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471 - 516 by USCensus

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									Section 9

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
This section presents data on revenues, expenditures, debt, and employment of State and local governments. Nationwide statistics relating to State and local governments, their numbers, finances, and employment, are compiled primarily by the Bureau of the Census through a program of censuses and surveys. Every fifth year (for years ending in “2” and “7”) the Bureau conducts a Census of Governments involving collection of data for all governmental units in the United States. In addition, the Bureau conducts annual surveys which cover all the State governments and a sample of local governments. Publications issued annually by the Bureau of the Census include a report on finances which presents figures for the Federal Government, nationwide totals for State and local governments by type, and State-local data by States. Also issued annually is a series of publications on State, city, county, and school finances, and on city, county, and other public employment. Financial data are published in the GF publication series, employment data in the GE series. There is also a series of quarterly reports covering tax revenue and finances of major public employee retirement systems. Basic information for Census Bureau statistics on governments is obtained by mail canvass from State and local officials; however, financial data for each of the State governments and for many of the large local governments are compiled from their official records and reports by Census Bureau personnel. In over two thirds of the States, all or part of local government financial data are obtained through central collection arrangements with State governments. Financial data on the Federal Government is primarily based on the Budget published by the Office of Management and Budget (see text, Section 10). Governmental units.—The governmental structure of the United States includes, in addition to the Federal Government and the States, thousands of

In Brief
State government revenue (from own sources) in 1992: $574,330 million Taxes Insurance trust funds Charges Interest earnings Utility and liquor stores State government direct expenditures in 1992: $498,640 million Public welfare Education Insurance trust funds Health and hospitals

57% 23% 9% 5% 1%

25% 17% 16% 8%

local governments—counties, municipalities, townships, school districts, and numerous kinds of “special districts.” In 1992, 86,743 local governments were identified by the Census of Governments. As defined by the census, governmental units include all agencies or bodies having an organized existence, governmental character, and substantial autonomy. While most of these governments can impose taxes, many of the special districts—such as independent public housing authorities, and numerous local irrigation, power, and other types of districts—are financed from rentals, charges for services, benefit assessments, grants from other governments, and other nontax sources. The count of governments excludes semi-autonomous agencies through which States, cities, and counties sometimes provide for certain functions—for example, “dependent” school systems, State institutions of higher education, and certain other “authorities” and special agencies which are under the administrative or fiscal control of an established governmental unit. Finances.—The financial statistics relate to government fiscal years ending June 30, or at some date within the 12 previous months. The following governments are

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State and Local Government Finances and Employment
the separate school districts which administer public schools within most municipal areas. Variations in the assignment of governmental responsibility for public assistance, health, hospitals, public housing, and other functions to a lesser degree also have an important effect upon reported amounts of city expenditure, revenue, and debt. Therefore, any intercity comparisons based upon these figures should be made with caution and with due recognition of variations that exist among urban areas in the relative role of the municipal corporation. Employment and payrolls.—These data are based mainly on mail canvassing of State and local governments. Payroll includes all salaries, wages, and individual fee payments for the month specified, and employment relates to all persons on governmental payrolls during a pay period of the month covered—including paid officials, temporary help, and (unless otherwise specified) parttime as well as full-time personnel. Beginning 1986, statistics for full-time equivalent employment have been computed with a formula using hours worked by part-time employees. A payroll based formula was used prior to 1985. Full-time equivalent employment statistics were not computed for 1985. Figures shown for individual governments cover major dependent agencies such as institutions of higher education, as well as the basic central departments and agencies of the government. Statistical reliability.—For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III. Historical statistics.—Tabular headnotes provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. See Appendix IV.

exceptions and are included as though they were part of the June 30 group; ending September 30, the State governments of Alabama and Michigan, The District of Columbia, and Alabama school districts; and ending August 31, the State government of Texas and Texas school districts. New York State ends its fiscal year on March 31. The Federal Government ended the fiscal year June 30 until 1976 when its fiscal year, by an act of Congress, was revised to extend from Oct. 1 to Sept. 30. A 3-month quarter (July 1 to Sept. 30, 1976) bridged the transition. Nationwide government finance statistics have been classified and presented in terms of uniform concepts and categories, rather than according to the highly diverse terminology, organization, and fund structure utilized by individual governments. Accordingly, financial statistics which appear here for the Federal Government and for individual States or local governments have been standardized and may not agree directly with figures appearing in the original sources. Statistics on governmental finances distinguish among general government, utilities, liquor stores, and insurance trusts. General government comprises all activities except utilities, liquor stores, and insurance trusts. Utilities include government water supply, electric light and power, gas supply, and transit systems. Liquor stores are operated by 17 States and by local governments in 6 States. Insurance trusts relate to employee retirement, unemployment compensation, and other social insurance systems administered by the Federal, State, and local governments. Data for cities relate only to municipal corporations and their dependent agencies and do not include amounts for other local governments overlying city areas. Therefore, expenditure figures for “education” do not include spending by

Government Units
No. 471. Number of Governmental Units, by Type: 1942 to 1992
TYPE OF GOVERNMENT Total . . . . . . . . U.S. Government . . . . State government . . . Local governments. . . County . . . . . . . . . Municipal . . . . . . . Township and town . School district . . . . Special district . . . .
1

297

1942 . . . . . . . . .

1952

1

1957

1

1962 91,237 1 50 91,186 3,043 18,000 17,142 34,678 18,323

1967 81,299 1 50 81,248 3,049 18,048 17,105 21,782 21,264

1972 78,269 1 50 78,218 3,044 18,517 16,991 15,781 23,885

1977 79,913 1 50 79,862 3,042 18,862 16,822 15,174 25,962

1982 81,831 1 50 81,780 3,041 19,076 16,734 14,851 28,078

1987 83,237 1 50 83,186 3,042 19,200 16,691 14,721 29,532

1992 86,743 1 50 86,692 3,043 19,296 16,666 14,556 33,131

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. 155,116 116,807 102,392 . 1 1 1 . 48 50 50 . 155,067 116,756 102,341 . 3,050 3,052 3,050 . 16,220 16,807 17,215 . 18,919 17,202 17,198 . 108,579 67,355 50,454 . 8,299 12,340 14,424

Adjusted to include units in Alaska and Hawaii which adopted statehood in 1959.

No. 472. Number of Local Governments, by Type—States: 1992
[Governments in existence in January. Limited to governments actually in existence. Excludes, therefore, a few counties and numerous townships and ‘‘incorporated places’’ existing as areas for which statistics can be presented as to population and other subjects, but lacking any separate organized county, township, or municipal government] SPECIAL DISTRICT STATE All governmental units 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86,743 1,134 176 598 1,473 4,495 1,826 575 281 2 1,041 1,321 21 1,105 6,810 2,976 1,904 3,918 1,345 461 799 416 851 2,727 3,616 898 3,368 1,305 2,997 212 531 1,625 494 3,319 954 2,795 3,534 1,822 1,487 5,397 128 705 1,803 960 4,919 635 690 461 1,796 708 2,752 576 County
2

Municipal 2

Township 2

School district

Total

3

Natural Fire resources protection 6,564 68 71 230 489 170 1 192 136 38 16 170 928 132 242 261 128 2 13 165 14 82 111 256 175 129 96 33 10 17 220 2 150 79 98 102 202 10 3 48 109 117 432 77 14 44 160 15 179 128 5,354 4 130 48 395 247 59 60 6 130 813 1 72 93 15 2 208 150 422 14 16 171 909 277 41 18 268 1 38 85 51 96 20 22 410 62

Housing and community development 3,663 153 13 130 92 96 95 4 107 207 13 117 62 19 207 24 1 27 21 255 172 57 159 18 137 17 23 83 5 104 38 59 124 22 88 26 46 42 96 402 18 9 51 36 188 -

United States Alabama . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . California . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . Connecticut . . . . Delaware . . . . . Dist. of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . Kansas. . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . Maine. . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . Massachusetts. . Michigan. . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . Mississippi . . . . Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina . . North Dakota . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . Oregon. . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . Rhode Island . . . South Carolina. . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . . Washington . . . . West Virginia . . . Wisconsin . . . . . Wyoming . . . . .

3,043 67 12 15 75 57 62 3 66 157 3 44 102 91 99 105 119 61 16 23 12 83 87 82 114 54 93 16 10 21 33 57 100 53 88 77 36 66 46 64 93 254 29 14 95 39 55 72 23

19,296 440 149 86 489 460 266 30 57 1 390 536 1 199 1,282 566 953 627 438 301 22 155 39 534 854 294 933 128 534 18 13 320 99 620 518 366 942 589 240 1,022 8 270 310 339 1,171 228 50 230 268 231 583 97

16,666 149 1,433 1,008 1,355 468 312 1,242 1,804 324 452 221 247 929 1,351 1,317 1,548 31 971 237 1,267 -

14,556 129 228 324 1,080 180 17 19 95 185 116 997 310 445 324 177 66 88 86 587 477 176 553 544 842 17 168 550 94 714 284 665 614 340 516 4 91 184 14 1,101 40 278 296 55 430 56

33,131 497 14 268 584 2,897 1,317 378 201 1 489 442 16 745 2,995 1,000 406 1,506 610 32 204 237 401 280 393 345 1,443 578 1,075 160 118 486 267 998 335 740 521 541 870 2,244 84 297 273 513 2,392 337 110 135 1,192 366 399 399

- Represents zero. 1 Includes the Federal Government and the 50 State governments not shown separately. 2 Includes ‘‘town’’ governments in the six New England States and in Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin. 3 Includes other special districts not shown separately. Source of tables 471 and 472: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1992 Census of Governments, Government Organization.

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No. 473. County, Municipal, and Township Governments: 1992

[Number of governments as of January 1992. Population enumerated as of April 1, 1990. Consolidated city-county governments are classified as municipal rather than county governments. Township governments include “towns” in the six New England States, Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin] COUNTY GOVERNMENTS POPULATION-SIZE GROUP Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200,000 or more . . . . . . . 100,000 to 199,999 . . . . . 50,000 to 99,999 . . . . . . . 25,000 to 49,999 . . . . . . . 10,000 to 24,999 . . . . . . . 5,000 to 9,999 . . . . . . . . . 2,500 to 4,999 . . . . . . . . . 1,000 to 2,499 . . . . . . . . . Less than 1,000 . . . . . . . . Population, 1990 Number, 1992 Number (1,000) Percent 100 154 217 12 10 7 32 (NA) (NA) (NA) Number, 1992 19,279 76 119 310 566 1,290 1,566 2,036 3,670 9,646 MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS Population, 1990 Number (1,000) 153,819 47,809 16,390 21,282 19,877 20,324 11,135 7,238 5,894 3,874 Percent 100 31 11 14 13 13 7 5 4 3 Number, 1992 16,656 6 27 77 249 728 1,019 1,800 3,626 9,124 TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENTS Population, 1990 Number (1,000) 53,051 2,140 3,554 5,214 8,461 11,225 7,112 6,301 5,796 3,251 Percent 100 4 7 10 16 21 13 12 11 6

3,043 224,924 1174 1120,551 2244 237,336 377 26,555 612 21,510 908 14,851 3728 34,121 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

NA Not available. 1 For population-size group of 250,000 or more. 2 100,000 to 249,999. 3 Less than 10,000. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Governments: 1992, vol. 1, No. 1, Government Organization.

Figure 9.1

State Lottery Proceeds: 1980 to 1994
1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1985 1980 0 2 4 6 Billions of dollars Percent distribution of 1993 State lottery proceeds ($9 billion) Other 7% Senior citizen programs 7% Cities 7% 8 10

General fund 27%

Education 53%
Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Bureau of the Census. For data, see table 496.

Government Finances
No. 474. All Governments—Revenue, Expenditure, and Debt: 1980 to 1992

299

[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Local government amounts are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series Y 505-637 and Y 652-848] All FEDERAL 1 governments Total Percent (bil. dol.) (bil. dol.) of total
4 4 2,047 4 2,124 4

STATE AND LOCAL (bil. dol.) Total
4 4 1,032 4 1,081 4

PER CAPITA 2 (dollars) Total
4 4,115 4 8,230 4 8,425 4

ITEM

State 277 632 660 744 64 126 170 170 169 391 408 436 137 300 311 328 3 6 6 7 37 96 99 105 13 22 20 22 68 147 154 163 32 91 98 108 258 572 629 700 85 175 187 201 173 397 442 499 108 258 287 322 23 46 48 50 122 318 346 372

Local 258 580 612 648 102 191 216 216 130 322 340 357 86 201 215 227 66 150 162 172 5 10 10 11 2 2 2 12 31 32 33 44 120 125 130 261 581 632 655 2 6 5 7 259 575 618 648 200 442 475 501 40 78 84 84 214 542 570 599

Federal 2,496 4,642 4,762 4,938 8 12 14 13 1,842 3,138 3,209 3,338 1,548 2,542 2,546 2,584 (X) (X) (X) (X) 1,077 1,877 1,855 1,868 285 376 389 393
5 141 5 217 5 232 5

State and local 1,993 4,150 4,287 4,647 366 550 611 703 1,321 2,866 2,967 3,111 986 2,017 2,084 2,179 302 626 666 700 186 425 434 452 59 95 88 93 353 715 736 769 335 849 883 932 1,916 3,924 5,002 5,313 8 13 14 14 1,908 3,911 4,203 4,496 1,359 2,815 3,022 3,229 278 495 522 527 1,486 3,460 3,632 3,804

Revenue: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intergovernmental: 1980 . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General, own sources: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes: 3 1980 . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property: 1980 . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . Individual income: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . Corporate income: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . Sales or gross receipts: 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . Current charges and miscellaneous: 1980 . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expenditures: 3 1980 . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intergovernmental: 1980 . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Direct: 3 1980 . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current operation: 1980 . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital outlay: 1980. . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Debt outstanding: 6 1980. . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

932

2,262 (X) (X) (X) (X)

565 1,155 1,201 1,259 2 3 3 3 417 780 809 851 351 632 642 659 (X) (X) (X) (X) 244 467 468 476 65 94 98 100
5 32 5 54 5 58 5

60.7 56.4 56.5 47.2 (X) (X) (X) (X) 58.2 52.2 52.0 51.8 61.1 55.7 55.0 54.3 (X) (X) (X) (X) 85.3 81.6 81.1 80.5 82.9 80.3 81.5 81.0 28.6 23.3 24.0 24.7 46.7 41.3 42.9 44.7 64.4 62.8 62.2 61.4 (X) (X) (X) (X) 54.9 56.2 55.5 53.9 40.5 41.2 40.6 37.7 36.7 44.3 42.1 40.9 73.2 79.2 80.1 80.8

452

1,185 4 83 4 137 4 154 4 179 299 713 748 793 223 502 525 556 68 156 168 179 42 106 109 115 13 24 22 24 80 178 186 196

8,869 (X) (X) (X) (X)

717 1,493 1,557 1,645 574 1,134 1,167 1,215 68 156 168 179 286 573 577 592 78 117 120 124 112 232 244 260 142 359 390 430 4 959 4 2,219 4 2,577 4 2,488 (X) (X) (X) (X) 959 2,219 2,379 2,488 2,577 1,190 1,283 1,324 99 221 227 228 1,250 4,127 4,599 5,054

3,163 6,004 6,176 6,449 2,535 4,559 4,630 4,763 302 626 666 700 1,263 2,302 2,289 2,320 344 471 477 486 494 932 968 1,021 629 1,445 1,547 1,687 4 4,232 4 8,921 4 10,222 4 9,755 (X) (X) (X) (X) 4,232 8,921 9,436 9,755 11,376 4,785 5,087 5,191 439 888 901 893 5,517 16,592 18,240 19,817

64

252

67 148 167 192 617 1,393 1,480 1,527 91 147 160 186 526 1,246 1,319 1,341 209 490 522 500 36 98 96 93 914 3,266 3,683 4,083

76 211 223 238 4 434 4 976 4 1,261 4 1,355 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 432 973 1,060 1,147 308 700 762 823 63 123 132 135 337 861 916 970

294 596 663 754 2,724 5,601 5,868 5,989 401 591 635 729 2,323 5,010 5,233 5,259 923 1,970 2,069 1,962 161 394 379 365 4,036 13,132 14,608 16,010

1 Data adjusted to system for reporting State and local data and - Represents or rounds to zero. X Not applicable. therefore differ from figures in section 10 tables. 2 1980 and 1990 based on enumerated resident population as of April 1; all other years based on estimated resident population as of July 1. 3 Includes amounts not shown separately. 4 Excludes duplicative transactions between levels of government; see source. 5 Includes customs. 6 End of fiscal year.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Government Finances, series GF, No. 5, annual.

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No. 475. All Governments—Detailed Finances: 1992

[For fiscal year ending in year shown, see text, section 9. Local government amounts are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series Y 505-637 and Y 652-848] PER CAPITA 1 (dol.) Federal 4,938 13 4,925 3,338 2,584 (X) 1,868 393 252 69 (X) 184 78 31 20 31 (X) 44 754 351 34 177 59 (Z) (X) (Z) 11 (Z) 5 (X) 15 41 (X) 1,586 5,989 729 5,259 3,476 105 187 120 3 26 (X) 9 202 (X) 61 66 8 783 (X) 1,783 1,962 365 43 322 379 783 1,783 633 State and local 5,459 1,514 3,944 3,111 2,179 700 452 93 769 (X) 513 256 90 15 25 53 49 18 932 537 153 15 126 7 148 12 15 12 23 6 1 3 217 245 588 5,314 818 4,496 3,811 1,281 898 331 605 345 261 135 56 112 48 127 67 197 62 217 331 354 3,229 528 348 119 130 254 354 1,485

ITEM

All governments (mil. dol.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,261,849 (2) 2,261,849 1,644,789 1,214,651 178,536 591,636 123,865 260,394 17,480 130,830 112,084 42,809 11,787 11,500 21,338 12,601 15,629 430,138 226,382 8,677 45,158 39,102 3,737 32,027 16,970 37,876 3,115 3,899 5,749 5,888 2,889 368 4,445 65,746 62,431 554,629 2,487,885 (2) 2,487,885 1,858,519 353,591 228,917 84,328 201,956 118,791 67,290 41,248 14,358 31,017 63,650 32,398 32,549 67,180 17,712 254,968 84,361 545,006 1,323,835 227,807 99,797 112,433 129,852 264,611 545,006 540,355

Federal (mil. dol.)

State (mil. dol.)

Local (mil. dol.)

Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intergovernmental revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . Revenue from own sources. . . . . . . . . . . . General revenue from own sources . . . . . Taxes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Individual income . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporation income . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and gross receipts . . . . . . . . Customs duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selective 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcoholic beverages . . . . . . . . Tobacco products . . . . . . . . . . Public utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle and operators’ licenses Death and gift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charges and miscellaneous 3 . . . . . . . Current charges 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . National defense and international relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postal service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . School lunch sales . . . . . . . . . Higher education . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources . . . . . . . . . . . Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sewerage and sanitation . . . . . . . Parks and recreation . . . . . . . . . Housing and community development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water transport and terminals . . . Special assessments . . . . . . . . . . . Sale of property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility and liquor store revenue . . . . . . . . Insurance trust revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . Expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intergovernmental expenditure . . . . . . . . . . Direct expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General expenditure 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary and secondary education Higher education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Police protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sewerage and sanitation . . . . . . . . . . Housing and community development . Governmental administration . . . . . . . Parks and recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest on general debt . . . . . . . . . . . Utility and liquor store expenditure . . . . . Insurance trust expenditure . . . . . . . . . . By character and object: Current operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital outlay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equip., land, and existing structures . Assistance and subsidies . . . . . . . . . . Interest on debt (general and utility) . . . Insurance benefits and repayments . . . Expenditure for salaries and wages 4 . . . . .

1,259,383 3,431 1,255,952 851,390 659,041 (X) 476,465 100,270 64,282 17,480 (X) 46,802 19,865 7,907 5,190 7,851 (X) 11,143 192,349 89,482 8,677 45,158 15,148 124 (X) 110 2,708 21 1,265 (X) 3,723 10,397 (X) 404,562 1,527,311 186,036 1,341,275 886,545 26,821 47,722 30,679 813 6,703 (X) 2,411 51,501 (X) 15,482 16,845 1,984 199,713 (X) 454,730 500,341 93,095 10,920 82,175 96,622 199,713 454,730 161,551

744,232 169,902 574,330 435,980 328,370 6,673 104,609 21,566 162,721 (X) 107,757 54,964 22,250 3,599 6,119 7,762 11,771 4,456 107,610 52,941 (X) (X) 28,901 28,434 1,396 12,729 287 788 213 650 393 127 183 26,603 6,579 131,771 699,954 201,314 498,640 409,132 86,650 2,221 70,904 125,500 41,643 40,266 4,863 (X) 18,306 9,022 2,235 1,606 19,847 2,688 24,622 9,613 79,895 322,353 50,126 39,001 11,125 20,784 25,482 79,895 112,685

647,872 216,305 431,567 357,419 227,240 171,863 10,562 2,029 33,391 (X) 23,073 10,318 694 281 191 5,725 830 30 130,179 83,959 (X) (X) 10,201 3,737 3,593 426 25,023 2,828 3,001 2,828 5,217 1,231 241 539 28,746 55,852 18,296 655,325 7,355 647,970 562,842 240,120 226,696 13,424 28,734 46,469 26,211 29,682 14,358 10,300 3,127 30,163 15,461 30,488 13,040 30,633 74,748 10,381 501,141 84,586 49,876 19,133 12,446 39,416 10,381 266,119

- Represents or rounds to zero. X Not applicable. Z Less than 50 cents. 1 Based on estimated resident population as of July 1. See table 2. 2 Aggregates exclude duplicative transactions between levels of government; see source. 3 Includes amounts not shown separately. 4 Included in items shown above. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Government Finances, series GF, No. 5, annual.

Capital Outlays—Infrastructure Spending
No. 476. All Governments—Capital Outlays: 1970 to 1992

301

[In millions of dollars, except percent. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Except for 1987, local government amounts are subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series Y 523-524, Y 673-674, Y 740-741, and Y 787-788] LEVEL AND FUNCTION Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Government: Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual percent change 1 . . . Percent of direct expenditure By function: National defense 2 . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . Natural resources . . . . . . . . Housing 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air transportation . . . . . . . . Water transportation 4 . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State and local governments: Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual percent change 1 . . . Percent of direct expenditure By function: Education 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . Higher education. . . . . . . Elementary and secondary Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . Natural resources . . . . . . . . Housing 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air transportation . . . . . . . . Water transportation 4 . . . . . Sewerage . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parks and recreation . . . . . . Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transit . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 47,519 17,869 -6 10 14,027 9 9 166 1,691 853 234 285 595 29,650 5 20 7,621 2,705 4,658 10,762 790 789 1,319 691 258 1,385 684 2,437 1,201 820 366 50 2,915 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

99,386 156,912 176,096 195,713 197,844 211,734 220,960 227,225 227,616 36,492 11 7 28,161 97 132 673 4,046 317 151 1,003 1,912 62,894 7 15 10,737 2,972 7,362 19,133 2,443 1,052 2,248 1,391 623 6,272 2,023 9,933 3,335 4,572 1,921 105 7,039 77,014 6 8 64,154 39 121 916 4,092 1,935 785 583 4,389 79,898 13 12 13,477 4,629 8,358 23,900 2,709 1,736 3,217 1,875 717 5,926 2,196 13,435 4,160 5,247 3,830 198 10,711 85,647 11 9 71,995 5 204 1,160 3,651 2,515 391 245 5,481 90,449 13 13 15,490 5,217 10,009 26,807 2,810 1,803 3,516 2,183 911 6,461 2,554 15,340 5,134 6,127 3,830 250 12,573 96,871 13 9 78,222 13 173 1,327 4,058 3,642 494 315 8,627 93,531 -3 8 74,790 7 173 1,228 3,581 5,180 407 370 7,792 99,790 7 9 78,891 9 165 1,403 3,786 5,032 658 306 9,540 97,891 -2 8 75,624 41 181 1,096 4,698 4,343 664 385 10,859 95,575 -2 6 72,775 97 143 1,387 4,721 4,147 778 459 10,068 93,095 -3 7 69,061 90 310 1,594 5,466 4,017 879 506 11,172

98,842 104,313 111,944 123,069 131,650 134,712 9 6 7 10 7 2 13 13 13 13 12 9 17,803 6,141 11,355 28,352 3,029 2,157 3,394 2,632 869 7,483 2,838 15,638 6,135 5,086 4,165 253 14,645 18,529 6,397 11,789 31,635 3,436 1,894 3,619 2,896 911 8,300 3,142 14,782 6,052 4,473 3,998 259 15,172 21,854 6,851 14,584 32,754 3,445 2,019 3,765 2,965 943 8,343 3,350 15,371 6,372 4,291 4,430 279 17,135 25,997 7,441 18,057 33,867 3,848 2,545 3,997 3,434 924 8,356 3,877 16,601 6,873 3,976 5,443 310 19,623 27,251 7,064 19,852 36,409 4,142 2,474 4,389 3,941 984 9,104 4,702 17,028 7,499 3,579 5,636 314 21,226 30,854 9,180 21,328 37,031 4,331 2,266 4,182 4,605 778 8,926 3,934 17,785 7,567 3,950 5,836 432 20,020

1 Change from prior year shown except 1970, change from 1969, and 1980, change from 1975. 2 Includes international relations and U.S. service schools. 3 Includes community development. 4 Includes terminals. 5 Includes other education.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics on Governmental Finances and Employment; and Government Finances, series GF, No. 5, annual.

No. 477. All Governments—Expenditure for Public Works: 1980 to 1992
[In millions of dollars. Public works include expenditures on highways, airports, water transport and terminals, sewerage, solid waste management, water supply, and mass transit systems. Represents direct expenditures excluding intergovernmental grants] Highways 33,745 434 20,661 12,650 57 61,913 856 36,464 24,593 55 67,196 813 40,266 26,117 56 Water Airport transport transpor- and tertation minals 5,071 2,570 360 2,141 30 10,983 4,499 635 5,848 37 12,791 4,679 963 7,149 43 3,278 2,110 360 808 50 4,524 2,556 504 1,464 29 4,582 2,721 504 1,357 28 Sewerage 9,892 334 9,558 63 18,309 636 17,673 46 20,138 908 19,230 44 Solid waste management 3,322 3,322 11 10,144 891 9,253 18 12,022 1,327 10,695 13 Water supply 9,228 91 9,137 36 22,101 136 21,966 31 24,264 209 24,055 31 Mass transit 7,641 1,026 6,615 25 18,788 4,521 14,267 29 21,879 4,292 17,587 27

ITEM 1980: Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital expenditures (percent) . 1990: Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital expenditures (percent) . 1992: Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital expenditures (percent) . - Represents or rounds to zero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total 72,177 5,114 22,832 44,231 48 146,762 7,911 43,787 95,064 42 162,872 8,213 48,469 106,190 42

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Government Finances, series GF, No. 5, annual.

302

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 478. Federal Grants-in-Aid Summary: 1970 to 1995
[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] CURRENT DOLLARS YEAR Total grants (bil. dol.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.1 49.8 91.5 105.9 115.4 122.0 135.4 154.6 178.1 193.7 210.6 228.0 Average annual percent change 1 17.8 2.8 1.8 1.6 2.1 5.6 10.5 13.3 14.3 8.4 8.4 8.0 Grants to individuals Total (bil. dol.) 8.7 16.8 32.7 49.4 62.4 67.4 77.1 90.7 110.0 121.5 131.1 140.4 Percent of total grants 36.3 33.7 35.7 46.6 54.1 55.2 57.0 58.7 61.8 62.7 63.3 63.9 Grants as percent of— Statelocal govt. outlays 2 19.0 22.6 25.8 20.9 17.7 17.3 19.4 20.5 21.5 21.9 23.0 (NA) Federal outlays 12.3 15.0 15.5 11.2 10.8 10.7 10.8 11.7 12.9 13.7 14.4 14.8 Gross domestic product 2.4 3.3 3.5 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 CONSTANT (1987) DOLLARS Total grants (bil. dol.) 73.6 105.4 127.6 113.0 110.8 112.2 119.5 130.9 146.8 155.5 165.9 174.7 Average annual percent change 1 11.3 0.6 -0.2 0.8 0.7 1.3 6.3 9.1 11.5 5.8 6.5 5.2

1970 . . . . 1975 . . . . 1980 . . . . 1985 . . . . 1988 . . . . 1989 . . . . 1990 . . . . 1991 . . . . 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 . . . . 1995, est. .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 Average annual percent change from prior year shown. For explanation, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. 1970, change from 1969. 2 Outlays as defined in the national income and product accounts. Source: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC, Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism, 1994 Edition, vol. II, based on Budget of the United States Government, FY 96.

No. 479. Federal Aid to State and Local Governments: 1970 to 1995
[In millions of dollars. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Includes trust funds. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series Y 638-651, for related data] PROGRAM Grant-in-aid shared revenue
1

1970 ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

1980

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995 228,015 109 4,052 2,837 521 871 24,823 1,785 19,179 3,777 9,331 158 4,330 36,138 7,009 1,451 209 1,084 1,486 134 937 2,996 4,435 3,549 93,244 2,462 88,438 55,098 17,260 2,879 7,530 17,774 242 1,300 2,279

24,065 37 411 194 25 604 4,599 83 4,395 104 1,780 184 (X) 6,417 1,470 86 622 285 105 81 574 390 954 3,849 146 2,727 5,795 4,142 559 380 436 18 42 479

91,451 135,377 154,570 178,117 193,664 210,596 93 5,363 4,603 499 569 13,087 590 9,208 3,129 6,486 335 3,902 21,862 3,370 523 166 622 854 158 383 2,763 1,548 6,191 15,758 679 13,957 18,495 6,888 412 3,388 3,435 90 529 8,616 241 3,745 2,874 461 1,285 19,225 1,220 14,171 3,730 4,965 124 2,818 23,359 4,437 1,080 152 799 1,287 127 265 2,749 2,267 3,042 43,890 1,241 41,103 35,189 12,246 1,199 4,871 9,516 134 574 2,309 185 4,040 3,071 457 1,220 19,878 1,541 14,417 3,821 4,273 157 2,976 26,566 5,193 1,243 148 747 1,038 132 546 2,822 2,920 2,985 55,783 1,744 52,533 38,864 13,520 1,406 5,418 10,444 141 940 2,224 318 3,929 3,038 448 1,142 20,608 1,672 15,250 3,585 4,539 125 3,090 28,795 6,129 1,361 160 785 1,020 190 594 2,708 3,621 3,388 71,416 1,778 67,827 43,486 15,103 1,611 5,993 12,262 164 987 2,274 152 3,796 2,852 460 1,117 22,343 1,931 16,409 3,885 5,666 138 3,198 30,160 6,582 1,903 101 468 1,133 159 736 2,785 3,614 3,245 79,665 1,994 75,774 46,991 15,628 2,611 6,589 14,100 189 987 2,131 169 3,765 2,700 466 937 23,633 1,620 18,667 3,267 7,789 181 3,651 32,744 6,819 1,358 176 797 1,292 125 839 2,728 3,998 3,310 86,265 2,132 82,034 51,532 16,508 2,688 6,938 15,791 199 992 2,098

National defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources and environment . . . . . . . Environmental Protection Agency . . . . . . . Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Urban mass transit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Community and regional development 1 . . . . Appalachian development. . . . . . . . . . . . Community development block grants. . . . Education, employment, training, social services 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensatory education for the disadvantaged 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . School improvement programs 3 . . . . . . . Bilingual and immigrant education 3 . . . . . Federally affected areas impact aid . . . . . Vocational and adult education . . . . . . . . Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Payments to States for Family Support Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social services-block grants to States . . . . Human development services . . . . . . . . . Training and employment assistance . . . . Health 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health 4 . Medicaid 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income security 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family support payments to States 4 . . . . Food stamps-administration . . . . . . . . . . Child nutrition and special milk programs 4 Housing assistance 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Veterans benefits and services . . . . . . . . . . Administration of justice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General government 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 Includes items not shown separately. Includes $5 million for - Represents or rounds to zero. X Not applicable. international affairs subsequently provided to a private institution. 3 The 1983 Budget proposed dismantlement of the Dept. of Education (DED). Budget data for elementary and secondary education previously performed by DED are included in the Foundation for Education Assistance under compensatory education for the disadvantaged, school improvement (formerly titled 4 Includes grants for payments to ‘‘Special programs and populations’’) programs and bilingual and immigrant education. individuals. 5 Includes general purpose fiscal assistance.

Source: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government, annual.

Federal Aid to State and Local Governments
No. 480. Federal Aid to State and Local Governments—Selected Programs, by State: 1994
[In millions of dollars, except per capita. For fiscal year ending September 30] FEDERAL AID STATE
1 6 8

303

Total

Per capita 2 (dol.) 811 761 1,755 735 802 834 575 924 669 3,898 575 713 923 686 724 618 712 652 809 1,213 1,023 727 1,036 749 770 939 752 1,059 686 547 840 780 1,036 1,235 688 1,100 754 724 763 805 1,103 744 1,004 761 689 634 942 485 734 1,189 678 1,501 6,600

OE 3 compensatory education 4 6,819 125 24 99 76 777 65 60 16 26 297 172 18 25 290 102 49 52 116 178 32 93 134 280 81 121 112 25 31 17 15 179 57 628 141 17 261 78 68 308 22 90 20 122 578 31 16 110 98 61 110 11 252

EPA 5 waste treatment facilities construction 1,971 24 9 9 15 144 7 24 9 17 81 19 7 10 106 31 24 16 14 13 11 52 195 108 10 14 41 9 6 10 11 82 15 110 41 7 124 14 22 67 7 23 10 35 137 15 4 48 40 26 61 5 17

HHS Administration for Children and Families 7

HUD

Medicaid

Lower ETA 10 DOT 11 income Commu- employ- highway nity housment/ trust ing develop- training fund ment assis9 tance 13,266 169 88 152 98 1,574 146 260 23 74 474 281 88 37 750 200 92 65 180 190 82 243 597 330 230 116 210 56 61 63 55 567 73 1,456 251 37 594 163 127 712 128 130 56 209 575 42 34 237 223 101 190 18 360 3,653 63 6 46 30 389 32 38 7 35 141 74 19 10 205 73 63 36 48 75 16 54 112 158 60 31 82 11 18 10 9 110 17 403 60 7 167 34 32 207 18 31 11 54 206 20 9 53 53 21 55 7 113 6,733 97 40 99 63 997 77 111 18 28 301 123 36 33 316 102 64 42 83 118 37 104 184 273 101 68 133 28 27 40 30 208 42 468 138 23 219 75 83 319 36 77 22 98 387 46 18 120 146 57 106 18 131 18,623 272 225 271 185 2,015 257 393 53 72 795 384 222 115 728 353 247 215 239 262 88 298 963 417 293 173 439 165 150 125 69 510 148 780 473 105 705 249 203 757 136 232 134 284 1,071 110 48 307 462 172 339 114 94

United States Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia . Florida. . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . . New York . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . North Dakota . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . Rhode Island . . . . . South Carolina . . . . South Dakota . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Outlying areas . . . .

12

. 214,239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,209 1,063 2,996 1,966 26,219 2,102 3,028 472 2,222 8,018 5,028 1,088 778 8,506 3,553 2,015 1,666 3,096 5,233 1,269 3,637 6,261 7,117 3,515 2,507 3,971 906 1,114 797 956 6,163 1,714 22,445 4,862 702 8,366 2,359 2,355 9,705 1,100 2,726 724 3,940 12,669 1,209 546 3,180 3,924 2,166 3,450 714 3,852

32,968 82,034 297 129 496 213 6,825 284 500 69 310 1,107 785 176 95 1,325 423 284 230 395 292 185 519 1,072 1,436 597 289 520 110 119 97 117 821 238 3,571 653 87 1,350 376 374 1,462 130 243 78 342 1,482 174 118 422 677 216 494 54 304 1,287 176 1,103 834 7,861 649 1,175 153 395 2,945 2,080 243 235 2,780 1,591 693 602 1,330 3,256 604 1,191 2,104 2,914 1,390 1,068 1,577 247 389 192 496 2,431 531 11,323 2,098 201 3,504 782 755 3,998 445 1,329 206 1,803 5,386 406 187 1,006 1,441 989 1,427 98 129

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes programs not shown separately. 2 Based on estimated resident population as of July 1, 1994. 3 Department 5 of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. 4 For the disadvantaged. Environmental Protection Agency. 6 Department of Health and Human Services. 7 Includes family support payments (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), social services block grants, children and family services, foster care and adoption assistance, low-income home energy assistance, community services block grants, refugee assistance, and assistance for legalized aliens. 8 Department of Housing 9 and Urban Development. Includes public housing, housing payments (section 8) to public agencies, and college housing. 10 Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Insurance and Employment Service Operations: and Community Service. 11 Department of Transportation, Highway Trust Fund. 12 Includes undistributed amounts not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Federal Expenditures by State for Fiscal Year 1994.

304

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 481. State and Local Governments—Summary of Finances: 1980 to 1992

[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Local government amounts are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series Y 652-709] TOTAL (mil. dol.) 1980 Revenue 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . From Federal Government . . . . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . Housing and community development Other and unallocable. . . . . . . . . . . From State and local sources . . . . . . . General, net intergovernmental. . . . . Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and gross receipts . . . . . Individual income . . . . . . . . . . Corporation income . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charges and miscellaneous . . . . . Utility and liquor stores . . . . . . . . . . Water supply system . . . . . . . . . . Electric power system . . . . . . . . . Transit system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas supply system . . . . . . . . . . . Liquor stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance trust revenue 3 . . . . . . . . Employee retirement . . . . . . . . . . Unemployment compensation . . . . Direct expenditure . . . . . . . . . By function: Direct general expenditure 3. . . . . . Education 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary and secondary . . . Higher education . . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Police protection. . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources . . . . . . . . . . . Sanitation and sewerage . . . . . . Housing and community development . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parks and recreation . . . . . . . . . Financial administration . . . . . . . Interest on general debt 4. . . . . . Utility and liquor stores 4 . . . . . . . . Water supply system . . . . . . . . . Electric power system . . . . . . . . Transit system . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas supply system . . . . . . . . . . Liquor stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance trust expenditure 3 . . . . . Employee retirement . . . . . . . . . Unemployment compensation . . . By character and object: Current operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital outlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment, land, and existing structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assistance and subsidies . . . . . . . Interest on debt (general and utility) Insurance benefits and repayments . Expenditure for salaries and wages . . Debt outstanding, Long-term . . . . . . . . . . Short-term . . . . . . . . . . Long-term debt: Issued . . . . . . . . . . . Retired. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 1991 1992 1980 1,993 366 110 40 64 11 17 125 1,627 1,321 986 302 353 186 59 87 335 113 30 50 11 8 14 193 112 60 1,908 1,621 588 410 150 147 201 37 105 60 25 24 58 27 29 30 65 160 41 66 34 8 11 127 62 53 1,359 278 227 50 67 78 127 723 1,481 1,423 58 187 77 PER CAPITA 1 (dol.) 1990 4,150 550 241 58 93 24 39 95 3,600 2,866 2,017 626 715 425 95 156 849 236 71 118 21 12 14 498 379 74 3,911 3,356 1,159 812 295 245 444 97 203 123 53 50 114 62 58 65 200 313 89 125 76 12 12 255 154 66 2,815 495 358 137 109 237 255 1,372 3,460 3,383 78 436 261 1991 4,287 611 288 58 100 26 41 99 3,676 2,967 2,084 666 736 434 88 159 883 241 72 121 22 12 14 468 346 71 4,203 3,602 1,227 863 312 258 517 106 216 130 55 50 123 66 63 67 207 321 93 123 81 12 12 294 167 88 3,022 522 383 139 121 244 294 1,453 3,632 3,546 86 468 260 1992 4,647 703 360 58 109 29 43 104 3,945 3,111 2,179 700 769 452 93 165 932 245 75 122 23 12 14 588 425 106 4,496 3,811 1,281 898 331 261 605 115 230 135 56 51 127 67 62 71 217 331 96 125 86 12 12 354 182 129 3,229 527 394 133 130 254 354 1,485 3,804 3,720 84 608 389

ITEM

451,537 1,032,115 1,080,862 1,185,191 83,029 136,802 154,099 179,184 24,921 59,961 72,661 91,788 8,980 14,368 14,561 14,800 14,435 23,233 25,197 27,821 2,513 5,904 6,504 7,293 3,905 9,655 10,233 10,876 28,275 23,683 24,943 26,606 368,509 895,313 926,763 1,006,007 299,293 712,700 748,108 793,399 223,463 501,619 525,355 555,610 68,499 155,613 167,999 178,536 79,927 177,885 185,570 196,112 42,080 105,640 109,341 115,170 13,321 23,566 22,242 23,595 19,636 38,915 40,202 42,197 75,830 211,081 222,753 237,789 25,560 58,642 60,736 62,540 6,766 17,674 18,034 19,147 11,387 29,268 30,489 30,999 2,397 5,216 5,629 5,742 1,809 3,043 3,013 3,034 3,201 3,441 3,571 3,618 43,656 123,970 117,919 150,067 25,441 94,268 87,206 108,310 13,529 18,441 18,025 27,019 432,328 367,340 133,211 92,930 33,919 33,311 45,552 8,387 23,787 13,494 5,718 5,509 13,214 6,062 6,520 6,719 14,747 36,191 9,228 15,016 7,641 1,715 2,591 28,797 14,008 12,070 307,811 62,894 51,492 11,402 15,222 17,604 28,797 163,896 335,603 322,456 13,147 42,364 17,404 972,662 1,059,805 1,146,610 834,786 288,148 202,009 73,418 61,057 110,518 24,223 50,412 30,577 13,186 12,330 28,453 15,479 14,326 16,217 49,739 77,801 22,101 30,997 18,788 2,989 2,926 63,321 38,355 16,499 700,131 123,069 89,114 33,955 27,227 58,914 63,321 341,158 860,584 841,278 19,306 108,468 64,831 908,108 309,302 217,643 78,749 64,937 130,402 26,706 54,404 32,772 13,796 12,575 31,014 16,648 15,930 16,995 52,234 81,004 23,561 31,090 20,379 2,970 3,005 74,159 42,121 22,135 762,007 131,650 96,654 34,996 30,456 61,533 74,159 366,406 915,711 894,019 21,692 118,054 65,666 971,973 326,769 228,917 84,329 66,477 154,235 29,344 58,768 34,545 14,358 13,049 32,398 17,067 15,728 18,090 55,255 84,361 24,378 31,983 21,879 3,058 3,063 90,276 46,419 32,887 823,494 134,521 100,533 33,988 33,230 64,789 90,276 378,804 970,043 948,710 21,333 155,060 99,233

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .

year end . . . . ........... ........... ........... ...........

1 1980 and 1990 based on enumerated resident population as of April 1. Other years based on estimated resident population as of July 1; see table 2. 2 Aggregates exclude duplicative transactions between State and local governments; see source. Includes amounts not shown separately. 4 Interest on utility debt included in ‘‘utility expenditure.’’ For total interest on debt, see ‘‘Interest on debt (general and utility).’’ 3

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics on Governmental Finances and Employment and Government Finances, series GF, No. 5, annual.

State and Local Government Finances in the NIPA

305

No. 482. State and Local Government Receipts and Expenditures in the National Income and Product Accounts: 1980 to 1993
[In billions of dollars. For explanation of national income, see text, section 14] ITEM Receipts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal tax and nontax receipts 1 . Income taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nontaxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporate profits tax accruals . . . . Indirect business tax and nontax accruals 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributions for social insurance. . Federal grants-in-aid . . . . . . . . . . Expenditures . . . . . . . Purchases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensation of employees Transfer payments to persons . Net interest paid 2 . . . . . . . . . Less: Dividends received . . . . Subsidies 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 361.4 56.2 42.6 5.0 14.5 172.3 82.9 68.8 29.7 88.7 336.6 298.0 193.5 65.7 -19.3 1.9 -5.8 24.8 26.9 1985 528.7 94.0 72.1 9.9 20.2 271.4 131.1 107.0 42.8 100.3 472.6 428.1 283.2 101.2 -38.7 4.5 -13.5 56.1 46.9
2

1986 571.2 101.6 77.4 11.4 22.7 292.0 140.4 114.5 47.3 107.6 517.0 465.3 305.9 110.9 -40.4 5.1 -13.7 54.3 52.7

1987 594.3 111.8 86.0 11.9 23.9 306.5 149.8 121.1 49.2 102.8 554.2 496.6 327.3 119.6 -41.2 5.9 -14.9 40.1 54.8

1988 631.3 117.6 89.9 12.7 26.0 324.5 161.4 127.6 51.9 111.3 593.0 531.7 351.9 130.0 -44.2 6.9 -17.5 38.4 56.8

1989 681.5 131.4 101.4 14.1 24.2 352.8 172.3 143.5 54.8 118.2 636.7 573.6 379.8 143.6 -52.3 8.1 -20.1 44.8 62.3
3

1990 730.0 138.9 106.3 15.3 22.3 378.2 183.3 155.5 58.3 132.3 704.9 620.9 412.7 165.4 -51.3 9.0 -21.1 25.1 60.7

1991 783.6 147.9 110.4 19.2 23.0 398.4 189.9 167.6 61.0 153.3 766.6 651.6 437.9 199.2 -52.3 9.5 -22.5 17.0 63.4

1992 842.9 159.1 118.1 21.8 24.2 423.1 202.1 177.5 64.5 172.2 818.1 676.3 461.7 229.0 -53.1 10.1 -24.0 24.8 66.4

1993 891.0 166.1 123.3 22.7 30.3 440.7 212.4 184.0 67.8 186.1 864.7 704.7 483.0 250.4 -53.4 10.4 -26.7 26.3 66.3

Surplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social insurance funds . . . . . . . . .
1

Includes other items not shown separately.

Interest paid less interest received.

Less current surplus of government.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts of the United States: volume 2, 1959-88, and Survey of Current Business, July 1994.

No. 483. State and Local Government Detailed Expenditures in the National Income and Product Accounts: 1980 to 1993
[In billions of dollars. For explanation of national income, see text, section 14] EXPENDITURE Purchases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . Nondurable goods . . . . . . . . . Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensation of employees. Other services . . . . . . . . . . Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 298.0 12.8 28.8 207.4 193.5 13.9 49.0 65.7 17.8 15.1 0.8 2.0 42.8 24.6 12.4 2.0 1.4 2.3 4.9 1985 428.1 22.3 38.7 307.5 283.2 24.3 59.5 101.2 30.4 25.5 1.4 3.5 65.1 41.2 15.4 2.3 2.4 3.7 5.6 1986 465.3 24.6 39.1 335.1 305.9 29.2 66.4 110.9 33.9 28.4 1.5 3.9 70.7 45.4 16.4 2.6 2.5 3.7 6.3 1987 496.6 26.0 42.3 357.3 327.3 29.9 71.0 119.6 37.4 31.2 1.6 4.6 75.6 49.8 16.7 2.9 2.6 3.6 6.5 1988 531.7 28.1 45.5 382.2 351.9 30.3 75.9 130.0 40.9 34.1 1.8 5.1 82.0 55.0 17.3 3.1 2.7 4.0 7.0 1989 573.6 31.9 50.7 410.1 379.8 30.4 80.9 143.6 44.6 36.9 1.9 5.8 91.3 62.9 18.0 3.4 2.8 4.1 7.7 1990 620.9 34.9 56.2 442.8 412.7 30.1 87.1 165.4 49.6 40.6 2.2 6.9 107.0 75.6 19.8 3.8 3.0 4.8 8.7 1991 651.6 35.0 58.0 466.2 437.9 28.4 92.4 199.2 55.2 44.8 2.8 7.6 134.4 100.1 22.0 3.8 2.9 5.4 9.6 1992 676.3 35.7 59.9 486.2 461.7 24.5 94.5 229.0 61.8 50.5 3.0 8.3 156.7 120.5 23.3 4.1 3.3 5.6 10.5 1993 704.7 36.9 62.6 505.7 483.0 22.6 99.6 250.4 68.4 56.6 2.5 9.3 170.7 133.2 23.9 3.9 3.3 6.3 11.3

Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Benefits from social insurance funds State and local employee retirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temporary disability insurance. Workers’ compensation . . . . . Public assistance . . . . . . . . . . . Medical care . . . . . . . . . . . . Aid to Families with Dependent Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplemental Security Income. General assistance . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts of the United States: volume 2, 1959-88, and Survey of Current Business, July 1994.

306

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 485. State and Local Governments—Indebtedness: 1980 to 1992

[In billions of dollars, except per capita. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Local government amounts are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series Y 680, Y 747, and Y 794, for debt outstanding] DEBT OUTSTANDING ITEM Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335.6 122.0 213.6 568.6 211.9 356.7 658.9 247.7 411.2 727.1 265.7 461.5 755.0 276.8 478.2 798.4 295.5 502.9 860.6 318.3 542.3 915.8 345.6 570.2 971.0 371.9 599.1 Per capita 1 (dol.) 1,477 537 940 2,390 891 1,499 2,744 1,032 1,712 3,001 1,097 1,905 3,088 1,132 1,956 3,235 1,197 2,037 3,451 1,276 2,175 3,632 1,371 2,261 3,807 1,458 2,349 Long-term Local schools
2

LONG-TERM Shortterm 13.1 2.1 11.0 19.6 2.8 16.8 18.3 1.6 16.7 15.9 1.6 14.3 15.7 1.3 14.4 18.0 2.3 15.7 19.3 2.8 16.5 21.7 3.4 18.3 21.4 2.9 18.4 Net long-term 262.9 79.8 183.1 430.5 110.4 320.1 458.9 129.1 329.8 518.3 143.4 375.0 425.4 108.8 316.5 445.5 118.2 327.2 477.0 125.5 351.5 509.9 139.9 369.9 561.6 125.4 409.1 Debt issued 42.4 16.4 25.9 101.2 41.7 59.5 162.0 64.0 98.1 134.4 50.2 84.1 89.7 36.4 53.3 102.2 42.0 60.2 108.5 43.5 65.0 118.1 50.5 67.6 155.1 70.2 85.0 Debt retired 17.4 5.7 11.7 43.5 16.4 27.2 74.4 26.4 48.0 83.0 33.3 49.8 63.8 26.1 37.6 63.8 26.9 36.8 64.8 22.9 42.0 65.7 25.4 40.3 99.2 45.0 54.3

Utilities 55.2 4.6 50.6 90.8 8.6 82.2 104.8 10.0 94.9 120.5 11.9 108.6 124.9 12.2 112.7 127.5 12.2 115.3 134.8 12.3 122.4 141.2 12.5 128.7 150.4 13.7 136.7

All other 235.0 111.5 123.5 414.5 193.8 220.6 492.8 232.0 260.6 541.5 244.1 297.3 566.9 260.0 306.9 600.2 277.4 322.8 646.1 298.8 347.4 703.5 327.1 376.4 742.2 350.7 391.5

1980: Total. . . State. Local 1985: Total. . . State. Local 1986: Total. . . State. Local 1987: Total. . . State. Local 1988: Total. . . State. Local 1989: Total. . . State. Local 1990: Total. . . State. Local 1991: Total. . . State. Local 1992: Total. . . State. Local

32.3 3.8 28.5 43.8 6.7 37.1 43.0 4.1 38.9 49.2 7.9 41.3 47.5 3.3 44.2 52.7 3.7 49.0 60.4 4.4 56.0 71.0 5.9 65.1 78.4 7.6 70.9

1 1980 and 1990 based on enumerated resident population as of April 1; other years based on estimated resident population as of July 1; see table 2. 2 Includes debt for education activities other than higher education.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Government Finances, series GF, No. 5, annual; and unpublished data.

308

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 488. State Governments—Revenue, by State: 1993

[In millions of dollars, except as noted. Data will not match other tables due to later revisions. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9] GENERAL REVENUE Total STATE Total revenue
1

Per capita Total (dol.) 2,534 2,317 10,303 2,233 2,319 2,704 2,200 3,359 3,625 2,015 2,039 4,151 2,495 2,137 2,360 2,525 2,302 2,539 2,712 2,765 2,435 3,199 2,605 2,961 2,285 1,974 2,863 2,301 2,305 2,269 3,031 3,327 3,470 2,355 3,156 2,213 2,250 2,561 2,486 3,019 2,322 2,221 1,989 1,980 2,386 3,026 2,159 2,774 2,759 2,698 3,940
2

2

Intergovernmental revenue From Federal Government 177,560 2,926 892 2,141 1,826 23,599 2,101 2,380 437 6,996 4,358 1,006 676 6,188 3,707 1,806 1,631 2,814 4,306 1,042 2,707 4,645 6,404 2,977 2,209 3,198 752 946 596 780 5,682 1,208 18,841 4,290 620 6,932 1,817 2,299 7,879 921 2,458 576 3,585 10,747 1,218 561 2,729 3,437 1,774 3,261 678 From local governments 11,070 39 13 285 6 1,879 36 5 8 237 35 6 11 272 116 83 18 14 24 4 87 513 217 270 88 22 17 22 41 70 236 49 4,764 395 27 210 45 40 197 52 105 9 42 78 37 2 154 69 13 88 19 Taxes

Amount United States . . . . . Alabama . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . California . . . . . Colorado . . . . . Connecticut . . . Delaware . . . . . Florida. . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . Massachusetts . Michigan . . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi . . . . Missouri. . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Rank (X) 23 31 25 34 1 27 20 45 5 13 37 43 6 16 30 33 24 19 40 18 10 7 17 32 21 46 39 41 44 9 35 2 11 47 8 29 28 4 42 26 50 22 3 38 49 14 12 36 15 48

Rank (X) 32 1 40 31 19 43 6 4 47 46 2 25 45 30 24 35 23 18 16 27 8 21 13 37 50 14 34 36 38 11 7 5 29 9 42 39 22 26 12 33 41 48 49 28 10 44 15 17 20 3

Charges and miscellaneous 111,177 2,083 3,028 1,100 852 10,192 1,915 1,951 747 4,013 1,534 1,078 498 4,011 2,727 1,333 911 1,527 2,940 619 2,101 3,711 4,840 2,012 751 1,634 508 763 341 707 4,873 1,343 8,090 1,927 487 4,553 1,246 1,774 5,235 611 1,577 416 1,391 6,622 970 386 3,518 2,178 755 2,305 492

804,495 11,389 7,358 10,843 6,446 108,222 10,028 12,744 2,876 33,216 16,565 5,543 3,408 30,351 14,653 8,224 6,730 11,011 13,348 3,926 14,842 21,493 28,760 16,245 7,205 12,559 3,023 3,890 4,500 3,011 29,614 6,303 78,209 19,377 2,288 38,341 8,679 10,826 37,779 3,765 10,637 1,942 11,864 42,019 5,348 1,953 16,307 19,930 6,047 18,677 2,181

653,135 9,688 6,160 8,808 5,627 84,409 7,840 11,011 2,532 27,654 14,077 4,838 2,746 24,971 13,465 7,123 5,836 9,632 11,636 3,428 12,071 19,252 24,638 13,397 6,031 10,335 2,408 3,712 3,185 2,550 23,816 5,376 62,986 16,370 2,010 24,483 7,275 7,772 29,912 3,018 8,429 1,591 10,135 35,688 4,437 1,742 13,973 14,587 5,016 13,610 1,851

353,328 4,640 2,227 5,282 2,943 48,738 3,789 6,675 1,340 16,407 8,150 2,748 1,560 14,500 6,915 3,902 3,276 5,277 4,366 1,764 7,175 10,383 13,177 8,137 2,983 5,480 1,130 1,981 2,207 993 13,026 2,777 31,291 9,757 877 12,788 4,166 3,658 16,601 1,433 4,289 589 5,117 18,241 2,212 793 7,572 8,904 2,475 7,956 662

X Not applicable.

Includes items not shown separately.

Based on estimated resident population as of July 1.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, State Government Finances, series GF, No. 3, annual; and unpublished data.

Expenditures and debt
No. 489. State Governments—Expenditures and Debt, by State: 1993
[In millions of dollars, except as indicated. Data will not match other tables due to later revisions. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9] GENERAL EXPENDITURE STATE Total expenditure 1 Total Amount United States . . . . . 742,936 646,088 Alabama . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . California . . . . . Colorado . . . . . Connecticut . . . Delaware . . . . . Florida. . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . Massachusetts . Michigan . . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi . . . . Missouri. . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming . . . . .
1

309

DEBT OUTSTANDING Per capita 2 (dol.) 1,504 996 7,405 774 777 1,323 875 3,920 4,997 993 655 4,310 1,172 1,702 957 651 369 1,798 2,234 2,419 1,761 4,223 935 916 628 1,245 2,080 984 1,196 4,663 2,771 989 3,262 576 1,303 1,129 1,212 1,918 1,080 5,150 1,350 2,539 517 482 1,179 2,465 1,149 1,492 1,476 1,521 1,662

Selected functions Education Public welfare Highways 51,268 856 586 921 608 4,593 719 753 265 2,369 1,031 361 292 2,489 1,370 916 654 933 829 311 985 1,256 1,635 1,204 571 853 285 481 302 223 1,615 823 2,297 1,555 215 2,141 697 800 2,303 209 616 229 1,067 2,991 360 185 1,381 1,231 584 1,065 253 Health and hospitals 53,202 1,300 209 531 406 7,209 400 1,130 166 2,426 1,087 479 96 1,690 842 660 461 515 1,370 185 939 1,734 2,569 981 421 790 132 401 110 140 1,456 465 5,419 1,307 106 1,999 608 805 2,592 252 1,076 94 823 2,675 389 57 1,472 1,067 196 867 99 Corrections Total

Per capita 2 (dol.)

2,506 221,342 168,421 2,234 8,253 2,226 2,249 2,852 2,097 3,228 3,321 2,017 2,037 4,365 2,219 2,112 2,363 2,551 2,081 2,517 2,733 2,747 2,301 3,105 2,469 2,874 2,116 1,875 2,715 2,304 2,280 2,298 3,007 3,212 3,391 2,229 3,015 2,264 2,183 2,532 2,386 3,541 2,422 2,239 2,020 1,948 2,350 2,947 2,070 2,879 2,658 2,631 3,528
2

20,690 387,680 182 135 345 119 3,050 266 444 90 1,073 605 113 65 655 321 158 179 210 300 53 592 681 910 205 91 208 40 84 154 50 679 137 2,076 606 16 755 202 200 627 107 331 34 366 1,562 106 42 642 368 37 390 27 4,163 4,427 3,053 1,884 41,295 3,117 12,848 3,490 13,635 4,519 5,023 1,290 19,893 5,458 1,837 935 6,820 9,585 2,999 8,731 25,415 8,849 4,145 1,659 6,516 1,749 1,587 1,653 5,242 21,779 1,597 59,219 4,002 830 12,486 3,919 5,821 12,989 5,147 4,901 1,818 2,632 8,684 2,193 1,419 7,438 7,848 2,684 7,674 781

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 10,242 . 5,423 . 9,783 . 5,915 . 104,567 . 8,673 . 12,507 . 2,557 . 30,103 . 15,308 . 5,606 . 2,776 . 28,133 . 14,136 . 7,766 . 5,742 . 10,543 . 12,893 . 3,889 . 13,537 . 21,557 . 27,051 . 14,295 . 6,235 . 10,809 . 2,663 . 3,823 . 4,051 . 2,970 . 28,923 . 5,599 . 74,280 . 16,916 . 2,129 . 31,665 . 8,272 . 9,013 . 34,359 . 4,176 . 10,388 . 1,686 . 11,028 . 39,091 . 4,834 . 1,849 . 14,721 . 18,003 . 5,943 . 14,621 . 1,887

9,340 4,934 8,782 5,455 89,037 7,472 10,582 2,320 27,689 14,061 5,088 2,442 24,682 13,480 7,198 5,275 9,550 11,726 3,405 11,406 18,684 23,358 13,003 5,585 9,817 2,283 3,717 3,151 2,584 23,630 5,190 61,558 15,495 1,919 25,038 7,058 7,685 28,705 3,539 8,793 1,604 10,288 35,111 4,370 1,696 13,398 15,141 4,833 13,272 1,657

3,663 1,267 3,017 2,248 31,282 3,132 2,524 811 9,362 5,746 1,447 1,023 7,540 5,139 2,816 2,270 3,716 3,836 1,039 3,712 3,544 7,952 4,642 2,042 3,701 849 1,300 1,165 518 7,117 1,977 16,661 6,440 686 8,760 3,052 2,493 8,689 845 3,138 481 3,525 14,777 2,076 572 5,265 6,622 1,870 4,396 597

2,017 564 2,159 1,312 25,118 1,837 2,776 319 6,135 3,684 651 428 6,862 3,390 1,514 982 2,565 3,095 1,107 2,682 5,425 6,192 3,259 1,349 2,498 406 807 513 919 5,741 758 21,975 3,198 411 7,021 1,575 1,472 8,959 886 2,064 319 3,073 8,984 742 405 2,449 3,216 1,394 3,002 211

Includes items not shown separately.

Based on estimated resident population as of July 1.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, State Government Finances, series GF, No. 3, annual.

310

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 490. State Governments—Summary of Finances: 1980 to 1993
[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text section 9. See also Colonial Times to 1970, series Y 710-782] ITEM TOTAL (mil. dol.) 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293,356 16,394 276,962 233,592 137,075 67,855 43,168 9,722 2,478 3,738 8,750 8,690 4,936 1,388 2,366 37,089 13,321 2,892 7,227 32,190 64,326 61,892 24,680 12,765 8,860 15,587 2,434 1,304 2,765 39,301 21,146 13,468 263,494 257,812 228,223 87,939 44,219 25,044 17,855 4,449 4,346 3,232 3,031 2,263 2,001 601 33,243 2,401 2,206 24,981 10,256 12,006 84,504 173,307 108,131 23,325 19,736 1,345 2,243 9,818 7,052 24,981 121,958 119,821 49,364 70,457 2,137 79,810 39,357 5,682 1990 672,994 40,532 632,462 517,720 300,779 147,404 99,929 19,379 3,191 5,541 19,365 18,849 9,850 3,096 5,903 96,076 21,751 5,775 10,922 90,612 126,329 118,353 59,397 21,271 13,931 23,754 7,976 3,305 2,907 108,530 78,898 18,370 592,213 572,318 508,284 184,935 104,971 44,249 42,666 17,266 9,909 8,384 8,616 5,166 3,003 2,856 76,263 7,131 2,452 54,452 29,562 16,423 175,028 397,291 258,046 45,524 34,803 3,471 7,250 16,902 22,367 54,452 318,254 315,490 74,972 240,518 2,764 125,524 63,481 19,895 1992 802,030 60,177 741,853 605,334 327,822 162,308 107,579 22,198 3,509 6,103 22,919 21,691 10,766 4,104 6,821 104,401 21,566 6,594 11,262 107,610 169,902 159,041 91,091 25,867 14,367 27,716 10,861 3,512 3,067 129,940 88,281 26,921 736,095 700,894 611,922 211,570 156,364 48,747 48,123 20,120 10,521 10,020 9,751 5,489 3,702 2,668 84,847 7,036 2,577 79,359 35,628 32,761 201,313 499,580 323,830 50,126 39,001 3,822 7,303 20,784 25,482 79,359 371,901 368,951 96,598 272,353 2,949 152,423 85,258 35,201 1993 882,014 77,519 804,495 653,135 353,328 174,218 114,909 23,568 3,584 6,229 25,928 23,319 11,502 4,317 7,500 112,555 24,208 7,053 11,975 111,177 188,630 177,560 101,765 28,164 16,475 31,156 11,070 3,675 3,070 144,614 94,347 34,442 805,076 742,936 646,088 221,342 168,421 51,268 53,202 20,690 11,212 10,452 10,546 5,600 3,930 2,830 86,594 7,240 2,558 87,050 40,117 35,197 213,937 528,999 345,397 49,776 39,220 3,129 7,427 21,976 24,800 87,050 387,680 383,810 103,667 280,143 3,870 180,944 93,077 62,140 1980 1,295 72 1,223 1,031 605 300 191 43 11 16 39 38 22 6 10 164 59 13 32 142 284 273 109 56 39 69 11 6 12 173 93 59 1,163 1,138 1,007 388 195 111 79 20 19 14 13 10 9 3 147 11 10 110 45 53 373 765 477 103 87 6 10 43 31 110 538 529 218 311 9 352 174 25 PER CAPITA 1 (dollars) 1990 2,706 163 2,543 2,082 1,209 593 402 78 13 22 78 76 40 12 24 386 87 23 44 364 508 476 239 86 56 96 32 13 12 436 317 74 2,381 2,301 2,044 744 422 178 172 69 40 34 35 21 12 11 307 29 10 219 119 66 704 1,597 1,038 183 140 14 29 68 90 219 1,280 1,269 301 967 11 505 255 80 1992 3,145 236 2,909 2,374 1,285 636 422 87 14 24 90 85 42 16 27 409 85 26 44 422 666 624 357 101 56 109 43 14 12 510 346 106 2,886 2,748 2,399 830 613 191 189 79 41 39 38 22 15 10 333 28 10 311 140 128 789 1,959 1,270 197 153 15 29 81 100 311 1,458 1,447 379 1,068 12 598 334 138 1993 3,422 301 3,121 2,534 1,371 676 446 91 14 24 101 90 45 17 29 437 94 27 46 431 732 689 395 109 64 121 43 14 12 561 366 134 3,123 2,882 2,506 859 653 199 206 80 43 41 41 22 15 11 336 28 10 338 156 137 830 2,052 1,340 193 152 12 29 85 96 338 1,504 1,489 402 1,087 15 702 361 241

Borrowing and revenue . . . Borrowing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General revenue . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and gross receipts . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor fuels . . . . . . . . . . Alcoholic beverages . . . . Tobacco products. . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicles . . . . . . . . Corporations in general . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Individual income . . . . . . . Corporation net income . . . Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charges and miscellaneous . . Intergovernmental revenue . . . From Federal Government . Public welfare . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . From local governments . . . Utility revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquor store revenue . . . . . . . . Insurance trust revenue 2 . . . . . Employee retirement . . . . . . . Unemployment compensation .

Expenditure and debt redemption. Expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . General control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial administration . . . . . . . . . Police protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employment security . . . . . . . . . . . Housing and community development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other and unallocable . . . . . . . . . . Utility expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquor store expenditure . . . . . . . . . . Insurance trust expenditure 2 . . . . . . . Employee retirement . . . . . . . . . . . Unemployment compensation . . . . . By character and object: Intergovernmental expend . . . . . . . . . Direct expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital outlay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Land and existing structure . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assistance and subsidies . . . . . . . . Interest on debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance benefits 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Debt outstanding, year end Long-term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-faith and credit. . . . . . . . . Nonguaranteed . . . . . . . . . . . Short-term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net long-term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-faith and credit only . . . . . Debt redemption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1980 and 1990 based on enumerated resident population as of April 1; other years based on estimated resident population as of July 1. 2 Includes other items not shown separately. 3 Includes repayments.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, State Government Finances, series GF, No. 3, annual; and unpublished data.

312

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 492. State Government Tax Collections, by State: 1993
[In millions of dollars. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text; section 9. Includes local shares of State-imposed taxes] Sales and gross receipts General sales and gross receipts Alcoholic beverages and tobacco products 9,812 178 29 94 105 974 85 158 32 987 198 72 35 378 142 107 104 70 134 83 164 252 367 223 87 103 29 54 61 52 333 37 781 199 18 318 127 96 479 44 142 23 144 1,010 43 28 112 264 40 213 7 Motor Indivehicle vidual and income operators’ licenses 12,517 112,555 162 24 216 100 1,519 123 213 21 827 181 58 57 690 133 252 121 174 103 58 261 344 571 450 84 229 47 63 89 60 346 114 634 343 47 463 441 268 508 48 93 28 200 780 56 42 290 227 84 238 37 1,333 (X) 1,381 905 17,200 1,765 2,254 513 (X) 3,390 923 609 4,815 2,807 1,467 1,040 1,733 930 615 3,080 5,375 5,204 3,322 588 2,006 357 685 (X) 36 4,350 527 15,300 3,992 126 4,722 1,300 2,383 4,658 497 1,495 (X) 95 (X) 842 286 3,585 (X) 621 3,446 (X) Corporation net income Death and gift

STATE

Total

1

Total

1

Motor fuels

Public utilities

Severance

United States . . . 353,328 174,218 114,909 Alabama . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . California . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . Connecticut . . . . Delaware . . . . . Florida . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . Kansas. . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . Maine. . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . Massachusetts. . Michigan. . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . Mississippi . . . . Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina . . North Dakota . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . Oregon. . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . Rhode Island . . . South Carolina. . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . . Washington . . . . West Virginia . . . Wisconsin . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,640 2,227 5,282 2,943 48,738 3,789 6,675 1,340 16,407 8,150 2,748 1,560 14,500 6,915 3,902 3,276 5,277 4,366 1,764 7,175 10,383 13,177 8,137 2,983 5,480 1,130 1,981 2,207 993 13,026 2,777 31,291 9,757 877 12,788 4,166 3,658 16,601 1,433 4,289 589 5,117 18,241 2,212 793 7,572 8,904 2,475 7,956 662 2,515 99 2,992 1,649 21,575 1,582 3,097 198 12,720 3,855 1,684 703 7,326 3,148 1,807 1,641 2,342 2,222 911 3,055 3,297 4,838 3,570 1,967 2,767 200 1,041 1,811 673 6,778 1,665 11,310 4,212 490 6,404 1,647 478 7,790 763 2,201 471 3,991 14,504 1,179 375 3,013 6,638 1,335 3,436 251 1,190 (X) 2,256 1,119 16,672 998 2,056 (X) 9,295 2,980 1,303 486 4,370 2,300 1,252 1,172 1,466 1,332 642 1,718 2,124 3,467 2,374 1,414 2,017 (X) 695 1,034 (X) 3,651 1,319 6,284 2,354 289 3,971 1,014 (X) 4,829 413 1,557 306 2,853 9,142 894 161 1,666 5,305 714 2,261 195
1

23,568 436 41 387 305 2,556 380 398 76 1,186 468 74 141 1,064 572 338 264 375 471 146 559 557 783 469 308 444 116 222 156 97 419 200 525 869 78 1,122 355 312 742 99 295 83 643 2,086 186 56 651 608 221 590 37

8,268 357 2 115 (X) 43 5 146 23 448 (X) 86 1 749 4 (X) (Z) (X) 20 (X) 129 (X) (X) (Z) (X) 2 12 2 5 32 1,693 10 1,696 257 13 669 14 6 638 62 38 1 5 226 (X) 10 96 194 191 268 (X)

24,208 190 872 245 154 4,728 138 713 114 756 471 53 84 1,097 656 167 219 255 245 75 260 959 1,843 510 171 193 85 103 (X) 126 947 90 2,638 711 54 677 142 205 1,470 70 176 28 365 (X) 84 33 365 (X) 179 492 (X)

4,659 32 1 40 14 459 20 248 40 297 39 12 9 164 102 77 57 71 51 9 93 267 163 21 10 59 13 15 20 22 284 14 673 103 2 75 51 41 563 13 15 22 56 142 8 7 48 36 27 54 4

4,908 73 1,125 (X) 15 35 23 (X) (X) 64 (X) (X) 2 (X) 1 (X) 103 200 447 (X) (X) (X) 40 3 40 (Z) 97 2 20 (Z) (X) 310 (X) 2 131 9 394 70 (X) (X) (X) 6 1 1,178 20 (X) 2 65 170 1 257

X Not applicable.

Z less than $500,000.

Includes amounts not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, State Government Tax Collections, series GF, No. 1, annual.

State and Local Government Taxes, Selected Cities
No. 493. Estimated State and Local Taxes Paid by a Family of Four in Selected Cities: 1992

313

[Preliminary. Data based on average family of four (two wage earners and two school age children) owning their own home and living in a city where taxes apply. Comprises State and local sales, income, auto, and real estate taxes. For definition of median see Guide to Tabular Presentation] TOTAL TAXES PAID, BY GROSS FAMILY INCOME LEVEL (dollars) $25,000 Albuquerque, NM . Atlanta, GA . . . . . Baltimore, MD . . . Bridgeport, CT . . . Burlington, VT . . . Charleston, WV . . Charlotte, NC . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . Columbus, OH . . . Columbia, SC . . . Des Moines, IA . . Detroit, MI. . . . . . Honolulu, HI . . . . Indianapolis, IN . . Jackson, MS . . . . Kansas City, MO . Louisville, KY. . . . Memphis, TN. . . . Milwaukee, WI . . . Newark, NJ . . . . . New York City, NY Omaha, NE . . . . . Philadelphia, PA. . Portland, ME . . . . Portland, OR . . . . Providence, RI . . . Salt Lake City, UT Sioux Falls, SD . . Virginia Beach, VA Washington, DC. . Median 1. . . . . . .
1

CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TOTAL TAXES PAID AS PERCENT OF INCOME $25,000 5.9 11.4 16.3 18.1 7.6 6.8 8.3 11.8 8.6 7.9 7.4 18.9 7.4 8.1 5.8 7.9 9.8 6.9 13.1 23.4 10.4 8.6 15.8 8.5 9.7 17.1 8.2 7.3 8.4 9.1 7.9 $50,000 6.9 11.2 16.5 18.8 8.3 7.1 8.8 11.9 9.4 9.6 8.2 19.4 8.6 7.4 6.8 8.7 10.2 5.8 14.6 22.9 13.2 9.1 15.2 10.3 10.7 16.8 9.4 6.4 8.8 10.1 8.6 $75,000 7.9 12.1 17.1 21.7 9.6 8.5 9.7 12.4 10.3 10.9 9.0 19.7 9.7 8.4 8.1 9.4 10.8 6.0 15.2 23.6 14.9 10.5 15.1 12.5 11.5 18.1 10.1 7.1 10.0 11.2 9.7 $100,000 8.5 12.0 16.7 21.2 10.1 8.8 9.7 12.1 10.7 10.9 9.1 19.3 9.9 8.1 8.2 9.2 10.8 5.7 15.1 23.4 15.2 10.7 14.8 12.8 11.5 17.9 10.0 6.7 9.9 11.6 9.9

$50,000 3,434 5,593 8,246 9,416 4,132 3,542 4,412 5,938 4,713 4,799 4,120 9,680 4,306 3,703 3,421 4,358 5,100 2,896 7,288 11,445 6,579 4,529 7,610 5,144 5,369 8,393 4,682 3,180 4,423 5,041 4,306

$75,000 5,943 9,107 12,791 16,270 7,197 6,373 7,253 9,326 7,712 8,151 6,770 14,773 7,272 6,268 6,080 7,024 8,099 4,506 11,425 17,696 11,199 7,872 11,361 9,361 8,623 13,542 7,564 5,312 7,521 8,416 7,253

$100,000 8,461 12,019 16,659 21,185 10,134 8,836 9,734 12,084 10,650 10,905 9,109 19,290 9,921 8,061 8,237 9,224 10,777 5,702 15,071 23,420 15,247 10,668 14,755 12,759 11,542 17,945 10,020 6,701 9,930 11,556 9,921

1,478 2,838 4,068 4,519 1,909 1,691 2,085 2,954 2,151 1,971 1,844 4,723 1,853 2,017 1,451 1,965 2,439 1,718 3,274 5,853 2,603 2,159 3,956 2,132 2,428 4,271 2,038 1,837 2,089 2,278 1,970

Median of all 51 cities. For complete list of cities, see table 481.

Source: Government of the District of Columbia, Department of Finance and Revenue, Tax Rates and Tax Burdens in the District of Columbia: A Nationwide Comparison, annual.

No. 494. Residential Property Tax Rates in Selected Cities: 1992
EFFECTIVE TAX Assessment Nominal RATE PER $100 level rate per (per$100 Rank Rate cent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 4.53 3.83 3.14 2.75 2.66 2.64 2.55 2.49 2.44 2.36 2.32 2.29 2.15 2.00 1.98 1.80 1.78 1.76 1.75 1.74 1.74 1.71 1.61 1.53 1.51 1.49 49.4 99.9 15.8 99.0 65.8 32.0 100.0 39.4 40.0 84.9 100.0 88.3 100.0 100.0 95.0 35.0 4.3 12.0 15.0 30.0 46.4 95.0 10.0 10.0 59.8 16.0 9.17 3.84 19.96 2.78 4.04 8.26 2.55 6.33 6.11 2.78 2.32 2.60 2.15 2.00 2.08 5.14 41.49 14.66 11.65 5.81 3.75 1.80 16.06 15.28 2.52 9.31 EFFECTIVE TAX Assessment Nominal RATE PER $100 level rate per (per$100 Rank Rate cent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 1.47 1.47 1.43 1.39 1.25 1.17 1.15 1.12 1.09 1.05 1.04 1.04 1.02 0.97 0.95 0.95 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.74 0.70 0.68 0.67 0.63 0.30 3.9 10.0 95.0 12.1 4.0 98.2 19.0 100.0 100.0 95.5 11.0 33.3 35.0 14.3 18.7 92.0 57.7 94.7 8.0 9.5 10.0 39.8 25.0 61.2 84.3 38.21 14.73 1.50 11.50 31.36 1.20 6.03 1.12 1.09 1.10 9.45 3.11 2.92 6.73 5.08 1.03 1.63 0.96 10.89 7.83 6.95 1.70 2.68 1.03 0.35

CITY

CITY

Detroit, MI . . . . . Milwaukee, WI. . . Newark, NJ. . . . . Manchester, NH. . Des Moines, IA . . Philadelphia, PA . Providence, RI . . Bridgeport, CT. . . Baltimore, MD . . . Sioux Falls, IA. . . Portland, OR. . . . Omaha, NE . . . . Jacksonville, FL. . Houston, TX . . . . Boise City, ID . . . Columbus, OH . . Fargo, ND . . . . . Wichita, KS. . . . . Indianapolis, IN . . Atlanta, GA. . . . . Portland, ME. . . . Anchorage, AK . . New Orleans, LA . Phoenix, AZ . . . . Burlington, VT . . . Chicago, IL . . . . .

Billings, MT. . . . . . Jackson, MS . . . . . Salt Lake City, UT . Minneapolis, MN . . Columbia, SC . . . . Charlotte, NC . . . . Kansas City, MO . . Boston, MA . . . . . Virginia Beach, VA . Seattle, WA . . . . . Oklahoma City, OK Albuquerque, NM. . Las Vegas, NV . . . Denver, CO . . . . . Little Rock, AR . . . Louisville, KY . . . . Wilmington, DE . . . Washington, DC . . New York City, NY . Cheyenne, WY . . . Birmingham, AL . . . Charleston, WV . . . Memphis, TN . . . . Los Angeles, CA . . Honolulu, HI . . . . .

Source: Government of the District of Columbia, Department of Finance and Revenue, Tax Rates and Tax Burdens in the District of Columbia: A Nationwide Comparison, annual.

314

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 495. Gross Revenue From Parimutuel and Amusement Taxes and Lotteries, by State: 1993
[For fiscal years; see text, section 9] Amusement taxes 1 (mil. dol.) 992 (Z) 1 1 1 50 2 93 9 (Z) 2 5 9 57 10 391 2 260 1 7 6 (Z) (Z) 24 15 (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) LOTTERY REVENUE Total 2 (mil. dol.) 23,453 243 1,655 248 524 85 2,016 57 1,406 467 186 109 454 458 118 836 1,891 1,143 311 241 35 99 1,290 2,161 1,857 532 1,335 117 77 1,686 47 823 365 110 470 Apportionment of funds (percent) Prizes 53 (X) (X) 50 (X) 50 58 51 57 50 54 51 63 59 54 69 53 54 55 68 57 53 57 51 (X) (X) 53 43 49 (X) 58 (X) 61 52 56 (X) 20 58 57 54 49 56 59 Administra- Proceeds available tion from ticket sales 6 (X) (X) 10 (X) 9 11 3 8 6 20 3 6 11 14 8 5 9 4 4 5 15 10 23 (X) (X) 5 3 3 (X) 5 (X) 24 3 3 (X) 6 3 8 10 14 12 7
2

STATE

Gross revenue (mil. dol.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,984 6 1 252 17 1,761 257 614 85 2,124 58 1,544 467 199 110 460 467 119 844 1,915 1,162 369 241 35 11 391 108 1,557 2,234 7 1,871 10 537 1,346 127 24 78 1,701 47 823 370 110 480

Parimutuel taxes (mil. dol.) 539 6 8 17 106 8 40 (Z) 106 1 45 4 1 6 7 1 3 16 19 1 (Z) 1 6 7 71 14 4 4 11 9 (Z) (Z) 5 10

United States 3 Alabama . . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . Florida . . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas. . . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . . Maine. . . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . Massachusetts. . . . . Michigan. . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . . New York . . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . . Oregon. . . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . . Rhode Island . . . . . . South Carolina. . . . . South Dakota . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . .

41 (X) (X) 40 (X) 41 31 45 35 45 25 46 31 31 33 23 42 37 40 28 39 31 32 26 (X) (X) 42 54 48 (X) 37 (X) 15 45 41 (X) 74 39 34 36 37 32 35 Excludes

- Represents or rounds to zero. X Not applicable. Z Less than $500,000. 1 Represents nonlicense taxes. commissions. 3 Includes States whose gross revenues were less than $1 million not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, State Government Finances, series GF, No. 3, annual.

Intergovernmental Expenditures-Local Revenue
No. 497. State Government Intergovernmental Expenditures, by State: 1993
[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9] Total (mil. dol.) 213,937 2,212 1,086 3,220 1,506 44,177 2,378 2,112 410 9,303 4,121 133 806 7,139 4,386 2,287 1,670 2,521 2,806 773 2,707 4,287 7,694 4,804 1,946
1

315

STATE

Per capita 1 (dol.) 830 529 1,816 816 621 1,415 667 644 587 678 597 114 732 611 769 811 659 664 654 623 546 712 813 1,062 737

Rank

Percent of general expenditure 33 24 22 37 28 50 32 20 18 34 29 3 33 29 33 32 32 26 24 23 24 23 33 37 35

STATE

Total (mil. dol.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,824 660 1,030 1,166 301 8,099 1,666 23,848 5,419 411 8,315 2,255 2,258 8,378 484 2,099 299 2,774 10,373 1,214 303 3,749 4,658 1,226 5,006 639

Per capita 1 (dol.) 539 785 638 844 268 1,031 1,031 1,314 779 645 752 698 744 696 484 578 418 545 576 653 526 579 886 674 992 1,360

Rank

Percent of general expenditure 29 29 28 37 12 34 32 39 35 21 33 32 29 29 14 24 19 27 30 28 18 28 31 25 38 39

United States . Alabama . . . . Alaska . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . Arkansas . . . . California . . . . Colorado . . . . Connecticut . . Delaware . . . . Florida . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . Idaho. . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . Kentucky . . . . Louisiana . . . . Maine . . . . . . Maryland . . . . Massachusetts Michigan . . . . Minnesota . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(X) 46 1 11 35 2 26 32 38 24 37 50 20 36 16 12 28 27 30 34 42 21 13 5 19

Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire. New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina. . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin. . . . . Wyoming . . . . .

44 14 33 10 49 7 6 4 15 31 17 22 18 23 47 40 48 43 41 29 46 39 9 25 8 3

X Not applicable.

Based on estimated resident population as of July 1.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, State Government Finances, series GF, No. 3, annual.

No. 498. Local Government General Revenue, by State: 1992
[In millions of dollars. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Data are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source] INTERGOVERNMENTAL FROM— Federal AL . AK. AZ . AR. CA. CO CT. DE. DC FL . GA HI . ID . IL . IN . IA . KS. KY. LA . ME MD MA MI . MN MS U.S . .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572,274 . 6,078 . 2,201 . 8,116 . 3,061 . 90,382 . 8,061 . 6,924 . 1,054 . 4,712 . 31,384 . 13,823 . 1,239 . 1,716 . 24,779 . 9,887 . 5,599 . 4,852 . 5,271 . 7,719 . 2,052 . 9,710 . 11,775 . 19,334 . 12,279 . 4,163
1

STATE

Total

1

FROM OWN SOURCES Total Taxes

STATE

Total

1

INTERGOVERNMENTAL FROM— Federal State 2,543 460 829 1,252 256 7,382 1,451 23,169 4,866 393 7,278 1,869 1,706 7,920 400 1,896 236 2,149 9,635 1,102 276 3,563 4,545 1,198 4,951 548

FROM OWN SOURCES Total 5,329 925 2,167 1,855 1,742 12,989 1,233 45,778 6,575 617 13,714 2,960 4,363 14,999 1,080 3,441 729 5,290 24,586 1,853 638 7,947 6,414 1,341 6,342 800 Taxes 3,515 561 1,345 889 1,510 10,080 586 33,880 3,387 363 9,222 1,475 2,916 9,998 938 1,771 543 2,868 15,808 1,093 540 5,659 3,467 651 4,220 440

State

20,047 195,539 356,687 226,696 222 2,122 3,734 1,720 87 799 1,315 665 309 2,997 4,810 2,921 90 1,355 1,617 887 2,650 39,996 47,736 25,946 242 2,226 5,593 3,493 201 2,018 4,704 3,976 41 479 534 277 1,776 (X) 2,936 2,407 948 8,887 21,549 11,377 517 3,776 9,530 5,102 94 137 1,008 683 51 710 954 496 1,176 6,884 16,719 12,146 228 3,606 6,052 3,631 156 1,902 3,541 2,093 77 1,318 3,457 2,138 199 2,246 2,826 1,508 342 2,490 4,887 2,826 70 669 1,313 995 421 2,506 6,783 4,965 622 3,934 7,218 5,406 395 6,154 12,785 8,718 439 4,801 7,039 3,631 170 1,653 2,340 964

MO MT NE. NV. NH NJ . NM NY. NC ND OH OK OR PA . RI . SC. SD. TN. TX . UT. VT . VA . WA WV WI . WY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,133 1,487 3,106 3,298 2,049 20,615 2,806 70,750 11,857 1,056 21,808 4,985 6,449 23,993 1,550 5,520 1,019 7,744 35,085 3,037 927 11,902 11,361 2,601 11,584 1,379

261 102 110 191 51 244 122 1,804 417 46 815 155 380 1,074 70 183 54 305 864 82 13 392 402 63 291 31

X Not applicable.

Excludes duplicative intergovernmental transactions.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Government Finances, series GF, No. 5, annual.

316

State and Local Government Finances and Employment

No. 499. County Governments—Summary of Finances, by Population-Size Group: 1980 to 1991
[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Represents all counties and their dependent agencies (including dependent school systems where applicable). Size classifications based on 1986 populations; counties distributed according to their 1990 enumerated population] ALL COUNTIES (mil. dol.) ITEM 1980 1990 1991 Total (3,043)
2 1

PER CAPITA (dollars), 1991 All counties Percent distribution 100 36 32 2 38 28 26 100 11 89 14 14 10 7 7 5 5 1 2 3 7 2 6 16 100 96 4 Counties with 1990 population (1,000) of— Less than 100 1 (2,631) 539 194 174 12 189 136 157 535 53 482 111 50 65 32 68 27 17 5 5 17 51 10 27 49 401 395 6 100 150 200 300 500 1,000 to to to to to or 149.9 199.9 299.9 499.9 999.9 more (133) (66) (74) (62) (52) (24) 527 195 175 14 184 135 148 542 60 482 103 74 47 40 42 28 21 4 6 14 23 10 30 101 433 426 8 544 184 162 14 234 163 126 568 62 506 120 71 22 40 45 36 25 4 10 17 22 11 29 116 468 459 9 551 179 157 14 212 156 160 559 63 496 86 70 56 42 37 29 31 3 10 17 24 12 32 109 459 449 10 551 184 167 9 227 169 140 562 61 501 80 97 32 39 38 28 31 5 13 15 28 10 30 117 480 458 22 733 228 200 15 333 232 173 764 104 660 126 97 60 47 39 35 46 4 27 16 35 14 52 167 732 715 18 704 305 274 16 239 195 160 710 71 638 22 151 95 53 28 44 53 11 15 16 58 7 47 111 697 643 54

General revenue . . . . . . Intergovernmental revenue3 . . . . . . . . . From State governments . . . . . . . . . From Federal government . . . . . Tax revenue 3 . . . . . . Property . . . . . . . . Charges and miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . General expenditure . . . . Capital outlay. . . . . . . Current expenditure . .

. 54,573 135,775 137,223 . 24,746 53,953 . 18,969 49,225 . 4,948 2,780 . 18,813 48,750 . 14,300 35,723 49,863 44,535 3,058 52,154 38,610

610 222 198 14 232 172 157 619 68 551 88 90 63 42 46 33 33 6 13 16 42 10 37 102 541 520 21

. 11,014 33,072 35,207 . 54,291 127,626 139,267 . 6,505 13,467 15,332 . 47,786 114,159 123,934

Education . . . . . . . . . . 8,412 18,395 19,821 Public welfare . . . . . . . 8,591 18,114 20,171 Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . 5,975 13,018 14,164 Health . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,806 8,791 9,362 Highways . . . . . . . . . . 5,227 9,415 10,246 Police protection . . . . . 2,661 6,693 7,382 Correction . . . . . . . . . . 1,759 6,590 7,447 Natural resources . . . . . 687 1,314 1,371 Parks and recreation . . . 1,094 2,487 2,830 Financial administration . 1,521 3,363 3,613 9,948 General control 4 . . . . . 3,374 9,149 General public buildings. 1,072 2,182 2,317 Interest on general debt. 1,542 7,976 8,223 Other and unallocable . . 9,570 20,139 22,372 Debt outstanding, year end. . . . . . . . . . . . 32,993 118,608 121,755 Long-term . . . . . . . . . . 31,543 115,392 117,041 Short-term. . . . . . . . . . 1,450 3,216 4,714
2 4

1 Data for counties under 100,000 population are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. Figures in parentheses represent number of counties in each size group. 3 Includes other revenues not shown separately. Includes judicial and legal as well as other administrative expenditures. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, County Government Finances, series GF, No. 8, annual.

No. 500. Gross Assessed Value of Property and Government Revenue From Property Taxes: 1975 to 1992
[In billions of dollars, except percent. Data are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source] ITEM Gross assessed value of property 1 . . State assessed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locally assessed . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real property . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of locally assessed . . Net assessed value of locally taxable property 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of gross assessed . . . . . . REVENUE FROM PROPERTY TAXES State and local governments. . . Percent of general revenue Percent of tax revenue . . . State governments . . . . . . . Percent of general revenue Percent of tax revenue . . . Local governments . . . . . . . Annual percent change from prior year . . . . . . . . Percent of general revenue Percent of tax revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 23 36 2 1 2 50
3 7 32 82

1975 1,096 75 1,022 882 86 1,063 97

1979 1,679 114 1,565 1,359 87 1,607 96

1981 2,958 159 2,799 2,515 90 2,838 96

1984 4,053 200 3,853 3,447 89 3,869 96

1986 4,818 243 4,575 4,105 90 4,620 96

1988 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

1989 6,013 257 5,756 5,220 91 5,791 96

1990 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

1991 6,924 286 6,638 6,044 91 6,682 97

1992 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

65 19 32 3 1 2 63 6 27 78

75 18 31 3 1 2 72 7 25 76

97 18 30 4 1 2 93 8 25 75

112 17 30 4 1 2 107 8 25 74

132 18 30 5 1 2 127 9 29 74

143 18 30 5 1 2 137 8 29 74

156 18 31 6 1 2 150 9 29 75

168 19 32 6 1 2 162 9 30 75

178 18 32 7 1 2 172 6 30 76

.... .... ....

NA Not available. 1 Gross assessed value amounts may include prior year components for those States unable to report data for indicated year at time of publication. See sources for definitions of terms and limitations of data. 2 Value subject to local general property taxation, including State-assessed property, after deduction of partial exemptions. 3 Change from 1971. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982 and 1987 Census of Governments, vol. 2; Property Values Subject to Local General Property Taxation in the United States: 1975 and 1979, and Government Finances, series GF, No. 5, annual.

City Government Finances
No. 501. City Governments—Summary of Finances: 1980 to 1992

317

[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Represents all municipalities and their dependent agencies (including dependent school systems where applicable); excludes other local governments overlying city areas. Includes sample-based estimates for cities of less 50,000; thus subject to sampling variation. See Appendix III and source] TOTAL (mil. dol.) 1980 Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . Intergovernmental revenue . . . . From State governments only Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of total taxes . . . . Sales and gross receipts . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selective . . . . . . . . . . . . Income, licenses, and other . Charges and miscellaneous . . . Current charges only . . . . . . Utility and liquor store revenue . Water system . . . . . . . . . . Electric power system . . . . . Gas supply system . . . . . . . Transit system . . . . . . . . . . Liquor stores . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance trust revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94,862 76,056 28,270 15,939 31,256 16,859 54 8,208 5,096 3,112 6,189 16,530 9,875 15,719 4,989 8,007 1,444 1,032 247 3,088 93,699 72,433 8,200 4,535 5,977 7,907 3,801 9,284 883 4,457 3,433 3,459 1,100 1,843 2,015 1,090 3,054 11,395 18,274 5,933 8,596 1,334 2,189 222 2,993 91,692 66,687 16,285 13,341 2,944 1,546 4,182 2,992 2,007 1990 202,393 158,301 45,306 34,243 68,788 35,024 51 19,190 11,645 7,545 14,574 44,207 25,265 33,266 11,578 17,312 2,335 1,766 275 10,827 198,822 153,717 18,183 9,487 12,106 16,476 7,890 17,368 1,939 9,141 7,584 7,661 2,878 3,895 5,274 1,767 11,317 20,751 38,436 13,579 17,490 2,263 4,855 250 6,669 193,933 138,818 31,779 22,842 8,937 2,212 14,455 6,669 4,890 1991 210,498 164,319 46,260 34,901 72,213 37,654 52 19,604 11,738 7,866 14,954 45,846 27,221 34,486 12,067 17,926 2,299 1,924 270 11,693 211,506 164,226 19,388 10,045 12,627 17,603 8,941 18,793 2,119 9,818 8,450 8,286 2,970 3,907 6,195 1,947 11,370 21,767 39,728 14,229 17,656 2,218 5,375 250 7,552 206,637 147,644 34,106 23,977 10,129 2,549 14,786 7,552 4,869 1992 220,048 171,618 48,152 36,222 75,486 39,706 53 20,190 11,976 8,214 15,590 47,980 29,449 35,460 12,724 18,232 2,321 1,892 292 12,969 219,293 170,680 20,420 10,412 12,961 18,260 9,528 19,382 2,106 10,338 8,232 8,576 3,552 4,172 6,055 1,884 12,429 22,373 40,740 14,661 18,023 2,177 5,613 266 7,873 213,379 153,501 33,274 23,929 9,345 2,788 15,944 7,873 5,913 1980 672 539 200 113 222 119 (X) 58 36 22 44 117 70 111 35 57 10 7 2 22 664 513 58 32 42 56 27 66 6 32 24 25 8 13 14 8 22 81 130 42 61 9 16 2 21 650 473 115 95 21 11 30 21 14 PER CAPITA 1 (dol.) 1990 1,316 1,029 295 223 447 228 (X) 125 76 49 95 287 164 216 75 113 15 11 2 70 1,293 999 118 62 79 107 51 113 13 59 49 50 19 25 34 11 74 135 250 88 114 15 32 2 43 1,261 902 207 148 58 14 94 43 32 1991 1,368 1,068 301 227 469 245 (X) 127 76 51 97 298 177 224 78 117 15 13 2 76 1,375 1,068 126 65 82 114 58 122 14 64 55 54 19 25 40 13 74 142 257 93 115 14 35 2 49 1,343 960 222 156 66 17 96 49 32 1992 1,430 1,116 313 235 491 258 131 78 53 101 312 191 231 83 119 15 13 2 84 1,426 1,110 133 68 84 119 62 126 14 67 54 56 23 27 39 12 81 145 265 95 117 14 36 2 51 1,387 998 216 156 61 18 104 52 34

ITEM

Expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . Police protection . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sewerage and sanitation . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . . . . Parks and recreation . . . . . . . . . Housing and community develop . Airports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial administration . . . . . . . General control 2 . . . . . . . . . . . General public buildings. . . . . . . Interest on general debt. . . . . . . Other and unallocable . . . . . . . . Utility and liquor store expenditure Water system . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric power system . . . . . . . Gas supply system . . . . . . . . . Transit system . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquor stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance trust expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

By character and object: Direct expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . Current operation . . . . . . . . . . Capital outlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . Land and existing structures 3 Assistance payments . . . . . . . . Interest on debt . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance benefits, repayments . Intergovernmental expenditure . . .

Expenditure for salaries and wages

4

..

34,709
86,019 82,346 39,570 42,776 3,673 72,528 12,582 5,541

66,973
212,919 207,487 68,510 138,977 5,432 139,109 27,991 17,980

72,108
226,554 220,591 75,147 145,444 5,963 152,880 30,166 16,245

74,192
241,551 236,144 81,748 154,396 5,407 167,329 35,795 22,227

246
610 584 280 303 26 514 89 39

435
1,384 1,349 445 903 35 904 182 117

469
1,473 1,434 489 946 39 994 196 106

482
1,570 1,535 531 1,004 34 1,088 233 144

Debt outstanding, year end . . . . Long-term . . . . . . . . Full faith and credit . Nonguaranteed . . . Short-term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Net long-term debt outstanding . . . . . . Long-term debt issued . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term debt retired . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1980 data based on April 1 enumerated urban population; all other years based on April 1, 1990 X Not applicable. 2 3 enumerated urban population. Includes judicial and legal as well as other governmental administration. Includes 4 equipment. Included in items shown above.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, City Government Finances, series GF, No. 4, annual.

318

State and Local Government Finances and Employment

No. 502. City Governments—Total and Per Capita Finances for Largest Cities: 1992
[For fiscal year ending in year show; see text, section 9. Cities ranked by size except Honolulu and Baton Rouge ranked by county population. Data reflect inclusion of fiscal activity of dependent systems where applicable. Intercity comparisons should be made with caution due to variations in responsibilities am areas; for details see text, section 9, and source] GENERAL REVENUE Total (mil. dol.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,782 3,889 3,298 1,417 2,818 1,174 1,567 1,083 988 555 642 1,760 933 2,640 731 558 601 882 4,419 1,595 713 271 535 658 989 1,046 560 381 355 402 541 604 361 494 428 695 736 470 540 373 331 620 416 871 523 306 242 228 235 690 247 180 183 286 306 453 414 255 267 277 180 566 235 164 237 615 216 696 197 200 173 414 146 Per capita 1 (dol.) 5,023 1,116 1,185 869 1,777 1,057 1,524 1,076 1,005 593 821 2,391 1,276 3,647 1,151 881 957 1,445 7,282 2,778 1,381 526 1,058 1,323 2,026 2,236 1,203 851 798 920 1,244 1,407 891 1,247 1,080 1,763 1,872 1,222 1,451 1,009 895 1,682 1,133 1,042 1,437 854 682 678 705 2,101 812 613 636 1,016 1,094 1,646 1,522 946 1,003 1,042 686 2,167 912 637 993 2,656 955 3,074 873 898 777 1,089 693 INTERGOV. REVENUE Total (mil. dol.) 14,480 522 822 64 874 233 706 58 312 118 95 882 284 900 145 105 307 573 1,508 657 98 31 132 123 258 249 34 42 19 66 57 115 120 74 111 138 271 151 102 91 31 170 29 123 96 48 47 36 45 467 76 39 59 27 50 265 142 57 39 30 11 211 101 15 33 362 32 270 16 41 16 56 21
2

TAXES Total (mil. dol.) 17,141 1,933 1,592 779 1,483 383 551 505 334 224 328 664 419 977 248 287 166 159 2,407 641 370 129 273 301 479 391 176 196 194 203 330 183 132 277 165 223 374 132 222 237 154 192 167 482 238 171 109 144 128 143 80 103 45 85 126 97 93 147 112 158 96 216 64 71 91 140 74 179 101 95 100 203 68 Per capita 1 (dol.) 2,341 554 572 478 935 345 536 502 339 239 419 903 574 1,349 391 453 265 260 3,965 1,117 718 250 539 605 980 836 378 437 436 464 758 425 326 698 416 566 950 344 596 640 417 522 454 577 653 476 306 429 384 436 262 349 158 302 449 353 343 547 421 595 367 827 250 276 381 602 325 792 450 426 452 533 322

CITIES RANKED BY 1990 POPULATION

GENERAL EXPENDITURE Total (mil. dol.) 34,331 3,534 3,281 1,452 2,823 1,084 1,577 1,373 924 657 710 1,550 895 2,302 779 600 584 879 4,586 1,560 737 268 552 684 857 1,513 611 436 362 495 570 598 343 517 500 624 682 395 508 379 352 736 444 892 525 324 236 209 234 757 260 204 197 306 327 450 409 255 333 309 154 586 246 154 212 628 219 699 190 200 157 476 145 Per capita 1 (dol.) 4,688 1,014 1,179 890 1,780 976 1,534 1,363 940 702 908 2,106 1,223 3,180 1,227 947 930 1,439 7,556 2,716 1,428 520 1,091 1,376 1,754 3,236 1,313 974 813 1,131 1,310 1,393 845 1,303 1,263 1,583 1,734 1,238 1,364 1,024 954 1,998 1,210 1,066 1,443 903 666 621 703 2,308 857 694 685 1,087 1,169 1,634 1,504 947 1,252 1,162 589 2,244 951 596 889 2,712 966 3,088 842 895 706 1,040 687

DEBT OUTSTANDING Total (mil. dol.) 34,984 8,003 6,012 3,962 3,835 1,646 1,685 3,586 2,310 4,239 1,249 1,308 1,232 3,174 4,654 1,247 600 811 3,942 1,071 1,032 448 761 1,126 2,216 3,344 3,190 935 571 759 905 791 825 767 999 1,433 566 754 1,144 661 452 2,290 1,585 1,051 260 565 248 195 194 500 539 304 484 730 683 207 865 442 766 807 378 1,023 134 429 574 284 727 1,055 414 152 429 1,269 283 Per capita 1 (dol.) 4,778 2,296 2,160 2,430 2,418 1,482 1,640 3,562 2,349 4,529 1,597 1,777 1,685 4,382 7,326 1,070 956 1,328 6,495 1,864 1,999 870 1,506 1,265 4,537 7,151 6,850 2,067 1,294 1,735 2,080 1,841 2,034 1,933 2,523 3,637 1,439 3,300 3,073 1,787 1,224 6,215 4,315 1,256 713 1,575 701 580 582 1,524 1,772 1,035 1,681 2,597 2,438 750 3,177 1,642 2,874 3,035 1,446 3,914 518 1,668 2,405 1,228 3,208 4,662 1,837 683 1,932 1,984 1,342

Per capita 1 (dol.) 1,977 150 295 39 551 210 686 58 317 126 122 1,198 388 1,243 229 166 490 939 2,485 1,144 189 59 262 247 529 532 74 94 42 150 130 267 295 186 279 350 689 392 274 245 83 461 79 147 263 135 132 107 134 1,425 250 134 204 96 178 963 521 211 145 111 42 807 393 59 138 1,563 140 1,191 73 182 74 147 102

New York City, NY 2 . . . . Los Angeles, CA . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA 2 . . . . . . San Diego, CA. . . . . . . . Detroit, MI. . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX. . . . . . . . . . . Phoenix, AZ . . . . . . . . . San Antonio, TX. . . . . . . San Jose, CA . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD 2 . . . . . . . Indianapolis, IN 2 . . . . . . San Francisco, CA 2 . . . . Jacksonville, FL 2 . . . . . . Columbus, OH . . . . . . . . Milwaukee, WI . . . . . . . . Memphis, TN. . . . . . . . . Washington, DC 2. . . . . . Boston, MA 2 . . . . . . . . . Seattle, WA. . . . . . . . . . El Paso, TX. . . . . . . . . . Cleveland, OH . . . . . . . . New Orleans, LA 2 . . . . . Nashville-Davidson, TN 2 . Denver, CO 2. . . . . . . . . Austin, TX. . . . . . . . . . . Fort Worth, TX. . . . . . . . Oklahoma City, OK . . . . . Portland, OR . . . . . . . . . Kansas City, MO . . . . . . Long Beach, CA . . . . . . Tucson, AZ . . . . . . . . . . St. Louis, MO 2 . . . . . . . Charlotte, NC . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . . Virginia Beach, VA 2 . . . . Albuquerque, NM . . . . . . Oakland, CA . . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA . . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA. . . . . . . Minneapolis, MN . . . . . . Tulsa, OK . . . . . . . . . . . Honolulu, HI 2 . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH . . . . . . . . Miami, FL . . . . . . . . . . . Fresno, CA . . . . . . . . . . Omaha, NE . . . . . . . . . . Toledo, OH . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo, NY . . . . . . . . . . Wichita, KS . . . . . . . . . . Santa Ana, CA. . . . . . . . Mesa, AZ . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado Springs, CO . . . Tampa, FL . . . . . . . . . . Newark, NJ . . . . . . . . . . St. Paul, MN . . . . . . . . . Louisville, KY. . . . . . . . . Anaheim, CA . . . . . . . . . Birmingham, AL . . . . . . . Arlington, TX . . . . . . . . . Norfolk, VA 2 . . . . . . . . . Las Vegas, NV . . . . . . . Corpus Christi, TX . . . . . St. Petersburg, FL . . . . . Rochester, NY . . . . . . . . Riverside, CA . . . . . . . . Anchorage, AK 2 . . . . . . Lexington-Fayette, KY 2 . . Akron, OH. . . . . . . . . . . Aurora, CO . . . . . . . . . . Baton Rouge, LA 2 . . . . . Stockton, CA . . . . . . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Based on enumerated population as of April 1, 1990.

Represents, in effect, city-county consolidated government.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, City Government Finances, series GF, No. 4, annual.

City Government Finances
No. 503. City Governments—Finances, by Population-Size Groups: 1992

319

[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. Represents all municipalities and their dependent agencies, including dependent school systems where applicable] CITIES HAVING A 1990 POPULATION OF— ITEM All cities
1

Less than 75,000

1

75,000 to 99,999 98 8,455 7,963 3,704 2,404 991 1,824 1,414 316 1,479 1,703 8,128 1,710 1,229 756 748 335 68 466 557 1,978 10,772 10,581 192 100.0 46.5 30.2 12.4 22.9 17.8 100.0 21.0 15.1 9.3 9.2 4.1 0.8 5.7 6.9 942 438 284 117 216 167 37 175 201 961 202 145 89 88 40 8 55 66 234 1,274 1,251 23

100,000 to 199,999 119 16,390 15,995 7,047 4,351 2,038 4,338 3,128 775 2,632 3,597 16,373 3,444 2,414 1,770 1,367 284 282 828 1,207 3,804 22,488 22,110 379 100.0 44.1 27.2 12.7 27.1 19.6 100.0 21.0 14.7 10.8 8.3 1.7 1.7 5.1 7.4 976 430 265 124 265 191 47 161 219 999 210 147 108 83 17 17 50 74 232 1,372 1,349 23

200,000 to 299,999 24 5,975 7,228 2,691 1,396 787 2,189 1,518 420 1,370 1,445 7,423 1,438 1,058 714 581 267 146 597 681 1,596 12,701 12,476 226 100.0 37.2 19.3 10.9 30.3 21.0 100.0 19.4 14.3 9.6 7.8 3.6 2.0 8.0 9.2 1,210 450 234 132 366 254 70 229 242 1,242 241 177 120 97 45 24 100 114 267 2,126 2,088 38
2

300,000 to 499,999 28 11,088 13,884 5,940 2,593 2,313 3,118 1,970 732 2,875 2,095 14,629 2,698 1,018 1,646 1,070 622 183 701 1,735 2,340 29,081 28,753 328 100.0 42.8 18.7 16.7 22.5 14.2 100.0 18.4 7.0 11.3 7.3 4.3 1.3 4.8 11.9 1,252 536 234 209 281 178 66 259 189 1,319 243 92 148 96 56 17 63 156 211 2,623 2,593 30

500,000 1,000,000 to or more 999,999 16 10,954 18,694 8,108 4,313 1,791 6,269 3,580 2,147 2,611 3,698 18,475 2,992 2,261 1,791 940 1,693 1,320 956 1,326 4,456 29,129 28,865 264 100.0 43.4 23.1 9.6 33.5 19.2 100.0 16.2 12.2 9.7 5.1 9.2 7.1 5.2 7.2 1,707 740 394 163 572 327 196 238 338 1,687 273 206 164 86 155 121 87 121 407 2,659 2,635 24 8 19,953 52,027 24,366 10,666 5,915 17,759 15,411 2,005 6,582 5,601 49,454 6,099 8,074 3,543 1,777 4,265 7,162 3,094 3,085 8,775 63,714 61,553 2,161 100.0 46.8 20.5 11.4 34.1 29.6 100.0 12.3 16.3 7.2 3.6 8.6 14.5 6.3 6.2 2,607 1,221 535 296 890 772 100 330 281 2,479 306 405 178 89 214 359 155 155 440 3,193 3,085 108

Number of cities, 1992. . . . . . . . . . . . . Population, 1990 (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . FINANCES, 1992 (mil. dol.) General revenue 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and gross receipts . . . . . . . . Intergovernmental 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . From State governments . . . . . . . . From Federal Government . . . . . . . Current charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility and liquor store revenue . . . . . . . General expenditure 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Police and fire protection . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sewerage and sanitation . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Housing and community development . Interest on general debt . . . . . . . . . . Utility and liquor store expenditure . . . . . Debt outstanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Short-term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION General revenue 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and gross receipts . . . . . . . . Intergovernmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General expenditure 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Police and fire protection . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sewerage and sanitation . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Housing and community development . Interest on general debt . . . . . . . . . . PER CAPITA 3 (dollars) General revenue 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and gross receipts . . . . . . . . Intergovernmental 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . From State governments . . . . . . . . From Federal Government . . . . . . . Current charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility and liquor store revenue . . . . . . . General expenditure 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Police and fire protection . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sewerage and sanitation . . . . . . . . . Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Housing and community development . Interest on general debt . . . . . . . . . . Utility and liquor store expenditure . . . . . Debt outstanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Short-term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

19,296 153,827 171,618 75,486 39,706 20,190 48,152 36,222 8,033 29,449 35,460 170,680 30,832 19,382 18,260 12,961 10,338 9,528 8,576 12,429 40,740 241,551 236,144 5,407 100.0 44.0 23.1 11.8 28.1 21.1 100.0 18.1 11.4 10.7 7.6 6.1 5.6 5.0 7.3 1,116 491 258 131 313 235 52 191 231 1,110 200 126 119 84 67 62 56 81 265 1,570 1,535 35

19,003 81,012 55,827 23,630 13,983 6,355 12,655 9,201 1,638 11,900 17,321 56,198 12,451 3,328 8,040 6,478 2,872 367 1,934 3,838 17,791 73,666 71,806 1,857 100.0 42.3 25.0 11.4 22.7 16.5 100.0 22.2 5.9 14.3 11.5 5.1 0.7 3.4 6.8 689 292 173 78 156 114 20 147 214 694 154 41 99 80 35 5 24 47 220 909 886 23

1 Data are estimates subject to sampling variation, see Appendix III and source. Based on 1990 enumerated resident population as of April 1.

Includes items not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, City Government Finances, series GF, No. 4, annual.

320

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 504. City Governments—Revenue and Debt for Largest Cities: 1992
[In millions of dollars. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. See headnote, table 502] REVENUE General revenue

CITIES RANKED BY 1990 POPULATION

Total

1

Intergovernmental Total
1

Taxes Total
1

From State From and local Federal govts. Government 13,330 385 565 23 717 142 576 16 230 96 86 828 248 778 88 58 257 546 58 634 76 8 69 45 246 221 26 23 8 54 29 73 98 41 89 82 179 122 73 70 30 144 14 62 69 35 34 32 31 422 66 22 52 15 38 203 102 36 17 16 2 163 98 5 30 308 28 264 6 18 14 32 17 1,150 137 256 41 157 92 130 42 82 22 9 53 35 122 57 47 50 27 1,451 23 21 22 63 78 13 27 8 19 10 12 28 42 22 32 22 55 91 29 29 21 1 26 15 61 27 14 13 4 13 45 10 17 6 12 12 62 40 21 21 13 9 48 3 10 3 54 4 6 11 22 2 24 5

Property 7,899 774 596 400 330 156 215 295 117 124 129 458 322 536 198 23 155 118 903 599 128 66 49 138 263 99 98 130 27 138 62 72 24 37 140 123 233 47 113 122 52 142 19 389 43 127 39 66 10 122 52 48 5 18 58 62 72 38 38 28 57 127 30 36 58 126 25 165 24 18 16 54 18

Sales and gross receipts 3,432 758 855 359 73 194 44 201 197 94 146 48 20 233 41 6 5 30 672 25 154 59 4 137 173 246 74 61 161 31 147 91 104 109 12 68 113 80 68 29 90 38 144 59 4 35 50 70 15 25 47 37 66 59 8 17 1 65 56 37 69 14 34 29 11 42 7 6 80 137 40

Utility and liquor store 1,993 2,141 228 235 587 125 169 122 103 839 8 52 7 225 729 89 48 844 54 69 332 42 167 56 605 85 500 65 38 52 47 120 76 30 34 61 39 43 20 23 44 91 64 23 21 20 25 17 71 260 30 37 22 62 243 33 33 50 49 26 197 94 1 25 25 3 6

Debt outstanding

New York City, NY 2 . . . . Los Angeles, CA . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA 2 . . . . . San Diego, CA . . . . . . . Detroit, MI . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX . . . . . . . . . . Phoenix, AZ . . . . . . . . . San Antonio, TX . . . . . . San Jose, CA . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD 2 . . . . . . Indianapolis, IN 2. . . . . . San Francisco, CA 2 . . . Jacksonville, FL 2 . . . . . Columbus, OH . . . . . . . Milwaukee, WI . . . . . . . Memphis, TN . . . . . . . . Washington, DC 2 . . . . . Boston, MA 2 . . . . . . . . Seattle, WA . . . . . . . . . El Paso, TX . . . . . . . . . Cleveland, OH . . . . . . . New Orleans, LA 2. . . . . Nashville-Davidson, TN 2 Denver, CO 2 . . . . . . . . Austin, TX . . . . . . . . . . Fort Worth, TX . . . . . . . Oklahoma City, OK . . . . Portland, OR . . . . . . . . Kansas City, MO . . . . . . Long Beach, CA . . . . . . Tucson, AZ . . . . . . . . . St. Louis, MO 2 . . . . . . . Charlotte, NC . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . Virginia Beach, VA 2. . . . Albuquerque, NM . . . . . Oakland, CA. . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA. . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA . . . . . . Minneapolis, MN . . . . . . Tulsa, OK . . . . . . . . . . Honolulu, HI 2 . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH . . . . . . . Miami, FL . . . . . . . . . . Fresno, CA . . . . . . . . . Omaha, NE . . . . . . . . . Toledo, OH. . . . . . . . . . Buffalo, NY . . . . . . . . . Wichita, KS . . . . . . . . . Santa Ana, CA . . . . . . . Mesa, AZ . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado Springs, CO . . Tampa, FL . . . . . . . . . . Newark, NJ . . . . . . . . . St. Paul, MN. . . . . . . . . Louisville, KY . . . . . . . . Anaheim, CA . . . . . . . . Birmingham, AL . . . . . . Arlington, TX . . . . . . . . Norfolk, VA 2 . . . . . . . . Las Vegas, NV . . . . . . . Corpus Christi, TX . . . . . St. Petersburg, FL . . . . . Rochester, NY . . . . . . . Riverside, CA . . . . . . . . Anchorage, AK 2 . . . . . . Lexington-Fayette, KY 2 . Akron, OH . . . . . . . . . . Aurora, CO . . . . . . . . . Baton Rouge, LA 2 . . . . Stockton, CA . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44,888 6,993 4,514 1,802 3,471 1,427 2,043 1,371 1,152 1,427 768 1,997 965 3,417 1,556 647 833 1,891 4,754 1,830 1,104 359 703 747 1,636 1,171 1,130 501 407 455 671 725 455 604 473 811 775 514 566 407 386 750 473 962 675 381 320 259 255 709 313 197 255 546 383 491 448 317 510 326 212 633 235 214 296 641 414 815 221 226 205 455 152
1

36,782 3,889 3,298 1,417 2,818 1,174 1,567 1,083 988 555 642 1,760 933 2,640 731 558 601 882 4,419 1,595 713 271 535 658 989 1,046 560 381 355 402 541 604 361 494 428 695 736 470 540 373 331 620 416 871 523 306 242 228 235 690 247 180 183 286 306 453 414 255 267 277 180 566 235 164 237 615 216 696 197 200 173 414 146

17,141 1,933 1,592 779 1,483 383 551 505 334 224 328 664 419 977 248 287 166 159 2,407 641 370 129 273 301 479 391 176 196 194 203 330 183 132 277 165 223 374 132 222 237 154 192 167 482 238 171 109 144 128 143 80 103 45 85 126 97 93 147 112 158 96 216 64 71 91 140 74 179 101 95 100 203 68
2

34,984 8,003 6,012 3,962 3,835 1,646 1,685 3,586 2,310 4,239 1,249 1,308 1,232 3,174 4,654 1,247 600 811 3,942 1,071 1,032 448 761 1,126 2,216 3,344 3,190 935 571 759 905 791 825 767 999 1,433 566 1,269 1,144 661 452 2,290 1,585 1,051 260 565 248 195 194 500 539 304 484 730 683 207 865 442 766 807 378 1,023 134 429 574 284 727 1,055 414 152 429 754 283

- Represents or rounds to zero. government.

Includes items not shown separately.

Represents, in effect, city-county consolidated

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, City Government Finances, series GF, No. 4, annual.

City Government Finances
No. 505. City Governments—Expenditures for Largest Cities: 1992
[In millions of dollars. For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 9. See headnote, table 502] General expenditure CITIES RANKED BY 1990 POPULATION Total expenditure 1 Housing and community development 2,445 256 128 21 89 90 51 14 57 13 110 63 30 75 50 4 46 20 219 45 49 5 68 82 5 11 5 6 6 20 8 70 33 27 12 15 5 17 46 9 131 5 102 54 17 9 10 10 68 10 47 4 4 5 66 59 23 97 1 13 66 4 1 3 54 18 2 21 10 2 11 4
1

321

Total

1

Education

Public welfare

Health and hospitals 3,646 11 97 59 335 2 98 19 1 18 58 176 549 21 23 12 16 535 237 14 15 10 14 80 134 142 11 1 41 25 1 31 3 17 7 7 2 10 19 9 32 (Z) 1 5 2 7 3 109 4 13 8 7 1 3 1 30 2 5 5 1 27 13 7 (Z) 31 1

Police protection 1,872 650 627 269 345 168 290 168 155 99 110 154 88 164 78 127 118 74 273 137 95 43 123 77 64 92 52 53 68 71 78 95 51 88 43 74 41 55 75 58 73 56 46 114 65 88 41 33 46 55 27 52 40 34 54 66 34 33 47 36 24 34 39 25 40 38 37 40 22 27 30 39 35

Fire protection 699 265 231 147 123 75 93 75 83 66 55 84 38 101 56 67 54 59 97 86 62 23 67 37 39 53 35 32 48 48 41 56 24 26 33 39 19 29 40 43 40 29 34 44 50 46 21 25 31 41 17 22 19 19 22 44 25 22 25 28 16 21 26 13 16 27 17 22 19 20 17 20 21
2

Highways

Utility and liquor store

New York City, NY 2 . . . . Los Angeles, CA . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA 2 . . . . . San Diego, CA . . . . . . . Detroit, MI . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX . . . . . . . . . . Phoenix, AZ . . . . . . . . . San Antonio, TX . . . . . . San Jose, CA . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD 2 . . . . . . Indianapolis, IN 2. . . . . . San Francisco, CA 2 . . . Jacksonville, FL 2 . . . . . Columbus, OH . . . . . . . Milwaukee, WI . . . . . . . Memphis, TN . . . . . . . . Washington, DC 2 . . . . . Boston, MA 2 . . . . . . . . Seattle, WA . . . . . . . . . El Paso, TX . . . . . . . . . Cleveland, OH . . . . . . . New Orleans, LA 2. . . . . Nashville-Davidson, TN 2 Denver, CO 2 . . . . . . . . Austin, TX . . . . . . . . . . Fort Worth, TX . . . . . . . Oklahoma City, OK . . . . Portland, OR . . . . . . . . Kansas City, MO . . . . . . Long Beach, CA . . . . . . Tucson, AZ . . . . . . . . . St. Louis, MO 2 . . . . . . . Charlotte, NC . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . Virginia Beach, VA 2. . . . Albuquerque, NM . . . . . Oakland, CA. . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA. . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA . . . . . . Minneapolis, MN . . . . . . Tulsa, OK . . . . . . . . . . Honolulu, HI 2 . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH . . . . . . . Miami, FL . . . . . . . . . . Fresno, CA . . . . . . . . . Omaha, NE . . . . . . . . . Toledo, OH. . . . . . . . . . Buffalo, NY . . . . . . . . . Wichita, KS . . . . . . . . . Santa Ana, CA . . . . . . . Mesa, AZ . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado Springs, CO . . Tampa, FL . . . . . . . . . . Newark, NJ . . . . . . . . . St. Paul, MN. . . . . . . . . Louisville, KY . . . . . . . . Anaheim, CA . . . . . . . . Birmingham, AL . . . . . . Arlington, TX . . . . . . . . Norfolk, VA 2 . . . . . . . . Las Vegas, NV . . . . . . . Corpus Christi, TX . . . . . St. Petersburg, FL . . . . . Rochester, NY . . . . . . . Riverside, CA . . . . . . . . Anchorage, AK 2 . . . . . . Lexington-Fayette, KY 2 . Akron, OH . . . . . . . . . . Aurora, CO . . . . . . . . . Baton Rouge, LA 2 . . . . Stockton, CA . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42,499 6,577 3,887 1,758 3,723 1,311 2,131 1,620 1,091 1,501 760 1,687 954 3,024 1,686 729 684 1,762 5,036 1,781 1,173 359 803 773 1,525 1,649 1,113 523 417 581 662 737 463 603 566 767 716 546 554 429 399 795 491 1,101 659 359 303 222 258 774 309 221 265 590 408 491 451 291 600 329 189 646 246 195 285 645 398 868 203 232 188 423 152

34,331 3,534 3,281 1,452 2,823 1,084 1,577 1,373 924 657 710 1,550 895 2,302 779 600 584 879 4,586 1,560 737 268 552 684 857 1,513 611 436 362 495 570 598 343 517 500 624 682 476 508 379 352 736 444 892 525 324 236 209 234 757 260 204 197 306 327 450 409 255 333 309 154 586 246 154 212 628 219 699 190 200 157 395 145

8,008 9 35 17 6 1 9 537 58 435 743 479 271 24 3 19 334 4 (Z) (Z) 362 (Z) 3 196 320 284 -

6,840 110 213 (Z) 12 2 77 313 17 872 26 1 (Z) 6 11 133 1 (Z) 2 4 1 (Z) 15 5 1 (Z) 1 2 (Z) 45 11 32 (Z) 6 5 1 -

795 153 365 128 95 76 100 63 68 53 64 144 49 42 45 53 46 37 122 51 51 24 48 39 35 65 22 52 41 64 51 26 47 21 53 25 56 38 17 22 49 49 28 44 44 9 30 30 28 21 69 18 22 54 26 6 55 18 22 25 21 20 54 14 33 18 28 43 8 22 22 41 9

4,690 2,411 198 238 607 181 305 146 143 829 17 46 24 490 867 129 37 819 78 57 384 74 252 54 629 113 478 65 49 50 62 137 110 28 61 82 34 70 16 28 29 42 209 81 43 24 17 32 17 68 284 54 34 27 37 266 34 44 (Z) 42 58 17 180 162 5 32 29 6 7

- Represents or rounds to zero. Z Less than $500,000. city-county consolidated government.

Includes items not shown separately.

Represents, in effect,

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, City Government Finances, series GF, No. 4, annual.

322

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 506. Governmental Employment and Payrolls: 1980 to 1992

[For October. Covers both full-time and part-time employees. Except for 1987, local government data are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series Y 272-307] TYPE OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES (1,000) Total . . . . . . . . . . Federal (civilian) 1 . . . . . State and local . . . . . . . Percent of total . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . Counties . . . . . . . . Municipalities . . . . . School districts . . . . Townships . . . . . . . Special districts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 18,745 3,047 15,698 84 4,595 11,103 2,253 2,665 5,134 424 627

. 16,213 16,034 16,436 16,690 16,933 17,212 17,588 17,879 18,369 18,554 . 2,898 2,875 2,942 3,021 3,019 3,091 3,112 3,114 3,105 3,103 . 13,315 13,159 13,494 13,669 13,913 14,121 14,476 14,765 15,263 15,452 . 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 . 3,753 3,816 3,898 3,984 4,068 4,116 4,236 4,365 4,503 4,521 . 9,562 9,344 9,595 9,685 9,846 10,005 10,240 10,400 10,760 10,930 . 1,853 1,811 1,872 1,891 1,926 1,963 2,024 2,085 2,167 2,196 . 2,561 2,424 2,434 2,467 2,494 2,493 2,570 2,569 2,642 2,662 . 4,270 4,211 4,387 4,416 4,502 4,627 4,679 4,774 4,950 5,045 . 394 379 386 392 400 393 415 405 418 415 . 484 519 516 519 524 529 552 568 585 612

OCTOBER PAYROLLS (mil. dol.) Total . . . . . . . . . . . Federal (civilian) 1 . . . . . . State and local . . . . . . . . Percent of total . . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counties . . . . . . . . . Municipalities . . . . . . School districts . . . . . Townships . . . . . . . . Special districts . . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . . . .

. 19,935 24,525 26,904 28,945 30,670 32,669 34,203 36,763 39,228 41,237 . 5,205 6,301 7,137 7,580 7,561 7,924 7,976 8,636 8,999 9,687 . 14,730 18,224 19,767 21,365 23,109 24,745 26,227 28,127 30,229 31,551 . 74 74 74 74 75 76 77 77 77 77 . 4,285 5,346 5,815 6,329 6,810 7,263 7,842 8,443 9,083 9,437 . 10,445 12,878 13,952 15,036 16,298 17,482 18,385 19,684 21,146 22,113 . 1,936 2,387 2,596 2,819 3,009 3,270 3,532 3,855 4,192 4,404 . 2,951 3,640 3,872 4,191 4,407 4,770 4,979 5,274 5,564 5,784 . 4,683 5,729 6,283 6,746 7,517 7,961 8,298 8,852 9,551 9,975 . 330 398 421 446 474 522 556 599 642 664 . 546 724 780 834 892 959 1,020 1,104 1,197 1,287

43,120 9,937 33,183 77 9,828 23,355 4,698 6,207 10,394 685 1,370

Includes employees outside the United States.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics on Governmental Finances and Employment, and Public Employment, series GE, No. 1, annual.

No. 507. All Governments—Employment and Payroll, by Function: 1992
[For October. Covers both full-time and part-time employees. Local government amounts are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source] EMPLOYEES (1,000) FUNCTION Total 18,745 984 774 25 8,239 565 1,854 506 858 344 244 345 436 493 399 374 2,303 Federal (civilian) 1 3,047 984 774 25 14 4 310 10 88 (X) (X) 27 232 138 29 51 360 State and local Total Total 15,698 (X) (X) (X) 8,225 561 1,544 496 770 344 244 318 204 355 370 323 1,943 State 4,595 (X) (X) (X) 2,050 261 721 215 87 (X) 3 42 164 151 52 114 734 Local 11,103 (X) (X) (X) 6,174 300 823 281 683 344 241 276 40 205 318 209 1,209
2

OCTOBER PAYROLLS (mil. dol.) Federal (civilian) 1 9,937 2,913 2,654 112 45 19 952 36 335 (X) (X) 72 818 425 100 181 1,273 State and local Total 33,183 (X) (X) (X) 16,521 1,252 3,340 1,015 2,061 825 554 441 431 751 568 832 4,592 State 9,828 (X) (X) (X) 3,774 626 1,613 471 247 (X) 8 70 355 351 125 350 1,839 Local 23,355 (X) (X) (X) 12,747 626 1,727 544 1,814 825 547 371 76 400 443 482 2,753

Total . . . . . . . . . . . National defense 2 . . . . . Postal Service . . . . . . . Space research and technology . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . Highways. . . . . . . . . . . Health and hospitals . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . Police protection . . . . . . Fire protection . . . . . . . Sanitation and sewerage Parks and recreation . . . Natural resources . . . . . Financial administration . Other government administration . . . . . . . Judicial and legal . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . X Not applicable.
1

43,120 2,913 2,654 112 16,565 1,271 4,292 1,051 2,396 825 554 514 1,249 1,176 668 1,013 5,865

.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. ..

Includes employees outside the United States.

Includes international relations.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Public Employment, series GE, No. 1.

Full-time Employment and Costs Per Hour Worked

323

No. 508. State and Local Government—Full-Time Employment and Salary, by Sex and Race/Ethnic Group: 1973 to 1993
[As of June 30. Excludes school systems and educational institutions. Based on reports from State governments (44 in 1973, 48 in 1975, 1976, and 1979, 47 in 1977 and 1983, 45 in 1978, 42 in 1980, 49 in 1981 and 1984 through 1987, and 50 in 1989 through 1993) and a sample of county, municipal, township, and special district jurisdictions employing 15 or more nonelected, nonappointed full-time employees. Data for 1974, 1982, 1988 and 1992 not available. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] EMPLOYMENT (1,000) YEAR AND OCCUPATION Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,809 3,899 4,369 4,415 4,447 4,576 3,987 4,665 4,492 4,580 4,742 4,779 4,849 5,257 5,374 5,459 Male 2,486 2,436 2,724 2,737 2,711 2,761 2,350 2,740 2,674 2,700 2,789 2,797 2,818 3,030 3,071 3,110 2,820 188 587 270 725 100 116 378 455 Female 1,322 1,464 1,645 1,678 1,736 1,816 1,637 1,925 1,818 1,880 1,952 1,982 2,031 2,227 2,302 2,349 2,204 86 619 195 120 260 781 17 127 Minority White
1

MEDIAN ANNUAL SALARY ($1,000) Male 9.6 11.3 11.8 12.4 13.3 14.1 15.2 17.7 20.1 21.4 22.3 23.4 24.2 26.1 27.3 28.4 30.6 (NA) 37.8 30.4 31.4 22.6 22.7 28.5 23.1 Female White 7.0 8.2 8.6 9.1 9.7 10.4 11.4 13.1 15.3 16.2 17.3 18.1 18.9 20.6 21.8 22.7 24.3 40.9 32.5 24.5 27.2 20.4 21.1 22.9 17.8 Minority
1

Total

2

Black

1

Hispanic 3 125 147 165 175 181 192 163 205 219 233 248 259 268 308 327 340 341 10 59 31 58 23 75 28 57

Total

2

Black

1

Hispanic 3 7.4 8.9 9.4 9.9 10.7 11.4 12.3 14.7 17.3 18.4 19.2 20.2 21.1 22.7 23.8 24.5 26.8 (NA) 34.1 27.6 34.3 21.4 21.8 29.7 23.0

1973 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,115 3,102 3,490 3,480 3,481 3,568 3,146 3,591 3,423 3,458 3,563 3,549 3,600 3,863 3,918 3,965 3,588 231 923 348 632 218 610 299 327
2

693 797 880 935 966 1,008 842 1,074 1,069 1,121 1,179 1,230 1,249 1,394 1,456 1,494 1,436 42 283 117 214 142 287 96 255

523 602 664 705 723 751 619 780 768 799 835 865 872 961 994 1,011 948 27 168 69 145 111 183 59 186

8.8 10.2 10.7 11.3 12.0 12.8 13.8 16.1 18.5 19.6 20.6 21.5 22.4 24.1 25.2 26.4 28.5 (NA) 35.3 28.3 30.9 21.5 21.0 28.2 22.2

7.5 8.8 9.2 9.7 10.4 10.9 11.8 13.5 15.9 17.4 18.4 19.6 20.9 22.1 23.3 23.8 25.9 (NA) 32.8 25.6 30.3 21.7 21.9 27.7 22.6
3

7.4 8.6 9.1 9.5 10.1 10.6 11.5 13.3 15.6 16.5 17.5 18.7 19.3 20.7 22.0 22.7 24.2 (NA) 31.8 24.6 28.8 19.8 21.2 27.0 21.0

1993, total . Officials/administrators . . . . Professionals. . Technicians . . . Protective serv ice. . . . . Paraprofessionals . . . . . Admin. support Skilled craft . . . Service/maintenance . . . . . .

. 5,024 . 273 . 1,206 . 465 . . . . . 846 360 897 395 582

NA Not available. 1 Non-Hispanic. origin may be of any race.

Includes other minority groups not shown separately.

Persons of Hispanic

Source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, State and Local Government Information Report, biennially.

No. 509. State and Local Government—Employer Costs per Hour Worked: 1994
[As of March. Based on a sample; see source for details. For additional data, see table 683] Total compensation $25.27 28.60 34.04 37.22 31.81 16.10 19.42 17.71 26.94 20.03 20.28 28.60 28.78 28.94 22.11
1

BENEFITS Wages and salaries $17.57 20.38 24.90 27.77 22.04 10.53 12.49 11.25 19.25 13.37 13.64 20.67 20.82 20.91 14.47 Total $7.71 8.22 9.15 9.45 9.77 5.58 6.93 6.45 7.69 6.65 6.64 7.93 7.96 8.03 7.64 Paid leave $1.94 2.05 2.03 1.78 3.19 1.50 1.78 1.66 1.80 2.05 2.08 1.75 1.65 2.03 2.19 Supplemental pay $0.20 0.12 0.13 0.04 0.15 0.09 0.36 0.39 0.14 0.52 0.50 0.07 0.05 0.13 0.29 Insurance $2.15 2.31 2.52 2.72 2.20 1.94 1.94 1.73 2.24 1.60 1.56 2.37 2.48 2.15 1.90 Retire- Legally ment required and savings benefits $1.90 2.11 2.60 2.97 2.37 1.01 1.34 1.53 1.97 1.08 1.07 2.17 2.23 2.07 1.86 $1.49 1.60 1.83 1.90 1.85 1.02 1.49 1.12 1.50 1.39 1.41 1.54 1.51 1.65 1.37 Other
1

ITEM

All State & local government workers . Occupational group: White-collar occupations . . . . . . . . Professional specialty and technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Executive, admin., & managerial . Admin. support including clerical . Blue-collar occupations. . . . . . . . . Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . Industry group: Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health services . . . . . . . . . . Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services . . . . . . . Elementary and secondary education. . . . . . . . . . . . Higher education . . . . . . . Public administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.02 (Z) 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 (Z) 0.02

.. .. ..

Z Cost per hour is less than one cent.

Includes severance pay and supplemental unemployment benefits.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, USDL 94-220.

324

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 510. State and Local Government—Employee Benefits: 1992

[In percent. For January through July. Covers full-time employees in State and local governments. Covers only benefits for which the employer pays part or all of the premium or expenses involved, except unpaid maternity and paternity leave, and long-term care insurance. Based on sample. For data on employee benefits in businesses, see table 685] White Blue All em- collar Teach- collar emem2 ploy- ploy- ers ployees ees 1 ees 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 75 97 65 53 83 95 38 10 59 44 90 65 76 78 90 27 90 89 83 35 89 65 67 89 64 66 87 88 97 64 68 87 94 31 6 59 46 91 65 76 79 91 25 91 90 85 34 90 66 67 90 65 66 10 38 98 61 20 76 97 55 14 63 44 90 65 75 77 90 25 90 88 83 33 89 64 65 88 62 63 91 91 97 70 64 85 94 33 13 54 40 89 64 75 77 89 30 89 88 84 38 89 65 67 88 64 66 White Blue All em- collar Teach- collar emem2 ploy- ploy- ers ployees ees 1 ees 3 89 75 22 16 28 22 87 24 9 7 8 66 18 13 63 5 17 5 38 7 15 50 32 15 30 89 76 25 18 30 23 86 25 10 7 10 73 20 14 70 5 18 6 43 8 15 55 30 17 34 87 73 15 13 33 27 89 22 8 7 6 57 14 15 47 7 16 5 26 7 19 44 31 13 23 89 77 23 17 22 18 87 24 9 8 7 64 18 11 68 4 14 3 44 7 12 48 35 13 30

BENEFIT

BENEFIT

Paid: Vacations . . . . . . . . . . Holidays . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jury duty leave . . . . . . . . . Funeral leave . . . . . . . . . . Rest time. . . . . . . . . . . . . Military leave . . . . . . . . . . Sick leave . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal leave . . . . . . . . . Lunch time . . . . . . . . . . . Unpaid: Maternity leave . . . . . Paternity leave . . . . . . . . . Insurance plans: Medical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dental . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended care facility . . . Home health care . . . . . Hospital/room & board . . In HMO’s . . . . . . . . . . . Inpatient surgery . . . . . . Mental health care: Inpatient . . . . . . . . . . Outpatient . . . . . . . . . Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol abuse treatment: Inpatient detox . . . . . . Inpatient rehab . . . . . Outpatient . . . . . . . . . Drug abuse treatment: Inpatient detox . . . . . . Inpatient rehab . . . . . Outpatient . . . . . . . . .

Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . . . . . Accident/sickness . . . . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . . . . . Long-term disability . . . . . . . Noncontributory . . . . . . . . Retirement and savings plans: Defined benefit pension . . . . Noncontributory . . . . . . . . . Defined contribution . . . . . . Money purchase pension4 Additional benefits: Child care . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational assistance: Job related . . . . . . . . . . . Not job related . . . . . . . . Eldercare . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employee assistance program . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexible benefits plans . . . . . In-house infirmary . . . . . . . . Long-term care insurance . . . Nonproduction bonuses, cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid legal services . . . . . Recreation facilities . . . . . . . Reimbursement accounts 5 . . Severance pay . . . . . . . . . . Travel accident insurance . . . Wellness programs . . . . . . .

1 Includes all professional, administrative, technical, and clerical employees except teachers. 2 Includes all personnel in primary and secondary schools, junior colleges, and universities whose primary duty is teaching or closely related activities. 3 4 Includes police, firefighters, and all production and service employees. Fixed contributions are periodically placed in an 5 employee’s account and benefits are based on how much money has accumulated at retirement. Account which is used throughout the year to pay for plan premiums or to reimburse the employee for benefit related expenses. Account may be financed by employer, employee, or both. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employee Benefits in State and Local Governments, 1992.

No. 511. State and Local Government Major Collective Bargaining Agreements— Average Percent Changes in Wage and Compensation Rates Negotiated: 1987 to 1994
[In percent, except as indicated. Averages presented are means; for definition, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] ITEM Compensation rate changes, 1 all settlements: First year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Over life of contract 2 . . . . . . . . State government: First year . . . . . Over life of contract 2 . . . . . . . . Local government: First year . . . . . Over life of contract 2 . . . . . . . . Wage rate changes, 3 all settlements: First year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Over life of contract 2 . . . . . . . . State government: First year . . . . . Over life of contract 2 . . . . . . . . Local government: First year . . . . . Over life of contract 2 . . . . . . . . Number of workers affected (mil.) 4 . State government . . . . . . . . . . . Local government . . . . . . . . . . . Wage rate changes, all agreements 5 . Source: Current settlements. . . . . . Prior settlements . . . . . . . . . . . Cost-of-living adjustments . . . . . State government . . . . . . . . . . . . Local government . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.9 4.8 4.3 4.3 5.4 5.1 4.9 5.1 4.1 4.2 5.3 5.5 1.3 0.5 0.8 4.9 2.7 2.2 (Z) 4.3 5.3

5.4 5.3 5.3 4.9 5.5 5.8 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.5 1.1 0.4 0.7 4.7 2.3 2.4 (Z) 4.1 5.1

5.1 4.9 4.9 4.6 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.7 5.2 5.4 1.1 0.5 0.6 5.1 2.5 2.6 (Z) 4.0 5.9

5.1 5.1 4.4 3.9 5.4 5.8 4.9 5.0 4.7 4.2 5.0 5.2 0.9 0.2 0.7 4.6 2.0 2.6 (Z) 4.7 4.6

1.8 2.9 1.9 2.8 1.6 2.9 2.3 2.8 2.0 3.0 2.5 2.7 0.8 0.4 0.4 2.6 0.6 1.8 0.1 2.5 2.6

0.6 1.9 0.2 2.0 1.2 1.5 1.1 2.1 0.5 2.0 1.7 2.1 1.2 0.6 0.6 1.9 0.8 1.1 (Z) 1.6 2.1

0.9 1.8 1.2 2.1 0.7 1.6 1.1 2.1 1.3 2.4 1.0 1.9 1.7 0.6 1.1 2.8 1.6 1.1 (Z) 3.4 2.2

2.8 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.8 3.3 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.2 2.5 3.0 1.2 0.4 0.8 3.3 1.4 1.9 (Z) 1.1 1.7

Z Less than .05 percent. 1 Data relate to settlements of 5,000 workers or more in each calendar year, whether wages and benefits were changed or not. 2 Average annual rate of change. 3 Data relate to settlements covering 1,000 workers or more in each calendar year but exclude possible changes in wages under cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) clauses, except increases guaranteed by the contract. Includes all settlements, whether wages were changed or not. 4 Number of workers covered by 5 settlements reached in each calendar year. Data relate to all wage changes implemented in the year stemming from settlements reached in the year, deferred from prior-year agreements, and cost-of-living clauses. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Wage Developments, monthly.

State and Local Government Employment

325

No. 512. State and Local Government Full-Time Equivalent Employment, by Selected Function and State: 1992
[In thousands, for October. Local government amounts are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source] EDUCATION STATE Total State Local Higher education State Local 261.3 7.4 63.5 1.2 1.5 20.3 0.6 0.9 19.4 0.0 5.7 5.7 0.2 7.3 0.1 12.4 2.6 5.0 4.6 0.2 2.5 8.6 1.8 18.9 13.4 4.3 6.8 8.1 27.2 9.4 1.7
1

HEALTH AND HOSPITALS State 685.8 18.9 0.8 3.4 8.8 44.7 6.0 12.7 3.6 (X) 28.7 29.4 6.2 2.0 23.8 13.4 8.8 8.4 7.7 23.9 2.9 13.0 20.5 14.9 9.4 10.9 15.3 1.8 4.9 1.5 1.8 22.4 7.5 71.8 17.8 3.2 22.2 11.6 7.6 25.6 2.8 16.7 2.1 14.2 51.1 5.5 1.0 25.0 14.2 3.2 10.1 2.1 Local 736.3 21.8 0.1 7.3 4.4 107.1 9.5 1.8 0.2 7.6 42.2 44.8 0.1 4.4 22.6 23.5 10.2 8.3 8.5 12.1 1.2 3.1 8.9 21.3 17.8 15.2 11.4 0.8 4.6 3.9 0.2 10.6 2.6 85.1 28.6 0.2 30.8 8.1 5.1 5.1 0.1 14.5 0.7 20.9 58.9 2.0 8.5 11.6 4.4 10.3 3.3

HIGHWAYS State 257.3 4.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 19.3 3.1 3.7 1.4 (X) 10.9 6.2 0.9 1.8 8.9 4.8 2.8 3.7 5.8 5.6 2.8 5.1 4.7 3.9 5.1 3.5 6.3 1.9 2.4 1.4 1.9 8.3 2.7 14.9 12.1 1.1 8.9 3.5 3.9 12.7 1.0 5.2 1.3 4.8 14.3 1.8 1.1 11.3 6.2 5.8 2.1 1.9 Local 286.5 7.1 0.6 3.7 3.3 21.1 4.7 3.6 0.6 0.9 13.9 7.0 1.1 1.5 11.0 5.8 5.7 5.1 3.0 5.0 1.7 5.2 5.6 8.9 7.4 4.4 6.0 1.3 3.1 1.0 1.4 10.4 1.5 35.6 3.1 1.1 13.0 5.4 3.8 10.5 0.9 2.0 1.5 6.7 17.2 1.4 1.0 3.9 6.4 0.9 8.7 0.8

POLICE AND FIRE PROTECTION State
1

PUBLIC WELFARE State 211.7 4.5 1.7 5.0 3.6 3.1 1.3 4.2 1.6 (X) 9.7 7.5 1.2 1.6 12.6 5.4 3.3 1.7 4.9 5.9 1.9 7.1 7.3 12.8 1.7 3.2 6.8 1.2 2.6 1.0 1.1 5.9 2.0 7.4 1.2 0.2 2.1 7.9 4.4 9.8 1.6 5.0 1.1 4.7 15.5 2.6 1.1 2.4 7.5 2.3 1.2 0.3 Local 261.0 1.3 0.2 3.4 0.4 47.0 4.1 2.0 0.1 1.9 5.3 0.8 0.1 0.1 7.4 2.9 1.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.2 1.8 1.8 2.8 10.2 0.3 2.4 0.9 1.3 0.3 2.3 11.1 0.4 57.0 11.8 0.9 23.0 0.3 0.7 21.9 0.1 0.1 0.3 3.6 2.6 0.5 0.0 8.1 1.0 13.1 0.1

Local 887.7 13.8 1.7 13.0 6.4 108.2 11.8 11.8 1.5 7.0 57.7 24.7 5.1 3.0 51.6 17.0 7.0 8.3 8.7 15.0 3.6 18.4 27.5 25.0 10.7 7.3 17.8 2.1 4.4 5.6 3.9 34.4 5.3 83.2 19.8 1.4 37.3 10.8 8.5 29.3 4.8 10.0 1.6 16.8 63.1 4.4 1.0 19.7 15.3 3.1 16.6 1.7

United States. . 1,412.4 5,243.1 1,285.7 Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . Kansas. . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine. . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . Massachusetts. . . . Michigan. . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . New York . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . North Dakota . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Oregon. . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . Rhode Island . . . . . South Carolina. . . . South Dakota . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.1 9.3 21.5 17.5 111.1 28.8 15.1 6.7 (X) 39.3 37.5 28.9 7.8 49.4 50.1 19.7 20.6 32.3 31.0 7.1 22.1 21.5 67.2 34.8 15.9 22.5 6.3 10.7 6.3 5.5 33.9 17.6 48.3 41.8 7.1 68.3 25.6 15.3 50.8 6.7 29.0 4.7 30.6 86.7 20.0 4.8 45.7 41.0 13.0 37.6 3.3 81.7 11.8 81.0 53.7 528.8 68.9 61.4 12.1 12.8 252.0 152.9 23.9 228.8 113.8 66.7 67.6 80.7 96.1 30.0 92.9 105.6 202.9 90.6 67.0 103.0 26.0 38.4 23.6 22.3 170.6 38.2 409.0 151.6 13.3 205.7 75.6 64.1 213.8 17.4 74.6 17.0 87.9 459.7 33.6 13.5 137.3 89.5 50.8 107.4 15.5 30.1 5.9 18.8 14.9 106.6 27.3 12.4 6.4 (X) 36.7 32.8 7.1 7.1 46.5 45.2 18.5 19.9 28.1 27.4 5.7 20.2 20.7 65.2 33.2 14.5 20.5 5.6 9.9 6.0 5.2 27.3 16.7 42.7 38.8 6.8 66.0 23.6 14.1 48.1 5.8 26.1 4.3 28.6 81.9 19.2 4.5 42.5 39.3 11.5 36.3 3.2

86.2 1.1 0.4 1.7 0.9 11.1 1.0 1.5 0.7 (X) 3.8 2.1 0.4 3.8 1.8 0.8 1.0 1.7 1.1 0.6 2.3 2.0 3.1 0.8 0.9 1.9 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.4 3.7 0.6 5.5 3.1 0.2 2.3 1.7 1.1 5.3 0.3 1.8 0.3 1.5 3.0 0.6 0.5 2.4 1.9 0.8 0.9 0.2

- Represents or rounds to zero.

X Not applicable.

For State government, represents police protection only.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Public Employment, series GE, No. 1, annual.

326

State and Local Government Finances and Employment
No. 513. State and Local Government Employment and Average Earnings, by State: 1986 and 1992
[For October] FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT EMPLOYMENT (1,000) STATE State 1986 1992 3,856 81 24 54 47 323 53 54 20 (X) 164 114 51 20 137 95 47 48 76 89 22 82 85 138 67 47 74 17 29 19 16 116 42 267 109 16 140 67 50 143 20 78 14 76 240 40 13 116 98 34 73 12 Local 1986 8,415 131 20 119 71 965 122 95 16 51 407 239 12 33 385 182 101 96 102 151 36 143 192 315 137 95 157 29 65 33 29 283 49 810 216 22 365 109 91 340 24 109 23 157 633 47 15 195 143 61 168 25
1

FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT EMPLOYMENT PER 10,000 POPULATION 2 State 1986 143 174 393 128 163 104 155 175 272 (X) 106 149 389 175 113 136 199 174 170 191 168 178 151 140 145 161 130 192 184 154 172 126 231 153 147 222 113 195 163 104 195 204 177 147 115 197 211 177 177 180 154 213 1992 151 196 413 141 194 104 153 165 293 (X) 122 170 437 190 117 168 168 190 203 207 178 167 142 146 150 181 143 207 179 144 147 149 267 148 159 259 127 209 167 119 198 216 190 151 136 219 227 182 191 185 145 242 Local 1986 349 324 377 358 299 358 375 297 252 817 348 391 113 332 333 330 355 390 275 337 307 321 329 344 326 364 310 349 407 343 285 372 332 456 341 318 340 329 338 286 245 322 330 327 379 283 270 336 320 317 351 494
1

AVERAGE OCTOBER EARNINGS 3 (dol.) State 1986 2,052 1,884 3,228 2,126 1,724 2,751 2,368 2,336 1,795 (X) 1,748 1,811 1,844 1,766 2,165 2,056 2,049 1,687 1,651 1,673 1,714 2,046 2,034 2,541 2,428 1,430 1,621 1,864 1,509 1,990 1,759 2,278 1,792 2,355 1,935 1,805 1,984 1,733 1,975 1,915 2,041 1,705 1,684 1,746 1,927 1,654 1,842 1,895 2,231 1,574 2,128 1,924
2

Local 1986 1,992 1,532 3,324 2,185 1,388 2,535 2,017 2,089 1,991 2,594 1,872 1,589 2,010 1,535 2,166 1,686 1,735 1,700 1,596 1,494 1,590 2,233 2,082 2,329 2,318 1,324 1,826 1,727 1,785 2,140 1,701 2,146 1,680 2,266 1,662 2,017 1,911 1,595 2,018 1,976 2,215 1,558 1,441 1,554 1,748 1,900 1,653 1,787 2,134 1,625 2,035 1,967

1

1992 9,513 154 22 145 82 1,108 132 97 18 55 500 283 14 40 431 202 108 109 121 161 43 158 192 323 173 108 174 37 71 47 36 302 60 884 260 21 399 121 106 367 28 124 26 178 748 53 18 229 177 59 189 25

1992 373 373 371 379 342 359 381 296 254 928 370 419 120 373 370 358 386 433 322 375 349 321 321 342 385 412 334 451 441 353 320 387 381 488 380 331 363 376 354 305 276 344 361 354 424 294 309 359 345 324 377 543

1992 2,621 2,243 3,258 2,361 2,195 3,420 3,016 3,286 2,463 (X) 2,202 2,075 2,554 2,265 2,642 2,506 2,895 2,191 2,349 2,227 2,437 2,720 2,645 3,134 3,101 2,000 2,075 2,300 2,185 2,738 2,416 3,100 2,253 3,143 2,413 2,231 2,691 2,044 2,607 2,696 2,817 2,098 2,166 2,153 2,351 2,100 2,514 2,270 2,760 1,969 3,216 2,055

1992 2,539 1,830 3,590 2,557 1,724 3,281 2,450 3,160 2,669 3,175 2,294 1,968 3,031 1,943 2,672 2,199 2,179 2,133 1,980 1,800 2,101 2,892 2,775 2,906 2,673 1,608 2,133 1,995 2,198 2,772 2,456 3,062 1,858 3,147 2,092 2,269 2,417 1,903 2,599 2,622 2,832 1,970 1,833 2,004 2,107 2,204 2,240 2,322 2,738 2,002 2,594 2,202

United States. . . . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . Kansas. . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine. . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . Massachusetts. . . . Michigan. . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . New York . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . North Dakota . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Oregon. . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . Rhode Island . . . . . South Carolina. . . . South Dakota . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,437 70 21 43 39 279 50 56 17 (X) 124 91 41 18 130 75 57 43 63 86 20 80 88 128 61 42 66 16 29 15 18 96 34 272 93 15 122 64 44 124 19 69 13 71 193 33 11 102 79 34 74 11

X Not applicable. 1 Estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. population as of July 1. 3 For full-time employees. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Public Employment, series GE, No. 1, annual.

Based on estimated resident

State and Local Government Employment
No. 514. City Government Employment and Payroll: 1980 to 1992

327

[For October. Includes only those school systems operated as part of the city government. 1982 and 1987 based on complete census of all cities; other years based on sample and subject to sampling variation] ALL EMPLOYEES, FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME (1,000) Total 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,561 2,469 2,396 2,423 2,434 2,467 2,494 2,493 2,570 2,569 2,642 2,662 2,665 Excl. education 2,130 2,056 2,015 2,051 2,070 2,102 2,126 2,110 2,188 2,190 2,237 2,324 2,312 AVERAGE EARNINGS IN OCTOBER, FULL-TIME EMPLOYEES (dol.) Education 1,501 1,686 1,791 1,962 2,033 2,117 2,186 2,406 2,566 2,669 2,683 2,739 2,931 Other 1,338 1,500 1,625 1,739 1,831 1,953 2,044 2,163 2,220 2,343 2,449 2,547 2,683

YEAR

OCTOBER PAYROLLS (mil. dol.) Excl. education 2,403 2,640 2,861 3,059 3,268 3,536 3,724 3,977 4,136 4,405 4,675 4,878 5,146

ANNUAL

FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT EMPLOYMENT 1 (1,000)

Total 2,942 3,222 3,428 3,640 3,872 4,191 4,407 4,770 4,979 5,274 5,564 5,784 6,207

All employees
2

October payroll
2

Total 2,166 2,111 2,088 2,060 2,090 (NA) 2,181 2,223 2,251 2,268 2,295 2,303 2,340

Education 360 346 317 300 300 (NA) 320 337 342 341 338 338 371

Other 1,806 1,765 1,770 1,760 1,790 (NA) 1,860 1,885 1,910 1,927 1,957 1,965 1,969

0.3 -3.6 -2.9 1.1 0.4 1.4 1.1 (Z) 3.1 (Z) 2.8 0.7 0.1

7.8 9.5 6.4 6.2 6.4 8.2 5.1 8.2 4.4 5.9 5.5 4.0 7.3

NA Not available. Z Less than .05 percent. 1 Beginning 1986, data not comparable to previous years due to a change in how full-time equivalent is calculated; see text, section 9. 2Percent change from 1979. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Compendium of Public Employment, and City Employment, series GE, No. 2, annual.

No. 515. City Government Employment and Payroll, by Function: 1980 to 1992
[For October] EMPLOYEES (1,000) All cities ITEM 1980 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-time equivalent 3 . . Education 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of total . . . . . Instructional staff . . . . . . Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public welfare . . . . . . . . . . Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highways. . . . . . . . . . . . . Police protection . . . . . . . . Fire protection . . . . . . . . . Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . Parks and recreation . . . . . Housing and community development . . . . . . . . . . Sewerage . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid waste management . . Financial administration . . . Judicial, legal, other governmental administration . . . . Local utilities 5 . . . . . . . . . Water supply. . . . . . . . . Electric power . . . . . . . . Transit . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,561 2,071 489 2,166 360 17 266 94 34 41 131 35 121 365 190 18 103 44 60 104 69 112 209 93 44 66 171 1990 2,642 2,149 493 2,295 338 15 264 74 45 57 124 42 133 412 199 35 121 46 74 86 74 129 226 101 51 66 154 1991 2,662 2,153 509 2,303 338 15 262 76 45 58 124 41 132 418 201 36 123 46 75 85 75 129 226 103 51 65 152 1992 2,665 2,197 468 2,340 371 16 261 110 45 55 125 43 130 423 200 36 123 45 76 83 74 132 226 103 51 64 152
1

OCTOBER PAYROLLS (mil. dol.) Cities with 75,000 population or more, 2 1992 1,568 1,418 150 1,480 301 20 209 92 27 49 82 35 56 234 117 34 71 38 38 49 35 73 144 53 28 60 97 All cities
1

1980 2,942 2,826 116 (X) 539 18 436 102 38 47 143 47 141 550 300 27 116 57 74 118 85 147 306 116 67 115 208

1990 5,564 5,334 229 (X) 889 16 754 134 80 118 282 93 274 1,093 579 90 211 104 155 174 164 314 594 219 142 217 350

1991 5,784 5,543 241 (X) 906 16 765 141 84 116 297 94 283 1,162 603 94 222 108 164 177 169 326 619 230 149 224 360

1992 6,207 5,980 227 (X) 1,061 17 848 212 86 132 301 104 301 1,249 642 108 232 115 172 193 179 345 615 240 159 198 372

Cities with 75,000 population or more, 2 1992 4,281 4,178 103 (X) 880 21 698 182 57 121 217 89 152 783 416 103 141 97 95 135 96 209 439 137 101 191 252

X Not applicable. 1 Data are estimates subject to sampling variation; see Appendix III and source. 2 Based on enumerated resident population as of April 1, 1990. 3 1980 data not directly comparable to later years due to a change in 1986 in how full-time equivalent was calculated; see text, section 9. 4 City-operated schools and colleges only. 5 Includes gas supply not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, City Employment, series GE, No. 2, annual.

328

State and Local Government Finances and Employment

No. 516. City Government Employment and Payroll—Largest Cities: 1980 and 1992
[For October. See footnote 2, table 504, for those areas representing city-county consolidated governments] FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT EMPLOYMENT 1 Total (1,000) 1980 319 41 45 18 32 7 22 14 9 10 5 4 40 12 21 7 11 7 9 22 42 5 25 9 4 9 8 13 9 17 12 7 7 5 4 4 7 5 4 4 13 4 8 9 7 4 4 8 6 3 5 5 4 9 7 4 3 3 3 13 3 1 1 3 5 12 3 6 2 4 7 1 10 1992 415 50 41 21 30 9 19 14 11 13 6 27 13 26 10 8 8 22 46 21 10 5 8 10 17 12 11 5 5 10 5 10 6 5 5 7 5 8 14 6 5 5 4 6 4 9 7 4 3 3 3 13 3 2 2 5 4 4 3 4 3 4 2 10 Per 10,000 population 2 1980 451 138 150 111 189 81 179 153 114 128 5 60 514 174 310 7 202 122 145 342 651 5 444 188 104 160 8 225 9 374 244 199 7 120 104 115 145 5 122 124 280 125 187 346 7 119 109 8 135 119 136 5 115 117 174 118 115 92 96 348 111 68 89 158 165 374 125 186 91 128 7 63 380 1992 557 140 148 129 189 93 180 137 110 140 76 372 172 354 156 125 133 366 763 361 197 99 167 149 340 266 246 114 104 10 104 10 146 123 118 188 115 197 356 147 130 145 107 161 120 111 191 101 73 81 86 390 97 64 82 181 140 139 119 160 98 145 73 394 AVERAGE EARNINGS IN OCTOBER, FULL-TIME EMPLOYEES (dol.) 1980 1,587 1,806 1,569 1,499 1,611 1,773 1,852 1,465 1,517 1,282 5 1,714 1,172 1,098 1,761 7 1,031 1,498 1,631 1,335 1,761 5 1,398 1,830 942 1,460 8 919 9 1,295 1,540 1,515 7 1,198 1,323 1,916 1,368 5 1,678 1,474 1,279 1,290 1,230 1,204 7 1,135 2,011 8 1,116 1,762 1,821 5 1,184 1,401 1,527 1,408 1,607 1,684 1,758 1,475 1,327 1,819 1,592 1,445 1,178 1,387 1,734 1,358 1,616 1,333 7 1,180 1,222 1992 3,154 3,815 3,269 2,404 3,092 2,894 2,700 2,642 3,104 2,472 4,206 2,613 2,164 3,881 2,888 2,607 2,782 2,361 3,022 2,949 3,494 2,220 2,742 1,623 2,430 2,859 2,496 2,277 2,567 10 3,363 10 2,485 3,627 2,645 2,405 2,436 2,373 2,275 2,100 3,985 3,092 3,384 3,097 2,463 3,139 3,092 3,994 3,043 3,138 2,955 2,986 2,429 5,162 2,908 2,594 2,861 3,220 3,429 1,965 4,235 2,293 2,721 2,349

CITIES RANKED BY 1990 POPULATION

TOTAL EMPLOYMENT (1,000) 1980 1992 442 50 41 21 31 11 19 14 11 14 7 28 13 26 11 8 9 24 48 21 11 5 9 10 18 14 12 5 5 10 5 10 6 6 5 8 5 8 15 7 6 7 4 7 4 11 8 4 3 3 3 14 3 2 2 5 4 3 3 4 1 4 2 11

OCTOBER PAYROLL (mil. dol.) 1980 504 73 71 26 51 12 40 20 14 13 5 7 47 13 37 7 11 10 15 29 73 5 35 77 3 13 8 11 9 22 18 10 7 5 6 8 9 5 7 6 15 5 10 11 7 4 7 8 6 6 9 5 5 12 10 6 4 5 6 18 4 2 2 5 5 17 6 7 3 5 7 1 12 1992 1,307 188 135 51 92 29 49 36 32 32 24 70 26 99 27 20 23 53 138 61 35 11 20 12 40 35 27 11 12 10 15 10 16 18 12 18 11 18 30 12 17 14 13 18 11 29 20 14 8 8 9 36 7 9 7 13 11 12 11 8 10 9 5 24

New York, NY 3 4 . . . . . Los Angeles, CA . . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . Houston, TX. . . . . . . . . Philadelphia, PA . . . . . . San Diego, CA . . . . . . . Detroit, MI . . . . . . . . . . Dallas, TX . . . . . . . . . . Phoenix, AZ . . . . . . . . . San Antonio, TX . . . . . . San Jose, CA . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD 3 6 . . . . . Indianapolis, IN. . . . . . . San Francisco, CA . . . . Jacksonville, FL . . . . . . Columbus, OH . . . . . . . Milwaukee, WI . . . . . . . Memphis, TN 3 . . . . . . . Washington, DC 3 4 . . . . Boston, MA 3 . . . . . . . . Seattle, WA . . . . . . . . . El Paso, TX . . . . . . . . . Cleveland, OH . . . . . . . New Orleans, LA. . . . . . Nashville-Davidson, TN 3 Denver, CO . . . . . . . . . Austin, TX . . . . . . . . . . Fort Worth, TX . . . . . . . Oklahoma City, OK . . . . Portland, OR . . . . . . . . Kansas City, MO . . . . . . Long Beach, CA . . . . . . Tucson, AZ . . . . . . . . . St. Louis, MO . . . . . . . . Charlotte, NC . . . . . . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . Virginia Beach, VA 3 . . . Albuquerque, NM . . . . . Oakland, CA . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, PA . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA . . . . . . Minneapolis, MN . . . . . . Tulsa, OK . . . . . . . . . . Honolulu, HI . . . . . . . . . Cincinnati, OH . . . . . . . Miami, FL . . . . . . . . . . Fresno, CA . . . . . . . . . Omaha, NE . . . . . . . . . Toledo, OH . . . . . . . . . Buffalo, NY 3 . . . . . . . . Wichita, KS . . . . . . . . . Santa Ana, CA . . . . . . . Mesa, AZ. . . . . . . . . . . Colorado Springs, CO . . Tampa, FL . . . . . . . . . . Newark, NJ 11 . . . . . . . St. Paul, MN . . . . . . . . Louisville, KY . . . . . . . . Anaheim, CA . . . . . . . . Birmingham, AL . . . . . . Arlington, TX . . . . . . . . Norfolk, VA 3 . . . . . . . .

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364 42 47 18 33 8 22 14 9 10 5 4 44 13 21 7 11 8 10 25 45 5 28 10 5 10 8 13 9 18 13 8 7 5 5 5 7 5 5 4 13 4 8 10 7 4 4 8 6 3 6 5 4 9 7 4 3 3 4 14 3 2 1 4 5 12 4 6 2 4 7 1 11

1 1992 data not comparable with 1980 due to a change in 1986 in how full-time equivalent was calculated; see text, section 9. 2 1980 based on enumerated resident population as of April 1, 1980. 1992 based on enumerated resident population as of April 1, 1990. 3 Includes city-operated elementary and secondary schools. 4 Includes city-operated university or college. 5 1979 data. 6 Prior to 1990, includes data for city operated colleges. 7 1978 data. 8 1977 data. 9 Noneducation data are for 1979. 10 1991 data. 11 Prior to 1983, city-operated elementary and secondary schools.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, City Employment, series GE, No. 2, annual; and unpublished data.


								
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