578 represents 3,578,000). As of February. For persons 20 years old and over with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between January 1995 and December 1997 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the abolishment of their positions. Data revised since originally published. Based on Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see source and Appendix III] Employment status Characteristic Total (1,000) 20 25 55 65 Total 1 . . . . . . . . to 24 years old . . . to 54 years old . . . to 64 years old . . . years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,578 108 2,835 471 163 1,898 49 1,488 280 81 1,680 59 1,347 191 82 3,063 366 354 Employed 75.9 61.2 81.5 59.6 34.7 78.8 (2) 84.3 61.9 42.0 72.6 (2) 78.4 56.2 27.4 76.0 73.1 71.6 Unemployed 10.0 11.8 9.9 9.9 10.6 12.0 (2) 11.3 12.6 16.8 7.8 (2) 8.5 6.0 4.3 9.4 16.3 15.4 Not in the labor force 14.1 27.0 8.5 30.4 54.8 9.3 (2) 4.4 25.4 41.3 19.5 (2) 13.1 37.8 68.2 14.6 10.6 13.0 Reason for job loss Plant or company closed down or moved 47.2 43.1 47.1 46.0 54.0 44.0 (2) 45.3 42.8 40.3 50.7 (2) 49.2 50.7 67.7 46.0 53.1 57.8
3

Slack work 21.2 38.7 20.9 17.7 25.7 26.0 (2) 25.5 16.4 40.6 15.8 (2) 15.7 19.5 10.9 21.3 17.7 26.0

Position or shift abolished 31.6 18.2 32.0 36.4 20.3 30.0 (2) 29.2 40.8 19.1 33.5 (2) 35.1 29.8 21.5 32.7 29.2 16.2

Males . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 54 years old . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over . Females . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 54 years old . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over .

White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 3 . . . . . . . .

1 Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000. origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL 98-347, August 19, 1998.

Persons of Hispanic

No. 673. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons by Disability Status: 1991 to 1994
[(119,432 represents 119,432,000). Data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation] Disability status All employed persons (1,000) . Total of employed persons . . With no disability . . . . . . . . . . With a disability. . . . . . . . . . . Severe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not severe . . . . . . . . . . . . With a functional limitation . . . Severe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With difficulty: Seeing words and letters . . . Hearing normal conversation
1

1991

1993

1994

Disability status Lifting and carrying. . . . . . . . Climbing stairs. . . . . . . . . . . Walking 3 city blocks . . . . . . With an ADL 1 limitation . . . . . . With an IADL 2 limitation. . . . . . Needs personal assistance and an ADL or IADL. . . . . . . . . . . Uses a wheelchair . . . . . . . . . . Does not use a wheelchair, but uses a cane, crutches, or a walker . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1991 2.3 2.3 2.4 0.8 1.1 0.7 0.1 0.4

1993 2.6 2.6 2.6 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.1 0.5

1994 2.5 2.6 2.7 0.9 1.4 0.9 0.1 0.4

. 119,432 122,614 125,591 . 100.0 100.0 100.0 . 86.6 86.2 86.2 . 13.4 13.8 13.8 . 2.8 3.2 3.4 . 10.6 10.6 10.4 . 8.4 8.9 7.9 . 1.7 2.0 2.1 . . 2.0 3.2 2.2 3.5 1.6 2.7

ADLs are activities of daily living and include getting around inside the home, getting in or out of a bed or chair, taking a bath or shower, dressing, eating, and using the toilet. 2 IADLs are instrumental activities of daily living and include going outside the home, keeping track of money and bills, preparing meals, doing light housework, and using the telephone. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Internet site <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disable/dissipp.html> (Accessed 18 June 1997)

No. 674. Persons Not in the Labor Force: 1998
[In thousands (67,547 represents 67,547,000). Annual average of monthly figures. For the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Age Status and reason Total Total not in the labor force . . . . . . . . . . . . Do not want a job now 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Want a job now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In the previous year— Did not search for a job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Did search for a job 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not available for work now . . . . . . . . . . . . Available for work now, not looking for work. Reason for not currently looking: Discouraged over job prospects 3 . . . . Family responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . In school or training . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ill health or disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67,547 62,735 4,812 2,859 1,953 643 1,310 331 143 206 104 525 16 to 24 yrs. old 11,343 9,491 1,852 1,011 841 332 509 108 37 173 14 177 25 to 54 yrs. old 18,732 16,580 2,152 1,240 912 275 637 170 93 32 69 273 55 yrs. old and over 37,472 36,664 807 608 200 36 164 53 13 1 21 75 Sex Male 24,799 22,790 2,008 1,134 875 250 624 198 23 105 52 247 Female 42,748 39,945 2,803 1,725 1,078 392 686 133 120 102 52 278

1 Includes some persons who are not asked if they want a job. 2 Persons who had a job in the prior 12 months must have searched since the end of that job. 3 Includes such things as believes no work available, could not find work, lacks necessary schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination. 4 Includes such things as child care and transportation problems. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1999 issue.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

423

No. 675. Employed Civilians, by Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1983 and 1998
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over (100,834 represents 100,834,000). Annual average of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See headnote, Table 666] 1983 Occupation Total employed (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100,834 . 23,592 . 10,772 . 417 . 357 . 106 . 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 415 91 305 2,966 1,105 12,820 103 1,572 80 67 211 450 210 259 463 276 142 357 98 55 (3) 735 519 126 1,900 1,372 158 71 247 69 55 51 51 606 3,365 299 1,350 1,209 81 184 213 193 261 98 135 831 407 65 293 651 612 1,544 62 (3) 393 155 60 186 113 204 157 (3) 58 Percent of total FeHismale Black panic 43.7 40.9 32.4 38.5 38.6 43.9 23.6 21.8 41.4 57.0 42.8 40.3 38.7 48.1 12.7 5.8 6.9 6.1 4.0 6.1 11.0 2.8 29.6 27.8 31.3 20.5 23.3 40.8 (3) 13.3 15.8 6.7 85.8 95.8 26.7 90.8 76.3 69.4 77.0 90.5 36.3 36.3 70.9 98.2 83.3 51.8 82.2 53.1 84.4 87.3 46.8 37.9 57.1 43.1 64.3 71.9 5.6 15.8 15.3 42.7 46.7 (3) 52.7 28.0 30.8 47.4 20.7 48.4 50.1 (3) 17.6 9.3 5.6 4.7 8.3 3.5 4.9 5.1 2.7 11.3 5.0 5.5 5.8 5.5 6.4 1.6 2.7 1.5 3.0 1.9 3.4 3.3 3.2 5.4 6.2 4.9 2.6 4.3 2.4 (3) 2.7 3.2 2.4 7.1 6.7 3.8 21.0 7.6 6.5 9.7 1.5 7.7 4.4 9.1 11.8 11.1 7.2 10.2 13.9 7.8 7.9 7.1 6.3 8.6 12.1 18.2 15.7 4.9 2.7 2.6 4.8 2.1 (3) 3.1 7.9 6.6 2.1 4.0 2.9 6.2 (3) 9.4 Total employed (1,000) 1998
1

Percent of total Female Black 46.2 49.0 44.4 48.5 53.3 65.9 39.4 38.5 62.2 79.2 52.2 57.1 58.2 53.3 17.5 11.1 8.4 16.5 12.1 9.0 18.3 7.0 28.9 26.9 41.9 30.9 32.9 38.8 45.2 26.3 26.6 19.8 85.2 92.5 44.0 86.0 75.4 60.8 72.9 92.6 52.6 42.3 75.3 97.8 84.0 56.9 82.0 68.8 80.8 83.4 54.7 46.3 62.1 55.1 68.4 75.1 12.0 28.6 28.5 51.4 55.0 57.4 58.0 39.7 38.7 53.9 38.1 51.0 66.3 17.1 23.7 11.1 7.6 7.2 12.1 6.8 7.7 5.0 3.8 10.6 6.8 7.1 9.7 9.4 7.9 2.0 4.1 3.3 4.6 2.0 5.3 5.3 3.3 7.2 7.2 8.8 3.9 6.1 3.3 5.6 4.2 4.9 2.8 8.9 9.3 4.1 18.2 7.3 11.7 4.2 1.9 10.6 5.8 10.0 14.4 10.5 8.9 11.0 13.2 5.9 5.2 6.7 3.6 10.2 17.5 23.4 15.9 8.7 4.3 4.0 6.2 2.2 3.5 3.0 10.8 8.2 4.7 5.5 8.9 8.8 10.7 12.7 Hispanic 10.1 5.0 5.4 4.5 4.4 4.3 5.5 3.4 4.2 5.3 9.4 5.4 4.9 4.6 5.2 3.8 2.6 1.0 4.6 3.7 5.6 2.0 4.2 3.6 8.5 3.0 3.1 1.5 5.2 4.0 4.8 2.0 3.4 3.2 5.1 4.3 3.8 2.0 5.4 6.3 2.8 3.6 5.4 8.0 5.6 4.2 4.7 5.5 5.4 5.9 5.2 6.5 4.0 5.9 6.4 4.8 6.1 3.0 3.0 5.6 1.3 1.2 6.6 7.2 4.5 5.0 7.1 3.1 4.0 5.0 3.7

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managerial and professional specialty . . . . Executive, administrative, and managerial 2 . Officials and administrators, public . . . . . Financial managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel and labor relations managers . Purchasing managers. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.3 131,463 2.6 38,937 2.8 19,054 3.8 630 3.1 705 2.6 162 1.4 136 1.7 2.4 2.0 5.2 3.5 3.3 2.5 1.5 2.2 2.1 1.4 3.2 3.1 2.4 1.1 2.6 2.7 2.2 2.1 1.2 1.8 (3) 3.3 4.5 1.0 2.2 1.8 2.6 3.7 2.7 3.7 1.5 4.4 1.8 2.7 3.4 3.1 2.3 2.3 3.2 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.7 1.1 3.8 6.3 2.0 1.4 1.0 0.9 2.9 0.9 (3) 2.7 4.4 3.4 2.3 3.4 2.1 1.9 (3) 1.7 772 752 725 517 4,700 1,616 19,883 158 2,052 86 69 296 629 262 335 1,747 1,471 212 519 133 104 83 1,083 740 155 2,898 2,032 180 90 528 103 134 105 68 919 4,962 586 1,951 1,225 381 230 236 208 430 137 232 1,329 749 132 325 951 912 2,353 130 73 692 183 130 241 154 274 170 60 91

Managers, marketing, advertising and public relations Administrators, education and related fields . . . . . . . Managers, medicine and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managers, properties and real estate . . . . . . . . . . . Management-related occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accountants and auditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional specialty 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Architects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineers 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aerospace engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civil engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical and electronic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematical and computer scientists 2 . . . . . . . . . . Computer systems analysts, scientists . . . . . . . . . Operations and systems researchers and analysts . Natural scientists 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemists, except biochemists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological and life scientists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medical scientistis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health diagnosing occupations 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dentists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health assessment and treating occupations . . . . . . Registered nurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pharmacists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dietitians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Therapists 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Respiratory therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speech therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians’ assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, college and university . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, except college and university 2 . . . . . . . . . Prekindergarten and kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary school. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counselors, educational and vocational . . . . . . . . . . Librarians, archivists, and curators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Librarians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social scientists and urban planners 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Economists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social, recreation, and religious workers 2 . . . . . . . . Social workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recreation workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lawyers and judges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lawyers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Writers, artists, entertainers, and athletes 2 . . . . . . . Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Designers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Musicians and composers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actors and directors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photographers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editors and reporters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public relations specialists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Announcers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Athletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table.

424

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 675. Employed Civilians, by Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1983 and 1998—Continued
[See headnote, page 424] 1983 Occupation Total employed (1,000) 31,265 3,053 1,111 255 66 101 443 822 260 273 (3) 202 52 82 917 69 443 128 11,818 2,958 1,853 551 570 212 124 1,442 5,511 2,009 54 16,395 676 605 597 4,861 3,891 906 1,174 602 866 188 64 147 287 157 2,457 1,970 192 146 96 (3) 68 256 244 799 248 259 170 122 1,562 157 182 421 532 79 112 675 199 301 69 106 2,397 648 480 311 96 348 Percent of total FeHismale Black panic 64.6 48.2 84.3 76.2 98.6 71.7 97.0 18.4 12.5 17.5 (3) 29.1 37.7 26.9 35.3 2.1 32.5 74.0 47.5 28.4 37.2 25.1 48.9 23.6 47.9 15.1 69.7 84.4 58.7 79.9 53.4 63.9 63.7 98.2 99.0 95.6 88.9 96.8 82.4 78.1 91.1 81.9 83.5 82.8 89.4 91.0 82.2 88.4 75.6 (3) 62.6 89.1 90.4 31.6 36.7 17.1 50.0 26.2 37.5 45.7 44.0 22.6 38.7 47.2 57.5 69.9 65.0 70.1 88.7 66.4 85.2 80.6 91.0 93.6 75.7 93.7 7.6 8.2 12.7 10.5 1.6 8.6 17.7 6.1 8.2 5.5 (3) 6.6 2.9 9.5 5.0 4.4 4.3 4.7 3.6 2.7 3.8 1.3 3.1 4.5 2.1 6.7 10.1 2.8 9.6 9.3 12.5 12.1 7.3 5.8 13.8 8.5 7.5 13.9 10.6 14.9 15.4 16.7 11.6 4.6 4.3 5.9 6.2 5.9 (3) 16.0 17.0 17.0 18.1 26.2 12.5 15.8 16.7 10.9 11.4 6.1 9.1 13.3 16.9 8.4 11.1 11.5 11.3 12.9 8.5 12.5 12.7 7.5 18.6 7.5 17.8 4.3 3.1 3.1 2.9 4.5 3.1 3.5 4.6 2.3 (3) 2.8 2.0 3.5 2.7 1.6 2.1 3.6 3.7 3.4 2.2 2.5 1.5 1.1 3.3 2.2 4.8 5.4 1.3 5.0 5.0 6.0 6.0 4.5 4.0 6.4 5.5 6.6 4.8 4.4 4.6 2.5 6.1 5.6 3.7 3.3 5.0 3.9 5.3 (3) 6.1 4.4 4.3 4.5 5.2 2.7 5.9 5.2 6.6 4.3 2.2 11.1 5.5 5.8 4.3 5.1 3.3 4.8 9.4 6.5 5.9 5.2 4.3 5.6 3.4 12.6 Total employed (1,000) 38,521 4,261 1,733 359 112 170 381 970 431 228 71 285 108 75 1,273 113 613 370 15,850 4,719 2,668 592 749 477 186 1,584 6,784 3,025 94 18,410 698 375 371 3,599 2,914 580 1,965 1,006 1,063 246 74 173 348 205 2,214 1,726 146 185 52 105 81 175 159 984 319 333 178 155 1,945 235 255 628 452 51 272 1,813 476 1,049 94 195 3,496 735 416 711 100 633 1998
1

Percent of total Female Black 64.2 53.6 81.6 78.5 99.1 69.5 96.0 20.8 16.9 19.3 12.8 43.3 68.2 21.2 42.8 3.4 28.5 82.0 50.3 40.1 43.6 41.5 53.0 29.1 58.3 26.0 65.4 78.2 72.7 78.6 60.1 54.7 54.8 97.6 98.4 94.3 89.0 95.5 79.2 75.2 87.1 75.5 80.3 82.5 92.1 93.0 89.7 87.2 83.7 94.1 55.7 81.7 85.8 38.0 47.2 29.7 49.7 23.1 45.1 49.4 56.7 31.6 42.9 52.4 67.9 74.7 72.1 75.6 85.8 70.5 83.1 81.1 89.5 81.8 80.5 93.0 11.1 10.4 13.9 15.0 3.9 8.2 17.4 8.6 9.3 3.5 3.5 8.8 4.0 12.9 7.2 1.9 6.4 8.1 8.9 6.5 7.6 9.1 3.9 6.4 8.9 2.9 12.5 16.8 6.6 13.1 15.1 14.1 14.2 9.6 8.5 16.5 11.5 10.5 14.5 20.2 14.0 10.3 14.5 10.7 7.7 6.8 10.6 9.3 8.9 15.7 18.9 25.9 26.8 21.1 28.2 17.1 24.5 11.4 14.1 11.0 5.3 17.3 15.5 22.8 12.7 16.3 12.2 17.1 17.5 21.5 14.7 15.3 11.0 17.4 19.4 15.1 Hispanic 8.3 6.6 7.0 6.4 3.9 2.0 5.8 7.6 8.8 6.2 8.2 5.8 4.9 5.3 5.6 2.5 4.9 7.2 7.9 6.3 4.8 4.2 4.1 3.7 3.1 5.4 10.7 12.7 3.7 9.0 5.9 7.1 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.1 10.7 12.5 10.6 11.4 15.9 6.1 10.8 11.9 6.5 6.0 8.8 7.9 9.2 6.1 16.6 14.3 13.1 10.3 8.5 9.9 12.4 12.3 12.7 8.7 7.0 17.0 14.8 9.4 10.4 8.0 6.6 7.7 14.7 9.3 9.7 10.8 9.0 8.4 7.1 13.5

Technical, sales, and administrative support . . . . . . . . . . Technicians and related support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health technologists and technicians 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians . . . . Dental hygienists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiologic technicians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Licensed practical nurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and related technologists and technicians 2 . Electrical and electronic technicians. . . . . . . . . . . . . Drafting occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surveying and mapping technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . Science technicians 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technicians, except health, engineering, and science 2 . . Airplane pilots and navigators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer programmers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors and proprietors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales representatives, finance and business services 2 Insurance sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Securities and financial services sales . . . . . . . . . . Advertising and related sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales representatives, commodities, except retail . . . . Sales workers, retail and personal services . . . . . . . . Cashiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales-related occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative support, including clerical . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer equipment operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secretaries, stenographers, and typists 2 . . . . . . . . Secretaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receptionists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records processing occupations, except financial 2 . Order clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel clerks, except payroll and time keeping Library clerks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records clerks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Financial records processing 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks . . . . Payroll and time keeping clerks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Billing clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost and rate clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators . Duplicating, mail and other office machine operators . Communications equipment operators . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mail and message distributing occupations . . . . . . . . Postal clerks, except mail carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . Mail carrier, postal service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mail clerks, except postal service . . . . . . . . . . . . Messengers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material recording, scheduling, and distributing 2 4 . . Dispatchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Production coordinators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks . . . . . . . . . Stock and inventory clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weighers, measurers, and checkers . . . . . . . . . Expediters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusters and investigators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators Investigators and adjusters, except insurance . . . Eligibility clerks, social welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bill and account collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous administrative support 2 . . . . . . . . . General office clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bank tellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data entry keyers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers’ aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

425

No. 675. Employed Civilians, by Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1983 and 1998—Continued
[See headnote, page 424] 1983 Occupation Total employed (1,000) 13,857 980 408 512 1,672 127 58 189 170 645 412 87 146 711 602 11,205 4,860 338 1,357 1,452 326 138 364 1,739 154 316 1,269 2,736 531 2,031 1,870 92 622 131 63 77 (NA) (NA) 12,328 4,158 3,906 1,683 800 95 674 98 247 4,289 3,784 1,160 196 3,685 16,091 7,744 1,414 806 141 1,715 794 4,201 2,978 2,195 212 1,011 369 4,147 1,488 1,024 1,450 2,072 1,149 126 Percent of total FeHismale Black panic 60.1 96.1 96.9 95.8 12.8 4.7 4.2 1.0 1.0 9.4 5.7 13.2 17.8 20.6 13.0 64.0 63.3 48.4 87.8 50.0 76.0 77.0 38.8 89.2 98.1 86.8 88.7 38.8 81.2 28.6 79.2 12.9 88.7 40.2 74.3 92.5 (NA) (NA) 8.1 3.0 2.8 0.8 0.5 2.5 7.4 9.3 9.9 1.8 1.9 1.4 2.3 21.5 26.6 42.1 82.1 94.0 66.4 33.7 53.8 7.8 9.2 3.1 2.4 4.8 5.6 16.8 15.4 19.4 12.1 19.9 24.8 1.4 16.6 27.8 7.9 42.4 13.6 7.7 9.3 6.7 7.3 13.1 9.5 11.5 24.0 17.0 18.9 16.0 10.5 2.7 4.1 15.8 9.1 13.7 12.6 23.5 6.1 16.5 27.3 24.4 32.3 22.6 11.1 8.4 7.0 7.1 11.3 24.2 (NA) (NA) 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.8 4.0 7.3 6.1 7.8 6.6 7.1 5.0 3.3 7.3 14.0 14.0 18.7 15.5 27.1 11.3 13.0 13.0 13.5 12.3 6.7 12.9 19.6 15.1 15.3 16.0 1.3 11.7 11.6 12.8
2 1

1998 Total employed (1,000) 17,836 847 278 549 2,417 214 118 250 228 1,062 602 161 299 891 753 14,572 6,071 324 1,379 2,135 339 269 559 2,480 230 337 1,913 3,112 653 2,233 2,909 66 763 215 124 92 486 453 14,411 4,786 4,527 1,845 877 153 866 274 232 5,594 4,839 1,346 125 3,907 18,256 7,791 954 511 91 2,090 770 5,363 4,069 3,012 167 1,127 534 5,102 1,988 1,298 1,187 2,171 835 91

Percent of total Female Black 59.5 94.6 96.5 94.3 17.8 9.3 11.3 2.5 2.3 16.3 11.5 17.0 25.4 26.0 19.0 64.4 56.5 54.6 78.3 40.9 69.1 69.0 53.4 88.5 98.1 78.9 89.0 44.5 82.8 34.8 81.5 18.5 90.8 43.2 86.3 86.8 97.1 95.9 8.3 4.0 4.0 1.0 0.8 3.7 11.1 16.9 12.0 2.0 2.0 1.2 1.4 23.0 24.6 37.3 72.1 82.1 81.0 33.1 48.0 10.2 11.5 5.3 4.1 6.2 8.9 20.3 23.7 21.8 23.1 17.7 17.2 6.7 17.6 13.7 9.4 15.4 19.1 14.2 10.5 10.9 11.8 19.4 15.2 16.8 29.2 22.4 25.1 17.6 11.8 4.3 5.4 16.6 10.3 12.1 10.7 30.1 6.1 24.4 34.0 22.8 26.7 21.7 13.5 39.4 11.3 9.3 12.9 25.1 11.2 16.0 8.0 7.9 8.0 7.6 8.3 8.6 10.8 7.5 11.9 7.1 7.5 5.3 7.0 9.5 15.7 15.4 19.4 16.4 27.8 14.3 14.8 16.3 16.2 14.9 17.3 16.2 22.7 15.6 17.4 16.6 1.3 6.8 4.2 8.1 Hispanic 15.0 30.9 19.5 37.0 8.5 7.5 6.0 5.3 3.9 8.8 10.0 8.0 6.8 9.2 9.9 15.1 17.0 6.7 11.3 21.9 10.8 11.1 18.8 10.0 12.1 9.3 9.8 20.5 25.0 19.6 9.8 11.8 8.2 5.6 4.1 15.9 10.7 11.8 12.4 10.4 10.5 12.6 13.7 11.7 9.0 8.0 9.2 14.0 14.9 13.7 11.8 12.7 16.0 17.2 25.1 30.2 35.2 14.5 16.3 11.9 12.0 12.0 3.8 12.8 18.3 18.4 14.3 16.6 2.4 34.8 44.9 6.9

Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child care workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaners and servants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors, protective service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisors, police and detectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firefighting and fire prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firefighting occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Police and detectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Police and detectives, public service . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers . . Correctional institution officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guards and police, except public service . . . . . . . . . Service except private household and protective. . . . . . . . Food preparation and service occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . Bartenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waiters and waitresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food counter, fountain, and related occupations . . . . Kitchen workers, food preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waiters’ and waitresses’ assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dental assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health aides, except nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning and building service occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . Maids and housemen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Janitors and cleaners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal service occupations 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hairdressers and cosmetologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities . . . . . Public transportation attendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welfare service aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family child care providers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early childhood teachers’ assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft, and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers, except supervisors 2 . . . . . . . Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics/repairers 2 . Automobile mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aircraft engine mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical and electronic equipment repairers 2. . . . . . Data processing equipment repairers . . . . . . . . . . Telephone installers and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades, except supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . Carpenters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extractive occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors 2 . . . . . . . Textile, apparel, and furnishings machine operators 2 . . . Textile sewing machine operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressing machine operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fabricators, assemblers, and hand working occupations . Production inspectors, testers, samplers, and weighers . Transportation and material moving occupations. . . . . . . . Motor vehicle operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trucks drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation occupations, except motor vehicles. . . . . Material moving equipment operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial truck and tractor operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers 2. . . . Freight, stock, and material handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laborers, except construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farm operators and managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other agricultural and related occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . Farm workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forestry and logging occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available. separately. 3 Level of total employment below 50,000.
1 See 4

6.8 8.5 3.6 11.8 4.6 3.1 1.2 4.1 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.0 2.8 5.6 6.2 6.9 6.8 4.4 3.6 6.5 6.7 8.1 14.2 4.8 5.7 4.8 4.7 9.2 10.1 8.9 6.0 12.1 5.7 4.3 5.9 10.5 (NA) (NA) 6.2 5.3 5.5 6.0 6.0 7.6 4.5 4.5 3.7 6.0 6.1 5.0 6.0 7.4 8.3 9.4 12.5 14.5 14.2 8.7 7.7 5.9 6.0 5.7 3.0 6.3 8.2 8.6 7.1 8.6 0.7 14.0 15.9 2.1

footnote 2, Table 649. Includes clerks.

Includes other occupations, not shown

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

426

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 676. Employment Projections, by Occupation: 1996 and 2006
[In thousands (3,146 represents 3,146,000), except percent. Estimates based on the Current Employment Statistics estimates and the Occupational Employment Statistics estimates. See source for methodological assumptions] Occupation LARGEST JOB GROWTH Cashiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Systems analysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General managers and top executives . . . Registered nurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salespersons, retail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Truck drivers light and heavy . . . . . . . . . Home health aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher aides and educational assistants . Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants . . Receptionists and information clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,146 506 3,210 1,971 4,072 2,719 495 981 1,312 1,074 1,406 830 1,369 212 2,316 1,362 1,720 407 216 1,253 986 955 3,111 1,957 585 401 804 202 589 225 3,677 1,025 3,677 2,382 4,481 3,123 873 1,352 1,645 1,392 1,718 1,129 1,630 461 2,562 1,608 1,963 648 451 1,487 1,208 1,175 3,326 2,163 772 584 978 374 757 391 530 520 467 411 408 404 378 370 333 318 312 299 262 249 246 246 243 241 235 234 222 221 215 206 188 183 174 171 168 166 17 Short-term on-the-job training 103 Bachelor’s degree Work experience plus bachelor’s or higher 15 degree 21 Associate’s degree 10 Short-term on-the-job training 15 Short-term on-the-job training 76 Short-term on-the-job training 38 Short-term on-the-job training 25 Short-term on-the-job training 30 Short-term on-the-job training 22 Bachelor’s degree 36 Short-term on-the-job training 19 Work experience in a related occupation 118 11 18 14 59 109 19 23 23 7 11 32 46 22 85 28 74 Bachelor’s degree Work experience in a related occupation Long-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Bachelor’s degree Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Work experience in a related occupation Moderate-term on-the-job training Employment 1996 Change Education and training category

2006 Number Percent

Teachers, secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . Child care workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clerical supervisors and managers . . . . . . Database administrators, computer support specialists 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marketing and sales worker supervisors . . . Maintenance repairers, general utility . . . . . Food counter, fountain, and related workers Teachers, special education . . . . . . . . . . . Computer engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food preparation workers . . . . . . . . . . . . Hand packers and packagers . . . . . Guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General office clerks . . . . . . . . . . . Waiters and waitresses . . . . . . . . . Social workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjustment clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooks, short order and fast food . . . Personal and home care aides . . . . Food service and lodging managers Medical assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTEST GROWING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Database administrators, computer support specialists 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Systems analysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal and home care aides . . . . . . . . . . . Physical and corrective therapy assistants and aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home health aides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medical assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Desktop publishing specialists . . . . . . . . . . . Physical therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational therapy assistants and aides . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

212 216 506 202 84 495 225 30 115 16 113 57 407 178 80 87 87 133 288 64 82 401 343 150 43 269 180 303 202 263

461 451 1,025 374 151 873 391 53 196 26 189 95 648 276 121 132 131 197 426 93 119 584 498 217 62 381 254 427 278 363

249 235 520 171 66 378 166 22 81 11 76 38 241 98 42 44 44 64 138 30 37 183 155 67 19 112 74 123 77 100

118 109 103 85 79 76 74 74 71 69 68 66 59 55 52 51 51 48 48 47

Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree Short-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Long-term on-the-job training Bachelor’s degree Moderate-term on-the-job training Associate’s degree Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree Moderate-term on-the-job training Postsecondary vocational training Associate’s degree Master’s degree Associate’s degree Short-term on-the-job training Bachelor’s degree

Paralegals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers, special education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human services workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data processing equipment repairers . . . . . . . . Medical records technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speech-language pathologists and audiologists . Dental hygienists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation attendants . . . . . . . Physician assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Respiratory therapists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjustment clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering, science, and computer systems managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency medical technicians . . . . . . . . . . Manicurists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bill and account collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential counselors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructors and coaches, sports and physical training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dental assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Securities and financial services sales workers
1

. . . . . . . . . .

46 Associate’s degree 46 Short-term on-the-job training Work experience plus bachelor’s or higher 45 degree 45 Postsecondary vocational training 45 Postsecondary vocational training 42 Short-term on-the-job training 41 Bachelor’s degree 41 Moderate-term on-the-job training 38 Moderate-term on-the-job training 38 Bachelor’s degree

All other computer specialists.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, November 1997.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

427

No. 677. Occupations of the Employed, by Selected Characteristics: 1998
[In thousands (58,326 represents 58,326,000). Annual averages of monthly figures. For civilian noninstitutional population 25 to 64 years old. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Managerial/ professional 18,176 369 2,212 3,595 11,999 16,130 328 2,000 3,226 10,576 1,078 24 144 268 642 17,424 247 2,399 4,283 10,496 14,999 199 2,125 3,683 8,991 1,637 32 213 481 912 Tech./ sales/ administrative 10,984 477 3,041 3,753 3,712 9,400 409 2,595 3,169 3,226 991 40 320 406 225 19,364 855 7,678 7,378 3,454 16,236 694 6,644 6,051 2,847 2,310 118 807 1,056 329
3

Sex, race, and educational attainment Male, total 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . . . . . High school graduates, no college . . . . Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . . . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . . High school graduates, no college . Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . . High school graduates, no college . Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . Female, total 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . . . . . High school graduates, no college . . . . Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . . . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . . High school graduates, no college . Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than a high school diploma . . High school graduates, no college . Less than a bachelor’s degree . . . College graduates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total employed 58,326 6,776 18,581 15,007 17,961 49,886 5,734 15,757 12,756 15,639 5,702 752 2,206 1,655 1,088 49,805 4,129 16,177 14,704 14,795 41,096 3,132 13,383 12,072 12,509 6,360 724 2,219 2,093 1,324

Service

1

Precision production 2 11,510 1,872 5,358 3,438 842 10,224 1,662 4,830 3,030 701 908 147 409 285 68 1,071 185 504 277 105 837 144 397 219 76 142 25 67 38 11
4

Operators/ fabricators 3 10,658 2,509 5,326 2,273 549 8,572 2,071 4,311 1,773 418 1,681 348 857 401 74 3,738 1,053 1,900 633 153 2,802 800 1,424 460 119 686 151 382 139 14

Farming, forestry, fishing 2,018 659 748 390 221 1,834 586 670 370 209 123 55 54 12 3 513 124 203 115 71 479 112 191 109 67 16 8 6 2 1

4,980 889 1,895 1,558 636 3,726 678 1,352 1,188 508 920 138 423 283 76 7,694 1,665 3,494 2,019 517 5,744 1,183 2,602 1,552 408 1,568 389 746 377 57

1 Includes private household workers. 2 Includes craft and repair. separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

Includes laborers.

Includes other races, not shown

No. 678. Employment, by Industry: 1970 to 1998
[In thousands (78,678 represents 78,678,000), except percent. See headnote, Table 652. Data for 1990, and also beginning 1995, not strictly comparable with other years due to changes in industrial classification] 1998 Industry 1970 Total employed. . . . . . . . . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, communication, and other public utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate. . . . . . Services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business and repair services 3 . . . . Advertising. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services to dwellings and buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel supply services . . . . . Computer and data processing . . Detective/protective services . . . . Automobile services . . . . . . . . . Personal services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Private households . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and lodging places. . . . . . Entertainment and recreation . . . . . Professional and related services 3 . Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health services, except hospitals . Elementary, secondary schools . . Colleges and universities . . . . . . Social services . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public administration 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78,678 3,463 516 4,818 20,746 5,320 15,008 2,672 12,336 3,945 20,385 1,403 147 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 600 4,276 1,782 979 717 12,904 2,843 1,628 6,126 (4) 828 429 4,476 1980 99,303 3,364 979 6,215 21,942 6,525 20,191 3,920 16,270 5,993 28,752 3,848 191 370 235 221 213 952 3,839 1,257 1,149 1,047 19,853 4,036 3,345 5,550 2,108 1,590 776 5,342 1990
1 1

Percent 1995
1

Total 131,463 3,378 620 8,518 20,733 9,307 27,203 5,090 22,113 8,605 47,212 8,708 308 791 1,027 1,780 573 1,536 4,451 967 1,371 2,530 31,392 5,116 6,388 7,131 2,792 3,240 1,356 5,887

Female 46.2 24.4 13.7 9.4 31.8 29.1 47.2 30.0 51.1 58.7 62.1 36.6 51.2 48.8 60.2 29.7 21.0 13.5 70.3 90.7 57.7 45.0 69.5 76.3 79.0 75.3 52.5 81.8 56.0 43.6

Black Hispanic2 11.1 4.1 4.6 6.4 10.5 15.1 9.6 7.4 10.1 10.5 12.2 11.6 6.1 16.5 20.8 6.8 26.0 9.8 13.5 15.1 15.4 9.0 12.5 16.0 14.7 12.4 10.1 17.5 6.0 16.5 10.1 22.0 9.0 12.7 11.2 9.5 11.4 10.8 11.6 7.1 8.7 10.8 6.8 21.2 12.1 4.1 11.1 14.9 17.3 29.3 18.4 8.4 6.9 6.6 7.9 7.4 5.8 8.8 6.2 6.6

118,793 3,223 724 7,764 21,346 8,168 24,622 4,669 19,953 8,051 39,267 7,485 277 827 710 805 378 1,457 4,733 1,036 1,818 1,526 25,351 4,700 4,673 5,994 2,637 2,239 1,215 5,627

124,900 3,440 627 7,668 20,493 8,709 26,071 4,986 21,086 7,983 43,953 7,526 267 829 853 1,136 506 1,459 4,375 971 1,495 2,238 29,661 4,961 5,967 6,653 2,768 2,979 1,335 5,957

NA Not available. 1 See footnote 2, Table 649. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 3 Includes industries not shown separately. 4 Included with elementary/secondary schools. 5 Includes workers involved in uniquely governmental activities, e.g., judicial and legislative. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

428

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 679. Employment by Selected Industry, With Projections: 1986 to 2006
[(111,374 represents 111,374,000). Figures may differ from those in other tables since these data exclude establishments not elsewhere classified (SIC 99); in addition, agriculture services (SIC 074, 5, 8) are included in agriculture, not services. See source for details. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] Employment (1,000) Industry 1987 SIC 1 code . (X) . (X) . (X) . 10-14 . 15,16,17 . 20-39 . 24,25,32 . 24 . 25 . 32 . 33 . 331 . 34 . 35 . 357 . 36 . 366 . 367 . 37 . 371 . 38 . 382 . 384 . 39 . 20-23,26 . 20 . 21 . 22 . 23 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 29 . 30 . 31 . (X) . 40-42,44 . 40-42,44 . 48 . 49 . 50,51 . 52-59 . 58 . 60-67 . 70-87,89 . 70 . 72 . 73 . 731 . 734 . 736 . 737 . 75 . 76 . 78 . 784 . 79 . 80 . 801,2,3,4 . 805 . 806 . 807,8,9 . 81 . 82 . 83 . 84 . 86 . 87,89 . (X) . (X) . (X) . 01,02,07, . 88 . (X) 2006, proj. 150,927 136,318 24,451 443 5,900 18,108 10,514 797 509 497 633 197 1,378 2,087 314 1,627 255 700 1,792 929 787 265 310 408 7,593 1,713 30 588 714 702 1,501 1,070 118 1,091 65 111,867 7,111 4,774 1,360 976 7,228 23,875 8,884 7,651 44,852 1,978 1,294 10,835 270 1,097 4,039 2,509 1,482 425 628 173 1,998 12,620 4,046 2,377 4,229 1,968 1,187 2,478 3,461 109 2,428 3,930 21,150 2,670 18,480 3,618 775 10,216
2

Annual growth rate 19861996 1.7 1.9 -0.0 -3.0 1.2 -0.3 -0.4 0.7 0.1 -0.3 -0.6 -1.3 0.2 0.2 -2.5 -0.7 -0.9 -0.0 -1.2 1.0 -1.9 -0.5 2.3 0.7 -0.1 0.5 -3.4 -1.2 -2.4 0.2 0.5 0.1 -1.7 1.8 -4.3 2.4 1.8 2.8 0.5 -0.4 1.2 1.9 2.4 1.0 4.2 2.2 1.6 6.3 1.7 2.7 10.3 7.5 3.6 1.5 5.0 5.1 5.1 3.8 4.6 3.4 2.3 9.0 2.2 3.6 5.5 5.0 3.6 3.5 1.5 -0.5 1.9 0.9 -2.8 1.1 19962006, proj. 1.3 1.4 0.0 -2.5 0.9 -0.2 -0.2 0.2 0.1 -0.8 -1.2 -2.0 -0.5 -0.1 -1.4 -0.1 -0.5 1.4 0.1 -0.4 -0.8 -1.1 1.5 0.5 -0.1 0.1 -3.1 -0.6 -1.9 0.3 -0.2 0.4 -1.8 1.1 -3.8 1.7 1.3 1.7 0.2 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.7 1.0 2.9 1.4 0.9 4.1 1.1 2.0 4.3 7.6 3.2 1.3 1.9 1.1 3.1 2.9 3.9 3.2 1.0 5.3 2.5 2.1 3.7 2.5 1.1 3.1 0.8 -0.3 1.0 -0.1 -1.8 1.2

1986 111,374 98,727 24,538 778 4,810 18,951 11,200 724 498 558 752 273 1,422 2,074 469 1,774 296 610 2,003 872 1,036 312 213 361 7,751 1,605 59 703 1,100 667 1,456 1,021 169 822 149 74,189 5,247 3,051 1,275 921 5,751 17,878 5,902 6,275 22,346 1,378 1,008 3,931 204 685 990 588 762 322 320 94 895 6,528 1,752 1,245 3,037 494 747 1,421 1,406 52 1,536 2,042 16,693 2,899 13,794 3,327 1,235 8,085

1996 132,352 118,732 24,431 574 5,400 18,457 10,766 780 504 541 711 240 1,448 2,112 363 1,651 269 610 1,781 963 854 297 268 387 7,691 1,693 41 624 864 681 1,538 1,032 142 981 96 94,300 6,260 4,038 1,337 885 6,483 21,625 7,499 6,899 33,586 1,716 1,184 7,254 242 897 2,646 1,208 1,084 375 522 155 1,466 9,469 2,751 1,732 3,814 1,172 930 2,020 2,403 85 2,185 2,893 19,447 2,757 16,690 3,642 928 9,051

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm wage and salary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goods-producing (excluding agriculture) . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lumber and wood products . . . . . . . . . Furniture and fixtures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stone, clay and glass products . . . . . . . Primary metal industries . . . . . . . . . . . . Blast furnaces/basic steel products . . . Fabricated metal products . . . . . . . . . . Industrial machinery and equipment . . . . Computer equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic and other electric equipment 2. Communications equipment. . . . . . . . Electronic components . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicles and equipment . . . . . . Instruments and related products 2 . . . . . Measuring/controlling devices . . . . . . Medical instruments and supplies . . . . Miscellaneous manufacturing industries . Nondurable manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . . . . . . . . Tobacco manufactures . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apparel and other textile products . . . . . Paper and allied products . . . . . . . . . . . Printing and publishing. . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemicals and allied products . . . . . . . . Petroleum and coal products. . . . . . . . . Rubber/misc. plastics products . . . . . . . Leather and leather products . . . . . . . . Service producing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, communications, utilities . . . . Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, and sanitary services . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eating and drinking places . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate . . . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and other lodging places . . . . . . . . Personal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business services 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services to buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel supply services . . . . . . . . . . Computer and data processing services . Auto repair, services, and garages . . . . . . Miscellaneous repair shops . . . . . . . . . . . Motion pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video tape rental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation services . . . . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offices of health practitioners . . . . . . . . Nursing and personal care facilities . . . . Hospitals, private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health services, n.e.c. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Museums, botanical, zoological gardens . . . Membership organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering, management, and services . . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State and local government . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonagriculture self-employed and unpaid family. . .

X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, Section 17, Business. shown separately. 3 N.e.c. means not elsewhere classified. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, November 1997.

Includes other industries, not

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

429

No. 680. Unemployed Workers—Summary: 1980 to 1998
[In thousands (7,637 represents 7,637,000), except as indicated. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. For data on unemployment insurance, see Table 626] Age, sex, race, Hispanic origin UNEMPLOYED Total 2 . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . 20 to 24 years old . . 25 to 44 years old . . 45 to 64 years old . . 65 years and over . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . 20 to 24 years old . 25 to 44 years old . 45 to 64 years old . 65 years and over . Female. . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . 20 to 24 years old . 25 to 44 years old . 45 to 64 years old . 65 years and over . White 3 . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . 20 to 24 years old . Black 3 . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . 20 to 24 years old . Hispanic 3 4 . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . 20 to 24 years old . Full-time workers . . . Part-time workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,637 1,669 1,835 2,964 1,075 94 4,267 913 1,076 1,619 600 58 3,370 755 760 1,345 473 36 5,884 1,291 1,364 1,553 343 426 620 145 138 6,269 1,369 8,312 1,468 1,738 3,681 1,331 93 4,521 806 944 1,950 766 55 3,791 661 794 1,732 566 39 6,191 1,074 1,235 1,864 357 455 811 141 171 6,793 1,519 7,047 1,212 1,299 3,323 1,109 105 3,906 667 715 1,803 662 59 3,140 544 584 1,519 447 46 5,186 903 899 1,565 268 349 876 161 167 5,677 1,369 7,996 1,320 1,373 3,694 1,456 153 4,367 740 768 1,968 803 88 3,629 580 605 1,726 653 66 5,892 960 952 1,666 300 351 1,187 198 220 6,513 1,483 7,404 1,346 1,244 3,390 1,269 153 3,983 744 673 1,776 697 94 3,421 602 571 1,615 574 60 5,459 952 866 1,538 325 311 1,140 205 209 5,909 1,495 7,236 1,306 1,239 3,262 1,289 139 3,880 733 675 1,689 707 76 3,356 573 564 1,574 582 63 5,300 939 854 1,592 310 327 1,132 199 217 5,803 1,433 6,739 1,271 1,152 2,989 1,199 127 3,577 694 636 1,504 674 69 3,162 577 516 1,486 525 58 4,836 912 765 1,560 302 327 1,069 197 206 5,395 1,344 6,210 1,205 1,081 2,677 1,125 122 3,266 686 583 1,308 621 69 2,944 519 498 1,370 503 53 4,484 876 731 1,426 281 301 1,026 214 194 4,916 1,293 1980 1985 1990
1

1994

1

1995

1996

1997

1

1998

1

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (percent) 5 Total 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . White 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . Black 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . Hispanic 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . 20 to 24 years old . . . . . . Experienced workers 6 . . . . Women maintaining families . Married men, wife present 2 . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent without work for— Fewer than 5 weeks . . . . 5 to 10 weeks . . . . . . . . 11 to 14 weeks . . . . . . . . 15 to 26 weeks. . . . . . . . 27 weeks and over . . . . .
1

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.1 17.8 11.5 6.0 3.7 3.1 6.9 18.3 12.5 5.6 3.5 3.1 7.4 17.2 10.4 6.4 4.0 3.1 6.3 15.5 9.9 14.3 38.5 23.6 10.1 22.5 12.1 6.9 9.2 4.2 3.9 7.4 43.2 23.4 9.0 13.8 10.7 11.9

7.2 18.6 11.1 6.2 4.5 3.2 7.0 19.5 11.4 5.9 4.5 3.1 7.4 17.6 10.7 6.6 4.6 3.3 6.2 15.7 9.2 15.1 40.2 24.5 10.5 24.3 12.6 6.8 10.4 4.3 4.0 8.0 42.1 22.2 8.0 12.3 15.4 15.6

5.6 15.5 8.8 4.9 3.5 3.0 5.7 16.3 9.1 4.8 3.7 3.0 5.5 14.7 8.5 4.9 3.2 3.1 4.8 13.5 7.3 11.4 30.9 19.9 8.2 19.5 9.1 5.3 8.3 3.4 3.1 6.2 46.3 23.5 8.5 11.7 10.0 12.0

6.1 17.6 9.7 5.3 4.0 4.0 6.2 19.0 10.2 5.2 4.1 4.0 6.0 16.2 9.2 5.4 3.9 4.0 5.3 15.1 8.1 11.5 35.2 19.5 9.9 24.5 11.8 5.9 8.9 3.7 3.4 6.0 34.1 20.6 9.5 15.5 20.3 18.8

5.6 17.3 9.1 4.8 3.4 4.0 5.6 18.4 9.2 4.7 3.5 4.3 5.6 16.1 9.0 5.0 3.3 3.7 4.9 14.5 7.7 10.4 35.7 17.7 9.3 24.1 11.5 5.4 8.0 3.3 3.0 5.0 36.5 22.0 9.6 14.6 17.3 16.6

5.4 16.7 9.3 4.6 3.3 3.6 5.4 18.1 9.5 4.4 3.4 3.4 5.4 15.2 9.0 4.9 3.3 4.0 4.7 14.2 7.8 10.5 33.6 18.8 8.9 23.6 11.8 5.2 8.2 3.0 2.8 4.9 36.4 21.8 9.8 14.6 17.4 16.7

4.9 16.0 8.5 4.2 3.0 3.3 4.9 16.9 8.9 3.9 3.1 3.0 5.0 15.0 8.1 4.6 2.8 3.6 4.2 13.6 6.9 10.0 32.4 18.3 7.7 21.6 10.3 4.7 8.1 2.7 2.5 4.3 37.7 21.9 9.9 14.8 15.8 15.8

4.5 14.6 7.9 3.8 2.7 3.2 4.4 16.2 8.1 3.4 2.8 3.1 4.6 12.9 7.8 4.2 2.6 3.3 3.9 12.6 6.5 8.9 27.6 16.8 7.2 21.3 9.4 4.3 7.2 2.4 2.2 3.9 42.2 22.1 9.3 12.3 14.1 14.5

Unemployment duration, average (weeks). .

See footnote 2, Table 649. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 3 Includes other ages, not shown separately. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 5 Unemployed as percent of civilian labor force in specified group. 6 Wage and salary workers. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

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No. 681. Unemployed Persons, by Sex and Reason: 1970 to 1998
[In thousands (2,238 represents 2,238,000). For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Sex and reason Male, total. Job losers 2. . Job leavers . . Reentrants . . New entrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 2,238 1,199 282 533 224 1,855 614 267 696 279 1980 4,267 2,649 438 776 405 3,370 1,297 453 1,152 468 1985 1990 4,521 2,749 409 876 487 3,791 1,390 468 1,380 552
1

1991 4,946 3,172 507 891 375 3,683 1,522 497 1,247 416

1992 5,523 3,593 495 978 457 4,090 1,796 507 1,307 480

1993 1994 5,055 3,150 507 939 459 3,885 1,699 469 1,259 459

1

1995 3,983 2,190 407 1,113 273 3,421 1,286 417 1,412 306

1996 1997 3,880 2,158 372 1,076 273 3,356 1,212 402 1,435 307

1

1998

1

3,906 2,257 528 806 315 3,140 1,130 513 1,124 373

4,367 2,416 408 1,265 278 3,629 1,399 383 1,521 326

3,577 1,902 414 1,004 257 3,162 1,135 381 1,334 312

3,266 1,703 368 931 264 2,944 1,119 366 1,201 257

Female, total . Job losers 2. . . . Job leavers . . . . Reentrants . . . . New entrants . . .

1 See footnote 2, Table 649. 2 Beginning 1994, persons who completed temporary jobs are identified separately and are included as job losers. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and Bulletin 2307; and unpublished data.

No. 682. Unemployment Rates, by Industry, 1975 to 1998, and by Sex, 1980 and 1998
[In percent. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. Annual averages of monthly figures. Rate represents unemployment as a percent of labor force in each specified group. Data for 1985-90 not strictly comparable with other years due to changes in industrial classification] Industry All unemployed . . . . . . . . . . Industry: 3 Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . Wholesale and retail trade . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

Male 1975 .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 10.4 4.1 18.0 10.9 5.6 8.7 4.9 7.1 4.1 1980 7.1 11.0 6.4 14.1 8.5 4.9 7.4 3.4 5.9 4.1 1985 1990 7.2 13.2 9.5 13.1 7.7 5.1 7.6 3.5 6.2 3.9
1

Female
1

1995

1

1998

1

1980 1998 6.9 9.7 6.7 14.6 7.4 5.1 6.6 3.2 6.3 3.9

1980 7.4 15.1 4.5 8.9 10.8 4.4 8.3 3.5 5.8 4.3

1998

1

5.6 9.8 4.8 11.1 5.8 3.9 6.4 3.0 5.0 2.7

5.6 11.1 5.2 11.5 4.9 4.5 6.5 3.3 5.4 2.9

4.5 8.3 3.2 7.5 3.9 3.4 5.5 2.5 4.5 2.2

4.4 7.9 3.4 7.7 3.3 3.3 5.1 2.3 4.7 2.0

4.6 9.3 1.8 5.9 5.2 3.5 6.0 2.6 4.4 2.3

1 2 See footnote 2, Table 649. Includes the self-employed, unpaid family workers, and persons with no previous work experience, not shown separately. 3 Covers unemployed wage and salary workers. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

No. 683. Unemployment by Occupation, 1990 to 1998, and by Sex, 1998
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over (7,047 represents 7,047,000). Annual averages of monthly data. Rate represents unemployment as a percent of the labor force for each specified group. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. See also headnote, Table 666] Number (1,000) Occupation 1990 ......................... Managerial and professional specialty . . . . . . . . . Executive, administrative, and managerial . . . . . Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical sales, and administrative support . . . . . . Technicians and related support . . . . . . . . . . . Sales occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative support, including clerical . . . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service except private household and protective. Precision production, craft, and repair . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other precision production, craft, and repair. . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, inspectors . . . . Transportation and material moving occupations. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, laborers . Construction laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total
2 1

Unemployment rate 1998
1

1995

1

1998

1

1990

1

1995

1

Total 4.5 1.8 1.8 1.9 3.9 2.2 4.5 3.7 6.4 8.0 3.4 6.8 4.2 3.0 5.7 3.4 6.7 6.0 4.9 9.4 14.2 6.5

Male 4.4 1.7 1.6 1.8 3.3 2.3 3.3 4.0 6.3 8.7 3.1 7.5 4.1 3.1 5.6 3.1 6.3 5.0 4.8 9.6 14.2 6.1

Female 4.6 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.2 2.1 5.6 3.6 6.4 8.0 5.0 6.3 4.8 2.3 10.4 4.6 7.7 7.6 6.3 8.8 16.0 8.0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,047 666 350 316 1,641 116 720 804 1,139 47 74 1,018 861 175 483 202 1,714 727 329 657 177 237

7,404 880 420 460 1,744 113 795 836 1,378 99 86 1,193 860 182 501 177 1,618 629 329 660 179 311

6,210 722 343 380 1,550 96 745 710 1,216 74 85 1,057 630 149 338 143 1,304 494 279 531 136 244

5.6 2.1 2.3 2.0 4.3 2.9 4.8 4.1 6.6 5.6 3.6 7.1 5.9 3.8 8.5 4.7 8.7 8.1 6.3 11.6 18.1 6.4

5.6 2.4 2.4 2.5 4.5 2.8 5.0 4.3 7.5 10.7 3.7 7.9 6.0 4.0 9.0 4.2 8.2 7.4 6.0 11.7 18.7 7.9

1 See footnote 2, Table 649. 2 Includes persons with no previous work experience and those whose last job was in the Armed Forces. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
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431

No. 684. Unemployed and Unemployment Rates, by Educational Attainment, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1992 to 1998
[As of March (6,846 represents 6,846,000). For the civilian noninstitutional population 25 to 64 years old. See Table 653 for civilian labor force and participation rate data. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Unemployed (1,000) Year, sex, and race Total Total: 1992 . 1995 . 1997 3 1998 3 Male: 1992 . . . 1995 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . . Female: 1992 . . . 1995 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . . White: 1992 . . . 1995 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . . Black: 1992 . . . 1995 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . . Hispanic: 4 1992 . . . 1995 . . . 1997 3 . . 1998 3 . .
1 2

Unemployment rate Less than high school diploma 13.5 10.0 10.4 8.5 14.8 10.9 9.9 8.0 11.4 8.6 11.3 9.3 12.9 9.2 9.4 7.5 17.2 13.7 16.6 13.4 13.6 10.9 9.6 8.3 High school graduate, no degree 7.7 5.2 5.1 4.8 8.8 5.7 5.6 5.1 6.5 4.6 4.5 4.4 6.8 4.6 4.6 4.2 14.1 8.4 8.2 8.4 9.6 8.1 7.5 5.5
3

1

Less than high school diploma 1,693 1,150 1,253 1,018 1,151 765 752 592 542 385 500 426 1,285 831 910 711 361 225 291 248 408 393 379 337

High school graduates, no degree 2,851 1,833 1,853 1,751 1,709 1,064 1,069 989 1,142 770 783 762 2,146 1,362 1,395 1,283 619 377 381 402 224 211 221 176

Less than a bachelor’s degree 1,521 1,329 1,157 1,111 854 656 616 575 666 673 541 537 1,176 1,054 867 814 291 218 235 248 88 102 128 94

College graduate 782 753 640 582 493 440 359 306 289 313 281 276 641 612 502 474 81 86 89 50 36 40 39 41

Total 6.7 4.8 4.4 4.0 7.5 5.1 4.7 4.1 5.7 4.4 4.1 3.9 6.0 4.3 3.9 3.5 12.4 7.7 8.1 7.3 9.8 8.0 7.3 5.9

Less than a bachelor’s degree 5.9 4.5 3.8 3.6 6.4 4.4 4.0 3.7 5.3 4.5 3.6 3.5 5.3 4.2 3.4 3.2 10.7 6.3 6.1 6.4 5.9 5.2 5.5 4.2

College graduate 2.9 2.5 2.0 1.8 3.2 2.6 2.1 1.7 2.5 2.4 2.0 1.9 2.7 2.3 1.8 1.7 4.8 4.1 4.4 2.1 4.2 3.7 3.0 2.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,846 5,065 4,902 4,463 4,207 2,925 2,797 2,461 2,639 2,140 2,105 2,002 5,247 3,858 3,674 3,282 1,353 905 997 948 757 746 768 647

649.

Percent unemployed of the civilian labor force. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

See footnote 2, Table

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

No. 685. Unemployed Persons, by Reason of Unemployment: 1998
[Annual averages of monthly data (6,210 represents 6,210,000). Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Percent distribution by duration Age, sex, and reason Total unemployed (1,000) 6,210 1,205 5,005 2,580 1,588 483 1,105 763 343 318 611 63 2,424 1,053 322 731 527 204 330 944 97 Less than 5 weeks 42.2 51.2 40.1 38.8 39.9 55.3 33.1 31.6 36.6 44.7 34.7 20.5 41.5 42.5 58.6 35.3 32.1 43.7 49.6 38.6 31.1 15 weeks and over 5 to 14 weeks 31.4 33.2 31.0 30.8 32.1 30.2 32.9 32.1 34.5 31.5 26.9 32.3 31.2 32.2 28.4 33.9 34.9 31.3 30.9 30.3 30.6 Total 26.4 15.7 28.9 30.5 28.1 14.5 34.0 36.3 28.9 23.8 38.5 47.3 27.3 25.3 13.0 30.8 33.0 24.9 19.5 31.1 38.2 15 to 26 weeks 12.3 8.3 13.2 13.2 13.6 9.8 15.3 16.6 12.5 10.9 13.4 10.9 13.3 14.2 8.2 16.9 18.4 13.0 10.2 13.3 13.6 27 weeks or longer 14.1 7.3 15.7 17.3 14.5 4.8 18.7 19.7 16.4 12.9 25.0 36.4 14.0 11.1 4.8 13.9 14.7 11.9 9.3 17.8 24.6

Total 16 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total 20 years old and over . . . . . . . . Males . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job losers and persons who completed temporary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . Not on temporary layoff . . . . . . . . . . Permanent job losers . . . . . . . . . . Persons who completed temporary jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job leavers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reentrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New entrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Females . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job losers and persons who completed temporary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . Not on temporary layoff . . . . . . . . . . Permanent job losers . . . . . . . . . . Persons who completed temporary jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job leavers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reentrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New entrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1999 issue.

432

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 686. Total Unemployed and Insured Unemployed—States: 1980 to 1998
[For civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over (7,637 represents 7,637,000). Annual averages of monthly figures. Total unemployment estimates based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. U.S. totals derived by independent population controls; therefore state data may not add to U.S. totals] Total unemployed State 1980 United States . Alabama . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . California . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . Delaware . . . . . . Dist. of Columbia. Florida. . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . Massachusetts . . Michigan . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . . New Mexico . . . . New York . . . . . . North Carolina . . North Dakota . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . Rhode Island . . . South Carolina . . South Dakota . . . Tennessee . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . Washington . . . . West Virginia . . . Wisconsin . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,637 147 18 83 76 790 88 94 22 24 251 163 21 34 459 252 82 53 133 121 39 140 162 534 125 79 167 23 31 27 22 260 42 597 187 15 426 66 107 425 34 96 16 152 352 40 16 128 156 74 167 9 Number (1,000) 1985 1990 8,312 160 24 96 91 934 101 83 17 27 320 188 27 37 513 215 112 62 161 229 30 104 120 433 133 116 158 31 44 41 21 217 57 544 168 20 455 112 116 443 25 107 18 180 565 43 13 160 170 100 171 18
2

Insured unemployed Percent
1 2

3 4

Number (1,000) 1998
2 5

Percent 1996
5

1998

2

1980 7.1 8.8 9.7 6.7 7.6 6.8 5.9 5.9 7.7 7.3 5.9 6.4 4.9 7.9 8.3 9.6 5.8 4.5 8.0 6.7 7.8 6.5 5.6 12.4 5.9 7.5 7.2 6.1 4.1 6.2 4.7 7.2 7.5 7.5 6.6 5.0 8.4 4.8 8.3 7.8 7.2 6.9 4.9 7.3 5.2 6.3 6.4 5.0 7.9 9.4 7.2 4.0

1985 1990 7.2 8.9 9.7 6.5 8.7 7.2 5.9 4.9 5.3 8.4 6.0 6.5 5.6 7.9 9.0 7.9 8.0 5.0 9.5 11.5 5.4 4.6 3.9 9.9 6.0 10.3 6.4 7.7 5.5 8.0 3.9 5.7 8.8 6.5 5.4 5.9 8.9 7.1 8.8 8.0 4.9 6.8 5.1 8.0 7.0 5.9 4.8 5.6 8.1 13.0 7.2 7.1

1996 2,595.6 33.7 13.1 25.4 29.6 443.1 22.5 41.2 8.0 8.0 87.3 39.2 15.1 14.1 129.7 34.1 21.3 15.9 30.1 26.7 14.8 43.7 70.2 99.1 36.1 23.6 44.7 9.8 7.7 16.4 5.7 110.6 11.8 210.1 54.0 3.9 84.4 14.4 45.9 167.5 18.4 29.6 2.6 47.3 121.7 8.4 7.2 28.0 84.6 19.2 56.9 4.2
5

1997 2,322.6 30.1 12.1 21.0 28.2 386.5 18.9 33.9 6.1 8.2 79.5 37.0 13.4 12.7 115.4 31.4 19.0 14.1 27.0 23.7 12.8 37.8 63.5 89.4 34.0 19.9 40.8 8.7 7.2 17.4 4.8 96.1 11.9 188.7 47.8 4.2 75.7 12.4 41.2 146.5 15.8 25.1 2.4 43.0 114.8 8.5 6.6 24.6 72.8 16.8 52.7 3.4

1997
5

7,047 130 19 99 78 874 89 95 19 22 390 182 16 29 369 149 62 57 104 117 33 122 195 350 117 90 151 24 18 33 36 206 46 467 144 13 310 86 83 315 35 83 13 126 544 35 15 141 125 64 114 13

6,210 91 18 94 67 969 86 57 15 24 310 169 37 33 277 96 43 54 89 118 29 125 109 194 68 68 119 26 25 40 19 192 51 498 131 11 242 74 98 275 24 75 11 116 487 40 11 102 145 53 99 12

5.6 6.9 7.0 5.5 7.0 5.8 5.0 5.2 5.2 6.6 6.0 5.5 2.9 5.9 6.2 5.3 4.3 4.5 5.9 6.3 5.2 4.7 6.0 7.6 4.9 7.6 5.8 6.0 2.2 4.9 5.7 5.1 6.5 5.3 4.2 4.0 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.4 6.8 4.8 3.9 5.3 6.3 4.3 5.0 4.3 4.9 8.4 4.4 5.5

4.5 4.2 5.8 4.1 5.5 5.9 3.8 3.4 3.8 8.8 4.3 4.2 6.2 5.0 4.5 3.1 2.8 3.8 4.6 5.7 4.4 4.6 3.3 3.9 2.5 5.4 4.2 5.6 2.7 4.3 2.9 4.6 6.2 5.6 3.5 3.2 4.3 4.5 5.6 4.6 4.9 3.8 2.9 4.2 4.8 3.8 3.4 2.9 4.8 6.6 3.4 4.8

2.3 2.0 5.5 1.4 2.9 3.6 1.3 2.7 2.3 1.9 1.5 1.2 3.0 3.0 2.4 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.9 1.6 2.9 2.2 2.5 2.4 1.6 2.3 1.9 3.0 1.0 2.1 1.1 3.2 1.9 2.8 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.2 3.3 3.4 4.4 1.9 0.8 2.0 1.6 1.0 2.8 1.0 3.7 3.0 2.3 2.0

2.0 1.7 5.0 1.1 2.7 3.0 1.0 2.2 1.7 2.0 1.3 1.1 2.7 2.6 2.1 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.7 1.4 2.5 1.8 2.2 2.1 1.4 1.9 1.7 2.6 0.9 2.1 0.9 2.8 1.9 2.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.0 2.9 2.9 3.7 1.5 0.7 1.8 1.4 1.0 2.5 0.8 3.1 2.6 2.1 1.7

1 Total unemployment as percent of civilian labor force. 2 See footnote 2, Table 649. 3 Source: U.S. Employment and Training Administration, Unemployment Insurance, Financial Handbook, annual updates. 4 Insured unemployment as percent of average covered employment in the previous year. 5 Includes 55,000 in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands in 1996 and 56,900 in 1997.

Source: Except as noted, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, annual.

No. 687. Job Openings and Placements and Help-Wanted Advertising: 1970 to 1997
[(6,130 represents 6,130,000). Openings 1970 and 1980, for years ending Sept. 30; beginning 1985, for years ending June 30] Item Job openings: 1 Received (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . Average per month . . . . . . . . . . Nonagricultural placements 1 (1,000) Index of help-wanted advertising in newspapers 2 (1987=100) . . . . .
1

1970 .. .. .. .. 6,130 511 4,604 60

1980 8,122 677 5,610 84

1985 7,529 627 3,270 91

1990 5,651 471 3,714 84

1993 6,343 529 3,375 69

1994 6,619 552 3,360 83

1995 5,917 493 2,859 85

1996 6,039 503 2,687 83

1997 6,568 547 2,456 87

As reported by state employment agencies. Beginning 1985, all placements. Placements include duplication for individuals 2 placed more than once. Source: The Conference Board, New York, NY (copyright). Index based on the number of advertisements in classified sections of 51 newspapers, each in a major employment area. Source: Except as noted, U.S. Employment and Training Administration, unpublished data.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

433

No. 688. Nonfarm Establishments—Employees, Hours, and Earnings, by Industry: 1970 to 1998
[Based on data from establishment reports. Includes all full- and part-time employees who worked during, or received pay for, any part of the pay period reported. Excludes proprietors, the self-employed, farm workers, unpaid family workers, private household workers, and Armed Forces. Establishment data shown here conform to industry definitions in the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification and are adjusted to March 1997 employment benchmarks, and reflect historical corrections to previously published data. Based on the Current Employment Statistics Program; see Appendix III] Goods-producing Item and year Total EMPLOYEES (1,000) 1970 . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 1970 . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . WEEKLY HOURS 1 1970 . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . HOURLY EARNINGS 1 1970 . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . WEEKLY EARNINGS 1 1970 . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . Total Mining Construction Manufacturing Total Service-producing Transportation and Wholepublic sale utilities trade Finance, insurance, and Retail real trade estate

Serv- Governices ment

70,880 90,406 97,387 109,403 108,601 110,713 114,163 117,191 119,608 122,690 125,832

23,578 25,658 24,842 24,905 23,231 23,352 23,908 24,265 24,493 24,934 25,256

623 1,027 927 709 635 610 601 581 580 592 575

3,588 4,346 4,668 5,120 4,492 4,668 4,986 5,160 5,418 5,686 5,965

19,367 47,302 20,285 64,748 19,248 72,544 19,076 84,497 18,104 85,370 18,075 87,361 18,321 90,256 18,524 92,925 18,495 95,115 18,657 97,756 18,716 100,576

4,515 5,146 5,233 5,777 5,718 5,811 5,984 6,132 6,253 6,395 6,549

4,006 5,292 5,727 6,173 5,997 5,981 6,162 6,378 6,482 6,648 6,825

11,034 15,018 17,315 19,601 19,356 19,773 20,507 21,187 21,597 22,011 22,475

3,645 5,160 5,948 6,709 6,602 6,757 6,896 6,806 6,911 7,091 7,341

11,548 17,890 21,927 27,934 29,052 30,197 31,579 33,117 34,454 36,040 37,525

12,554 16,241 16,394 18,304 18,645 18,841 19,128 19,305 19,419 19,570 19,862

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

33.3 28.4 25.5 22.8 21.4 21.1 20.9 20.7 20.5 20.3 20.1

0.9 1.1 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

27.3 22.4 19.8 17.4 16.7 16.3 16.0 15.8 15.5 15.2 14.9

66.7 71.6 74.5 77.2 78.6 78.9 79.1 79.3 79.5 79.7 79.9

6.4 5.7 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.2

5.7 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.4

15.6 16.6 17.8 17.9 17.8 17.9 18.0 18.1 18.1 17.9 17.9

5.1 5.7 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8

16.3 19.8 22.5 25.5 26.8 27.3 27.7 28.2 28.8 29.4 29.8

17.7 18.0 16.8 16.7 17.2 17.0 16.8 16.5 16.2 16.0 15.8

37.1 35.3 34.9 34.5 34.4 34.5 34.7 34.5 34.4 34.6 34.6

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

42.7 43.3 43.4 44.1 43.9 44.3 44.8 44.7 45.3 45.4 43.9

37.3 37.0 37.7 38.2 38.0 38.5 38.9 38.9 39.0 38.9 38.8

39.8 39.7 40.5 40.8 41.0 41.4 42.0 41.6 41.6 42.0 41.7

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

40.5 39.6 39.5 38.4 38.3 39.3 39.7 39.4 39.6 39.7 39.5

39.9 38.4 38.4 38.1 38.2 38.2 38.4 38.3 38.3 38.4 38.4

33.8 30.2 29.4 28.8 28.8 28.8 28.9 28.8 28.8 28.9 29.1

36.7 36.2 36.4 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.9 35.9 36.1 36.4

34.4 32.6 32.5 32.5 32.5 32.5 32.5 32.4 32.4 32.6 32.7

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

3.23 6.66 8.57 10.01 10.57 10.83 11.12 11.43 11.82 12.28 12.77

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

3.85 9.17 11.98 13.68 14.54 14.60 14.88 15.30 15.62 16.17 16.95

5.24 9.94 12.32 13.77 14.15 14.38 14.73 15.09 15.47 16.03 16.56

3.35 7.27 9.54 10.83 11.46 11.74 12.07 12.37 12.77 13.17 13.49

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

3.85 8.87 11.40 12.92 13.43 13.55 13.78 14.13 14.45 14.93 15.34

3.43 6.95 9.15 10.79 11.39 11.74 12.06 12.43 12.87 13.44 14.01

2.44 4.88 5.94 6.75 7.12 7.29 7.49 7.69 7.99 8.34 8.75

3.07 5.79 7.94 9.97 10.82 11.35 11.83 12.32 12.80 13.33 14.06

2.81 5.85 7.90 9.83 10.54 10.78 11.04 11.39 11.79 12.28 12.84

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

120 235 299 345 364 374 386 394 407 425 442

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

164 397 520 603 638 647 667 684 708 734 744

195 368 464 526 538 554 573 587 603 624 643

133 289 386 442 470 486 507 515 531 553 563

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

156 351 450 496 514 533 547 557 572 593 606

137 267 351 411 435 448 463 476 493 516 538

82 147 175 194 205 210 216 221 230 241 255

113 210 289 357 387 406 424 442 460 481 512

97 191 257 319 343 350 359 369 382 400 420

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

NA Not available. 1 Average hours and earnings. Private production and related workers in mining, manufacturing, and construction; nonsupervisory employees in other industries. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, June issues and Internet site <http://stats.bls. gov/ceshome.htm>.

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No. 689. Employees in Nonfarm Establishments—States: 1980 to 1998
[In thousands (90,406 represents 90,406,000). For coverage, see headnote, Table 688. National totals differ from the sum of the State figures because of differing benchmarks among States and differing industrial and geographic stratification. Based on 1987 Standard Industrial Classification Manual, see text, Section 17, Business] 1998 State 1980 United States . . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . Hawaii . . Idaho . . . Illinois . . Indiana . . Iowa . . . Kansas. . Kentucky Louisiana Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90,406 1,356 169 1,014 742 9,849 1,251 1,427 259 616 3,576 2,159 404 330 4,850 2,130 1,110 945 1,210 1,579 418 1,712 2,654 3,443 1,770 829 1,970 280 628 400 385 3,060 465 7,207 2,380 245 4,367 1,138 1,045 4,753 398 1,189 238 1,747 5,851 551 200 2,157 1,608 646 1,938 210 1995 117,191 1,804 262 1,796 1,069 12,422 1,834 1,562 366 643 5,996 3,402 533 477 5,593 2,787 1,358 1,198 1,643 1,772 538 2,183 2,977 4,274 2,379 1,075 2,521 351 816 786 540 3,601 682 7,872 3,460 302 5,221 1,316 1,418 5,253 440 1,646 344 2,499 8,023 908 270 3,070 2,347 688 2,559 219 Total
1

TransFinance, portation Wholeinsurand sale and ance, ConManupublic retail and real struction facturing utilities trade estate Services 5,965 102 13 144 48 602 132 59 22 9 351 182 2 21 32 238 145 62 62 84 128 25 142 108 186 102 55 127 19 41 85 23 135 44 283 214 15 227 54 83 219 15 106 16 123 496 68 14 189 143 35 113 16 18,716 379 15 217 254 1,960 207 279 60 13 496 593 16 76 977 684 262 213 321 192 87 178 448 966 444 245 421 25 119 42 108 478 45 917 825 24 1,095 186 245 945 79 364 50 515 1,107 134 48 405 380 82 617 11 6,549 92 26 101 68 694 129 76 16 16 336 242 41 25 347 144 69 75 102 114 24 109 136 178 128 54 166 22 56 48 20 260 33 412 172 18 241 82 76 286 16 77 17 158 542 59 13 173 136 39 127 14 29,300 439 57 499 256 3,122 493 356 87 48 1,684 930 132 132 1,334 688 354 318 416 442 143 539 721 1,067 614 244 633 100 212 189 152 886 171 1,662 852 81 1,325 332 384 1,231 99 430 90 624 2,107 243 66 733 625 163 610 53 7,341 87 13 139 45 798 135 136 49 29 430 200 36 23 405 141 83 62 70 87 30 134 217 210 156 42 162 17 57 43 31 248 32 736 178 16 299 73 95 318 29 80 22 125 495 55 12 175 135 29 144 9 37,525 449 69 626 263 4,220 618 513 112 274 2,415 999 172 127 1,767 709 379 334 443 510 168 787 1,135 1,242 727 262 758 107 238 392 173 1,221 203 2,799 933 90 1,512 404 417 1,773 157 420 95 704 2,515 280 87 1,023 710 207 707 51

Government 19,862 347 74 339 186 2,164 322 227 54 227 957 586 112 103 815 400 236 241 294 367 94 435 412 659 382 223 416 78 151 112 79 570 178 1,415 594 71 763 278 255 704 63 309 71 384 1,510 177 46 602 466 141 393 58

125,832 1,906 275 2,078 1,123 13,584 2,051 1,645 400 615 6,677 3,740 530 522 5,894 2,918 1,446 1,312 1,753 1,897 570 2,324 3,177 4,514 2,560 1,132 2,687 373 875 925 588 3,801 721 8,229 3,773 318 5,475 1,441 1,557 5,496 458 1,787 361 2,637 8,939 1,024 286 3,310 2,596 719 2,712 228
2

Maryland . . . . . Massachusetts. . Michigan. . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . Mississippi . . . . Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon. . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina. South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Includes mining, not shown separately.

Hawaii includes mining with construction.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, May issues. Compiled from data supplied by cooperating state agencies.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

435

No. 690. Nonfarm Industries—Employees and Earnings: 1980 to 1998
[Annual averages of monthly figures (90,406 represents 90,406,000). Covers all full- and part-time employees who worked during, or received pay for, any part of the pay period including the 12th of the month. For mining and manufacturing, data refer to production and related workers; for construction, to employees engaged in actual construction work; and for other industries, to nonsupervisory employees and working supervisors. See also headnote, Table 688] All employees (1,000) 1980 Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . Private sector 2. . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas extraction. . . . . . . . . . Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . General building contractors . . . . . Heavy construction, except building Special trade contractors. . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) (X) (B) 10 12 13 14 (C) 15 16 17 (D) (X) 24 241 242 243 244 2451 25 251 252 254 32 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 33 331 332 333 335 336 34 341 342 343 344 345 346 35 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 36 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 37 371 372 1990 1998 Production workers Total (1,000) 1980 1990 1998 Average hourly earnings (dollars) 1980 (NA) 6.66 9.17 10.26 10.86 8.59 7.52 9.94 9.22 9.20 10.63 7.27 7.75 6.57 8.64 6.70 6.44 4.95 6.08 5.49 5.12 5.91 6.68 7.50 9.65 7.97 6.50 10.55 6.14 6.25 7.45 9.77 11.39 8.20 10.63 8.81 7.30 7.45 9.84 7.02 6.59 7.27 6.96 8.56 8.00 9.73 8.78 8.60 8.13 7.53 7.95 6.75 7.23 (4) 6.96 (4) 6.95 6.43 6.42 (4) 6.05 9.35 9.85 9.28 8.22 9.93 9.22 1990 (NA) 10.01 13.68 14.05 16.71 12.94 11.58 13.77 13.01 13.34 14.20 10.83 11.35 9.08 11.22 9.22 9.04 6.64 8.67 8.52 7.87 9.64 9.77 11.12 15.15 12.40 9.75 13.90 9.55 9.62 10.76 12.92 14.82 11.55 14.36 12.29 10.21 10.83 14.27 10.78 9.75 10.16 10.70 12.70 11.77 14.55 10.99 11.92 12.27 11.90 11.32 11.51 10.93 10.30 10.15 10.00 10.26 10.12 9.68 11.03 10.00 14.08 14.56 14.79 10.94 13.41 14.39 1998 (NA) 12.77 16.95 18.25 19.16 16.83 14.72 16.56 15.87 16.15 16.90 13.49 13.99 11.11 12.55 11.10 11.26 8.85 11.50 10.89 10.28 11.80 11.65 13.60 18.60 15.52 12.11 18.54 11.88 11.94 13.10 15.48 18.43 13.96 17.04 14.60 12.35 13.07 16.69 12.29 11.88 12.50 13.30 15.25 14.45 17.22 13.80 13.69 15.33 15.08 14.05 15.32 13.00 13.11 13.09 12.48 12.43 12.72 11.94 14.02 13.25 17.56 17.94 19.11 13.36 16.91 19.98

Industry

1987 SIC 1 code

90,406 109,403 125,832 (NA) (NA) (NA) 74,166 91,098 105,970 60,331 73,774 86,716 1,027 709 575 762 509 436 98 58 51 74 46 39 246 147 91 204 119 75 560 395 326 389 261 242 123 110 108 96 83 82 4,346 5,120 5,965 3,421 3,974 4,617 1,173 1,298 1,399 900 938 980 895 770 824 720 643 690 2,278 3,051 3,743 1,802 2,393 2,947 20,285 19,076 18,716 14,214 12,947 12,896 12,159 704 88 215 206 43 46 466 301 51 63 629 18 124 45 31 46 47 204 1,142 512 209 71 211 90 1,609 75 164 71 506 109 260 2,517 135 169 389 398 194 300 420 175 1,771 117 232 162 211 109 (4) 539 1,881 789 633 221 71 111 11,109 733 85 198 262 45 41 506 289 68 78 556 17 83 60 18 36 39 206 756 276 132 46 172 84 1,419 50 131 60 427 96 225 2,095 89 106 229 330 159 247 438 177 1,673 97 169 124 189 85 264 582 1,989 812 712 188 33 185 11,097 804 79 181 306 53 73 524 282 66 90 563 17 72 63 18 33 38 223 711 233 132 39 168 92 1,489 37 126 59 457 108 257 2,189 83 102 253 349 182 266 375 202 1,700 83 153 115 182 78 277 667 1,874 988 523 162 34 89 8,416 587 71 190 170 37 36 376 253 40 47 486 14 105 32 25 34 39 157 878 396 167 53 151 72 1,194 63 125 52 351 84 205 1,614 87 116 255 290 125 196 181 120 (4) 82 163 128 157 79 (4) 325 1,220 575 344 176 53 35 7,363 603 70 172 210 38 33 400 241 51 57 432 13 72 46 14 28 31 157 574 212 105 34 124 66 1,045 43 96 43 303 73 178 1,260 58 78 141 236 94 158 137 125 1,055 67 119 99 136 59 133 329 1,224 617 345 141 25 57 7,597 661 62 158 246 45 62 417 239 48 67 440 13 59 49 13 26 30 173 557 180 108 30 129 75 1,122 31 97 42 334 84 203 1,382 53 74 165 249 99 169 145 146 1,066 56 106 91 130 50 128 401 1,252 759 264 123 26 24

Durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . Lumber and wood products 3 . . . . . . . Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sawmills and planing mills . . . . . . . Millwork, plywood, and structural members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wood containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Furniture and fixtures 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Household furniture . . . . . . . . . . . Office furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partitions and fixtures . . . . . . . . . . Stone, clay, and glass products 3 . . . . Flat glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass and glassware, pressed and blown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Products of purchased glass . . . . . Cement, hydraulic. . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural clay products . . . . . . . . . Pottery and related products. . . . . . Concrete, gypsum, and plaster . . . . Primary metal industries 3 . . . . . . . . . Blast furnaces and basic steel products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iron and steel foundries . . . . . . . . . Primary nonferrous metals . . . . . . . Nonferrous rolling and drawing . . . . Nonferrous foundries (castings). . . . Fabricated metal products 3 . . . . . . . . Metal cans and shipping containers . Cutlery, handtools, and hardware . . Plumbing and heating, exc. electric . Fabricated structural metal products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Screw machine products . . . . . . . . Metal forgings and stampings . . . . . Industrial machinery and equipment 3 . Engines and turbines . . . . . . . . . . Farm and garden machinery. . . . . . Construction and related machinery . Metalworking machinery . . . . . . . . Special industry machinery. . . . . . . General industrial machinery . . . . . Computer and office equipment. . . . Refrigeration and service machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic and other elec. equip. 3 . . . Electric distribution equipment. . . . . Electrical industrial apparatus . . . . . Household appliances . . . . . . . . . . Electric lighting and wiring equip . . . Household audio and video equip . . Communications equipment . . . . . . Electronic components and accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation equipment 3 . . . . . . . . Motor vehicles and equipment . . . . Aircraft and parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ship and boat building and repairing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table.

. 373 . 374 . 376

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No. 690. Nonfarm Industries—Employees and Earnings: 1980 to 1998—Continued
[See headnote, p. 436] All employees (1,000) 1980 Durable goods—Continued Instruments and related products . . . . . Search and navigation equipment . . . Measuring and controlling devices . . . Medical instruments and supplies . . . Ophthalmic goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photographic equipment and supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Watches, clocks, watchcases, and parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Misc. manufacturing industries 3 . . . . . . Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware . Toys and sporting goods . . . . . . . . . Pens, pencils, office and art supplies . Costume jewelry and notions . . . . . . Nondurable goods . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products 3 . . . . . . . Meat products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dairy products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preserved fruits and vegetables . . . Grain mill products . . . . . . . . . . . . Bakery products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sugar and confectionery products . . Fats and oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobacco products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cigarettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Broadwoven fabric mills, cotton . . . . Broadwoven fabric mills, synthetics . Broadwoven fabric mills, wool . . . . . Narrow fabric mills . . . . . . . . . . . . Knitting mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textile finishing, except wool. . . . . . Carpets and rugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yarn and thread mills . . . . . . . . . . Apparel and other textile products 3 . . Men’s and boys’ suits and coats . . . Men’s and boys’ furnishings . . . . . . Women’s and misses outerwear . . . Women’s and children’s undergarments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Girls’ and children’s outerwear . . . . Paper and allied products 3 . . . . . . . . Papermills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paperboard mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paperboard containers and boxes . . Misc. converted paper products . . . Printing and publishing 3 . . . . . . . . . . Newspapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial printing . . . . . . . . . . . Blankbooks and bookbinding . . . . . Chemicals and allied products 3 . . . . . Industrial inorganic chemicals . . . . . Plastics materials and synthetics . . . Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods . . . Paints and allied products . . . . . . . Industrial organic chemicals . . . . . . Agricultural chemicals . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum and coal products 3 . . . . . . Petroleum refining . . . . . . . . . . . . Asphalt paving and roofing materials Rubber and misc. plastics products 3. . Tires and inner tubes . . . . . . . . . . Rubber and plastics footwear . . . . . Leather and leather products 3 . . . . . . Leather tanning and finishing . . . . . Footwear, except rubber . . . . . . . . Luggage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handbags and personal leather goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) 38 381 382 384 385 386 387 39 391 394 395 396 (X) 20 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 21 211 22 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 23 231 232 233 234 236 26 262 263 265 267 27 271 272 273 275 278 28 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 29 291 295 30 301 302 31 311 314 316 1,022 (4) (4) (4) 44 135 22 418 56 117 37 (4) 8,127 1,708 358 175 246 144 230 108 44 234 69 46 848 150 116 19 23 224 74 54 125 1,264 77 362 417 90 64 685 178 65 205 220 1,252 420 90 101 410 62 1,107 161 205 196 141 65 174 72 198 155 31 764 115 22 233 19 144 16 30 1990 1,006 284 323 246 43 100 11 375 52 104 34 33 7,968 1,661 422 155 247 128 213 99 31 184 49 35 691 91 77 17 24 205 62 61 103 1,036 50 274 328 62 56 697 180 52 209 241 1,569 474 129 121 552 72 1,086 138 180 237 159 61 155 56 157 118 27 888 84 11 133 15 74 11 15 1998 859 160 300 279 37 77 7 386 49 102 30 23 7,619 1,705 501 142 230 125 209 99 35 184 40 27 596 69 64 13 21 161 63 66 84 771 28 186 232 32 26 682 155 50 218 247 1,566 444 139 128 577 66 1,036 115 154 274 157 52 137 51 136 93 28 1,006 79 6 82 12 35 10 9 Production workers Total (1,000) 1980 (4) (4) (4) (4) 31 67 17 313 40 88 27 (4) 5,798 1,175 298 96 202 99 139 81 32 105 54 35 737 135 104 16 20 194 62 44 113 1,079 67 310 360 76 55 519 133 51 157 163 699 164 16 52 304 51 626 88 137 97 86 33 88 45 125 93 24 588 81 20 197 16 123 12 25 1990 499 94 180 144 30 43 8 272 37 76 24 25 5,584 1,194 359 95 206 89 133 78 22 78 36 26 593 82 68 14 20 179 50 50 92 869 42 235 274 51 47 522 136 40 162 174 871 166 47 66 401 56 600 70 116 105 98 31 86 34 103 75 21 687 62 9 109 12 63 8 12 1998 430 44 154 165 25 36 6 269 34 69 21 17 5,299 1,266 426 97 193 88 141 78 24 90 31 20 505 62 55 11 17 137 52 55 75 620 23 157 183 25 21 519 121 39 169 181 845 148 45 63 411 50 582 62 102 125 98 28 80 31 89 60 21 780 59 5 62 10 28 7 5 Average hourly earnings (dollars) 1980 (4) (4) (4) (4) 5.30 8.83 5.24 5.46 5.76 5.01 5.58 (4) 6.56 6.85 6.99 6.86 5.94 7.67 7.14 6.56 7.03 8.12 7.74 9.23 5.07 5.25 5.30 5.21 4.63 4.77 5.39 5.20 4.76 4.56 5.34 4.23 4.61 4.15 4.20 7.84 9.05 9.28 6.94 6.89 7.53 7.72 7.16 6.76 7.85 5.78 8.30 9.07 8.21 7.69 7.67 7.39 9.67 8.12 10.10 10.94 7.69 6.58 9.74 4.43 4.58 6.10 4.42 4.90 4.33 1990 11.29 14.62 10.68 9.85 8.18 14.08 7.70 8.61 9.23 7.94 8.89 7.40 10.12 9.62 7.94 10.56 8.95 11.52 10.85 10.26 10.10 13.51 16.23 19.57 8.02 8.31 8.63 8.61 7.39 7.37 8.45 8.25 7.68 6.57 7.34 6.06 6.26 6.18 5.95 12.31 15.10 15.26 10.39 10.79 11.24 11.17 11.95 10.10 11.52 8.83 13.54 14.66 13.97 12.90 11.71 11.99 15.97 13.73 16.24 17.58 12.87 9.76 15.42 6.66 6.91 9.04 6.61 6.91 6.08 1998 13.77 17.32 13.87 12.79 10.23 16.29 10.42 10.87 11.36 10.42 11.28 9.72 12.75 11.80 9.66 13.57 11.34 14.89 12.75 13.05 12.84 16.11 18.67 24.34 10.39 10.91 11.25 10.82 9.52 9.47 10.64 10.36 10.05 8.52 8.69 7.98 8.18 8.14 8.07 15.50 19.80 19.57 13.12 13.49 13.44 13.20 14.82 12.69 13.70 10.52 17.13 19.12 17.91 17.03 13.94 14.42 20.51 17.11 20.90 23.52 15.51 11.87 18.65 10.07 9.34 12.05 8.91 9.16 8.22

Industry

1987 SIC 1 code

. 317

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437

No. 690. Nonfarm Industries—Employees and Earnings: 1980 to 1998—Continued
[See headnote, p. 436] All employees (1,000) 1980 Transp. and public utilities 3 . . . . Railroad transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . Class I railroads, plus Amtrak 5 . . . . . Local and interurban passenger transit . Trucking and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . Water transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation by air . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipelines, except natural gas . . . . . . . . Transportation services . . . . . . . . . . . . Communication 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone communication . . . . . . . . Radio and television broadcasting . . . Cable and other pay television services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, and sanitary services 3 . . . Electric services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas production and distribution . . . . . Combination utility services . . . . . . . Sanitary services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General merchandise stores . . . . . . . . Food stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automotive dealers and service stations. Apparel and accessory stores . . . . . . . Furniture and home furnishings stores . . Eating and drinking places. . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . Depository institutions. . . . . . . . . . . . Nondepository institutions . . . . . . . . . Security and commodity brokers . . . . . Insurance carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance, agents, brokers, service . . . Real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holding and other investment offices . . Services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and other lodging places . . . . . Hotels and motels. . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laundry, cleaning, garment services Beauty shops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel supply services . . . . . . . Employment agencies . . . . . . . . Help supply services . . . . . . . . . Computer and data processing services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepackaged software . . . . . . . . Data processing and preparation . Auto repair, services, and parking . . . . Automotive repair shops . . . . . . . . Motion pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motion picture theaters . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation services . . Health services 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offices and clinics of medical doctors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nursing and personal care facilities . Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home health care services . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . Social services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership organizations . . . . . . . . . Engineering and management services Government . . . . . . . . . . . Federal government . . . . . . . . . . . . . State government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (E) 40 4011 41 42 44 45 46 47 48 481 483 484 49 491 492 493 495 (F) (G) 53 54 55 56 57 58 (H) 60 61 62 63 64 65 67 (I) 70 701 72 721 723 73 731 736 7361 7363 737 7372 7374 75 753 78 783 79 80 801 805 806 808 81 82 83 86 87 (J) (X) (X) (X) 5,146 532 482 265 (4) 211 (4) 21 (4) 1,357 1,072 192 1990 5,777 279 241 338 1,395 177 968 19 336 1,309 913 234 1998 6,549 232 205 462 1,707 186 1,157 14 449 1,487 1,023 246 Production workers Total (1,000) 1980 4,293 (4) (4) 244 (NA) (4) (4) 15 159 1,014 779 154 1990 4,781 (4) (4) 308 1,215 (4) (4) 14 270 978 658 193 1998 5,426 (4) (4) 422 1,495 (4) (4) 12 367 1,083 716 202 Average hourly earnings (dollars) 1980 8.87 (4) 6 9.92 6.34 (4) (4) (4) 10.50 6.94 8.50 8.72 7.44 (4) 8.90 9.12 8.27 9.64 7.16 6.95 4.88 4.77 6.24 5.66 4.30 5.53 3.69 5.79 (4) (4) (4) 6.29 (4) (4) (4) 5.85 (4) 4.45 (4) 4.47 4.26 (4) 8.07 (4) (4) (4) 7.16 (4) (4) 6.10 6.52 (4) (4) (4) 5.68 (4) 4.17 6.06 (4) 7.35 (4) 4.26 (4) (4) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1990 12.92 (4) 16.08 9.23 11.68 (4) (4) 17.04 10.38 13.51 14.13 12.71 10.50 15.23 15.80 14.25 17.58 11.55 10.79 6.75 6.83 7.31 8.92 6.25 8.53 4.97 9.97 8.43 10.40 (4) 11.18 (4) (4) (4) 9.83 (4) 6.98 (4) 6.82 7.10 9.48 13.51 (4) (4) 8.09 15.11 (4) (4) 8.77 9.67 10.95 (4) 8.11 10.41 10.58 7.24 11.79 8.72 14.16 (4) 7.11 (4) 13.56 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1998 15.34 (4) 17.95 11.17 13.62 (4) (4) 20.64 13.64 17.30 17.79 17.79 14.14 19.97 21.01 18.56 24.30 15.70 14.01 8.75 8.59 9.07 12.09 8.45 11.87 6.35 14.06 10.83 14.55 (4) (4) 16.65 (4) (4) 12.84 (4) 8.92 (4) 8.40 9.40 12.55 17.57 (4) (4) 10.18 21.16 (4) (4) 11.06 12.43 14.62 (4) 9.67 13.72 14.28 9.76 15.46 11.50 18.05 (4) 9.20 (4) 17.86 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

Industry

1987 SIC 1 code

126 185 (4) 105 151 (4) 829 957 855 678 759 685 391 454 363 316 351 294 168 165 140 138 129 109 197 193 157 162 156 122 50 115 163 44 99 134 5,292 6,173 6,825 4,328 4,959 5,471 15,018 19,601 22,475 13,484 17,358 19,741 2,245 2,540 2,790 2,090 2,380 2,590 2,384 3,215 3,545 2,202 2,953 3,213 1,689 2,063 2,351 1,430 1,718 1,951 957 1,183 1,105 820 991 924 606 820 1,062 502 670 874 4,626 6,509 7,746 4,256 5,905 6,958 5,160 6,709 7,341 3,907 4,860 5,390 (4) 1,632 1,468 (4) 2,251 2,041 (4) 373 620 (4) 270 426 (4) (4) 227 424 649 (4) 1,224 1,462 243 854 982 (4) 4 4 464 663 1,586 ( ) ( ) 1,199 (4) (4) 989 1,315 743 (4) (4) (4) 115 221 1,460 (4) 17,890 27,934 37,525 15,921 24,387 32,740 (4) (4) 1,076 1,631 1,771 (4) 1,038 1,578 1,718 954 1,398 1,509 818 1,104 1,181 (4) (4) (4) 356 426 441 318 379 388 284 372 402 264 333 355 2,564 5,139 8,546 (4) 4,522 7,571 153 235 268 116 169 193 543 1,535 3,161 (4) (4) (4) 246 338 (4) (4) (4) (4) 4 4 ( ) 1,288 2,824 ( ) 1,245 2,738 304 (4) (4) 571 350 (4) 124 (4) 5,278 772 113 197 914 524 408 112 1,076 7,814 1,603 269 272 1,159 635 565 134 1,688 9,904 254 (4) (4) 488 297 (4) (4) (4) 4,712 (4) 898 2,522 (4) 427 (4) 990 (4) (4) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 603 (4) (4) 756 429 344 (4) 944 6,948 1,105 1,279 3,248 269 748 (4) 1,494 (4) 1,886 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,283 (4) (4) 941 499 470 (4) 1,476 8,773 1,497 1,580 3,622 627 784 (4) 2,275 (4) 2,472 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

802 1,338 1,817 997 1,415 1,757 2,750 3,549 3,953 291 680 (4) 498 908 982 1,138 1,661 2,207 1,134 1,734 2,628 1,539 1,946 2,271 (4) 2,478 3,236 16,241 18,304 19,862 2,866 3,085 2,686 3,610 4,305 4,648 9,765 10,914 12,527

NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification, see text, Section 17, Business 2 Excludes 4 5 government. 3 Includes industries not shown separately. Included in totals; not available separately. For changes in ‘‘Class I’’ classification, see text, Section 21, Land Transportation. 6 Includes all employees except executives, officials, and staff assistants who received pay during the month. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, June issues and Internet site <http://stats.bls. gov/ceshome.htm>.

438

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 691. Establishments Providing Training to Employees: 1995
[In percent, except hours. For May through October. For private establishments with 50 or more employees. Formal training is structured, planned in advances and with a defined curriculum. Based on the 1995 Survey of Employer-Provided Training; see source for details] Establishments providing formal training 1 . . . . . . . . 92.5 90.8 94.4 98.1 96.7 94.7 88.1 95.2 96.5 88.7 95.6 93.5
2

Hours of training per employee Employees receiving formal training 1 69.8 61.6 73.0 71.0 94.7 71.2 78.3 85.4 81.4 48.8 87.4 70.7 Formal training Employer survey 10.7 5.7 12.1 12.0 14.4 5.0 11.7 11.9 18.3 3.7 16.6 11.0 Employee survey 13.4 8.2 13.5 16.6 17.2 11.4 20.8 21.7 17.6 4.2 15.9 13.2 Informal training 2 31.1 31.9 34.5 26.0 18.9 36.1 30.3 18.5 19.7 32.6 34.7 37.0

Establishment characteristic

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Size: 50 to 99 employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 499 employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 or more employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industry: Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing: Durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondurable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, communications and public utilities Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance and real estate. . . . . . . . . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

In the prior 12 months. Measured by the employer survey.

Measured by the employee survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, June 1998.

No. 692. Employees Receiving Employer-Provided Training: 1995
[In percent, except hours. See headnote, Table 691] Employees receiving formal training 1 69.8 63.4 78.5 74.7 64.7 50.7 66.5 73.1 60.1 67.8 89.7 Hours of training per employee Formal training 2 13.4 2.7 14.0 15.4 17.2 5.7 12.2 14.6 10.9 14.3 16.1 Informal training 2 31.1 21.4 32.5 30.3 39.0 17.1 35.4 26.9 24.8 37.0 31.8 Employee characteristic Employees receiving formal training 1 .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . 80.2 84.8 72.5 49.8 66.3 67.5 56.8 79.7 75.3 Hours of training per employee Formal training 2 4.3 22.3 10.2 5.6 15.2 8.9 4.5 19.5 21.1 Informal training 2 22.4 38.7 23.2 22.1 38.5 56.5 19.5 27.0 20.5

Employee characteristic

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age: 24 years old and under. 25 to 34 years old . . . . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . . . . 55 years old and over . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education: High school graduate or less . . . . . . . . Some college . . . . . . . . . BA degree or more . . . . .

Occupation: managerial and professional . . . . . . Professional, paraprofessional and tech. Sales, clerical, and admin. support . . . . . Service . . . . . . . . . . . Production 3 . . . . . . . . Tenure in current job: 2 years or less . . . 2 to 5 years . . . . . 5 to 10 years . . . . More than 10 years . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 3 In the prior 12 months. Measured by the employee survey. Includes construction, operating, maintenance, and material handling. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, June 1998.

No. 693. Adults Taking Work-Related Adult Education Classes: 1995
[In thousands (178,618 represents 178,618,000), except percent. For the civilian noninstitutionalized population 16 years old noninstitutional population 16 years old and over not enrolled in elementary or secondary school. Excludes retired persons over 70 years old who did not work for pay in the prior year. Excludes classes such as basic skills, personal development, etc. See also, Table 341] Total population Participants Number 39,655 1,667 576 2,837 3,739 5,509 511 2,268 819 6,646 4,214 Percent 22 71 67 52 47 42 41 43 35 29 23 Occupation Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production, craft and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and materials moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers and inspectors . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry and fishing . Handlers, equipment cleaning, helpers and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total population 20,080 12,667 5,311 9,484 2,336 2,456 46,720 Participants Number 4,192 2,811 825 1,392 270 273 1,107 Percent 21 22 16 15 12 11 2

Occupation

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178,618 Health assessment, treatment Health diagnosing . . . . . . . . Teacher, below college . . . . . Other professional 1 . . . . . . . Executive, admin., managerial College teacher . . . . . . . . . . Technical and related support . Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, incl. clerical . . Sales workers . . . . . . . . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

2,337 859 5,414 7,903 13,098 1,254 5,240 2,311 22,968 18,179

No job in the past year . . . . . . .

For example, includes engineers, scientists, and social scientists. Source: U.S. Center for Education Statistics, Adult Participation in Work-Related Courses, 1994-95, October 1998, NCES 98-309.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

439

No. 694. Annual Indexes of Output Per Hour for Selected Three-Digit SIC Industries: 1988 to 1997
[See text, Section 13, Labor Force. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] 1987 SIC code 1 Indexes (1987=100) 1988 111.7 101.0 100.1 108.4 97.0 101.3 96.8 99.4 106.0 107.0 99.6 96.3 102.1 100.1 101.4 96.6 93.7 100.7 98.9 97.8 95.9 99.4 95.7 103.9 99.7 101.1 96.9 97.9 99.1 96.7 95.6 105.7 98.8 101.1 102.0 109.8 95.4 105.3 102.9 104.3 100.5 100.6 100.8 103.0 112.6 104.0 95.5 102.6 97.8 100.4 98.5 101.5 108.3 101.4 106.8 106.3 106.5 101.0 104.6 106.0 102.1 106.5 105.4 104.5 103.0 1990 118.7 97.0 97.1 107.3 95.6 105.3 92.7 102.8 117.7 99.3 103.1 107.5 110.2 102.1 104.1 99.9 86.3 99.8 98.0 103.1 107.7 104.5 95.6 102.3 101.3 101.4 90.6 93.9 96.6 92.2 99.4 106.7 100.9 103.9 103.8 101.4 97.3 109.2 103.0 109.2 105.6 104.8 102.3 95.4 109.6 106.1 92.7 104.0 97.3 98.8 96.1 95.6 104.7 97.5 106.5 116.5 107.0 101.1 107.5 101.5 103.6 107.3 106.3 107.5 105.8 1994 148.1 112.4 101.2 111.9 107.6 108.4 96.4 105.4 130.9 101.0 122.1 134.3 130.7 111.7 127.4 107.8 87.8 103.3 94.5 98.3 111.8 112.5 98.9 110.2 108.4 110.8 79.9 82.4 103.0 97.5 105.4 102.0 125.0 105.5 111.2 100.0 105.7 123.8 124.1 119.2 120.4 112.9 101.5 106.3 142.4 113.0 101.1 112.1 109.2 107.7 107.2 108.5 123.0 103.0 122.3 125.0 117.7 109.9 121.2 106.7 110.7 127.3 131.8 134.5 131.4 1995 155.9 119.4 102.4 116.6 109.1 115.3 97.3 107.5 134.3 103.1 134.0 138.6 137.4 123.4 135.5 109.2 86.0 110.2 92.7 97.0 115.4 116.9 101.2 119.0 105.1 113.4 79.0 88.5 101.5 94.8 108.7 109.2 128.7 108.9 118.6 98.8 107.8 132.3 131.1 121.6 120.7 115.7 104.5 107.8 142.7 112.7 99.1 117.8 111.3 105.8 109.7 109.3 127.7 106.4 122.7 134.7 122.1 114.8 132.3 109.0 112.7 138.8 143.0 150.4 127.3 1996 168.0 123.7 97.7 115.9 109.4 107.7 95.4 112.7 135.7 107.6 137.8 150.8 146.6 134.0 144.2 106.3 86.0 114.9 92.2 97.0 114.2 122.2 97.3 111.9 106.5 114.6 77.1 90.9 100.5 93.4 115.0 110.4 125.1 112.9 121.4 98.4 110.2 142.0 138.8 120.3 124.9 121.9 107.5 111.3 153.6 115.7 103.9 122.6 117.9 106.7 110.4 113.7 127.5 108.6 136.9 136.6 123.8 114.7 134.7 110.0 114.4 142.1 145.1 154.1 126.7 Average annual percent 1997 change 2 176.8 126.1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 5.9 2.3 -0.3 1.7 1.0 0.8 -0.5 1.3 3.4 0.8 3.6 4.7 4.3 3.3 4.2 0.7 -1.7 1.6 -0.9 -0.3 1.5 2.3 -0.3 1.3 0.7 1.5 -2.8 -1.1 0.1 -0.8 1.6 1.1 2.5 1.4 2.2 -0.2 1.1 4.0 3.7 2.1 2.5 2.2 0.8 1.2 4.9 1.6 0.4 2.3 1.8 0.7 1.1 1.4 2.7 0.9 3.6 3.5 2.4 1.5 3.4 1.1 1.5 4.0 4.2 4.9 2.7

Industry

Mining: Bituminous coal and lignite mining . . . . . . . . 122 Crude petroleum and natural gas . . . . . . . . . 131 Manufacturing: Meat products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dairy products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preserved fruits and vegetables. . . . . . . Grain mill products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bakery products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sugar and confectionery products . . . . . Beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous food and kindred products Broadwoven fabric mills, cotton . . . . . . . Knitting mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 202 203 204 205 206 208 209 221 225 228 232 233 239 241 242 243 245 249 251 254 262 265 267 271 272 273 274 278 281 282 283 284 286 289 291 301 306 308 322 327 329 331 332 335 336 342 344 345 346 347 349 351 352 353 354 355 356 358 359 361 362 363

Yarn and thread mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men’s and boys’ furnishings . . . . . . . . . . Women’s and misses’ outerwear . . . . . . . Miscellaneous fabricated textile products . . Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sawmills and planing mills . . . . . . . . . . . Millwork, plywood, and structural members Wood buildings and mobile homes . . . . . . Miscellaneous wood products . . . . . . . . . Household furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partitions and fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paper mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paperboard containers and boxes . . . . . Miscellaneous converted paper products . Newspapers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous publishing . . . . . . . . . . . Blankbooks and bookbinding. . . . . . . . . Industrial inorganic chemicals . . . . . . . . Plastics materials and synthetics . . . . . Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soaps, cleaners, and toilet goods . . . . Industrial organic chemicals . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous chemical products . . . . . Petroleum refining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tires and inner tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c. 3 . . . Miscellaneous plastics products, n.e.c. 3 Glass and glassware, pressed or blown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products . . . Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral products . Blast furnace and basic steel products . . . . Iron and steel foundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonferrous rolling and drawing . . . . . . . . . Nonferrous foundries (castings) . . . . . . . . . Cutlery, handtools, and hardware . . . . . . . . Fabricated structural metal products . . . . . . Screw machine products, bolts, etc. . . . . . . Metal forgings and stampings . . . . . . . . . . Metal services, n.e.c. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous fabricated metal products . Engines and turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farm and garden machinery . . . . . . . . . Construction and related machinery . . . . Metalworking machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . Special industry machinery . . . . . . . . . . General industrial machinery . . . . . . . . . Refrigeration and service machinery . . . . Industrial machinery, n.e.c. 3 . . . . . . . . . Electric distribution equipment . . . . . . . . Electrical industrial apparatus . . . . . . . . Household appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

440

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No. 694. Annual Indexes of Output Per Hour for Selected Three-Digit SIC Industries: 1988 to 1997—Continued
[See headnote, page 440] 1987 SIC code 1 . 364 . 366 . . . . . . . . . . . 369 371 372 373 376 381 382 384 386 394 399 Indexes (1987=100) 1988 101.9 110.4 102.8 103.2 100.5 99.4 104.8 104.8 103.1 104.4 105.6 104.8 104.5 99.9 99.5 106.2 103.1 102.0 104.9 105.5 1990 99.9 120.9 90.6 102.4 98.8 103.7 115.7 112.7 106.1 116.3 107.8 108.1 107.9 104.0 92.9 113.3 104.9 92.5 110.1 94.8 1994 113.4 164.8 110.5 107.1 109.5 103.8 117.5 132.1 133.8 126.1 132.7 109.7 106.2 106.6 105.7 142.2 110.1 83.3 126.8 102.2 1995 113.7 169.6 114.1 104.1 107.8 97.9 118.7 149.5 146.4 130.9 129.5 113.6 108.2 106.5 108.6 148.1 109.6 84.3 135.0 107.5 1996 117.4 189.6 123.0 104.1 112.6 100.5 127.3 141.8 150.4 140.4 129.0 120.0 113.5 104.7 111.1 159.4 105.9 81.6 146.5 116.0 Average annual percent 1997 change 2 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 108.3 112.1 160.2 101.3 84.1 150.5 119.9 1.8 7.4 2.3 0.4 1.3 0.1 2.7 4.0 4.6 3.8 2.9 2.0 1.4 0.8 1.1 4.8 0.1 -1.7 4.2 1.8

Industry Manufacturing—Continued: Electric lighting and wiring equipment . . Communications equipment . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous electrical equipment and supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicles and equipment . . . . . . . Aircraft and parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ship and boat building and repairing . . Guided missiles, space vehicles, parts . Search and navigation equipment . . . . Measuring and controlling devices . . . . Medical instruments and supplies. . . . . Photographic equipment and supplies. . Toys and sporting goods . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous manufactures . . . . . . . .

Transportation: US postal service 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Air transportation 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4512,13, 22 (pts.) Utilities: Telephone communications . . . . . Radio and television broadcasting Cable and other pay TV services . Electric utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 483 484 491,3(pt.) 492,3(pt.)

Trade: Lumber and other building materials dealers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores . . . . . Hardware stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail nurseries, lawn and garden supply stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variety stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous general merchandise stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grocery stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail bakeries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New and used car dealers . . . . . . . . . . Auto and home supply stores . . . . . . . . Gasoline service stations . . . . . . . . . . . Men’s and boys’ wear stores. . . . . . . . . Women’s clothing stores . . . . . . . . . . . Family clothing stores . . . . . . . . . . . . Shoe stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous apparel and accessory stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Furniture and homefurnishings stores . . Household appliance stores . . . . . . . . Radio, television, computer, and music stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eating and drinking places . . . . . . . . . Drug and proprietary stores . . . . . . . . Liquor stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Used merchandise stores . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous shopping goods stores . . Nonstore retailers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel dealers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail stores, n.e.c. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

521 523 525 526 531 533 539 541 546 551 553 554 561 562

101.0 102.8 108.6 106.7 99.2 101.9 100.8 98.9 89.8 103.4 103.2 103.0 106.0 97.8 102.0 102.7 96.3 98.6 98.5 118.6 102.8 101.9 98.2 105.3 100.7 105.6 95.6 105.9 102.8 97.6 97.2 100.1 95.1 102.5 105.7 107.1

103.6 106.0 110.5 83.9 94.2 151.2 116.4 94.6 89.7 106.1 102.7 102.6 113.7 101.5 104.5 106.1 88.6 101.8 102.8 119.6 104.0 103.6 105.2 100.3 104.2 108.8 84.4 113.7 107.7 96.1 101.8 96.6 96.8 90.9 106.9 115.8

117.9 124.6 114.2 116.6 111.2 191.8 160.9 92.9 90.1 108.7 107.0 116.5 118.1 115.8 121.2 124.4 105.4 110.5 116.8 178.8 98.9 104.5 98.1 111.6 111.5 130.6 99.7 121.3 122.3 109.6 104.0 117.4 99.8 103.8 112.3 106.5

117.0 126.8 110.7 117.1 113.4 205.8 164.0 91.9 91.2 107.1 112.6 120.4 117.9 122.8 135.2 131.5 131.2 114.7 131.6 200.0 97.6 105.2 102.0 111.6 117.2 125.7 112.3 120.5 127.6 110.1 105.5 129.3 103.5 99.7 119.5 101.4

121.5 132.1 115.2 136.6 121.0 232.6 165.1 90.2 87.3 108.2 113.9 117.2 126.3 133.6 140.5 142.6 139.9 122.5 132.0 209.3 95.2 107.5 110.3 121.6 119.5 138.3 113.3 130.6 130.9 109.7 108.7 126.4 106.3 97.1 114.1 100.4

124.0 132.3 115.8 119.3 125.7 246.1 165.7 89.1 97.6 107.3 109.7 116.5 139.1 134.1 143.2 143.5 128.0 125.7 149.4 220.4 93.7 113.8 107.8 122.1 124.5 148.0 106.5 137.8 134.1 107.9 108.1 135.4 108.9 101.3 115.8 100.8

2.2 2.8 1.5 1.8 2.3 9.4 5.2 -1.2 -0.2 0.7 0.9 1.5 3.4 3.0 3.7 3.7 2.5 2.3 4.1 8.2 -0.6 1.3 0.8 2.0 2.2 4.0 0.6 3.3 3.0 0.8 0.8 3.1 0.9 0.1 1.5 0.1

. 565 . 566 . 569 . 571 . 572 . . . . . . . . . 573 581 591 592 593 594 596 598 599 602 701 721 722 723 726 753 783

Finance and services: Commercial banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and motels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laundry, cleaning, and garment services . Photographic studios, portrait . . . . . . . . Beauty shops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Funeral services and crematories. . . . . . Automotive repair shops. . . . . . . . . . . . Motion picture theaters . . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, Section 17, Business. 2 Average annual percent change, 1987 to current year, based on compound rate formula. 3 N.e.c. means not elsewhere classified. 4 Refers to output per full-time equivalent employee years on fiscal basis. 5 Refers to output per employee. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Internet site <http://stats.bls.gov/iprhome.htm>.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

441

No. 695. Productivity and Related Measures: 1970 to 1998
[See text, this section, Labor Force. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] Item INDEXES (1992=100) Output per hour, business sector. . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Output, 1 business sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hours, 2 business sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensation per hour, 3 business sector . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real hourly compensation, 3 business sector. Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit labor costs, 4 business sector. . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGE 5 Output per hour, business sector. . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Output, 1 business sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hours, 2 business sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensation per hour, 3 business sector . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real hourly compensation, 3 business sector. Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit labor costs, 4 business sector. . . . . . . . Nonfarm business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 70.6 72.7 54.4 52.0 52.1 56.8 73.6 71.8 104.4 23.6 23.8 23.8 85.4 86.1 86.2 33.5 32.8 43.8 2.0 1.4 1.1 -0.1 -0.2 -4.8 -2.0 -1.6 -5.9 7.8 7.2 7.1 1.9 1.4 1.3 5.7 5.7 5.9 1980 84.2 86.0 70.4 73.0 73.4 75.7 86.6 85.4 107.5 54.5 54.8 55.8 92.8 93.4 95.0 64.7 63.8 79.3 -0.3 -0.4 0.3 -1.2 -1.2 -4.3 -0.9 -0.8 -4.6 10.8 10.8 11.9 -2.4 -2.4 -1.4 11.1 11.2 11.6 1985 91.7 92.3 82.8 85.7 85.8 86.6 93.5 92.9 104.6 73.1 73.4 75.3 95.3 95.7 98.2 79.7 79.5 91.0 1.6 1.0 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.0 2.2 2.5 -0.7 4.9 4.6 5.4 1.3 1.0 1.8 3.2 3.6 1.6 1990 96.1 96.3 93.0 98.6 98.8 97.5 102.6 102.6 104.8 90.8 90.7 91.0 97.4 97.3 97.7 94.4 94.2 97.9 0.7 0.5 2.5 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.3 -2.1 5.7 5.5 4.7 0.3 0.1 -0.6 5.0 5.0 2.2 1994 100.7 100.6 105.3 107.0 107.0 109.1 106.2 106.3 103.6 104.4 104.2 105.8 98.8 98.7 100.1 103.7 103.6 100.5 0.6 0.5 3.0 4.1 3.9 5.3 3.5 3.3 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.8 -0.7 -0.6 0.2 1.2 1.4 -0.3 1995 101.0 101.2 109.4 109.9 110.2 113.8 108.8 108.9 104.0 106.8 106.7 108.3 98.4 98.2 99.7 105.8 105.4 99.0 0.3 0.6 3.9 2.7 3.0 4.3 2.4 2.4 0.4 2.3 2.4 2.4 -0.5 -0.5 -0.4 2.0 1.8 -1.4 1996 103.7 103.7 113.8 114.5 114.8 118.0 110.4 110.7 103.7 110.7 110.4 110.7 99.0 98.7 99.0 106.8 106.5 97.2 2.7 2.4 4.1 4.2 4.1 3.7 1.5 1.6 -0.4 3.6 3.5 2.2 0.7 0.6 -0.8 0.9 1.1 -1.8 1997 105.2 104.9 119.4 119.8 119.9 125.7 113.8 114.3 105.3 114.7 114.3 115.3 100.3 99.9 100.8 109.0 108.9 96.6 1.5 1.2 4.9 4.6 4.5 6.5 3.1 3.2 1.6 3.6 3.5 4.2 1.2 1.2 1.8 2.1 2.3 -0.7 1998 107.8 107.3 124.4 125.3 125.5 130.9 116.3 117.0 105.2 119.7 119.1 120.4 103.0 102.5 103.7 111.1 111.0 96.8 2.4 2.2 4.2 4.6 4.6 4.1 2.2 2.4 -0.1 4.3 4.2 4.5 2.7 2.6 2.9 1.9 1.9 0.2

1 Refers to gross sectoral product, annual weighted. 2 Hours at work of all persons engaged in the business and nonfarm business sectors (employees, proprietors, and unpaid family workers); employees’ and proprietors’ hours in manufacturing. 3 Wages and salaries of employees plus employers’ contributions for social insurance and private benefit plans. Also includes an estimate of same for self-employed. Real compensation deflated by the consumer price index for all urban consumers, see text, Section 15, Prices. 4 Hourly compensation divided by output per hour. 5 All changes are from the immediate prior year. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News USDL 99-53, Productivity and Costs; and Internet site <http://stats.bls.gov/lprhome.htm>.

No. 696. Workers Using Computers on the Job: 1993 and 1997
[In percent, except as indicated (51,106 represents 51,106,000). For workers 18 years old and over. Based on the Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see Appendix III and source] Number using computers 1 (1,000) 51,106 63,885 6,007 7,984 18,864 18,182 10,092 2,755 30,336 33,549 14,528 13,900 2,961 759 3,226 8,277 14,235 2,752 3,501 3,154 311 Type of application BookAnalysis/ keeping/ invenPercent spreadof total sheets tory 45.8 49.8 37.1 52.5 53.3 54.9 50.7 32.6 44.1 56.5 77.5 71.7 60.3 79.9 75.1 54.8 77.6 16.4 25.0 17.3 9.3 36.1 40.9 28.2 41.7 44.0 43.6 39.1 33.5 46.5 35.8 60.1 44.4 33.1 51.5 42.9 38.4 31.4 15.7 29.6 19.1 40.2 45.0 66.4 70.3 69.8 67.0 65.8 62.8 62.1 64.3 68.3 76.3 45.1 31.9 27.1 51.8 83.0 75.0 52.3 62.8 63.1 79.3 Communications 2 38.7 47.0 35.3 46.6 49.1 48.6 49.0 42.2 51.4 43.1 61.4 55.8 39.7 74.6 49.4 43.0 39.4 27.6 31.6 21.3 22.8 Sales Desktop and publish- telemaring keting 22.3 26.1 18.4 25.8 28.3 27.1 26.1 21.6 29.4 23.1 32.6 40.3 42.3 41.3 26.1 21.0 17.0 9.6 18.2 12.6 11.2 16.2 22.1 23.5 23.4 24.0 20.6 19.6 21.3 24.6 19.9 30.9 9.8 4.6 5.4 7.7 57.2 15.9 11.0 11.1 9.2 19.1
2

Characteristic

Databases 34.5 34.1 23.4 35.0 35.4 36.9 33.5 28.8 36.8 31.6 47.2 37.8 27.5 40.2 36.9 31.3 28.3 17.4 22.5 14.6 33.0

Word processing 44.4 57.0 43.1 58.3 58.5 58.9 58.8 54.1 53.9 59.8 74.5 68.7 73.6 83.5 49.6 46.1 56.2 34.4 29.0 17.4 33.7 Includes

Total, 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . Total, 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . Age: 18 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . 25 to 29 years old . . . . . . . . . 30 to 39 years old . . . . . . . . . 40 to 49 years old . . . . . . . . . 50 to 59 years old . . . . . . . . . 60 years old and over . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupation: Executive, admin., managerial . Professional specialty. . . . . . . Teachers, below college . . . Teachers, college and univ. . Technical/related support . . . . Sales workers . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, inc. clerical. . . Service workers . . . . . . . . . . Precision prod., craft/repair . . . Operators, laborers 3 . . . . . . . Farming, forestry and fishing . .

1 Includes other applications, not shown separately. A person may be counted in more than one application. bulletin boards and electronic mail. 3 Includes fabricators. Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1994 and 1998.

442

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 697. Annual Total Compensation and Wages and Salary Accruals Per Full-Time Equivalent Employee, by Industry: 1990 to 1997
[In dollars. Wage and salary accruals include executives’ compensation, bonuses, tips, and payments-in-kind; total compensation includes in addition to wages and salaries, employer contributions for social insurance, employer contributions to private and welfare funds, director’s fees, jury and witness fees, etc. Based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification Code (SIC); See text, Section 17, Business] Industry Domestic industries . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, and sanitary services . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual total compensation 1990 32,093 18,638 46,053 33,701 37,048 36,636 46,481 48,057 37,394 18,678 37,905 29,141 37,142 1995 37,783 21,076 57,143 37,358 44,750 40,756 59,678 61,006 44,526 21,238 49,554 34,051 44,877 1996 38,792 21,819 58,809 38,377 45,672 41,634 60,913 62,616 46,076 21,731 53,314 34,822 46,282 1997 40,249 22,892 61,303 39,650 47,856 42,934 63,107 65,228 48,154 22,484 56,689 35,955 47,683 Annual wages and salary 1990 26,396 16,014 38,081 27,832 30,148 29,019 38,930 39,538 31,810 16,065 32,071 24,996 28,195 1995 30,902 18,200 46,624 30,444 35,803 32,264 49,525 48,831 37,812 18,296 41,674 29,003 33,930 1996 32,034 19,017 48,353 31,641 37,256 33,285 50,756 50,438 39,319 18,823 45,237 29,973 34,958 1997 33,438 19,951 50,910 32,944 39,291 34,507 52,872 52,663 41,272 19,562 48,283 31,184 36,091

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts of the United States, 1929-94, vol.2; and Survey of Current Business, August 1998.

No. 698. Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings, by Private Industry Group: 1980 to 1998
[Average earnings include overtime. Data are for production and related workers in mining, manufacturing, and construction, and nonsupervisory employees in other industries. Excludes agriculture. See headnote, Table 688] Private industry group AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, public utilities . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.66 9.17 9.94 7.27 8.87 6.95 4.88 5.79 5.85 8.57 11.98 12.32 9.54 11.40 9.15 5.94 7.94 7.90 10.01 13.68 13.77 10.83 12.92 10.79 6.75 9.97 9.83 11.43 15.30 15.09 12.37 14.13 12.43 7.69 12.32 11.39 12.77 16.95 16.56 13.49 15.34 14.01 8.75 14.06 12.84 7.78 10.71 11.61 8.49 10.36 8.12 5.70 6.76 6.83 7.77 10.86 11.17 8.65 10.34 8.30 5.39 7.20 7.16 7.52 10.28 10.35 8.14 9.71 8.11 5.07 7.49 7.39 7.39 9.90 9.76 8.00 9.14 8.04 4.97 7.97 7.37 7.75 10.29 10.05 8.19 9.31 8.50 5.31 8.53 7.79 Current dollars 1980 1985 1990 1995 1998 1980 Constant (1982) dollars 1985 1990
1

1995

1998

AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation, public utilities . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

235 397 368 289 351 267 147 210 191

299 520 464 386 450 351 175 289 257

345 603 526 442 496 411 194 357 319

394 684 587 515 557 476 221 442 369

442 744 643 563 606 538 255 512 420

275 464 430 337 410 312 172 245 223

271 471 421 350 408 319 158 262 233

259 453 395 332 373 309 146 268 240

255 442 380 333 360 308 143 286 239

268 452 390 341 368 326 155 311 255

Earnings in current dollars divided by the Consumer Price Index (CPI-W) on a 1982 base; see text, Section 15, Prices.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, March and June issues; and Internet site <http://stats.bls.gov/ceshome.htm>

No. 699. Annual Percent Changes in Earnings and Compensation: 1980 to 1998
[Annual percent change from immediate prior year. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] Item Current dollars: Hourly earnings, total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Hourly earnings, manufacturing 2 . . . . . . Compensation per employee-hour 3 . . . . Constant (1982) dollars: Hourly earnings, total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Hourly earnings, manufacturing 2 . . . . . Compensation per employee-hour 3 . . . Consumer Price Index (CPI-U) 4 . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 8.1 8.5 10.7 -4.8 -4.5 -2.5 13.5 1985 3.0 3.8 4.5 -0.4 0.3 0.9 3.6 1990 3.6 3.3 5.4 -1.6 -1.7 0.0 5.4 1993 2.5 2.4 2.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.7 3.0
2

1994 2.7 2.8 1.9 0.1 0.2 -0.7 2.6

1995 2.8 2.5 2.3 -0.1 -0.4 -0.5 2.8

1996 3.4 3.2 3.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 3.0

1997 3.9 3.1 3.5 1.6 0.9 1.2 2.3
3

1998 4.0 2.4 4.2 2.6 1.1 2.6 1.6 Nonfarm

1 Production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls. business sector. 4 See text, Section 15, Prices.

Production and related workers.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News USDL 99-53, Productivity and Costs.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

443

No. 700. Average Annual Pay, by State: 1996 and 1997
[In dollars, except percent change. For workers covered by state unemployment insurance laws and for Federal civilian workers covered by unemployment compensation for Federal employees, approximately 97 percent of wage and salary civilian employment in 1997. Excludes most agricultural workers on small farms, all Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, railroad employees, most domestic workers, most student workers at school, employees of certain nonprofit organizations, and most self-employed individuals. Pay includes bonuses, cash value of meals and lodging, and tips and other gratuities] State United States. . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Arkansas. . . . . . . . California. . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware. . . . . . . . District of Columbia . Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi. . . . . . .
1

Average annual pay 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1997, prel. 30,336 26,138 33,157 27,654 23,268 33,485 30,067 38,895 32,185 46,775 26,569 29,020 28,358 24,053 33,018 27,633 24,811 25,693 25,574 25,754 24,899 31,765 35,710 32,761 30,254 22,772

Percent change, 1996-97 4.8 3.8 2.1 4.8 4.4 5.4 5.4 6.3 4.8 5.2 3.6 5.6 3.6 3.0 5.5 4.4 4.8 4.4 4.5 4.9 4.4 4.9 5.2 3.9 4.8 4.4

State Missouri . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico. . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee. . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average annual pay 1996
1

1997, prel. 27,782 21,947 24,566 28,677 29,296 37,513 24,684 38,497 26,672 22,047 29,088 24,243 28,420 30,161 28,664 25,004 21,645 27,235 29,690 25,689 25,496 29,548 30,768 24,716 27,327 23,864

Percent change, 1996-97 4.4 3.8 5.5 3.2 5.8 4.4 4.1 4.6 5.0 3.8 4.7 3.9 5.2 4.1 5.4 4.0 4.4 4.9 5.6 4.5 4.1 5.5 6.5 2.7 5.0 4.3

28,946 25,180 32,461 26,387 22,294 31,776 28,520 36,592 30,711 44,458 25,641 27,492 27,363 23,353 31,296 26,477 23,679 24,609 24,463 24,541 23,850 30,295 33,937 31,522 28,866 21,822

26,601 21,146 23,294 27,788 27,691 35,928 23,716 36,816 25,410 21,242 27,776 23,329 27,028 28,973 27,194 24,049 20,724 25,963 28,129 24,572 24,480 28,003 28,881 24,075 26,021 22,870

Revised since originally published. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News USDL 99-171, June 23, 1999, Average Annual Pay by State and Industry.

No. 701. Average Annual Pay, by Selected Metropolitan Areas: 1996 and 1997
[In dollars. Metropolitan areas ranked by average pay 1997. Includes data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas defined as of June 30, 1996. In the New England areas, the New England County Metropolitan Area (NECMA) definitions were used. See source for details. See also headnote, Table 700] Metropolitan area Metropolitan areas . . . . . . . . San Jose, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . San Francisco, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . New Haven-Bridgeport-StamfordWaterbury-Danbury, CT . . . . . . . . Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ . Newark, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trenton, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bergen-Passaic, NJ. . . . . . . . . . . . Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV . . . . . . Jersey City, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hartford, CT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oakland, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA . . . . . Boston-Worcester-Lawrence-LowellBrockton, MA-NH . . . . . . . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kokomo, IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA . . . . . Wilmington-Newark, DE-MD . . . . . . Anchorage, AK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA-NJ. . . . . . . . . . . . Nassau-Suffolk, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . Orange County, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . Flint, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI . . . . . Denver, CO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boulder-Longmont, CO . . . . . . . . . New London-Norwich, CT. . . . . . . . Ann Arbor, MI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Huntsville, AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brazoria, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 30,238 44,824 45,007 40,017 39,495 39,630 38,894 37,598 36,845 36,385 36,833 35,747 34,844 34,427 33,586 34,357 33,910 34,787 32,983 32,895 33,476 33,220 33,501 33,076 32,879 32,179 33,294 31,935 31,614 31,337 30,968 32,003 31,041 31,472 30,781 1997, prel. 31,717 48,702 47,281 42,583 42,485 41,796 40,411 39,835 38,509 38,487 38,455 37,126 36,643 36,377 36,311 36,210 35,894 35,815 35,012 34,930 34,846 34,841 34,788 34,375 34,341 33,767 33,640 33,577 33,374 33,259 33,198 33,043 32,643 32,543 32,205 Metropolitan area Saginaw-Bay City-Midland, MI. . . . . . Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA . . . . . . . Rochester, MN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monmouth-Ocean, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . Rochester, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Springfield, IL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dutchess County, NY . . . . . . . . . . . Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH . . . . . . . Austin-San Marcos, TX . . . . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . St. Louis, MO-IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC . . . . Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC . Yolo, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lansing-East Lansing, MI . . . . . . . . . Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI . . . . . . . . Bloomington-Normal, IL . . . . . . . . . . Indianapolis, IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN . . . . . . . . . . . . Ventura, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . San Diego, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Racine, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dayton-Springfield, OH . . . . . . . . . . Fort Worth-Arlington, TX . . . . . . . . . Richmond-Petersburg, VA . . . . . . . . Nashville, TN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL . . . Kansas City, MO-KS . . . . . . . . . . . . Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY . . . . . . Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA . . . . Birmingham, AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI . Decatur, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Honolulu, HI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Janesville-Beloit, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 31,117 29,935 30,662 29,919 30,235 29,957 29,700 30,546 29,705 28,702 29,560 29,474 29,091 29,287 29,067 29,101 29,076 29,970 29,133 29,022 28,289 28,845 29,060 27,973 28,486 28,515 28,704 28,143 29,057 28,772 28,712 28,759 28,511 28,486 28,425 28,336 27,832 1997, prel. 32,117 31,606 31,517 31,506 31,353 31,326 31,171 31,104 31,089 31,059 31,028 30,995 30,908 30,826 30,739 30,688 30,673 30,587 30,517 30,492 30,454 30,364 30,363 30,341 30,312 30,040 30,025 29,880 29,821 29,819 29,725 29,699 29,637 29,632 29,525 29,511 29,457

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News USDL 99-232, August 25, 1999 Average Annual Pay Levels in Metropolitan Areas.

444

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 702. Full-Time Wage and Salary Workers—Number and Earnings: 1985 to 1998
[In current dollars of usual weekly earnings. Data represent annual averages (77,002 represents 77,002,000). See text, this section, and headnote Table 666, for a discussion of occupational data. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] Characteristic All workers
2

Number of workers (1,000) 1985 77,002 45,589 6,956 38,632 31,414 5,621 25,793 66,481 40,030 26,452 8,393 4,367 4,026 (NA) (NA) (NA) 11,078 5,835 5,243 8,803 1,563 4,227 3,013 3,947 13 1,327 2,607 10,026 3,752 3,308 2,966 10,585 4,403 3,459 2,724 1,150 8,302 3,492 4,810 14,622 1,200 2,929 10,494 3,963 330 156 3,477 906 144 53 709 3,482 2,778 189 514 138 1990
1

Median weekly earnings (dol.)
1

1995

1

1998

1985 343 406 240 442 277 210 296 355 417 281 277 304 252 (NA) (NA) (NA) 583 593 571 420 472 431 391 272 (B) 391 230 408 400 394 433 325 341 369 261 216 399 383 408 269 331 226 270 185 130 278 188 268 392 265 253 216 216 252 209 185

1990

1

1995

1

1998

1

...............

85,804 49,564 6,824 42,740 36,239 5,227 31,012 72,811 42,797 30,014 9,820 4,983 4,837 7,812 5,000 2,812 12,255 6,389 5,866 9,677 1,762 4,692 3,224 4,602 12 1,531 3,059 10,259 3,687 3,650 2,922 11,464 4,594 3,752 3,118 1,306 10,575 4,758 5,816 16,290 1,476 3,554 11,260 4,577 305 217 4,055 900 139 50 711 3,722 2,878 227 616 175

89,282 51,222 6,118 45,104 38,060 4,366 33,695 74,874 43,747 31,127 10,596 5,279 5,317 8,719 5,597 3,122 13,684 7,172 6,512 9,894 1,688 5,000 3,206 4,779 15 1,691 3,073 10,046 3,658 3,541 2,847 11,529 4,576 3,870 3,083 1,290 12,609 5,803 6,806 16,004 1,506 3,862 10,636 4,838 324 266 4,249 957 150 66 741 3,462 2,559 261 642 190

95,595 54,313 6,325 47,988 41,282 4,721 36,561 79,403 46,087 33,316 11,776 5,751 6,025 10,532 6,716 3,816 14,941 7,746 7,195 10,439 1,773 5,299 3,368 5,291 19 1,817 3,455 10,741 3,926 3,989 2,826 11,564 4,482 3,977 3,105 1,337 14,363 6,705 7,658 16,933 1,734 4,338 10,862 5,301 362 323 4,616 949 155 64 730 3,518 2,505 345 669 218
1

412 481 282 512 346 254 369 424 494 353 329 361 308 304 318 278 729 740 719 493 567 502 436 317 (B) 477 271 486 475 478 508 375 387 416 306 261 510 484 534 331 417 290 332 230 171 405 230 316 458 393 299 261 259 314 249 216
2

479 538 303 588 406 275 428 494 566 415 383 411 355 329 350 305 829 833 827 556 641 579 489 357 (B) 552 300 534 538 507 574 413 421 482 328 294 605 570 632 383 480 330 384 264 193 438 264 371 550 400 346 297 296 354 284 249

523 598 334 639 456 305 485 545 615 468 426 468 400 370 390 337 905 915 895 606 701 622 518 389 (B) 613 325 587 599 545 611 456 472 519 362 307 655 626 682 419 511 372 418 296 220 481 295 408 519 408 392 327 328 373 311 272

Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . Female . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . Female . . . . . Hispanic origin 3 . Male . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Occupation, male: Managerial and professional . . . . . . . . . Exec., admin., managerial . . . . . . . . . Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical, sales, and administrative support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tech. and related support . . . . . . . . Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, incl. clerical . . . . . . Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operators, fabricators and laborers . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and material moving . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Occupation, female: Managerial and professional . . . . . . . . . Exec., admin., managerial . . . . . . . . . Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical, sales, and administrative support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tech. and related support . . . . . . . . . Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, incl. clerical . . . . . . . Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and material moving . . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . .

See footnote 2, Table 649. B Data not shown where base is less than 50,000. NA Not available. races, not shown separately. 3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 4 Includes craft and repair.

Includes other

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307, and Employment and Earnings, monthly, January issues; and unpublished data.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

445

No. 703. Workers With Earnings, by Occupation of Longest Held Job and Sex: 1997
[Covers persons 15 years old and over as of March 1997 (67,736 represents 67,736,000). Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] All workers Major occupation of longest job held Women Number (1,000) Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Executive, administrators, and managerial Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical and related support . . . . . . . . . Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, incl. clerical . . . . . . . . . .
1

Year round, full time Men Women Men

Median earn- Number ings (1,000) 16,716 29,301 29,257 23,733 10,535 17,825 16,466 14,411 12,345 9,056 8,603 4,852 9,072 6,235 76,694 10,448 9,639 2,074 8,566 4,312 14,176 5,249 5,216 4,806 8,481 37 8,444 3,013

Median earn- Number ings (1,000) 26,843 45,970 44,401 34,751 27,550 23,126 27,429 23,991 23,739 12,469 13,145 (B) 13,207 11,645 37,683 6,611 6,679 1,735 4,077 9,790 865 2,090 247 465 4,807 225 4,583 223

Median earn- Number Median ings (1,000) earnings 24,973 33,037 35,417 27,576 21,392 22,474 21,649 17,683 21,024 15,774 15,964 12,648 16,120 17,301 54,909 9,046 7,516 1,591 6,108 3,035 10,629 4,026 3,641 2,304 4,703 7 4,696 1,651 33,674 50,149 50,402 37,705 35,655 29,442 31,496 26,969 28,227 21,475 22,335 (B) 22,359 17,394

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

67,736 8,852 11,176 2,580 9,244 16,188 1,364 3,347 591 1,159 12,376 982 11,395 742

Precision production, craft and repair . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors . Transportation and material moving . . . . . . . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service, except private household . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B Base less than 75,000. 1 Includes persons whose longest job was in the Armed Forces. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports P60-200.

No. 704. Employment Cost Index (ECI), Compensation by Industry and Occupation: 1982 to 1998
[As of December. The ECI is a measure of the rate of change in employee compensation (wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits). Data are not seasonally adjusted: 1982-1985 based on fixed employment counts from 1970 Census of Population; 1986-94 based on fixed employment counts from the 1980 Census of Population; Beginning 1995 based primarily on 1990 Occupational Employment Survey] Indexes (June 1989=100) 1982 Civilian workers 1 . . . . . . . . Workers, by occupational group: White-collar occupations . . . . . . . Blue-collar occupations . . . . . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . Workers, by industry division: Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmanufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . Service industries . . . . . . . . . . Public administration 2 . . . . . . . Private industry workers 3 . . Workers, by occupational group: White-collar occupations . . . . . . . Blue-collar occupations . . . . . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . Workers, by industry division: Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmanufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . Service industries . . . . . . . . . . Business services . . . . . . . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . Workers by bargaining status: Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonunion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State and local government. Workers, by occupational group: White-collar occupations . . . . . . . Blue-collar workers . . . . . . . . . . . Workers, by industry division: Service industries . . . . . . . . . . . . Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary and secondary . . Colleges and universities . . . Services, excluding schools 4 . . Public administration 2 . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 74.8 72.9 78.2 74.3 76.9 73.9 70.5 71.9 75.8 73.7 78.4 76.3 76.9 75.1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 79.6 74.3 70.8 70.4 73.9 70.0 69.0 68.6 (NA) 73.1 71.9 1985 1990 1995 1997 1998 1985 4.3 4.9 3.3 3.9 3.3 4.7 4.7 4.9 3.9 4.9 3.1 3.0 3.3 4.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2.6 4.6 5.6 5.8 5.3 5.9 6.2 6.4 (NA) 4.7 4.9 Percent change for 12 months ending Dec.— 1990 4.9 5.2 4.4 5.1 5.1 4.9 6.3 5.3 4.6 4.9 4.4 4.7 5.1 4.5 6.2 6.0 6.8 7.0 4.3 4.8 5.8 6.0 4.8 6.3 6.0 6.3 5.3 6.8 5.3 1995 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.4 3.3 2.6 2.8 2.4 1.9 2.6 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.7 2.1 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.5 3.0 3.3 1997 3.3 3.5 2.6 3.5 2.4 3.5 3.3 2.5 3.4 3.8 2.6 4.0 2.4 3.8 3.8 5.2 2.7 2.1 2.1 3.8 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.5 1998 3.4 3.6 2.8 3.2 2.7 3.6 3.0 3.6 3.5 3.9 2.7 2.9 2.7 3.7 3.0 5.3 0.7 2.5 3.0 3.5 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 3.1 2.6 3.6

Item

86.8 107.6 127.2 135.2 139.8 85.8 108.3 128.0 136.5 141.4 88.4 106.5 125.8 132.4 136.1 87.2 108.0 127.4 135.6 140.0 87.8 86.4 84.1 85.4 87.3 107.2 107.8 110.2 108.7 107.0 128.3 126.8 129.4 128.3 126.7 135.3 135.1 137.6 135.1 135.1 138.9 139.9 141.7 139.9 139.8

.. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

86.4 107.4 127.6 136.7 142.0 88.5 106.4 125.6 132.3 135.9 88.4 107.3 125.2 134.1 138.0 87.8 87.0 84.1 (NA) 83.7 (NA) 107.2 106.9 109.3 107.4 110.8 110.7 128.3 125.9 129.4 126.3 132.2 131.3 135.3 134.7 138.5 138.6 138.1 136.5 138.9 139.7 142.7 145.9 139.0 139.9

.. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

90.1 106.2 127.7 133.5 137.5 86.3 107.3 126.5 135.3 140.1 84.6 110.4 129.3 135.7 139.8 84.2 110.9 129.1 135.5 139.3 86.7 108.7 128.0 134.2 137.8 84.0 111.3 83.6 111.6 83.6 112.1 (NA) 110.2 85.2 110.2 85.4 108.7 129.6 129.8 130.1 128.7 129.4 128.3 136.0 136.2 135.8 137.2 135.3 135.1 139.7 139.9 139.3 141.5 138.8 139.9

NA Not available. 1 Includes private industry and state and local government workers and excludes farm, household, and federal government workers. 2 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities. 3 Excludes farm and household workers. 4 Includes library, social, and health services. Formerly called hospitals and other services. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, Employment Cost Index, quarterly; and Internet site <http://stats.bls.gov/ ecthome.htm>.

446

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 705. Federal Minimum Wage Rates: 1954 to 1996
Value of the minimum wage Year Current dollars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.75 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.15 1.15 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.40 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.10
1

Value of the minimum wage Year Current dollars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.30 2.30 2.65 2.90 3.10 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.80 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.75

1

Constant (1996) dollars 2 4.37 4.39 5.77 5.58 5.43 5.39 5.30 6.03 5.97 6.41 6.33 6.23 6.05 6.58 7.21 6.84 6.47 6.20 6.01 5.65 6.37 6.12 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Constant (1996) dollars 2 6.34 5.95 6.38 6.27 5.90 5.78 5.45 5.28 5.06 4.88 4.80 4.63 4.44 4.24 4.56 4.90 4.75 4.61 4.50 4.38 4.75

1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Effective September 1, 1997, the Federal minimum wage rose to $5.15; $5.03 in constant 1996 dollars. 2 Adjusted for inflation using the CPI-U; see text, Section 15, Prices.

Source: U.S. Employment Standards Administration, Internet site <http://www.dol.gov/esa/public/minwage/main.htm> (accessed 25 May 1999).

No. 706. Workers Paid Hourly Rates, by Selected Characteristics: 1998
[Data are annual averages (71,440 represents 71,440,000). For employed wage and salary workers. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Number of workers (1,000) Characteristic Total paid hourly rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71,440 16,361 6,482 55,080 35,761 8,411 3,219 27,349 35,680 7,949 3,263 27,730 58,512 9,773 9,065 54,093 17,198 62,796 19,179 43,617 8,644
1

Percent of all workers paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Below $5.15 2,834 1,377 790 1,456 1,039 536 328 503 1,794 841 462 953 2,290 431 393 1,197 1,628 2,671 320 2,351 163 Total 6.2 13.8 20.8 3.9 4.7 11.1 18.2 2.7 7.7 16.7 23.4 5.2 6.1 7.2 7.4 3.3 15.2 6.6 2.6 8.4 3.3 At $5.15 2.2 5.4 8.6 1.3 1.8 4.8 8.0 0.8 2.7 6.1 9.2 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.0 1.1 5.8 2.3 0.9 3.0 1.4 Below $5.15 4.0 8.4 12.2 2.6 2.9 6.4 10.2 1.8 5.0 10.6 14.2 3.4 3.9 4.4 4.3 2.2 9.5 4.3 1.7 5.4 1.9

At or below $5.15 Total 4,427 2,260 1,348 2,166 1,667 936 585 731 2,759 1,324 763 1,435 3,559 705 669 1,793 2,621 4,142 497 3,645 285 At $5.15 1,593 883 558 710 628 400 257 228 965 483 301 482 1,269 274 276 596 993 1,471 177 1,294 122

Median hourly earnings of workers paid hourly rates 2 $9.10 6.58 5.88 10.13 10.06 6.91 5.98 11.72 8.23 6.24 5.78 9.13 9.22 8.39 7.92 10.01 6.53 8.90 10.36 8.12 11.16

Total, 16 years and over 3 16 to 24 years . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . . 25 years and over . . . Male, 16 years and over 16 to 24 years . . . . . 16 to 19 years . . . . 25 years and over . . . Women, 16 years and 16 to 24 years . . . 16 to 19 years . . 25 years and over .

over. .... .... ....

White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin
4

........

Full-time workers . . . . . . . Part-time workers 5 . . . . . . Private sector industries . Goods-producing 6 . . . Service-producing 7 . . Public sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Excludes the incorporated self-employed. 2 For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. 3 Includes races not shown separately. Also includes a small number of multiple jobholders whose full- part- time status can not be determined for their principal job. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 5 Working fewer than 35 hours per week. 6 Includes 7 Includes transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; finance, agriculture, mining, construction, and manufacturing. insurance, and real estate; private households; and other service industries.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data.

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447

No. 707. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation Per Hour Worked: 1998
[In dollars. As of March, for private industry workers. Based on a sample of establishments; see source for details] Compensation component Total Total compensation . . Wages and salaries . . . . . . Total benefits . . . . . . . . . . . Paid leave . . . . . . . . . . . Vacation. . . . . . . . . . . Holiday . . . . . . . . . . . Sick . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplemental pay . . . . . . Premium pay . . . . . . . Nonproduction bonuses Shift pay . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . Health insurance . . . Retirement and savings Defined benefit . . . . Defined contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.50 13.47 5.02 1.16 0.58 0.40 0.14 0.05 0.56 0.22 0.29 0.05 1.10 1.00 0.55 0.24 0.30 1.63 1.12 0.03 0.11 0.36 0.03 Goods producing 1 22.26 15.35 6.91 1.47 0.76 0.53 0.11 0.06 0.85 0.47 0.30 0.07 1.62 1.48 0.82 0.45 0.37 2.09 1.30 0.03 0.14 0.63 0.07 Service producing 2 17.31 12.88 4.42 1.07 0.52 0.36 0.14 0.05 0.47 0.14 0.29 0.04 0.94 0.85 0.46 0.18 0.28 1.48 1.07 0.03 0.10 0.28 Manufacturing 22.29 15.22 7.07 1.68 0.86 0.62 0.13 0.07 0.91 0.48 0.34 0.09 1.70 1.54 0.76 0.40 0.36 1.93 1.30 0.03 0.12 0.48 0.08 Nonmanufacturing 17.66 13.09 4.57 1.05 0.51 0.35 0.14 0.05 0.48 0.16 0.28 0.04 0.97 0.88 0.50 0.21 0.29 1.56 1.08 0.03 0.11 0.33 Union members 23.59 15.38 8.22 1.57 0.85 0.51 0.14 0.07 0.95 0.60 0.21 0.14 2.15 1.97 1.29 1.00 0.29 2.18 1.33 0.03 0.14 0.69 0.08 Nonunion members 17.80 13.21 4.58 1.11 0.54 0.39 0.14 0.05 0.51 0.17 0.30 0.04 0.96 0.86 0.45 0.14 0.31 1.55 1.09 0.03 0.11 0.31 0.02 Fulltime workers 20.95 15.03 5.93 1.42 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.68 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1.34 (NA) 0.67 (NA) (NA) 1.78 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.03 Parttime workers 10.01 8.10 1.90 0.27 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.15 (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.27 (NA) 0.14 (NA) (NA) 1.08 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) -

Legally required . . . . . . . Social Security . . . . . . Federal unemployment . State unemployment . . Workers compensation . Other benefits 3 . . . . . . .

1 2 - Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available. Mining, construction, and manufacturing. Transportation, communications, and public utilities, wholesale and retail trade, finance, insurance, and real estate, and services. 3 Includes severance pay, and supplemental unemployment benefits.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, USDL, 98-285.

No. 708. Employees With Employer- or Union-Provided Pension Plans or Group Health Plans: 1997
[Total in thousands (144,582 represents 144,582,000). For wage and salary workers 15 years old and over as of March 1998. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. Data based on 1990 population controls] Percent— Occupation Included in penTotal sion (1,000) plan 42.0 55.3 59.6 55.2 30.2 47.1 41.8 44.3 40.8 25.6 23.1 1.2 24.2 9.2 70.0 With group health plan Characteristic Percent— Included in penTotal sion (1,000) plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144,582 . 24,049 . 72,442 . 43,155 . 4,937 . 144,582 . 113,977 . 92,648 . 12,513 . 8,816 . 30,605 . 13,880 . 6,624 . 10,101 . . . . . 42,394 18,374 19,051 8,091 56,671 42.0 12.0 46.2 53.8 23.3 42.0 49.8 55.1 33.6 16.2 13.0 17.9 14.7 5.2 14.2 35.8 49.0 57.8 60.2 With group health plan 52.8 21.6 57.8 63.1 40.8 52.8 62.1 67.5 47.9 25.1 18.4 24.2 18.3 10.3 28.2 52.3 61.7 66.5 66.4

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144,582 Executive, admin., managerial . . . 19,313 Professional specialty . . . . . . . . . 20,819 Technical/related support . . . . . . . Sales workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin. support, inc. clerical . . . . . Precision prod., craft/repair . . . . . Mach. operators, assemblers 1 . . . Transportation/material moving . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners 2 . . Service workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private households . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, forestry and fishing . . . . Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

4,656 17,824 20,565 15,544 8,601 5,809 5,968 20,879 1,019 19,860 3,776 828

52.8 AGE 67.2 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.8 15 to 24 years old . . . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . . . 65.4 45 to 64 years old . . . . . . 42.8 65 years old and over . . . 56.3 WORK EXPERIENCE Worked . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.0 Full time . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 weeks or more . . . . . . 61.4 27 to 49 weeks . . . . . . . . 55.2 26 weeks or fewer . . . . . . 36.5 Part time . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 weeks or more . . . . . . 32.5 27 to 49 weeks . . . . . . . . 8.7 26 weeks or fewer . . . . . . 33.7 EMPLOYER SIZE Under 25 persons . . . . . . 20.9 25 to 99 persons . . . . . . . 100 to 499 persons . . . . . 32.7 500 to 999 persons . . . . . Over 1,000 persons . . . . .

Includes inspectors.

2

Includes helpers and laborers.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, unpublished data.

448

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No. 709. Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms: 1997
[In percent. Covers full-time employees in private industry. Medium and large establishments exclude establishments with fewer than 100 workers. Covers only benefits for which the employer pays part or all of the premium or expenses involved, except unpaid family leave. Based on a sample survey of establishments; for details, see source. For data on employee benefits in small establishments, see Table 710] Professional, technical and related 89 96 23 84 92 60 73 3 95 54 62 79 64 28 94 89 52 70 49 15 6 12 Professional, technical and related

Employee benefit program

All employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 95 20 81 87 47 56 2 93 55 43 76 59 26 87 79 50 57 39 13 4 8

Clerical and sales 91 97 33 85 89 50 73 3 96 52 52 78 59 25 91 81 49 63 45 15 6 6

Blue collar and service 88 94 13 76 83 38 38 1 91 58 28 74 56 24 81 72 50 46 30 12 3 6

Employee benefit program

All employees

Blue Cleri- collar cal and and servsales ice

Paid time off: Holidays . . . . . Vacations . . . . . Personal leave . Funeral leave . . Jury duty leave . Military leave . . Sick leave . . . . Family leave . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

Tax-deferred savings: With employer contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With no employer contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income continuation plans: Severance pay . . . . . . . . Supplemental unemployment benefits . . . . . . . . Family benefits: Child care . . . . . . . . . . . Adoption assistance . . . . . Long-term care insurance . Flexible workplace . . . . . . . . . . . .

46 9 36 5 10 10 7 2 36 61 21

56 11 48 2 14 16 10 5 44 75 31

51 8 43 2 10 12 11 3 36 63 19

38 8 26 7 7 6 4 (Z) 32 52 16

Unpaid family leave. . . . . . . . Disability benefits: Short-term disability . . . . . . Long-term disability . . . . . . Insurance: Medical care. . Dental care . . Vision care . . . Life insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Health promotion programs: Wellness programs . . . . . . Employee assistance programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitness center . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous benefits: Job-related travel accident insurance . . . . . . . . . . . Nonproduction bonuses . . Subsidized commuting . . . Educational assistance: Job-related . . . . . . . . . Non-job related . . . . . .

Retirement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defined benefit . . . . . . . . . Defined contribution . . . . . . Savings and thrift . . . . . . Deferred profit sharing . . Employee stock ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Money purchase pension.

. . . . .

42 42 6 67 20

56 43 10 81 25

46 43 7 68 18

32 40 3 58 18

Z Less than 0.5 percent. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL 99-02, January 7, 1999.

No. 710. Employee Benefits in Small Firms: 1996
[In percent. Covers full-time employees in private industry. Small establishments are establishments with fewer than 100 workers. Covers only benefits for which the employer pays part or all of the premium or expenses involved, except certain tax deferred earnings arrangements. Based on a sample survey of establishments; for details, see sources. For data on employee benefits in medium and large establishments, see Table 709] Professional, technical and related 86 90 21 60 74 25 66 3 32 39 76 31 27 41 40 72 56 12 51 Professional, technical and related 23 (NA)

Employee benefit program

All employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 86 14 51 59 18 50 2 29 22 64 36 27 35 31 62 46 15 38

Clerical and sales 91 95 18 60 68 23 64 3 33 30 69 34 28 36 35 68 53 16 46

Blue collar and service 71 79 8 42 47 12 35 1 25 10 56 41 25 32 24 54 37 15 28

Employee benefit program

All employees 15 (Z)

Blue Cleri- collar cal and and servsales ice 19 (Z) 9 (Z)

Paid time off: Holidays . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacations . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal leave . . . . . . . . Funeral leave . . . . . . . . . Jury duty leave . . . . . . . . Military leave . . . . . . . . . Sick leave . . . . . . . . . . . Family leave . . . . . . . . . . Insurance: Short-term disability . . . . . Long-term disability . . . . . Medical care. . . . . . . . . . Fee-for-service 1 . . . . . HMO 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . PPO 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Dental care . . . . . . . . . . Life insurance . . . . . . . . . Retirement. . . . . . . . . . . . . Defined benefit . . . . . . . . Defined contribution . . . . . Tax deferred earnings arrangements: With employer contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . With no employer contribution . . . . . . . .

Income contribution plans: Severance pay . . . . . . . . . Supplemental unemployment benefits . . . . . . . . . Family benefits: Employer assistance for child care . . . . . . . . . Employer provided funds . . . . . . . . . . On-site child care . . . Off-site child care . . .

... ... ... ...

2 1 1 1 8 14 4

4 2 2 2 11 18 6

2 2 (Z) (Z) 9 19 5

(Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) 5 10 3

Health promotion programs: Wellness programs . . . . . . Employee assistance programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitness center . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous benefits: Job-related travel accident insurance . . . . . . . . . . . Nonproduction bonuses . . Subsidized commuting . . . Educational assistance: Job-related . . . . . . . . . Non-job related . . . . . .

. . . . .

12 44 1 38 5

17 44 3 56 6

16 46 2 45 6

7 43 1 27 4

. .

24 4

30 8

31 4

17 3

NA Not available. Z Less than 0.5 percent. 1 Percent of participants receiving medical care insurance. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, USDL 98-240, June 15, 1998.

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449

No. 711. Workers Killed or Disabled on the Job: 1960 to 1997
[Data for 1997 are preliminary estimates (13.8 represents 13,800). Excludes homicides and suicides. Estimates based on data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, state vital statistics departments, state industrial commissions and beginning 1992, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Occupational Fatalities. Numbers of workers based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics] Deaths Total Year Number (1,000) Rate . . . . . . . . . . 13.8 14.1 13.8 13.0 13.2 10.1 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.1 Manufacturing Number (1,000) Rate 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 Nonmanufacturing Number (1,000) 12.1 12.3 12.1 11.4 11.5 9.1 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 Disabling Year and industry group injuries 2 (mil.) 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.9 3.8 Total, 1997 . . . . Agriculture 4 . . . . . . . Mining and quarrying 5 Construction . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . Transportation and utilities . . . . . . . . . . Trade 6 . . . . . . . . . . Services 7 . . . . . . . . Government . . . . . . .
3

Deaths Disabling injuries 2 (1,000) 3,800 140 20 390 640 380 720 960 550

1

1

Rate

1

Number 5,100 720 150 1,060 670 900 470 640 490

Rate

1

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997

. . . . . . . . . .

21 20 18 15 13 9 4 4 4 4

10 10 9 9 8 5 4 4 3 3

25 24 21 17 15 9 4 4 4 4

. . . . . . . . .

4 20 24 14 3 12 2 1 3

1 Per 100,000 workers. 2 Disabling injury defined as one which results in death, some degree of physical impairment, or renders the person unable to perform regular activities for a full day beyond the day of the injury. Due to change in methodology, data beginning 1990 not comparable with prior years. 3 Includes deaths where industry is not known. 4 Includes forestry and fishing. 5 Includes oil and gas extraction. 6 Includes wholesale and retail trade. 7 Includes finance, insurance, and real estate.

Source: National Safety Council, Itasca, IL, Accident Facts, annual (copyright).

No. 712. Worker Deaths, Injuries, and Production Time Lost: 1995 to 1997
[45.7 represents 45,700. Data may not agree with Table 711 because data here are not revised] Deaths (1,000) Item 1995 All accidents . . . . . . . . On the job . . . . . Off the job. . . . . . Motor vehicle . . Public nonmotor Home . . . . . . . ...... ...... ...... vehicle . ...... . . . . . . . . . . 45.7 5.3 40.4 22.9 7.5 10.0 1996 43.9 4.8 39.1 22.2 7.4 9.5 1997 43.3 5.1 38.2 22.0 6.8 9.4 1995 9.9 3.6 6.3 1.2 2.3 2.8 1996 10.2 3.9 6.3 1.3 2.4 2.6 1997 9.6 3.8 5.8 1.2 2.3 2.3 Disabling injuries (mil.)
1

Production time lost (mil. days) In the current year 1995 225 75 150 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1996 230 80 150 (NA) (NA) (NA)
2

In future years 1995 455 65 390 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1996 430 60 370 (NA) (NA) (NA)

2

1997 220 80 140 (NA) (NA) (NA)

1997 420 60 360 (NA) (NA) (NA)

NA Not available. 1 See footnote 2, Table 711, for a definition of disabling injuries. lost in future years per fatality and 565 days lost in future years per permanent injury. Source: National Safety Council, Itasca, IL, Accident Facts, annual (copyright).

Based on an average of 5,850 days

No. 713. Incidence Rates for Nonfatal Injuries and Illnesses— Selected Industries: 1995 and 1996
[Rates per 100 full-time employees. Industries shown are those with highest rates in 1997. For nonfarm employment data, see Table 690. Rates refer to any occupational injury or illness resulting in (1) lost workday cases, or (2) nonfatal cases without lost workdays. Incidence rates were calculated as: Number of injuries and illnesses divided by total hours worked by all employees during year multiplied by 200,000 as base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks a year)] Industry Private industry . . . . . . Meat packing plants . . . . . . . Malleable iron foundries . . . . . Gray and ductile iron foundries Motor vehicles and car bodies. Metal sanitary ware . . . . . . . . Vitreous plumbing fixtures . . . Mobile homes . . . . . . . . . . . Ship building and repairing . . . Truck trailers . . . . . . . . . . . . Automotive stampings . . . . . . Leather tanning and finishing . Aluminum foundries. . . . . . . . Steel foundries, n.e.c. . . . . . . X Not applicable. classified.
1

1987 SIC 1 code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) 2011 3322 3321 3711 3431 3261 2451 3731 3715 3465 311 3365 3325

Industry 1995 7.4 30.3 16.7 25.8 26.1 29.4 16.3 26.2 27.4 19.4 23.2 19.1 17.1 26.4 1996 7.1 32.1 27.6 26.6 25.5 24.4 23.9 22.6 21.4 21.3 20.0 19.9 19.8 19.1 Secondary nonferrous metals . . . . . . Primary aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation equipment, n.e.c. . . . . Structural wood members, n.e.c. 2 . . . Canned and cured fish and seafoods . Air transportation, scheduled 3 . . . . . Boat building and repairing . . . . . . . . Aluminum die-castings . . . . . . . . . . . Burial caskets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iron and steel forgings . . . . . . . . . . . Construction machinery . . . . . . . . . . Travel trailers and campers . . . . . . . Fabricated structural metal . . . . . . . . Fresh and frozen prepared fish . . . . .
2

1987 SIC 1 code 334 3334 3799 2439 2091 451 3732 3363 3995 3462 3531 3792 3441 2092

1995 21.0 13.6 15.2 20.5 15.3 19.3 16.2 19.9 8.9 19.4 16.3 19.7 16.7 14.4

1996 18.9 18.8 18.6 18.1 17.9 17.7 17.6 17.4 17.3 17.3 17.0 16.9 16.8 16.8

1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, Section 17, Business.

N.e.c. means not elsewhere

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry, annual.

450

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No. 714. Nonfatal Occupational Injury and Illness Incidence Rates: 1996 and 1997
[Rates per 100 full-time employees. See headnote, Table 713] Industry Private sector 2 . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, fishing 2 . . Mining 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal mining 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal mining 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas extraction . . . . . . . Nonmetallic minerals, exc. fuels Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General building contractors . . Heavy construction, except building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special trade contractors . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable goods . . . . . . . . . . Lumber and wood products . . . Furniture and fixtures . . . . . . . Stone, clay, and glass products Primary metal industries . . . . . Fabricated metal products . . . . Industrial machinery and equip . Electronic/other electric equip. . Transportation equipment . . . . Instruments/related products . . Miscellaneous manufacturing industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondurable goods . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . Tobacco products. . . . . . . . . . Textile mill products . . . . . . . . Apparel and other textile products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paper and allied products . . . . Printing and publishing . . . . . . Chemicals and allied products . Petroleum and coal products . . Rubber and misc. plastics products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leather and leather products . . Transportation/public utilities 3 . Railroad transportation 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 SIC 1 code (X) A B 10 12 13 14 C 15 16 17 D (X) 24 25 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 (X) 20 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 30 31 E 40 Industry 1996 7.4 8.7 5.4 5.0 8.0 5.0 4.8 9.9 9.0 9.0 10.4 10.6 11.6 14.2 12.2 12.4 15.0 14.4 9.9 6.8 16.3 5.1 9.5 9.2 15.0 6.7 7.8 7.4 7.9 6.0 4.8 4.6 12.3 10.7 8.7 3.5 1997 7.1 8.4 5.9 4.9 7.8 5.9 4.7 9.5 8.5 8.7 10.0 10.3 11.3 13.5 12.0 11.8 15.0 14.2 10.0 6.6 15.4 4.8 8.9 8.8 14.5 5.9 6.7 7.0 7.3 5.7 4.8 4.3 11.9 10.6 8.2 3.4 Local passenger transit . . . . . . . Trucking and warehousing . . . . . Water transportation . . . . . . . . . Transportation by air. . . . . . . . . Pipelines, except natural gas . . . Transportation services . . . . . . . Communications . . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, sanitary services . . Wholesale and retail trade . . . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . . Depository institutions . . . . . . . . Nondepository institutions . . . . . Security and commodity brokers . Insurance carriers . . . . . . . . . . Insurance agents, brokers, and service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holding and other investment offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotels and other lodging places . Personal services. . . . . . . . . . . Business services . . . . . . . . . . Auto repair, services, and parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous repair services. . . Motion pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . Amusement and recreation services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services. . . . . . . . . Social services . . . . . . . . . . . . Museums, botanical, zoological gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and management services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services, n.e.c. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 SIC 1 code 41 42 44 45 46 47 48 49 F, G F G H 60 61 62 63

1996 10.3 10.4 9.8 17.9 2.0 3.5 3.5 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.9 2.4 1.8 1.1 0.6 2.1 1.4 5.4 2.8 6.0 9.0 3.8 3.9 5.9 6.3 (NA) 9.5 9.1 1.1 3.4 7.2 (NA) 2.0 (NA)

1997 8.0 10.0 8.6 16.4 3.7 3.9 3.4 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.8 2.2 1.8 1.2 0.7 2.2 1.3 4.7 2.0 5.6 8.4 3.8 3.6 6.3 7.4 3.1 8.1 8.4 0.8 2.9 6.4 7.4 1.9 1.3

. 64 . 65 . . . . . 67 I 70 72 73

. 75 . 76 . 78 . . . . . 79 80 81 82 83

. 84 . 87 . 89

NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification; see text, Section 17, Business. 2 Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees. 3 Data conforming to OSHA definitions for employers in the railroad industry and for mining operators in coal, metal, and nonmetal mining. Independent mining contractors are excluded from the coal, metal, and nonmetal mining industries. 4 Includes categories not shown separately. 5 N.e.c means not elsewhere classified. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry, annual.

No. 715. Workplace Violence: 1992-96
[Based on the National Crime Victimization Surveys; see text, Section 5, Law Enforcement, and Appendix III. (2,009.4 represents 2,009,400)] Victims of nonfatal workplace violence Characteristic of violence victims Percent Total 2 . . . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . Ethnicity: 3 Hispanic . . . . . . . . Non-Hispanic . . . . . Age: 12 to 17 years . . 18 to 24 years . . 25 to 34 years . . 35 to 49 years . . 50 to 59 years . . 60 to 64 years . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.0 Total 4 . . . . . . . . 66.8 Medical: 33.2 Physicians . . . . . . . 88.6 Nurses . . . . . . . . . . 8.9 Medical technicians . 2.5 Other . . . . . . . . . . . Mental health: 6.6 Professional . . . . . . 92.1 Custodial . . . . . . . . 2.4 Other . . . . . . . . . . . 17.9 32.9 Law enforcement: 37.0 Police . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Private security . . . . 1.5 Corrections officer . . 1.1 Other . . . . . . . . . . . Average annual number (1,000) . 2,009.4 . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0 69.5 24.5 56.8 50.3 8.7 43.5 234.2 71.1 58.3 67.6 Average annual number (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35.4 47.3 33.3 6.6 9.0 14.4 61.5 15.5 26.4 228.2 16.1 17.2 43.2

Occupation

Occupation Rate
1

Rate

1

14.8 Teachers: Elementary . . . . . . 15.7 Junior High . . . . . . 24.8 High school. . . . . . 21.4 Higher ed. . . . . . . 10.7 Special ed. . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . 79.5 Retail sales: 63.3 Convenience/liquor 64.0 store . . . . . . . . . Gas station . . . . . . Bar . . . . . . . . . . . 306.0 Other . . . . . . . . . . 117.3 Transportation: 217.8 Taxi driver. . . . . . . 61.5 Bus driver. . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . .
3

16.0 57.4 28.9 2.5 40.7 10.1 68.4 79.1 91.3 17.5 183.8 45.0 10.0

.. .. ..

1 2 Rate per 1,000 workers. Includes 1,023 average annual homicide victims. victims. 4 Includes other occupations, not shown separately.

Ethnicity was unknown for 1.3% of

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Workplace Violence, 1992-96.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

451

No. 716. Fatal Occupational Injuries, by Industry and Event: 1997
[For the 50 states and DC. Based on the 1997 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Due to methodological differences, data differ from those in Table 711. For details, see source] 1987 SIC 1 code Event or exposure—Percent distribution Transpor- Assaults/ tation violent Fatalacts ities 2 incidents 6,218 5,594 830 158 32 85 1,107 194 252 648 743 78 199 1,002 106 569 83 89 241 665 189 115 150 97 722 181 109 624 42 40 49 30 19 27 26 24 44 19 30 41 25 69 26 81 88 34 51 19 9 27 10 38 41 42 33 57 18 18 7 3 5 2 9 10 13 74 5 6 12 64 82 49 78 36 27 24 25 19 Contact with objects 3 17 18 25 39 63 28 18 14 27 16 40 26 67 7 7 15 18 5 9 4 12 11 26 6 Exposure 4 9 9 9 9 13 8 17 15 15 18 8 12 3 6 2 30 7 5 2 7 5 4 8 11 7 9

Industry

Falls 12 12 8 9 14 34 40 10 42 7 10 4 4 4 5 7 5 4 5 17 9 10 5

Rate

5

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) Private industry . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, fishing . . . . . . . Mining 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and gas extraction . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General building contractors . . . . . Heavy construction, except building Special trade contractors . . . . . . . Manufacturing 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and kindred products . . . . . . Lumber and wood products . . . . . Transportation and public utilities 6 . . Local passenger transit . . . . . . . . Trucking and warehousing . . . . . . Transportation by air . . . . . . . . . . Electric, gas, sanitary services. . . . Wholesale trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automotive dealer and service stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eating and drinking places . . . . . . Finance, insurance, real estate . . . . . Services 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business services . . . . . . . . . . . . Auto repair, services, and parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (X) A B 12 13 C 15 16 17 D 20 24 E 41 42 45 49 F G 54 55 58 H I 73 75

5 5 23 25 23 14 4 5 24 13 19 22 10 8 5 3 5 5 2 1 2 3 7 3

Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J

- No data reported or data do not meet publication standards. X Not applicable. 1 1987 Standard Industrial Classification code, see text Section 17, Business. 2 Includes 29 fatalities for which there was insufficient information to determine industry 3 classification. Includes fatalities caused by other events and exposures, not shown separately. Includes equipment. 4 Exposure to harmful substances or environments. 5 Rate per 100,000 employed civilians 16 years old and over. 6 Includes other industries, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, USDL News, 98-336, August 12, 1998; and unpublished data.

No. 717. Work Stoppages: 1960 to 1998
[Excludes work stoppages involving fewer than 1,000 workers and lasting less than 1 day. Information is based on reports of labor disputes appearing in daily newspapers, trade journals, and other public sources. The parties to the disputes are contacted by telephone, when necessary, to clarify details of the stoppages] Days idle Year Workers Number of work stop- involved 2 (1,000) pages 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 268 412 381 298 250 317 424 235 231 298 219 235 187 145 96 896 999 1,576 2,468 2,516 975 1,400 1,796 965 1,519 1,212 1,006 1,021 795 729 656 Percent estimated Number 3 working (1,000) time 4 13,260 15,140 29,397 52,761 35,538 16,764 16,260 31,809 17,563 23,962 21,258 23,774 20,409 20,844 16,908 9,061 0.09 0.10 0.16 0.29 0.19 0.09 0.08 0.16 0.09 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.04 Year Workers Number of work stop- involved 2 (1,000) pages 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 62 54 69 46 40 51 44 40 35 35 45 31 37 29 34 909 376 324 533 174 118 452 185 392 364 182 322 192 273 339 387 Days idle Percent estimated working time 4 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02

Number 3 (1,000) 17,461 8,499 7,079 11,861 5 4,481
5 4,381 16,996 5,926 4,584 3,989

1960 . 1965 . 1969 . 1970 . 1971 . 1972 . 1973 . 1974 . 1975 . 1976 . 1977 . 1978 . 1979 . 1980 . 1981 . 1982 .
3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1983 . 1984 . 1985 . 1986 . 1987 . 1988 . 1989 . 1990 . 1991 . 1992 . 1993 . 1994 . 1995 . 1996 . 1997 . 1998 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,981 5,020 5,771 4,887 4,497 5,116

1 Beginning in year indicated. 2 Workers counted more than once if involved in more than one stoppage during the year. Resulting from all stoppages in effect in a year, including those that began in an earlier year. 4 Agricultural and government employees are included in the total working time; private household and forestry and fishery employees are excluded. 5 Revised since originally published.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Compensation and Working Conditions, monthly through 1995, thereafter quarterly.

452

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 718. Labor Union Membership, by Sector: 1983 to 1998
[See headnote, Table 720. 17,717.4 represents 17,717,400] Sector TOTAL (1,000) Wage and salary workers: Union members . . . . . Covered by unions . . . Public sector workers: Union members. . . . Covered by unions. . 1983 1985 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

. . . . . . 17,717.4 16,996.1 16,739.8 16,598.1 16,740.3 16,359.6 16,269.4 16,109.9 16,211.4 . . . . . . 20,532.1 19,358.1 19,057.8 18,646.4 18,842.5 18,346.3 18,158.1 17,923.0 17,918.3 ...... ...... 5,737.2 7,112.2 5,743.1 6,920.6 6,485.0 7,691.4 7,017.8 8,162.4 7,091.0 8,191.8 6,927.4 7,986.6 6,854.4 7,829.7 6,746.7 7,668.0 6,905.3 7,814.7

Private sector workers: Union members. . . . . . . . . . 11,980.2 11,253.0 10,254.8 9,580.3 9,649.4 9,432.1 9,415.0 9,363.3 9,306.1 Covered by unions. . . . . . . . 13,419.9 12,437.5 11,366.4 10,484.0 10,650.6 10,359.8 10,328.4 10,255.0 10,103.6 PERCENT Wage and salary workers: Union members . . . . . Covered by unions . . . Public sector workers: Union members. . . . Covered by unions. . Private sector workers: Union members. . . . Covered by unions. .

...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

20.1 23.3 36.7 45.5 16.5 18.5

18.0 20.5 35.7 43.1 14.3 15.9

16.1 18.3 36.5 43.3 11.9 13.2

15.8 17.7 37.7 43.8 11.1 12.1

15.5 17.4 38.7 44.7 10.8 11.9

14.9 16.7 37.7 43.5 10.3 11.3

14.5 16.2 37.6 43.0 10.0 11.0

14.1 15.6 37.2 42.3 9.7 10.6

13.9 15.4 37.5 42.5 9.5 10.3

Source: The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC, Union Membership and Earnings Data Book: Compilations from the Current Population Survey (1999 edition), (copyright by BNA PLUS); authored by Barry Hirsch and David Macpherson of Florida State University. Internet site <http://www.bna.com/bnaplus/databook.html>.

No. 719. Union Members, by Selected Characteristics: 1998
[Annual averages of monthly data (116,730 represents 116,730,000). Covers employed wage and salary workers 16 years old and over. Excludes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated although they technically qualify as wage and salary workers. Based on Current Population Survey, see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Employed wage and salary workers Characteristic Total (1,000) Total 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-time workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part-time workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managerial and professional specialty . . . Technical sales, and admin. support . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision, production, craft, and repair . . . Operators, fabricators, and laborers . . . . . Farming, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . . Agricultural wage and salary workers . . . . Private nonagri. wage and salary workers . Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and public utilities . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade, total. . . . . . Finance, insurance, and real estate . . . Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116,730 19,164 29,121 31,865 23,579 10,427 2,574 60,973 55,757 97,531 51,700 45,831 13,894 6,452 7,443 12,374 7,360 5,015 95,595 20,862 33,102 35,379 16,594 12,274 17,443 1,938 1,739 96,590 589 5,946 19,763 7,147 24,230 7,420 31,493 18,401 Percent Union Repremem- sented by bers 1 unions 2 13.9 5.3 11.4 15.7 20.1 18.4 7.5 16.2 11.4 13.5 15.8 10.8 17.7 20.7 15.1 11.9 12.7 10.6 15.5 6.5 12.8 9.2 13.3 22.1 21.3 4.6 1.5 9.6 12.2 17.8 15.8 25.8 5.3 2.0 5.6 37.5 15.4 6.0 12.7 17.3 22.1 20.2 8.3 17.4 13.1 14.8 17.0 12.4 19.7 22.6 17.2 13.2 13.8 12.3 17.1 7.5 15.2 10.4 14.5 23.1 22.3 5.2 1.8 10.4 13.4 18.4 16.8 27.0 5.7 2.6 6.6 42.5 RepreUnion mem- sented by unions 2 bers 1 659 415 595 683 716 697 610 699 596 683 719 610 578 597 537 540 585 478 659 (X) 789 575 557 753 585 471 (B) 626 733 790 606 731 480 545 540 694 653 410 591 678 712 692 597 696 593 678 716 607 572 592 533 541 584 481 653 (X) 774 569 542 747 580 462 (B) 620 723 783 603 724 476 554 548 688 Not represented by unions 499 315 489 576 592 560 383 573 430 513 591 443 398 424 376 350 367 322 499 (X) 756 463 305 514 381 299 314 496 673 496 532 586 405 578 494 558 Median usual weekly earnings
3

(dol.)

Total 523 319 502 597 620 592 405 598 456 545 615 468 426 468 400 370 390 337 523 (X) 759 477 327 572 415 302 315 509 684 534 551 624 410 577 498 620

1 B Data not shown where base is less than 50,000. X Not applicable. Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a labor union. 2 Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union as well as workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract. 3 For full-time employed wage and salary workers. 4 Includes races not shown separately. Also includes a small number of multiple jobholders whose full- part- time status can not be determined for their principal job. 5 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, January 1999 issue.

Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

453

No. 720. Labor Union Membership, by State: 1983 and 1998
[Annual averages of monthly figures (17,717.4 represents 17,717,400). For wage and salary workers in agriculture and non-agriculture. Data represent union members by place of residence. Based on the Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error. For methodological details, see source] Percent of workers— State Union members (1,000) Workers covered by unions (1,000) 1983 1998 Union members 1983 20.1 16.9 24.9 11.4 11.0 21.9 13.6 22.7 20.1 19.5 10.2 11.9 29.2 12.5 24.2 24.9 17.2 13.7 17.9 13.8 21.0 18.5 23.7 30.4 23.2 9.9 20.8 18.3 13.6 22.4 11.5 26.9 11.8 32.5 7.6 13.2 25.1 11.5 22.3 27.5 21.5 5.9 11.5 15.1 9.7 15.2 12.6 11.7 27.1 25.3 23.8 13.9 1998 13.9 9.7 20.4 6.5 6.2 16.1 9.1 17.5 13.6 13.5 6.7 7.4 26.5 7.8 18.9 16.2 12.5 7.9 13.1 7.8 12.6 14.1 15.9 21.6 18.8 5.6 13.7 13.9 10.3 17.0 11.0 22.0 9.4 25.4 4.2 9.1 19.0 8.6 16.1 16.3 19.0 4.5 6.4 7.9 5.9 6.8 9.4 6.8 21.2 12.6 18.7 9.6 Covered by unions 1983 23.3 19.8 29.3 14.3 13.8 25.9 16.0 25.0 22.1 25.9 13.8 15.3 32.4 16.2 27.4 27.0 21.5 18.7 20.8 18.1 24.0 22.6 26.0 32.8 25.9 12.5 23.2 20.5 16.0 26.6 14.4 30.0 15.8 36.0 10.2 16.3 27.9 14.7 26.2 31.1 23.5 8.6 14.9 18.0 11.9 18.9 15.3 15.1 32.3 28.5 26.9 16.2 1998 15.4 11.8 22.9 7.7 7.3 18.1 10.0 18.1 14.7 15.3 8.9 8.4 27.7 10.3 20.0 17.7 14.8 9.7 14.8 10.0 14.3 16.1 17.4 22.6 19.8 9.7 15.1 15.3 13.8 18.9 12.6 23.7 11.7 26.7 5.2 9.6 20.2 9.8 17.3 17.7 19.6 5.1 8.0 9.5 7.0 8.6 11.0 7.6 23.0 13.8 19.6 11.3 Private manufacturing sector union members 1983 27.8 25.9 23.3 7.8 18.7 21.0 13.1 28.1 27.3 17.6 11.3 16.9 35.6 19.0 32.4 48.7 40.3 25.5 37.4 24.9 24.8 29.2 26.7 46.2 22.3 18.9 36.6 33.0 19.1 10.8 10.6 31.4 11.9 31.0 6.9 27.4 40.9 25.2 28.7 42.3 16.9 5.5 19.0 21.4 16.1 14.9 13.5 21.2 35.5 41.3 36.0 14.6 1998 15.8 13.8 2.7 4.2 9.3 9.2 8.6 16.5 20.0 18.9 5.4 7.2 26.2 10.2 21.8 25.7 20.4 17.1 20.4 22.8 24.2 17.3 14.0 32.2 14.2 8.5 18.4 16.4 15.3 2.8 7.5 21.1 6.0 19.5 2.9 12.9 26.9 16.3 12.2 20.0 10.8 6.2 7.5 11.5 7.5 5.5 5.8 9.9 25.6 25.8 22.5 14.5

1983

1998

United States. . 17,717.4 16,211.4 20,532.1 17,918.3 Alabama 1. Alaska . . . Arizona 1 . Arkansas 1 California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228.2 41.7 125.0 82.2 2,118.9 177.9 314.0 49.2 52.4 393.7 267.0 112.6 41.3 1,063.8 503.3 185.9 125.2 223.7 204.2 88.0 346.5 603.2 1,005.4 393.9 79.4 374.4 49.5 80.6 90.0 48.5 822.1 52.6 2,155.6 178.7 28.4 1,011.0 131.5 222.9 1,195.7 85.8 69.6 26.8 252.4 583.7 81.6 25.9 268.3 419.9 142.7 465.5 27.1 180.2 51.5 123.2 61.1 2,154.0 171.4 262.6 46.3 30.1 407.8 256.8 130.2 42.1 1,004.4 431.3 166.4 92.7 218.9 134.5 66.1 331.3 453.1 953.8 421.6 61.2 336.0 48.8 77.2 133.8 61.7 792.9 63.2 1,899.8 139.8 25.5 932.0 116.6 231.9 827.3 81.1 78.1 20.8 183.3 503.1 61.6 25.3 208.7 537.3 83.3 470.0 19.7 268.2 49.2 156.4 103.2 2,505.2 209.6 345.1 54.1 69.4 532.9 345.1 124.9 53.7 1,205.1 544.5 231.3 170.4 259.8 267.8 100.4 423.1 661.4 1,084.6 439.4 99.7 416.7 55.5 94.8 106.7 60.8 918.2 70.6 2,385.9 238.1 35.1 1,125.0 168.2 261.9 1,350.0 93.7 100.6 34.8 300.9 712.8 100.9 31.5 346.1 499.7 160.6 526.7 31.8 218.4 57.8 146.2 72.1 2,407.6 189.4 271.9 50.2 34.0 538.4 289.0 136.4 55.6 1,064.2 471.6 197.0 114.0 248.1 172.1 75.1 378.9 493.7 995.8 443.3 105.6 369.5 53.5 104.0 148.8 70.5 851.0 78.5 1,994.8 173.1 26.9 991.8 132.8 248.0 896.0 83.6 87.7 26.0 220.2 603.4 78.3 29.4 232.9 584.8 91.6 491.7 23.1

Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida 1 . . . . . . . . Georgia 1 Hawaii . . Idaho 1 . . Illinois . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Iowa 1 . . . Kansas 1 . Kentucky . Louisiana 1 Maine. . . .

Maryland . . . . Massachusetts. Michigan. . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi 1 . .

Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska 1 . . . . Nevada 1 . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina 1 . North Dakota 1. . Ohio . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . Oregon. . . . . Pennsylvania . Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . .

South Carolina 1 South Dakota 1 . Tennessee 1 . . . Texas 1. . . . . . . Utah 1 . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia 1 . . . Washington . . West Virginia . Wisconsin . . . Wyoming 1 . .
1

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

Right to work state.

Source: The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC, Union Membership and Earnings Data Book: Compilations from the Current Population Survey, (1999 edition) (copyright by BNA PLUS); authored by Barry Hirsch and David Macpherson of Florida State University. Internet site <http://www.bna.com/bnaplus/databook.html>

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Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999