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									Section 5

Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
This section presents data on crimes committed, victims of crimes, arrests, and data related to criminal violations and the criminal justice system. The major sources of these data are the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. BJS issues several reports, including Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization in the United States, Prisoners in State and Federal Institutions, Children in Custody, Census of State Correctional Facilities and Survey of Prison Inmates, Census of Jails and Survey of Jail Inmates, Parole in the United States, Capital Punishment, and the annual Expenditure and Employment Data for the Criminal Justice System. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s major annual report is Crime in the United States, which presents data on reported crimes as gathered from state and local law enforcement agencies. Legal jurisdiction and law enforcement—Law enforcement is, for the most part, a function of state and local officers and agencies. The U.S. Constitution reserves general police powers to the states. By act of Congress, Federal offenses include only offenses against the U.S. Government and against or by its employees while engaged in their official duties and offenses which involve the crossing of state lines or an interference with interstate commerce. Excluding the military, there are 52 separate criminal law jurisdictions in the United States: 1 in each of the 50 states, 1 in the District of Columbia, and the Federal jurisdiction. Each of these has its own criminal law and procedure and its own law enforcement agencies. While the systems of law enforcement are quite similar among the states, there are often substantial differences in the penalties for like offenses. Law enforcement can be divided into three parts: Investigation of crimes and arrests of persons suspected of committing them; prosecution of those charged with crime; and the punishment or treatment of persons convicted of crime. Crime—There are two major approaches taken in determining the extent of crime. One perspective is provided by the FBI through its Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR). The FBI receives monthly and annual reports from law enforcement agencies throughout the country, currently representing 95 percent of the national population. Each month, city police, sheriffs, and state police file reports on the number of index offenses that become known to them. The FBI Crime Index offenses are as follows: Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter is based on police investigations, as opposed to the determination of a medical examiner or judicial body, includes willful felonious homicides and excludes attempts and assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, justifiable homicides, and deaths caused by negligence; forcible rape includes forcible rapes and attempts; robbery includes stealing or taking anything of value by force or violence or threat of force or violence and includes attempted robbery; aggravated assault includes assault with intent to kill; burglary includes any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft and includes attempted burglary and burglary followed by larceny; larceny includes theft of property or articles of value without use of force and violence or fraud and excludes embezzlement, “con games,” forgery, etc.; motor vehicle theft includes all cases where vehicles are driven away and abandoned but excludes vehicles taken for temporary use and returned by the taker. Arson was added as the eighth Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons 199
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Index offense in April 1979 following a Congressional mandate. Arson includes any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. The monthly Uniform Crime Reports also contain data on crimes cleared by arrest and on characteristics of persons arrested for all criminal offenses. In summarizing and publishing crime data, the FBI depends primarily on the adherence to the established standards of reporting for statistical accuracy, presenting the data as information useful to persons concerned with the problem of crime and criminal-law enforcement. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)—A second perspective on crime is provided by this survey (formerly known as the National Crime Survey until August 1991) of the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Details about the crimes come directly from the victims. No attempt is made to validate the information against police records or any other source. The NCVS measures rape, robbery, assault, household and personal larceny, burglary, and motor vehicle theft. The NCVS includes offenses reported to the police, as well as those not reported. Police reporting rates (percent of victimizations) varied by type of crime. In 1994, for instance, 32 percent of the rapes/sexual assaults were reported; 55 percent of the robberies; 40 percent of assaults; 33 percent of personal thefts; 51 percent of the household burglaries; and 78 percent of motor vehicle thefts. Murder and kidnaping are not covered. Commercial burglary and robbery were dropped from the program during 1977. The so-called victimless crimes, such as drunkenness, drug abuse, and prostitution, also are excluded, as are crimes for which it is difficult to identify knowledgeable respondents or to locate data records.

Crimes of which the victim may not be aware also cannot be measured effectively. Buying stolen property may fall into this category, as may some instances of embezzlement. Attempted crimes of many types probably are under recorded for this reason. Events in which the victim has shown a willingness to participate in illegal activity also are excluded. In any encounter involving a personal crime, more than one criminal act can be committed against an individual. For example, a rape may be associated with a robbery or a household offense, such as a burglary, can escalate into something more serious in the event of a personal confrontation. In classifying the survey-measured crimes, each criminal incident has been counted only once—by the most serious act that took place during the incident and ranked in accordance with the seriousness classification system used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The order of seriousness for crimes against persons is as follows: Rape, robbery, assault, and larceny. Personal crimes take precedence over household offenses. A victimization, basic measure of the occurrence of crime, is a specific criminal act as it affects a single victim. The number of victimizations is determined by the number of victims of such acts. Victimization counts serve as key elements in computing rates of victimization. For crimes against persons, the rates are based on the total number of individuals age 12 and over or on a portion of that population sharing a particular characteristic or set of traits. As general indicators of the danger of having been victimized during the reference period, the rates are not sufficiently refined to represent true measures of risk for specific individuals or households. An incident is a specific criminal act involving one or more victims; therefore the number of incidents of personal crimes is lower than that of victimizations. Courts—Statistics on criminal offenses and the outcome of prosecutions are incomplete for the country as a whole, although data are available for many states

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individually. The only national compilations of such statistics were made by the Census Bureau for 1932 to 1945 covering a maximum of 32 states and by the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 1986, 1988, 1990, and 1992 based on a nationally representative sample survey. The bulk of civil and criminal litigation in the country is commenced and determined in the various state courts. Only when the U.S. Constitution and acts of Congress specifically confer jurisdiction upon the Federal courts may civil or criminal litigation be heard and decided by them. Generally, the Federal courts have jurisdiction over the following types of cases: Suits or proceedings by or against the United States; civil actions between private parties arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States; civil actions between private litigants who are citizens of different states; civil cases involving admiralty, maritime, or prize jurisdiction; and all matters in bankruptcy. The Administrative Office of the United States Courts has compiled statistics on the caseload of the Federal courts annually since 1940. There are several types of courts with varying degrees of legal jurisdiction. These jurisdictions include original, appellate, general, and limited or special. A court of original jurisdiction is one having the authority initially to try a case and pass judgment on the law and the facts; a court of appellate jurisdiction is one with the legal authority to review cases and hear appeals; a court of general jurisdiction is a trial court of unlimited original jurisdiction in civil and/or criminal cases, also called a “major trial court”; a court of limited or special jurisdiction is a trial court with legal authority over only a particular class of cases, such as probate, juvenile, or traffic cases. The 94 Federal courts of original jurisdiction are known as the U.S. district courts. One or more of these courts is established in every state and one each in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and

Guam. Appeals from the district courts are taken to intermediate appellate courts of which there are 13, known as U.S. courts of appeals and the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The Supreme Court of the United States is the final and highest appellate court in the Federal system of courts. Juvenile offenders—For statistical purposes, the FBI and most states classify as juvenile offenders persons under the age of 18 years who have committed a crime or crimes. Delinquency cases are all cases of youths referred to a juvenile court for violation of a law or ordinance or for seriously “antisocial” conduct. Several types of facilities are available for those adjudicated delinquent, ranging from the short-term physically unrestricted environment to the long-term very restrictive atmosphere. Prisoners—Data on prisoners in Federal and state prisons and reformatories were collected annually by the Census Bureau until 1950, by the Federal Bureau of Prisons until 1971, transferred then to the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, and, in 1979, to the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Adults convicted of criminal activity may be given a prison or jail sentence. A prison is a confinement facility having custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement of more than 1 year. A jail is a facility, usually operated by a local law enforcement agency, holding persons detained pending adjudication and/or persons committed after adjudication to 1 year or less. Nearly every state publishes annual data either for its whole prison system or for each separate state institution. Statistical reliability—For discussion of statistical collection, estimation and sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability pertaining to the National Crime Victimization Survey and Uniform Crime Reporting Program, see Appendix III.

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Figure 5.1

Criminal Victimization: 1993 to 1998
Millions

50
All crimes Violent crimes Property crimes

40

30

20

10

0

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Census Bureau. For data, see Table 340.

Figure 5.2

Federal and State Prisoners: 1960 to 1997
1200 Rate per 100,000 population Male 1000 Total

800

600

400

200 Female 0 1960 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996
Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Census Bureau. For data, see Table 369.

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No. 329. Crimes and Crime Rates by Type of Offense: 1988 to 1998
[13,923 represents 13,923,000. Data refer to offenses known to the police. Rates are based on Census Bureau estimated resident population as of July 1, 1990, enumerated as of April 1. See source for details. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease. For definitions of crimes, see text, this section] Violent crime Item and year Total Number of offenses (1,000): 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent change, number offenses: 1988 to 1998 . . . . . . 1994 to 1995 . . . . . . 1995 to 1996 . . . . . . 1996 to 1997 . . . . . . 1997 to 1998 . . . . . . of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 -0.9 -2.7 -2.2 -5.4 5,664.2 5,741.0 5,820.3 5,897.8 5,660.2 5,484.4 5,373.5 5,275.9 5,086.6 4,930.0 4,615.5 2.2 -3.2 -6.1 -3.1 -6.4 637.2 663.1 731.8 758.1 757.5 746.8 713.6 684.6 636.5 611.3 566.4 18.2 -7.3 -9.1 -7.6 -7.1 8.4 8.7 9.4 9.8 9.3 9.5 9.0 8.2 7.4 6.8 6.3 -0.7 -4.6 -1.3 -0.1 -3.2 37.6 38.1 41.2 42.3 42.8 41.1 39.3 37.1 36.3 35.9 34.4 17.7 -6.1 -7.7 -6.9 -10.4 220.9 233.0 257.0 272.7 263.6 255.9 237.7 220.9 201.9 186.3 165.2 -7.1 -1.3 -5.7 -1.3 -4.8 370.2 383.4 424.1 433.3 441.8 440.3 427.6 418.3 390.9 382.3 360.5 11.4 -0.6 -2.1 -2.1 -5.3 5,027.1 5,077.9 5,088.5 5,139.7 4,902.7 4,737.6 4,660.0 4,591.3 4,450.1 4,318.7 4,049.1 27.6 -4.4 -3.4 -1.8 -5.3 1,309.2 1,276.3 1,235.9 1,252.0 1,168.2 1,099.2 1,042.0 987.1 944.8 919.4 862.0 4.3 1.5 -1.2 -2.0 -4.8 3,134.9 3,171.3 3,194.8 3,228.8 3,103.0 3,032.4 3,026.7 3,043.8 2,979.7 2,893.4 2,728.1 13.4 -4.4 -5.3 -2.9 -8.4 582.9 630.4 657.8 659.0 631.5 606.1 591.3 560.4 525.5 506.0 459.0 . . . . . . . . . . . 13,923 14,251 14,476 14,873 14,438 14,145 13,990 13,863 13,494 13,195 12,476 Total 1,566 1,646 1,820 1,912 1,932 1,926 1,858 1,799 1,689 1,636 1,531 Mur- Forcible rape der 1 20.7 21.5 23.4 24.7 23.8 24.5 23.3 21.6 19.7 18.2 16.9 92.5 94.5 102.6 106.6 109.1 106.0 102.2 97.5 96.3 96.2 93.1 AggraRobvated bery assault 543 578 639 688 672 660 619 581 536 499 447 910 952 1,055 1,093 1,127 1,136 1,113 1,099 1,037 1,023 974 Property crime Larceny— theft 7,706 7,872 7,946 8,142 7,915 7,821 7,880 7,998 7,905 7,744 7,374 Motor vehicle theft 1,433 1,565 1,636 1,662 1,611 1,563 1,539 1,472 1,394 1,354 1,241

Total Burglary 12,357 12,605 12,656 12,961 12,506 12,219 12,132 12,064 11,805 11,558 10,945 3,218 3,168 3,074 3,157 2,980 2,835 2,713 2,594 2,506 2,461 2,330

Rate per 100,000 population: 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent change, rate per 100,000 population: 1988 to 1998 . . . . . . . 1994 to 1995 . . . . . . . 1995 to 1996 . . . . . . . 1996 to 1997 . . . . . . . 1997 to 1998 . . . . . . .
1

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

-18.5 -1.8 -3.6 -3.1 -6.4

-11.1 -4.1 -7.0 -7.3 -7.3

-25.0 -8.9 -9.8 -7.4 -7.4

-8.5 -5.6 -2.2 -4.2 -4.2

-25.2 -7.1 -8.6 -11.3 -11.3

-2.6 -2.2 -6.6 -5.7 -5.7

-19.5 -1.5 -3.1 -6.2 -6.2

-34.2 -5.3 -4.3 -6.2 -6.2

-13.0 0.6 -2.2 -5.7 -5.7

-21.3 -5.2 -6.2 -9.3 -9.3

Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

No. 330. Crimes and Crime Rates by Type and Area: 1998
[In thousands (12,476 represents 12,476,000), except rate. Rate per 100,000 population; see headnote, Table 329. Estimated totals based on reports from city and rural law enforcement agencies representing 96 percent of the national population. For definitions of crimes, see text, this section] Type of crime Total . . . . . . . . . . . . Violent crime . . . . . . . . . . Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter . . . . . . . Forcible rape . . . . . . . Robbery . . . . . . . . . . Aggravated assault. . . Property crime . . . . . Burglary. . . . . . . . Larceny-theft . . . . Motor vehicle theft .
1

United States Total ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,476 1,531 17 93 447 974 10,945 2,330 7,374 1,241 Rate 4,616 566 6 34 165 360 4,049 862 2,728 459

Metropolitan areas Total 10,725 1,359 15 78 423 840 9,366 1,940 6,276 1,149

1

Other cities Total 1,097 98 1 8 15 74 1,000 195 755 49 Rate 4,987 444 4 36 66 339 4,543 885 3,435 223

Rural areas Total 654 74 1 7 5 60 580 195 342 42 Rate 1,998 227 5 23 17 183 1,771 597 1,045 129

Rate 4,975 630 7 36 198 390 4,345 900 2,911 533

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

For definition, see Appendix II.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

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No. 331. Crime Rates by State, 1996 to 1998, and by Type, 1998
[Offenses known to the police per 100,000 population. Based on Census Bureau estimated resident population as of July 1. For definitions of crimes, see text, this section] 1998 Violent crime State 1996, total United States . . . . . Alabama . Alaska. . . Arizona . . Arkansas . California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,087 4,820 5,450 7,067 4,699 5,208 5,119 4,228 4,895 11,897 7,497 6,310 6,585 4,013 5,320 4,498 3,649 4,682 3,166 6,839 3,394 6,062 3,837 5,118 4,463 4,523 5,084 4,494 4,437 5,992 4 2,824 4,333 6,602 4,132 5,526 2,669 4,456 5,653 5,997 3,556 3,994 6,214 2,970 5,449 5,709 5,986 3,003 3,968 5,909 2,483 3,821 4,254 1997, total 4,930 4,890 5,273 7,195 4,719 4,865 4,650 3,984 5,783 9,839 7,272 5,792 6,023 3,925 5,141 4,466 3,816 5,152 3,127 6,449 3,132 5,653 3,675 4,917 4,414 4,630 4,815 4,409 4,284 6,065 2,640 4,057 6,907 3,911 5,492 2,711 4,510 5,495 6,270 3,432 3,654 6,134 3,245 5,512 5,481 5,996 2,828 3,876 5,926 2,469 3,678 4,181 Total 4,616 4,597 4,777 6,575 4,283 4,343 4,488 3,787 5,363 8,836 6,886 5,463 5,333 3,715 4,873 4,169 3,501 4,859 2,889 6,098 3,041 5,366 3,436 4,683 4,047 4,384 4,826 4,071 4,405 5,281 2,420 3,654 6,719 3,589 5,322 2,681 4,328 5,004 5,647 3,273 3,518 5,777 2,624 5,034 5,112 5,506 3,139 3,660 5,867 2,547 3,543 3,808 Total 566 512 654 578 490 704 378 366 762 1,719 939 573 247 282 808 431 312 397 284 780 126 797 621 621 310 411 556 139 451 644 107 440 961 638 579 89 363 539 420 421 312 903 154 715 565 314 106 326 429 249 249 248 Murder 1 6.3 8.1 6.7 8.1 7.9 6.6 4.6 4.1 2.8 49.7 6.5 8.1 2.0 2.9 8.4 7.7 1.9 5.9 4.6 12.8 2.0 10.0 2.0 7.3 2.6 11.4 7.3 4.1 3.1 9.7 1.5 4.0 10.9 5.1 8.1 1.1 4.0 6.1 3.8 5.3 2.4 8.0 1.4 8.5 6.8 3.1 2.2 6.2 3.9 4.3 3.6 4.8 Forcible rape 34.4 33.2 68.6 31.1 35.2 30.0 47.4 22.2 67.1 36.3 49.6 30.4 30.0 31.4 34.0 33.1 25.4 42.6 29.3 36.8 18.1 33.4 27.4 50.4 49.9 37.3 26.9 17.8 25.1 52.1 33.8 20.0 55.1 21.1 30.6 33.2 41.0 45.2 39.8 27.0 35.5 45.7 35.0 45.8 40.0 41.7 27.6 26.7 48.2 18.7 19.9 27.7 AggraRob- vated bery assault 165 131 87 165 96 211 82 134 194 690 243 187 103 22 249 111 51 87 75 198 21 299 97 156 93 123 149 20 77 255 22 186 163 270 161 10 134 92 105 165 67 155 20 178 145 66 10 106 116 37 86 16 361 340 492 374 351 457 244 206 498 943 640 347 113 226 517 279 233 262 175 532 85 455 495 407 165 239 372 97 346 327 50 230 732 341 380 45 185 396 271 224 208 695 98 483 373 204 67 187 261 188 140 199 Property crime LarMotor Bur- ceny— vehicle glary theft theft 862 964 667 1,210 928 824 787 666 860 1,216 1,362 991 936 693 826 789 674 893 637 1,172 667 923 607 838 688 1,145 873 512 634 1,138 325 671 1,394 577 1,325 356 810 1,143 928 531 653 1,163 469 1,076 986 813 671 561 1,063 614 569 561 2,728 2,779 3,031 3,922 2,582 2,217 2,918 2,366 3,313 4,658 3,887 3,343 3,681 2,554 2,799 2,590 2,307 3,341 1,750 3,605 2,127 3,097 1,778 2,630 2,724 2,490 2,948 3,192 2,972 2,711 1,863 2,109 3,744 1,999 3,092 2,059 2,771 2,916 3,773 1,965 2,165 3,295 1,898 2,726 3,072 4,012 2,214 2,504 3,758 1,498 2,453 2,861 459 342 425 865 283 599 405 388 428 1,243 699 557 469 186 440 359 209 228 218 542 121 549 430 594 325 339 450 229 348 788 124 434 620 375 326 177 384 405 526 356 388 416 103 517 489 367 148 270 619 187 272 139

Total 4,049 4,085 4,123 5,997 3,793 3,639 4,110 3,420 4,601 7,117 5,947 4,890 5,086 3,433 4,065 3,738 3,189 4,462 2,605 5,319 2,915 4,569 2,815 4,062 3,736 3,973 4,271 3,932 3,954 4,637 2,313 3,214 5,758 2,951 4,743 2,592 3,965 4,465 5,227 2,852 3,206 4,874 2,470 4,319 4,547 5,192 3,033 3,335 5,439 2,299 3,294 3,560

Colorado . . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . . Delaware 2 . . . . . . . . District of Columbia 3 . Florida. . . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . . Hawaii. . Idaho . . Illinois 4 . Indiana . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Kansas4 . . Kentucky 4 . Louisiana . . Maine . . . . Maryland . .

Massachusetts Michigan . . . . Minnesota . . . Mississippi . . . Missouri. . . . .

Montana 4 . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina North Dakota . Ohio . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . Oregon . . . . . Pennsylvania . Rhode Island . South Carolina South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont 4 . . . Virginia . . . . Washington . West Virginia Wisconsin 4 . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. 2 Forcible rape figures furnished by the state-level uniform crime reporting (UCR) Program administered by the Delaware State Bureau of Investigation were not in accordance with the national UCR guidelines; therefore, it was necessary that the forcible rape count be estimated. 3 Includes offenses reported by the police at the National Zoo. 4 Complete data were not available; therefore, it was necessary for the crime counts to be estimated for Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, and Montana for all years shown and for New Hampshire for 1997 and 1998, Vermont for 1997, and Wisconsin for 1998.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

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No. 332. Crime Rates of Selected Large Cities by Type: 1998
[Offenses known to the police per 100,000 population. Based on U.S. Census Bureau estimated resident population as of July 1. For definitions of crimes, see text, this section] Violent crime City ranked by population size, 1998 New York, NY . . . Los Angeles, CA . Chicago, IL . . . . Houston. TX . . . . Philadelphia, PA . Phoenix, AZ . . . . San Diego, CA . . San Antonio, TX . Dallas, TX . . . . . Detroit, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Property crime Robbery 535 437 840 429 789 307 176 162 540 856 362 120 105 381 530 292 1,161 395 132 690 405 505 196 417 321 424 689 209 273 679 335 629 318 274 594 112 410 401 1,124 345 220 439 704 1,018 257 137 655 438 143 391 1,017 242 281 270 562 165 184 835 122 1,057 264 320 182 484 373 Aggravated assault 596 871 1,336 643 600 482 515 215 833 1,458 346 118 450 658 419 777 1,141 309 527 670 983 430 300 840 456 1,096 943 291 525 496 958 720 629 618 1,159 92 415 856 1,794 655 833 394 1,048 1,470 1,003 488 728 374 320 359 1,472 358 560 255 490 393 294 1,618 551 954 546 488 306 409 727 Larcenytheft 1,998 2,209 4,418 3,565 3,442 4,729 2,354 4,842 4,525 4,332 2,685 3,735 2,084 2,876 3,419 4,333 5,427 5,496 4,183 3,459 4,933 4,393 4,669 3,141 6,193 5,874 4,650 2,531 3,942 2,837 5,443 3,957 5,992 6,224 6,136 2,987 1,842 6,086 6,883 4,192 3,623 4,090 4,930 5,605 3,954 4,364 5,002 3,249 3,972 4,345 7,814 4,376 4,437 1,866 3,471 4,152 1,744 5,973 5,299 3,339 2,236 4,414 3,381 3,198 4,861 Motor vehicle theft 599 785 1,157 1,141 1,347 1,456 824 650 1,526 2,865 1,127 543 369 764 910 752 1,111 1,111 425 1,380 661 1,249 551 1,138 1,507 1,224 1,243 1,045 826 1,454 1,236 1,755 1,220 859 1,650 212 826 1,501 1,907 1,403 891 1,561 1,377 1,791 1,022 838 1,239 784 363 628 1,940 605 1,073 786 962 648 545 1,720 463 1,858 708 895 700 929 1,019

Crime index, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,392 5,072 (2) 7,112 7,319 8,545 4,514 7,032 9,236 11,791 5,846 5,425 3,532 6,257 6,224 7,782 10,947 9,468 5,730 8,807 8,852 7,843 7,002 6,251 9,825 10,160 8,828 5,306 7,129 6,981 9,424 8,662 9,685 10,077 12,000 4,050 4,437 10,806 14,032 7,934 7,326 8,219 9,794 12,045 7,171 6,945 9,561 5,964 5,848 7,350 14,952 7,079 8,046 3,687 7,232 6,380 3,495 12,189 7,833 8,560 4,682 7,720 5,536 6,820 8,685

Total 1,167 1,359 (2) 1,123 1,464 832 725 451 1,463 2,443 776 268 599 1,135 990 1,154 2,420 817 700 1,499 1,455 1,002 540 1,327 832 1,631 1,719 573 870 1,308 1,372 1,462 1,034 996 1,868 227 860 1,317 3,047 1,052 1,131 878 1,862 2,549 1,315 662 1,525 876 540 874 2,571 665 905 554 1,129 608 508 2,557 729 2,094 850 909 570 943 1,213

Murder 8.6 11.8 25.6 14.1 23.3 15.1 3.5 8.1 23.1 43.0 12.8 1.9 3.4 18.8 7.8 10.5 47.1 11.8 2.7 19.0 11.0 18.9 5.5 6.1 9.1 18.5 49.7 10.0 12.9 16.3 5.3 48.8 9.6 12.1 29.0 3.2 8.8 8.8 36.0 8.9 9.8 8.1 19.1 23.1 7.6 3.0 16.0 10.0 2.2 5.8 32.8 9.4 6.9 6.7 12.6 4.2 6.0 13.6 5.9 22.3 6.4 8.4 10.7 14.9 32.8

Forcible rape 27.8 38.5 (2) 36.4 51.9 28.2 30.8 66.7 66.5 85.8 55.1 27.7 41.5 77.1 32.9 74.1 70.8 101.0 38.6 119.5 56.1 48.6 39.1 63.6 45.0 92.2 36.3 62.8 58.9 116.2 73.9 63.5 77.8 90.8 85.3 19.3 25.8 51.8 92.9 43.3 69.1 36.7 90.3 37.5 47.0 32.9 126.5 53.8 74.6 117.2 48.8 56.8 56.9 21.8 63.8 45.1 24.4 90.2 49.8 60.2 32.9 92.6 72.0 35.4 79.4

Total Burglary 3,225 3,714 6,884 5,989 5,854 7,713 3,788 6,581 7,773 9,349 5,070 5,157 2,933 5,122 5,234 6,628 8,527 8,652 5,030 7,308 7,398 6,841 6,461 4,924 8,994 8,528 7,110 4,734 6,260 5,673 8,052 7,200 8,652 9,082 10,132 3,823 3,577 9,489 10,985 6,881 6,194 7,342 7,932 9,496 5,857 6,284 8,035 5,088 5,309 6,476 12,381 6,414 7,140 3,134 6,103 5,773 2,987 9,632 7,104 6,466 3,832 6,811 4,966 5,877 7,472 628 720 1,309 1,283 1,065 1,528 610 1,089 1,722 2,152 1,258 879 480 1,482 905 1,543 1,990 2,046 421 2,469 1,804 1,199 1,242 645 1,293 1,431 1,216 1,158 1,491 1,382 1,373 1,487 1,440 1,999 2,346 624 909 1,903 2,195 1,287 1,681 1,691 1,626 2,100 881 1,082 1,795 1,054 974 1,504 2,627 1,433 1,630 482 1,670 972 698 1,939 1,343 1,270 888 1,502 885 1,750 1,592

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Las Vegas, NV . . . Honolulu, HI . . . . . San Jose, CA . . . . Indianapolis, IN . . . San Francisco, CA

Jacksonville, FL . . . . . . . . Baltimore, MD. . . . . . . . . . Columbus, OH . . . . . . . . . El Paso, TX . . . . . . . . . . . Memphis, TN . . . . . . . . . . Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC . Milwaukee, WI . . . . . . . . . Austin, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . Boston, MA . . . . . . . . . . . Seattle, WA . . . . . . . . . . . Nashville, TN . . . . . . . . . . Washington, DC . . . . . . . . Denver, CO . . . . . . . . . . . Fort Worth, TX . . . . . . . . . Cleveland, OH . . . . . . . . . Portland, OR . . . . . . New Orleans, LA. . . . Tucson, AZ . . . . . . . Oklahoma City, OK . . Kansas City, MO . . . . Virginia Beach, VA. . . Long Beach, CA . . . . Albuquerque, NM . . . Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . Fresno, CA . . . . . . . Tulsa, OK . . . . . . . . Sacramento, CA . . . . Oakland, CA. . . . . . . Miami, FL . . . . . . . . Omaha, NE . . . . . . . Mesa, AZ . . . . . . . . . Minneapolis, MN . . . . Pittsburgh, PA. . . . . . Colorado Springs, CO Cincinnati, OH . . . . . St. Louis, MO . . . . . . Wichita, KS . . . . . . . Toledo, OH. . . . . . . . Santa Ana, CA . . . . . Buffalo, NY . . . . . . . Arlington, TX . . . . . . Anaheim, CA . . . . . . Tampa, FL . . . . . . . . Corpus Christi, TX . . . Newark, NJ . . . . . . . Riverside, CA . . . . . . St. Paul, MN. . . . . . . Aurora, CO . . . . . . . Louisville, KY . . . . . . Birmingham, AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Resident population estimated by the FBI. 2 The rates for forcible rape, violent crime, and crime index are not shown because the forcible rape figures were not in accordance with national Uniform Crime Reporting guidelines.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

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205

No. 333. Murder Victims—Circumstances and Weapons Used or Cause of Death: 1990 to 1998
[Based solely on police investigation. For definition of murder, see text, this section] Characteristic Murders, total . . . Percent distribution . . . CIRCUMSTANCES Felonies, total . . . . . . Robbery . . . . . . . . Narcotics . . . . . . . Sex offenses . . . . . Other felonies . . . . Suspected felonies . . Argument, total . . . . . Property or money . Romantic triangle . . Other arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 20,273 100.0 20.8 9.2 6.7 1.1 3.7 0.7 34.4 2.5 2.0 29.8 1995 20,232 100.0 17.7 9.3 5.1 0.2 3.2 0.6 31.2 1.7 1.4 28.2 1997 15,836 100.0 18.7 9.5 5.1 0.6 3.5 1.0 31.2 1.8 1.1 28.3 1998 14,209 100.0 17.7 8.7 4.8 0.7 3.4 0.7 31.9 1.7 1.3 29.0 Characteristic Other motives . . . . . . . Unknown . . . . . . . . . . TYPE OF WEAPON OR CAUSE OF DEATH Guns . . . . . . . . . . Handguns. . . . . . Cutting or stabbing . Blunt objects 1 . . . . Personal weapons 2. Strangulations, asphyxiations . . . . Fire. . . . . . . . . . . . All other 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.3 49.8 17.4 5.4 5.5 2.0 1.4 4.0 68.2 55.8 12.6 4.5 5.9 1.8 0.8 6.1 67.7 53.3 13.0 4.6 6.4 2.0 0.9 5.3 64.9 52.1 13.3 5.3 6.7 2.2 0.9 6.7 1990 19.4 24.8 1995 21.6 28.9 1997 17.2 31.9 1998 18.7 30.9

.. .. ..

1 Refers to club, hammer, etc. 2 Hands, fists, feet, etc. 3 Includes poison, drowning, explosives, narcotics, and unknown. Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

No. 334. Murder Victims by Age, Sex, and Race: 1998
Age Total . . . . . . . . . . . Percent distribution Under 18 yrs. old . . . . . 18 yrs. old and over . . . Infant (under 1 yr. old). . 1 to 4 yrs. old . . . . . . . 5 to 8 yrs. old . . . . . . . 9 to 12 yrs. old . . . . . . 13 to 16 yrs. old. . . . . . 17 to 19 yrs. old. . . . . . 20 to 24 yrs. old. . . . . . 25 to 29 yrs. old. . . . . . 30 to 34 yrs. old. . . . . . 35 to 39 yrs. old. . . . . . 40 to 44 yrs. old. . . . . . 45 to 49 yrs. old. . . . . . 50 to 54 yrs. old. . . . . . 55 to 59 yrs. old. . . . . . 60 to 64 yrs. old. . . . . . 65 to 69 yrs. old. . . . . . 70 to 74 yrs. old. . . . . . 75 yrs. old and over . . . Age unknown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex Total 14,209 100.0 1,613 12,294 224 324 112 100 483 1,470 2,526 2,026 1,535 1,462 1,181 768 499 324 229 180 162 302 302 Male 10,678 75.1 1,089 9,408 136 177 50 46 356 1,264 2,169 1,626 1,125 1,018 830 548 376 243 169 130 96 138 181 Female Unknown 3,466 24.4 524 2,882 88 147 62 54 127 205 356 399 410 444 351 219 123 81 60 50 66 164 60 65 0.5 4 1 1 1 1 61 White 7,024 49.4 857 6,058 132 176 67 67 242 634 1,035 828 788 749 637 427 306 215 148 123 122 219 109 Race Black 6,641 46.7 696 5,850 80 137 40 26 227 788 1,440 1,130 708 667 495 304 177 99 71 48 33 76 95 Other 329 2.3 44 281 5 7 5 7 12 39 36 49 28 30 36 26 12 7 8 7 5 6 4 Unknown 215 1.5 16 105 7 4 2 9 15 19 11 16 13 11 4 3 2 2 2 1 94

- Represents zero. Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

No. 335. Homicide Victims by Race and Sex: 1980 to 1997
[Rates per 100,000 resident population in specified group. Excludes deaths to nonresidents of United States. Deaths classified according to the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases; see text, Section 2, Vital Statistics] Homicide victims Year Total 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Homicide rate Black Male 8,385 8,312 7,730 6,822 6,563 6,616 7,634 7,518 8,314 8,888 9,981 10,628 10,131 10,640 10,083 8,847 8,183 7,601 Female 1,898 1,825 1,743 1,672 1,677 1,666 1,861 1,969 2,089 2,074 2,163 2,330 2,187 2,297 2,124 1,936 1,800 1,652 Total
1

2

White Male 10,381 9,941 9,260 8,355 8,171 8,122 8,567 7,979 7,994 8,337 9,147 9,581 9,456 9,054 9,055 8,336 7,570 7,343 Female 3,177 3,125 3,179 2,880 2,956 3,041 3,123 3,149 3,072 2,971 3,006 3,201 3,012 3,232 2,921 3,028 2,747 2,570

White Male 10.9 10.4 9.6 8.6 8.3 8.2 8.6 7.9 7.9 8.2 9.0 9.3 9.1 8.6 8.5 7.8 7.0 6.7 Female 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.3

Black Male 66.6 64.8 59.1 51.4 48.7 48.4 55.0 53.3 58.0 61.1 69.2 72.0 67.5 69.7 65.1 56.3 51.5 47.1 Female 13.5 12.7 12.0 11.3 11.2 11.0 12.1 12.6 13.2 12.9 13.5 14.2 13.1 13.6 12.4 11.1 10.2 9.3

24,278 23,646 22,358 20,191 19,796 19,893 21,731 21,103 22,032 22,909 24,932 26,513 25,488 26,009 24,926 22,895 20,971 19,846

10.7 10.3 9.6 8.6 8.4 8.3 9.0 8.7 9.0 9.2 10.0 10.5 10.0 10.1 9.6 8.7 7.9 7.4

1 Includes races not shown separately. 2 Rate based on enumerated population figures as of April 1 for 1980 and 1990; July 1 estimates for other years. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Statistics of the United States, annual; and National Vital Statistics Reports (NVSR) (formerly Monthly Vital Statistics Report); and unpublished data.

206 Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
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No. 336. Forcible Rape—Number and Rate: 1980 to 1998
[For definition of rape, see text, this section] Item NUMBER Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . By force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attempt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RATE Per 100,000 population . . . . . . . . Per 100,000 females. . . . . . . . . . Per 100,000 females 12 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AVERAGE ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGE IN RATE 1 Per 100,000 population . . . . . . . . Per 100,000 females 12 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1980

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995 97,460 85,249 12,211

1996 96,250 84,053 12,197

1997 96,153 84,818 11,335

1998 93,103 82,758 10,345

82,990 102,560 106,590 109,060 106,010 102,220 63,599 86,541 91,522 93,825 92,360 89,297 19,391 16,019 15,068 15,235 13,650 12,923

36.8 71.6 86.3

41.2 80.5 96.6

42.3 82.5 100.9

42.8 83.5 100.5

41.1 80.3 96.4

39.3 76.7 92.0

37.1 72.5 87.1

36.3 71.0 85.3

35.9 70.4 84.4

34.4 67.3 80.6

6.1 6.0

8.1 8.2

2.7 4.5

1.2 -0.4

-4.0 -4.1

-4.4 -4.6

-5.6 -5.3

-2.2 -2.1

-1.0 -1.0

-4.1 -4.5

Represents annual average from prior year shown except for 1980, from 1979 and for 1990, from 1989.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Population-at-Risk Rates and Selected Crime Indicators, annual.

No. 337. Robbery and Property Crimes by Type and Selected Characteristics: 1990 to 1998
[For definition of crime, see text, this section] Number of offenses (1,000) 1990 Robbery, total
1

Characteristic of offenses ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rate per 100,000 inhabitants 1990 257.0 144.2 29.5 7.1 15.6 25.1 3.8 94.1 30.7 24.5 107.7 1995 220.9 120.0 27.2 5.1 11.4 24.0 3.5 90.6 20.1 20.2 90.0 987.6 661.2 250.1 76.4 660.6 327.0 344.4 380.5 1997 186.1 93.1 25.6 4.4 10.5 21.6 3.6 73.9 15.9 24.9 71.5 919.6 603.4 249.9 66.3 612.8 306.8 309.1 330.9 1998 165.2 81.2 22.6 3.6 9.6 20.1 3.2 63.1 14.5 22.1 65.6 862.0 562.8 240.1 59.0 577.6 284.4 287.2 317.4 2728.1 16.4 15.7 404.8 716.3 273.0 138.8 366.3 16.3 780.4 459.1 347.0 85.2

Average value lost (dol.) 1997 995 720 1,474 715 576 1,133 4,802 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,334 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,305 1,391 (NA) (NA) 585 466 403 130 584 390 293 963 453 785 5,416 (NA) (NA) 1998 998 772 1,350 546 570 1,078 4,516 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,343 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,299 1,432 (NA) (NA) 650 407 362 142 675 415 262 1,028 328 884 6,030 (NA) (NA)

1995 581 315 71 13 30 63 9 238 53 53 236 2,595 1,737 657 201 1,736 859 905 1,000 8,001 51 51 1,205 1,940 964 501 1,004 50 2,235 1,473 1,154 240

1997 498 249 69 12 28 58 10 198 42 67 191 2,461 1,615 669 177 1,640 821 827 886 7,744 46 47 1,179 1,975 770 430 1,051 45 2,184 1,354 1,042 240

1998 447 219 61 10 26 54 9 171 39 60 177

639 359 73 18 39 62 9 234 76 61 268 3,074 2,150 678 245 2,033 1,041 1,135 1,151 7,946 81 82 1,291 1,744 1,185 443 1,118 63 1,940 1,636 1,304 238

Type of crime: Street or highway . . . . . . Commercial house . . . . . Gas station . . . . . . . . . . Convenience store . . . . . Residence . . . . . . . . . . . Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weapon used: Firearm . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knife or cutting instrument Other dangerous weapon . Strongarm . . . . . . . . . . . Burglary, total . . . . Forcible entry . . . . . . . . Unlawful entry . . . . . . . . Attempted forcible entry. . Residence . . . . . . . . . . Nonresidence . . . . . . . . Occurred during the night Occurred during the day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,330 1,235.9 1,521 864.5 649 272.8 160 98.7 1,561 817.4 769 418.5 776 456.4 858 462.8

Larceny-theft, total . . . . Pocket picking . . . . . . . . . . . Purse snatching . . . . . . . . . . Shoplifting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . From motor vehicles . . . . . . . Motor vehicle accessories . . . Bicycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . From buildings . . . . . . . . . . . From coin-operated machines. Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,374 3,194.8 3,044.9 2,893.4 44 32.4 19.4 17.1 42 32.8 19.5 17.4 1,094 519.1 458.4 440.5 1,936 701.3 738.5 737.8 738 476.3 367.0 287.6 375 178.2 190.5 160.7 990 449.4 382.1 392.5 44 25.4 18.9 16.7 2,109 780.0 850.5 816.2 1,241 938 230 657.8 524.3 95.5 560.5 439.2 91.2 505.8 389.3 89.7

Motor vehicles, total 2 . . . . Automobiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trucks and buses. . . . . . . . . . . .

2 NA Not available. 1 Includes other crimes not shown separately. Includes other types of motor vehicles not shown separately. Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Population-at-Risk Rates and Selected Crime Indicators, annual.

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No. 338. Hate Crimes—Number of Incidents, Offenses, Victims, and Known Offenders by Bias Motivation: 1998
[The FBI collected statistics on hate crimes from 10,461 law enforcement agencies representing over 214 million inhabitants in 1998. Hate crime offenses cover incidents motivated by race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity/national origin, and disability] Bias motivation Total bias motivations . . . . . . . Race, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-American Indian/Alaskan native . Anti-Asian/Pacific Islander . . . . . . . Anti-multiracial group . . . . . . . . . . . Ethnicity/national origin, total . . . . . Anti-Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-other ethnicity/national origin. . . Religion, total. . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-Jewish . . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-Catholic . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-Protestant . . . . . . . . . . Anti-Islamic . . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-other religious group . . . Anti-multireligious group . . . . Anti-atheism/agnosticism/etc . Sexual orientation, total . . . . Anti-male homosexual . . . . . Anti-female homosexual . . . . Anti-homosexual . . . . . . . . . Anti-heterosexual . . . . . . . . Anti-bisexual . . . . . . . . . . . Disability, total . Anti-physical . Anti-mental . . Multiple bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incidents reported 7,755 4,321 792 2,901 52 293 283 754 482 272 1,390 1,081 61 59 21 125 41 2 1,260 850 223 158 12 17 25 13 12 5 Offenses 9,235 5,360 989 3,573 66 359 373 919 595 324 1,475 1,145 62 61 22 138 45 2 1,439 972 265 170 13 19 27 14 13 15 Victims
1

Known offenders 2 7,489 4,626 1,131 2,999 61 245 190 863 580 283 536 394 15 31 12 71 12 1 1,408 1,048 207 129 7 17 42 19 23 14

9,722 5,514 1,003 3,663 66 372 410 956 620 336 1,720 1,235 65 62 23 288 45 2 1,488 1,005 270 177 17 19 27 14 13 17

1 The term ‘‘victim’’ may refer to a person, business, institution, or a society as a whole. 2 The term ‘‘known offender’’ does not imply that the identity of the suspect is known, but only that an attribute of the suspect is identified which distinquishes him/her from an unknown offender.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Hate Crime Statistics, annual; and <http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/98hate.pdf> (accessed 29 October 1999)

No. 339. Hate Crimes Reported by State: 1998
[See headnote, Table 338] Number of participating agencies Agencies submitInciting incidents Population dents reported 1,810 (1) (1) 27 2 239 39 48 9 1 63 10 (1) 26 68 18 1 19 7 17 32 98 152 72 3 7,755 (1) (1) 283 3 1,749 128 109 19 2 179 34 (1) 58 277 50 54 45 10 57 282 431 384 248 3 Number of participating agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 77 202 35 57 565 59 Agencies submitInciting incidents Population dents reported 4,092,986 709,382 1,342,201 1,747,000 472,857 8,115,000 1,121,146 24 12 13 9 9 255 5 33 18 2 62 25 21 31 10 40 7 30 97 32 9 45 51 16 (1) 3 118 22 52 60 16 757 31 776 39 2 172 57 93 168 29 94 19 58 300 66 13 160 221 21 (1) 6

State

State

U.S. . . . . . . . . Alabama . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . California . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . Delaware . . . . . . Dist. of Columbia. Florida. . . . . . . . Georgia . . Hawaii. . . Idaho . . . Illinois . . . Indiana . . Iowa . . . . Kansas . . Kentucky . Louisiana . Maine . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10,461 214,226,549 (1) (1) (1) (1) 90 4,441,014 193 2,533,761 719 32,651,387 233 3,970,717 94 2,719,192 50 562,068 1 523,000 464 14,826,670 58 (1) 120 73 150 218 1 264 134 133 147 177 546 72 90 1,052,723 (1) 1,220,792 4,891,615 3,717,036 2,668,398 329,179 2,941,256 2,789,979 1,219,585 5,130,893 4,352,318 6,766,382 2,448,133 1,294,255
1

Missouri. . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . North Carolina North Dakota . Ohio . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . Oregon . . . . . Pennsylvania . Rhode Island . South Carolina South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia . . . . . Washington . . West Virginia . Wisconsin . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

500 18,170,860 434 7,451,189 81 495,030 344 7,394,669 25 1,317,563 167 3,264,432 1,127 11,744,149 46 988,000 300 3,830,806 76 567,373 260 3,085,684 931 19,731,597 101 1,829,393 37 418,582 415 6,791,000 238 5,520,307 112 708,363 (1) (1) 33 266,627

Massachusetts Michigan . . . . Minnesota . . . Mississippi . . .

- Represents or rounds to zero.

Did not report.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Hate Crime Statistics, annual; and <http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/98hate.pdf> (accessed 29 October 1999).

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No. 340. Criminal Victimizations and Victimization Rates: 1995 to 1998
[Based on National Crime Victimization Survey; see text, this section and Appendix III] Type of crime All crimes, total . . . . . . . . . Personal crimes 2 . . . . . . . . . . Crimes of violence. . . . . . . . . . . . Completed violence . . . . . . . Attempted/threatened violence Rape/sexual assault . . . . . . . . . Rape/attempted rape. . . . . . . Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attempted rape . . . . . . . . . Sexual assault . . . . . . . . . . . Robbery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Completed/property taken . . . With injury . . . . . . . . . . . . Without injury . . . . . . . . . . Attempted to take property . . . With injury . . . . . . . . . . . . Without injury . . . . . . . . . . Assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aggravated . . . . . . . . . . . . . With injury . . . . . . . . . . . . Threatened with weapon . . Simple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With minor injury . . . . . . . . Without injury . . . . . . . . . . Personal theft 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Property crimes . . . . . Household burglary . . . . . Completed . . . . . . . . . Attempted forcible entry Motor vehicle theft . . . . . . Completed . . . . . . . . . Attempted. . . . . . . . . . Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Completed 4 . . . . . . . . Attempted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of victimizations (1,000) 1995 39,926 10,436 10,022 2,960 7,061 363 252 153 99 112 1,171 753 224 529 418 84 335 8,487 2,050 533 1,517 6,437 1,426 5,012 414 29,490 5,004 4,232 773 1,717 1,163 554 22,769 21,857 911 1996 36,796 9,443 9,125 2,700 6,425 307 197 98 99 110 1,134 757 250 508 377 79 298 7,683 1,910 513 1,397 5,773 1,240 4,533 318 27,353 4,845 4,056 789 1,387 938 449 21,120 20,303 818 1997 34,788 8,971 8,614 2,679 5,935 311 194 115 79 117 944 607 243 363 337 73 265 7,359 1,883 595 1,288 5,476 1,258 4,218 357 25,817 4,635 3,893 742 1,433 1,007 426 19,749 18,960 789 1998 31,307 8,412 8,116 2,564 5,553 333 200 110 89 133 886 610 170 439 277 70 207 6,897 1,674 547 1,126 5,224 1,175 4,048 296 22,895 4,054 3,380 674 1,138 822 316 17,703 17,074 629 1995 (X) 46.2 44.5 12.9 31.6 1.6 1.1 0.7 0.4 0.5 5.3 3.5 1.0 2.4 1.8 0.4 1.4 37.6 8.8 2.4 6.4 28.9 6.0 22.9 1.7 279.5 47.4 40.0 7.4 16.2 10.8 5.5 215.9 207.6 8.4 Victimization rates 1996 (X) 43.5 42.0 12.4 29.6 1.4 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.5 5.2 3.5 1.1 2.3 1.7 0.4 1.4 35.4 8.8 2.4 6.4 26.6 5.7 20.9 1.5 266.3 47.2 39.5 7.7 13.5 9.1 4.4 205.7 197.7 8.0
1

1997 (X) 40.8 39.2 12.2 27.0 1.4 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.5 4.3 2.8 1.1 1.7 1.5 0.3 1.2 33.5 8.6 2.7 5.9 24.9 5.7 19.2 1.6 248.3 44.6 37.4 7.1 13.8 9.7 4.1 189.9 182.3 7.6

1998 (X) 37.9 36.6 11.6 25.0 1.5 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.6 4.0 2.7 0.8 2.0 1.2 0.3 0.9 31.1 7.5 2.5 5.1 23.5 5.3 18.2 1.3 217.4 38.5 32.1 6.4 10.8 7.8 3.0 168.1 162.1 6.0

X Not applicable. 1 Per 1,000 persons age 12 or older or per 1,000 households. 2 The victimization survey cannot measure murder because of the inability to question the victim. 3 Includes pocket picking, purse snatching, and attempted purse snatching. 4 Includes thefts in which the amount taken was not ascertained. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization, annual; and Criminal Victimization 1998, Changes 1997-98 with Trends 1993-98, Series NCJ-176353 (revised 25 August 1999).

No. 341. Victimization Rates by Type of Violent Crime and Characteristic of the Victim: 1998
[Rate per 1,000 persons age 12 years or older. Based on National Crime Victimization Survey; see text, Section 5, Law Enforcement, and Appendix III] Crimes of violence Characteristic All crime Total . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . 12 to 15 yrs. old. . . 16 to 19 yrs. old. . . 20 to 24 yrs. old. . . 25 to 34 yrs. old. . . 35 to 49 yrs. old. . . 50 to 64 yrs. old. . . 65 yrs. old and over White . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . Non-Hispanic. . . . . Household income: Less than $7,500 $7,500-$14,999 . $15,000-$24,999. $25,000-$34,999. $35,000-$49,999. $50,000-$74,999. $75,000 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.9 44.3 31.9 84.4 93.4 69.1 42.5 31.1 17.0 3.6 37.5 43.8 29.0 34.5 38.1 65.5 51.1 40.7 43.1 33.3 33.1 34.1 All crimes of violence 36.6 43.1 30.4 82.4 91.1 67.3 41.5 29.9 15.4 2.8 36.3 41.7 27.6 32.8 36.8 63.8 49.3 39.4 42.0 31.7 32.0 33.1 Rape/ sexual assault 1.5 0.2 2.7 3.5 5.0 4.6 1.7 0.7 0.2 1.5 2.0 0.7 0.8 1.6 3.2 2.4 2.3 2.4 0.5 0.7 1.2 Assault Robbery 4.0 4.6 3.5 7.7 11.4 7.9 4.2 3.2 1.7 0.5 3.7 5.9 4.4 6.3 3.7 6.5 5.8 3.6 6.9 3.1 2.8 2.9 Total 31.1 38.3 24.3 71.2 74.7 54.8 35.6 26.1 13.5 2.3 31.1 33.7 22.5 25.6 31.5 54.2 41.0 33.5 32.8 28.1 28.5 29.0 Aggravated 7.5 10.5 4.7 12.2 19.0 16.0 8.4 6.8 3.3 0.5 7.0 11.9 6.6 6.1 7.6 19.6 11.8 7.9 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.2 Simple 23.5 27.8 19.5 58.9 55.7 38.8 27.3 19.3 10.2 1.8 24.2 21.8 15.9 19.5 23.9 34.5 29.3 25.7 26.5 21.9 22.3 22.8 Personal theft 1.3 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.3 1.8 1.0 1.2 1.6 0.8 1.2 2.1 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.7 1.8 1.3 1.1 1.6 1.1 1.0

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization, annual; and Criminal Victimization 1998, Changes 1997-98 with Trends 1993-98, Series NCJ-176353 (revised 25 August 1999).

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209

No. 342. Victim-Offender Relationship in Crimes of Violence by Characteristics of the Criminal Incident: 1998
[In percent. Covers only crimes of violence. Based on National Crime Victimization Survey; see text, Section 5, Law Enforcement, and Appendix III] Rape/ sexual assault 100 13 42 20 26 34 37 22 46 20 7 3 12 5 8 12 12 41 22 4 9 44 5 13 21 13 3 91 9 4 5 Assault Robbery 100 17 15 6 61 54 31 14 33 6 6 11 9 27 9 18 12 21 7 17 16 9 23 13 17 19 22 5 58 42 21 21 Total 100 12 26 17 45 56 32 11 28 7 13 8 15 18 13 22 13 23 3 23 8 8 16 14 18 25 23 3 77 23 7 16 Aggravated1 100 11 26 12 51 51 37 12 32 9 11 7 5 22 13 19 6 26 4 28 9 8 17 17 20 21 21 4 7 93 27 66 Simple 100 12 26 18 44 57 30 11 27 6 13 8 17 16 13 22 16 22 3 21 8 8 16 13 18 26 24 3 100 -

Characteristic of incident Total Total . . . . . . . . . . . . Victim/offender relationship: Relatives . . . . . . . . . . . Well-known . . . . . . . . . Casual acquaintance . . . Stranger . . . . . . . . . . . Time of day: 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. . . . . . . 6 p.m. to midnight . . . . . Midnight to 6 a.m. . . . . . ...........
2

100 17 31 12 40 55 32 12 29 7 12 8 14 18 12 21 13 24 3 22 9 8 18 14 18 24 23 4 75 25 8 16

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

........... ........... ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Location of crime: At or near victim’s home or lodging . . Friend’s/relative’s/neighbor’s home . . . Commercial places . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parking lots/garages . . . . . . . . . . . . School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Streets other than near victim’s home . Other 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victim’s activity: At work or traveling to or from work School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activities at home . . . . . . . . . . . . Shopping/errands . . . . . . . . . . . . Leisure activities away from home . Traveling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance from victim’s home: Inside home or lodging . . . . . . . . Near victim’s home . . . . . . . . . . . 1 mile or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 miles or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 miles or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . More than 50 miles . . . . . . . . . . . Weapons: No weapons present . . . . . . . . . . Weapons present . . . . . . . . . . . . Firearm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other type of weapon 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- Represents zero. 1 An aggravated assault is any assault in which an offender possesses or uses a weapon or inflicts serious injury. 2 Excludes ‘‘don’t know’’ relationships. 3 Includes areas on public transportation or inside station, in apartment yard, park, field, playground, or other areas. 4 Includes knives, other sharp objects, blunt objects, and other types of weapons. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization, annual; and Criminal Victimization 1998, Changes 1997-98 with Trends 1993-98, Series NCJ-176353 (revised 25 August 1999).

No. 343. Property Victimization Rates by Selected Household Characteristic: 1998
[Victimizations per 1,000 households. Based on National Crime Victimization Survey; see text, Section 5, Law Enforcement, and Appendix III] Characteristic Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . Ethnicity: Hispanic . . . . . . Non-Hispanic . . . Household income: Less than $7,500 $7,500-$14,999 . $15,000-$24,999 $25,000-$34,999 $35,000-$49,999 $50,000-$74,999 $75,000 or more Residence: Urban. . . . . . . . Suburban . . . . . Rural . . . . . . . . Form of tenure: Home owned . . . Home rented . . . ............................. ............................. ............................. ............................. ............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total 217.4 212.6 248.0 224.5 267.6 212.5 209.0 229.8 211.0 233.8 221.7 248.6 248.6 274.2 204.5 173.5 189.6 270.6 Burglary 38.5 36.3 54.8 33.2 44.9 37.7 55.4 57.8 42.6 38.2 32.7 30.1 28.0 49.3 32.5 36.6 31.7 51.5 Motor vehicle theft 10.8 9.4 20.1 12.5 22.0 9.7 11.1 9.0 12.0 12.3 10.8 10.6 11.2 17.8 10.2 3.5 8.5 15.1 Theft 168.1 166.9 173.1 178.9 200.7 165.0 142.5 162.9 156.5 183.2 178.3 208.0 209.4 207.0 161.8 133.4 149.3 204.0

............................. ............................. ............................. ............................. .............................

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization, annual; and Criminal Victimization 1998, Changes 1997-98 with Trends 1993-98, Series NCJ-176353 (revised 25 August 1999).

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 344. Juvenile Arrests for Selected Offenses: 1980 to 1998
[169,439 represents 169,439,000. Juveniles are persons under 18 years of age] Offense 1980 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Number of contributing agencies . . 8,178 10,765 10,148 11,058 10,277 10,693 10,037 10,026 9,472 9,651 Population covered (1,000) . . . . . . 169,439 204,543 189,962 217,754 213,705 208,035 206,762 195,805 194,925 196,083 NUMBER Violent crime, total. . . . Murder. . . . . . . . . . Forcible rape. . . . . . Robbery . . . . . . . . . Aggravated assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77,220 1,475 3,668 38,529 33,548 21,203 86,685 13,004 1,318 8,876 465 2,345 73,681 2,614 64,465 1,524 5,078 97,103 2,661 4,971 34,944 54,527 33,123 66,300 24,575 17,511 4,372 346 2,346 41,725 15,194 20,940 1,155 4,436 95,677 118,358 122,434 125,141 123,131 104,455 100,273 2,626 3,025 3,473 3,114 2,812 2,184 1,887 4,766 5,451 5,490 4,873 4,556 4,228 4,127 35,632 42,639 44,598 47,046 47,240 39,788 36,419 52,653 67,243 68,873 70,108 68,523 58,255 57,840 37,575 58,603 22,929 16,915 3,579 570 1,865 35,674 13,747 16,490 885 4,552 49,903 73,232 25,331 17,881 4,853 663 1,934 47,901 16,855 25,004 897 5,145 90,703 1,592 4,013 30,047 55,051

Weapon law violations . . . . Drug abuse, total . . . . . . . Sale and manufacturing . Heroin/cocaine . . . . . . Marijuana . . . . . . . . . Synthetic narcotics . . . Dangerous nonnarcotic Possession . . . . . . . . . . Heroin/cocaine . . . . . . Marijuana . . . . . . . . . Synthetic narcotics . . . Dangerous nonnarcotic

..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... drugs . ..... ..... ..... ..... drugs .

54,414 52,278 46,506 40,145 39,358 34,210 90,618 124,931 149,236 148,783 155,444 148,712 27,635 32,746 34,077 32,558 30,761 29,475 18,716 20,327 19,187 17,465 15,855 15,189 6,144 8,812 10,682 11,489 11,208 10,866 455 465 701 614 671 819 2,320 3,142 3,507 2,990 3,027 2,601 62,983 17,726 37,915 1,008 6,334 92,185 115,159 116,225 124,683 119,237 21,004 21,253 17,560 18,328 16,339 61,003 82,015 87,712 94,046 91,833 1,227 2,047 1,713 1,987 1,920 8,951 9,844 9,240 10,322 9,145

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

No. 345. Persons Arrested by Charge and Selected Characteristics: 1998
[11,231.5 represents 11,231,500. Represents arrests (not charges) reported by approximately 10,000 agencies with a total 1998 population of approximately 200 million as estimated by FBI] Total arrests (1,000) Offense charged Total Total . . . . . . . . . . . . Serious crimes 1: Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter . . . . . . . Forcible rape. . . . . . . . . Robbery . . . . . . . . . . . . Aggravated assault . . . . Burglary . . . . . . . . . . . . Larceny/theft . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle theft . . . . . Arson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,231.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 23.3 106.1 385.5 245.0 983.6 113.0 12.3 997.6 87.7 311.2 12.8 103.9 224.2 146.7 80.3 71.9 1,263.9 15.4 102.5 977.6 576.1 513.4 547.3 26.8 3.8 139.4 118.6 3,028.5 White 7,479.6 5.9 13.8 43.9 233.0 166.1 638.0 65.4 9.0 635.5 57.1 198.7 8.0 59.5 163.7 85.4 48.4 52.7 757.7 6.5 69.6 848.2 445.6 421.6 345.4 14.0 2.8 99.9 92.5 1,891.7 Black 3,491.0 7.1 9.0 60.3 143.6 73.4 316.1 44.5 3.0 338.4 28.7 107.9 4.5 42.4 55.2 58.8 29.9 17.4 491.8 8.2 30.2 103.4 112.2 77.8 191.0 11.9 1.0 36.6 20.9 1,066.0 American Indian or Alaskan Native 129.7 0.1 0.2 0.6 3.8 2.4 12.3 1.2 0.1 12.5 0.5 1.4 0.1 0.9 2.8 0.9 0.5 0.8 6.3 0.9 14.0 12.3 12.0 6.5 0.6 0.1 1.4 1.2 33.0 Percent—

Asian or Pacific Islander

Total arrests (1,000)

Male 78.2 88.8 98.8 90.0 80.4 87.5 65.3 84.3 85.3 77.6 61.1 54.2 51.2 84.5 84.8 92.1 42.2 91.8 82.5 89.6 78.3 84.4 78.6 87.2 76.7 79.4 79.6 69.5 41.8 79.5

Under 18 yrs. old 18.0 11.9 17.2 26.9 14.3 35.1 31.9 35.9 52.1 17.8 6.2 2.9 9.1 24.5 42.2 23.7 1.5 17.0 13.2 12.5 7.0 1.5 25.0 3.5 26.4 9.6 25.3 100.0 100.0 11.8

131.2 10,295.1 0.2 0.3 1.3 5.0 3.1 17.2 1.9 0.1 11.3 1.3 3.2 0.2 1.2 2.4 1.6 1.5 1.0 8.1 0.6 1.7 12.0 5.9 2.0 4.4 0.3 1.6 4.0 37.8 12.3 21.9 87.1 359.9 233.4 940.2 107.0 12.1 947.6 81.3 268.4 12.2 98.5 213.5 136.0 68.5 66.0 1,108.8 9.2 99.8 968.9 448.2 510.3 501.9 22.0 3.8 136.3 117.1 2,702.9

All other nonserious crimes: Other assaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forgery and counterfeiting . . . . . . . . Fraud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Embezzlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stolen property—buying, receiving, possessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vandalism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weapons; carrying, possessing etc.. . Prostitution and commercialized vice . Sex offenses (except forcible rape and prostitution) . . . . . . . . . . Drug abuse violations . . . . . . . . . . . Gambling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offenses against family and children . Driving under the influence . . . . . . . Liquor laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drunkenness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disorderly conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vagrancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspicion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curfew and loitering law violations . . Runaways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All other offenses (except traffic). . . .

- Represents zero or rounds to zero. 1 Includes arson. Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

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No. 346. Drug Use by Arrestees in Major U.S. Cities by Type of Drug and Sex: 1998
[Percent testing positive. Based on data from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program] City Albuquerque, NM . Atlanta, GA . . . . . Chicago, IL . . . . . Cleveland, OH . . . Dallas, TX. . . . . . Denver, CO . . . Detroit, MI. . . . Houston, TX . . Indianapolis, IN Las Vegas, NV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Male Any drug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Female Cocaine 38.7 51.3 44.9 36.8 29.0 39.6 28.2 35.8 34.2 24.2 42.7 47.3 46.0 47.1 27.3 44.5 31.1 29.2 18.2 27.0 19.1 8.0 35.9 39.4 33.3 Heroin Any drug 8.2 1.3 18.3 6.0 2.3 4.2 6.8 7.5 1.8 2.6 5.6 2.4 12.9 16.2 1.9 18.4 5.7 15.5 3.2 9.6 9.3 4.4 17.4 6.8 9.7
1

Marijuana 35.9 26.0 41.5 36.8 43.1 41.3 46.5 35.8 45.1 25.8 27.3 29.2 38.3 38.7 53.1 44.9 32.2 36.9 44.1 41.1 36.4 24.8 35.4 39.2 38.0

Marijuana 24.0 (NA) 19.7 27.0 24.2 29.9 21.5 20.1 31.2 21.6 21.8 (NA) 22.1 23.4 (NA) 23.7 24.9 23.2 28.2 17.5 26.7 13.6 37.9 21.5 28.5

Cocaine 59.1 (NA) 55.5 40.5 29.5 49.9 46.2 37.3 43.2 35.1 44.7 (NA) 38.7 67.0 (NA) 60.9 39.6 36.7 30.7 20.0 20.4 9.5 56.9 41.3 40.4

Heroin 15.4 (NA) 27.0 1.4 4.8 3.4 21.5 7.0 4.5 13.5 8.8 (NA) 3.4 21.8 (NA) 14.9 7.3 25.1 8.4 8.6 6.7 4.8 17.2 7.4 9.8

64.8 65.7 74.2 65.2 63.4 68.8 68.2 59.9 66.8 56.8 64.4 61.5 67.3 76.9 69.0 78.7 62.7 71.5 70.8 56.0 68.6 48.2 65.4 63.1 65.3

73.1 (NA) 71.5 58.1 48.9 68.7 60.2 51.7 67.1 70.3 71.0 (NA) 50.5 82.1 (NA) 77.4 70.6 74.3 72.8 37.8 63.9 41.5 81.0 57.0 65.3

Los Angeles, CA . . Miami, FL . . . . . . . New Orleans, LA . . New York, NY . . . . Oklahoma City, OK . Philadelphia, PA. . . Phoenix, AZ . . . . . Portland, OR . . . . . Sacramento, CA. . . San Antonio, TX. . . San Diego, CA. . . . San Jose, CA . . . . Seattle, WA. . . . . . Tucson, AZ . . . . . . Washington, DC. . .

NA Not available.

Includes other drugs not shown separately.

Source: U.S. National Institute of Justice, 1998 Annual Report on Drug Use Among Adult and Juvenile Arrestees, April 1999.

No. 347. Drug Arrest Rates for Drug Abuse Violations, 1990 to 1998, and by Region, 1998
[Rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Based on Census Bureau estimated resident population as of July 1, except 1990, enumerated as of April 1. For composition of regions, see map, inside front cover] 1998 Offense 1990 Drug arrest rate . . . . . . . . . . . Sale and/or manufacture . . . . . . . . . Heroin or cocaine 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Marijuana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synthetic or manufactured drugs . . Other dangerous nonnarcotic drugs Possession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heroin or cocaine 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Marijuana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synthetic or manufactured drugs . . Other dangerous nonnarcotic drugs
1

Region 1995 564.7 140.7 83.7 32.7 3.9 20.3 423.9 157.4 192.7 8.5 65.4 1997 604.7 136.0 75.2 34.5 4.3 22.0 468.7 156.5 226.5 9.6 76.1 Total 608.7 138.6 77.1 34.0 5.6 21.9 470.1 155.4 233.8 10.4 70.5 Northeast 765.4 230.1 171.0 44.9 3.5 10.7 535.4 215.0 291.2 6.3 22.9 Midwest 395.5 107.2 24.8 33.0 2.7 46.7 288.3 54.1 182.4 6.1 45.7 South 565.9 107.0 62.7 28.4 9.2 6.8 458.8 139.9 275.6 13.5 29.8 West 666.6 123.8 53.3 32.6 4.7 33.2 542.8 188.9 172.3 12.7 168.9

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

435.3 139.0 93.7 26.4 2.7 16.2 296.3 144.4 104.9 6.6 40.4

Includes other derivatives such as morphine, heroin, and codeine.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.

No. 348. Federal Drug Seizures by Type of Drug: 1990 to 1999
[In pounds. For fiscal years ending in year shown. Reflects the combined drug seizure effort of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S. Customs Services, and beginning October 1993 the U.S. Border Patrol within the jurisdiction of the United States as well as maritime seizures by the U.S. Coast Guard. Based on reports to the Federal-wide Drug Seizure System, which eliminates duplicate reporting of a seizure involving more than one Federal agency] Drug Heroin . . . . Cocaine . . . Cannabis . . Marijuana Hashish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 1,704 235,891 500,415 483,353 17,062 1992 2,552 304,086 787,527 783,479 4,048 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 4,949,878 2,791 290,756 2,328,166 2,326,484 1,681

Total . . . . . 1,238,425 1,881,693 1,845,998 2,397,037 2,913,227 3,181,573 3,338,276 3,834,096 3,516 2,883 2,971 3,373 3,121 3,519 244,315 309,928 233,447 254,437 252,329 265,997 799,083 1,042,113 1,338,405 1,461,881 1,541,413 1,782,290 773,004 1,040,999 1,306,528 1,429,786 1,488,362 1,781,694 26,080 1,114 31,876 32,096 53,051 596

Source: U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, unpublished data from Federal-wide Drug Seizure System.

212 Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 349. Immigration and Naturalization Service Enforcement Activities: 1990 to 1997
[For fiscal years ending in year shown. See text, Section 9, State and Local Government] Item Deportable aliens located. . . Border Patrol . . . . . . . . . Southwestern border. Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . Canadian . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 1,169.9 1,103.4 (NA) 1,054.8 5.7 42.8 17,275 843.6 797.8 30.0 1,022.5 1991 1,197.9 1,132.9 1,077.9 1,095.1 6.7 31.1 14,261 950.2 910.1 33.2 1,061.1 1992 1,258.5 1,199.6 1,145.6 1,168.9 6.2 24.4 11,391 1,247.9 1,216.8 43.6 1,105.8
2

1993 1,327.3 1,263.5 1,212.9 1,230.1 5.2 28.1 10,995 1,382.9 1,337.8 42.5 1,243.3

1994 1,094.7 1,031.7 979.1 999.9 3.4 28.4 9,134 1,598.1 1,555.7 45.5 1,029.0

1995 1,394.6 1,324.2 1,271.4 1,293.5 3.5 27.2 9,327 2,011.8 1,965.3 50.7 1,313.6

1996 1,650.0 1,549.9 1,507.0 1,523.1 2.7 24.0 11,129 1,255.4 1,208.8 69.3 1,573.2

1997 1,536.5 1,413.0 1,368.7 1,387.7 2.9 22.4 11,792 1,094.6 1,046.3 114.1 1,430.0

Number of seizures by Border Patrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . Value of seizures by Border Patrol. Mil. dol. . . . Narcotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. dol. . . . Aliens expelled: Formal removals 1. . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . Voluntary departures 2 . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . .

NA Not available. 1 Include deportations, exclusions, and removals. depart and voluntary departures not under docket control.

Includes aliens under docket control required to

Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Statistical Yearbook, annual; and unpublished data.

No. 350. Authorized Intercepts of Communication—Summary: 1980 to 1996
[Data for jurisdictions with statutes authorizing or approving interception of wire or oral communication] Item Jurisdictions: 1 With wiretap statutes . . . . . . Reporting interceptions . . . . Intercept applications authorized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intercept installations . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intercepted communications, average 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incriminating . . . . . . . . . . . Persons arrested 3 . . . . . . . . . Convictions 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Major offense specified: Gambling . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide and assault . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

1980 .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 22 564 524 79 445

1985 32 22 784 722 235 487

1987 33 22 673 634 233 401

1988 34 23 738 678 286 392

1989 37 25 763 720 305 415

1990 40 25 872 812 321 491

1991 41 23 856 802 349 453

1992 41 23 919 846 332 514

1993 41 23

1994 41 18

1995 41 19

1996 46 24 1,149 1,035 574 461 1,969 422 2,464 502 114 821 41 173

976 1,154 1,058 938 1,100 1,024 444 549 527 494 551 497

. 1,058 1,320 1,299 1,251 1,656 1,487 1,584 1,861 1,801 2,139 2,028 . 315 275 230 316 337 321 290 347 364 373 459 . 1,871 2,469 2,226 2,486 2,804 2,057 2,364 2,685 2,428 2,852 2,577 . 259 660 506 543 706 420 605 607 413 772 494 . . . . 199 282 13 70 206 434 25 119 135 379 18 141 126 435 14 163 111 471 20 161 116 520 21 215 98 536 21 201 66 634 35 184 96 679 28 173 86 876 19 173 95 732 30 201

1 2 Jurisdictions include Federal Government, states, and District of Columbia. Average per authorized installation. Based on information received from intercepts installed in year shown; additional arrests/convictions will occur in subsequent years but are not shown here.

Source: Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, Report on Applications for Orders Authorizing or Approving the Interception of Wire, Oral or Electronic Communications (Wiretap Report), annual.

No. 351. Background Checks for Firearm Transfers: 1994 to 1999
[In thousands (22,254 represents 22,254,000), except rates. For ‘‘Interim period’’ of 1994 to November 29, 1998, covered handgun purchases from licensed firearm dealers; beginning November 29, 1998 (effective date for the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, P.L. 103-159,1993) covers the transfer of both handguns and long guns from a Federal firearms licensee, as well as purchases from pawnshops and retail gun shops] 19941999, period 22,254 536 2.4 Interim period 1994 2,483 62 2.5 1995 2,706 41 1.5 1996 2,593 70 2.7 1997 2,574 69 2.7 1998
2

Permanent Brady Dec. 1998 3 893 20 2.2 1999 8,621 204 2.4

Inquiries and rejections Applications and rejections: Applications received . . . . . . . . . . . . Applications rejected . . . . . . . . . . . . Rejection rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

2,384 70 2.9

1 Represents from the Inception of the Brady Act on March 1, 1994, to 1999. 2 For period January 1 to November 29, 1998. For period November 30 to December 31, 1999. Counts are from the National Instant Criminal Background Check System and may include multiple transactions for the same application.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 1999, Series NCJ 180882, June 2000.

Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

213

No. 352. U.S. Population Who Had Face-to-Face Contact With Police by Race and Ethnicity and Reason for Contact: 1996
[215,529 represents 215,529,000. Persons having multiple contacts or more than one reason for any single contact appear in table more than once; therefore, may not add to total. Covers persons 12 years old and over. Based on the Police-Public Contact Survey of 6,421 persons; data subject to sampling variability] Reason for contact Population total . . For any reason . . . . . . . I reported a crime . . . . . I asked police for help . . I reported a problem . . . Police ticketed me . . . . . I was in a traffic accident I witnessed an accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number having contact (1,000) Total 215,529 44,556 12,722 10,087 7,892 10,947 5,454 2,326 6,755 3,467 2,611 2,690 492 8,042 2,437 14,066 White 163,883 36,262 10,640 8,393 6,449 8,988 4,501 2,007 5,753 2,776 1,945 2,070 378 6,901 1,986 11,760 Black Hispanic 25,394 3,964 1,049 744 508 815 501 151 343 419 197 361 84 640 285 1,075
1

Percent having contact Total (X) 20.7 5.9 4.7 3.7 5.1 2.5 1.1 3.1 1.6 1.2 1.2 0.2 3.7 1.1 6.5 White (X) 22.1 6.5 5.1 3.9 5.5 2.7 1.2 3.5 1.7 1.2 1.3 0.2 4.2 1.2 3.9 Black Hispanic (X) 15.6 4.1 2.9 2.0 3.2 2.0 0.6 1.4 1.6 0.8 1.4 0.3 2.5 1.1 2.0
1

17,159 2,593 634 500 557 865 241 102 360 179 326 84 30 327 32 724

(X) 15.1 3.7 2.9 3.2 5.0 1.4 0.6 2.1 1.0 1.9 0.5 0.2 1.9 0.2 3.2

I was the victim of a crime . . . . . I witnessed a crime . . . . . . . . . . Police suspected me of a crime . . Police asked why I was there . . . Police had a warrant for my arrest I had a casual encounter . . . . . . I attended a community meeting . Some other reason . . . . . . . . . .

X Not applicable. 1 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Police Use of Force, National Collection of Data, November 1997.

No. 353. Full-Time Sworn Police Officers in State and Local Government— Number and Rate: 1996
[As of June. Rate based on Census Bureau estimated resident population as of July 1] State U.S. AL . . . AK. . . AZ . . . AR. . . CA. . . CO . . CT. . . DE. . . DC . . FL . . . GA . . HI . . . ID . . . IL . . . IN . . . IA . . . KS. . . KY. . . LA . . . ME . . MD . . MA . . MI . . . MN . . MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate Numper ber 1 10,000 2 663,535 9,767 1,254 10,088 5,819 69,134 9,896 8,525 1,660 3,909 37,395 19,115 2,989 2,524 38,192 10,931 5,043 6,183 6,466 16,125 2,318 13,828 17,935 20,568 7,994 5,813 25 23 21 23 23 22 26 26 23 72 26 26 25 21 32 19 18 24 17 37 19 27 29 21 17 21 Type of agency Local 410,956 6,484 740 6,967 3,244 35,939 5,451 6,411 923 3,587 19,652 10,241 2,746 1,142 26,151 6,426 3,037 3,616 4,089 5,733 1,426 8,923 13,068 13,288 5,006 3,326 State Sheriff MO . MT . NE. . NV. . NH . NJ . . NM . NY. . NC . ND . OH . OK . OR . PA . . RI . . SC. . SD. . TN. . TX 3. UT. . VT . . VA . . WA . WV . WI . . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State Rate Numper ber 1 10,000 2 12,998 1,682 3,297 4,363 2,305 28,058 4,134 71,221 16,953 1,141 23,811 7,232 6,064 24,873 2,422 8,675 1,464 12,152 47,767 3,699 981 18,448 9,292 2,977 12,678 1,377 24 19 20 27 20 35 24 39 23 18 21 22 19 21 24 23 20 23 25 18 17 28 17 16 25 29 Type of agency Local 8,836 690 1,929 2,565 1,862 19,891 2,462 54,657 9,505 561 15,932 4,951 3,245 17,655 1,958 4,004 847 7,076 28,269 1,882 548 8,911 5,430 1,416 7,640 618 State 996 212 464 375 245 2,702 435 3,972 1,380 120 1,391 756 824 4,114 193 892 155 768 2,873 355 290 1,662 906 595 497 151 Sheriff 2,421 616 794 935 129 3,145 889 5,852 5,264 364 5,179 1,014 1,921 1,239 153 3,037 344 3,520 11,326 1,198 87 6,605 2,553 726 3,886 507

54,587 152,922 581 1,963 290 952 1,563 522 1,410 6,219 22,869 581 3,324 1,022 886 540 24 1,740 14,124 878 6,752 192 1,053 1,988 8,426 1,207 2,618 433 1,343 552 1,683 984 1,113 873 8,720 337 321 1,625 1,438 2,565 1,540 2,164 4,435 484 2,139 535 1,474

- Represents or rounds to zero. 1 Includes special police not shown separately. 2 Based on resident population as of July 1. 3 Texas includes sworn personnel of constable offices, not shown separately. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 1996, Series NCJ 164618, June 1998.

No. 354. General Purpose Law Enforcement Agencies—Number and Employment: 1996
Number of employees Type of agency Number of agencies 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,769 13,578 3,088 49 1,316 738 Full time Total 921,978 521,985 257,712 83,742 56,229 2,310 Sworn 663,535 410,956 152,922 54,587 43,082 1,988 Civilian 258,443 111,029 104,790 29,155 13,147 322 Total 97,770 61,453 22,412 1,303 12,003 599 Part time Sworn 47,712 30,976 10,845 132 5,202 557 Civilian 50,058 30,477 11,567 1,171 6,801 42

Total . . . . . . Local police. . . . Sheriff . . . . . . . State police . . . . Special police . . Texas constable .
1

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

The number of agencies reported here is the result of a weighted sample and not an exact enumeration. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 1996, Series NCJ 164618, June 1998.

214 Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 355. Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted: 1990 to 1998
[Covers officers killed feloniously and accidentally in line of duty; includes federal officers. For composition of regions, see map, inside front cover] Item OFFICERS KILLED Total killed Northeast . . . Midwest . . . . South . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 13 20 69 23 8 124 16 26 55 18 8 1 130 16 15 68 23 8 129 12 27 57 22 11 141 17 30 50 30 9 5 133 16 19 63 32 2 1 112 17 21 46 18 10 132 14 25 55 31 7 142 6 19 70 36 9 2 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Puerto Rico . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outlying areas, foreign countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASSAULTS Population (1,000)
1

.....

199,834 9,512 414,037 72,270 3,665 1,650 7,436 59,519

187,866 9,043 399,020 62,852 3,532 1,493 7,014 50,813

217,997 10,862 460,430 81,252 4,455 2,095 8,604 66,098

211,914 9,858 456,565 66,975 4,002 1,574 7,551 53,848

217,935 10,434 473,946 64,912 3,168 1,513 7,210 53,021

198,155 8,895 440,582 58,063 2,373 1,362 6,451 47,877

166,038 7,808 373,575 46,695 1,887 871 5,084 38,853

191,303 8,522 423,930 49,151 1,844 895 5,389 41,023

190,189 8,000 445,898 59,545 2,073 1,077 7,266 49,129

Number of— Agencies represented . . . . Police officers. . . . . . . . . . Total assaulted . . . . . . Firearm . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knife or cutting instrument . Other dangerous weapon . Hands, fists, feet, etc . . . . - Represents zero.
1

. . . . .

. . . . .

Represents the number of persons covered by agencies shown.

Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, annual.

No. 356. U.S. Supreme Court—Cases Filed and Disposition: 1980 to 1998
[Statutory term of court begins first Monday in October] Action Total cases on docket . . . . . . Appellate cases on docket . . . . . . . . From prior term . . . . . . . . . . . . . Docketed during present term . . . . Cases acted upon 1. . . . . . . . . . . Granted review . . . . . . . . . . . . Denied, dismissed, or withdrawn Summarily decided . . . . . . . . . Cases not acted upon . . . . . . . . . Pauper cases on docket . . . . . . . . . Cases acted upon . . . . . . . . . . . . Granted review . . . . . . . . . . . . Denied, dismissed, or withdrawn Summarily decided . . . . . . . . . Cases not acted upon . . . . . . . . . Original cases on docket . . . . . . . . . Cases disposed of during term . . . Total cases available for argument . . . . . . . . . . . . Cases disposed of . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cases argued . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cases dismissed or remanded without argument . . . . . . . . . . . Cases remaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cases decided by signed opinion . . . Cases decided by per curiam opinion. Number of signed opinions. . . . . . . .
1

1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,144 2,749 527 2,222 2,324 167 1,999 90 425 2,371 2,027 17 1,968 32 344 24 7 264 162 154 8 102 144 8 123

1990 6,316 2,351 365 1,986 2,042 114 1,802 81 309 3,951 3,436 27 3,369 28 515 14 3 201 131 125 6 70 121 4 112

1992 7,245 2,441 379 2,062 2,140 83 1,920 84 301 4,792 4,261 14 4,209 25 531 12 1 166 120 116 4 46 111 4 107

1993 7,786 2,442 342 2,100 2,099 78 1,947 34 343 5,332 4,621 21 4,566 30 711 12 1 145 105 99 6 40 93 6 84

1994 8,100 2,515 377 2,138 2,185 83 2,016 52 330 5,574 4,983 10 4,955 14 591 11 2 136 97 94 3 39 91 3 82

1995 7,565 2,456 361 2,095 2,130 92 1,945 62 326 5,098 4,514 13 4,439 55 584 11 5 145 93 90 3 52 87 3 75

1996 7,602 2,430 375 2,055 2,124 74 1,955 66 306 5,165 4,613 13 4,582 15 552 7 2 140 92 90 2 48 87 3 80

1997 7,692 2,432 347 2,085 2,142 75 1,990 36 290 5,253 4,616 14 4,581 14 637 7 1 138 97 96 1 41 93 1 91

1998 8,083 2,387 326 2,061 2,092 72 1,940 44 295 5,689 4,951 9 4,926 11 738 7 2 126 94 90 4 32 84 4 75

Includes cases granted review and carried over to next term, not shown separately.

Source: Office of the Clerk, Supreme Court of the United States, unpublished data.

Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

215

No. 357. U.S. Courts of Appeals—Cases Commenced and Disposition: 1980 to 1998
[For years ending June 30] Item Cases commenced 1. . . . Criminal . . . . . . . . . . U.S. civil . . . . . . . . . . Private civil . . . . . . . . Administrative appeals . Cases terminated 1 . . . . . Criminal . . . . . . . . . . U.S. civil . . . . . . . . . . Private civil . . . . . . . . Administrative appeals . Cases disposed of 2 . . . . Affirmed or granted . . . Reversed or denied . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . Median months 3 . . . . . . 1980 23,200 4,405 4,654 10,200 2,950 20,887 3,993 4,346 8,942 2,643 10,607 8,017 1,845 745 8.9 1990 40,898 9,493 6,626 20,490 2,578 38,520 7,509 6,379 20,369 2,582 21,006 16,629 2,565 1,812 10.1 1992 46,032 10,956 7,113 22,862 3,052 42,933 9,830 6,797 21,628 2,801 23,162 18,463 2,681 2,018 10.5 1993 49,770 11,885 7,758 24,030 3,824 47,466 11,043 7,462 23,437 3,464 25,567 20,604 2,514 2,449 10.4 1994 48,815 11,052 7,518 24,781 3,560 48,546 11,519 7,637 23,943 3,480 26,475 21,371 2,636 2,468 10.5 1995 49,671 10,171 7,761 25,992 3,345 50,085 11,320 7,710 25,574 3,254 28,187 22,825 2,679 2,683 10.5 1996 51,524 10,653 8,681 27,188 2,858 49,359 9,995 7,831 25,999 3,131 26,988 21,696 2,533 2,759 10.3 1997 52,571 10,740 8,710 26,716 4,131 51,295 10,522 8,751 26,365 3,615 26,287 21,170 2,353 2,764 11.1 1998 53,328 10,339 9,803 27,364 3,788 51,348 10,281 8,993 26,054 4,026 24,917 19,771 2,267 2,879 11.5

1 Includes original proceedings and bankruptcy appeals not shown separately. 2 Terminated on the merits after hearing or submission. 3 For 1980, the figure is from filing of complete record to final disposition; beginning 1990, figure is from filing notice of appeal to final disposition. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation.

No. 358. U.S. District Courts—Civil Cases Commenced and Pending: 1995 to 1998
[For years ending June 30] Type of case Cases total
1

Cases commenced 1995 239,013 31,619 2,099 7,282 44,511 41,102 17,631 6,821 23,471 3,409 155,495 35,566 18,225 5,138 613 1,136 62,597 2,670 15,030 6,990 1,870 10,168 2,144 481 1996 272,661 33,413 3,583 6,276 67,029 63,222 38,170 6,760 25,052 3,807 165,922 40,476 22,150 4,737 1,622 1,158 69,352 2,255 15,068 6,800 1,741 8,517 2,078 465 1997 265,151 38,858 8,070 5,761 52,710 48,266 23,294 8,184 24,972 4,444 167,807 43,166 23,707 4,217 483 973 64,262 2,301 15,320 7,511 1,737 13,047 2,294 400 1998 261,262 44,205 15,188 5,655 52,218 48,356 28,325 9,718 20,031 3,862 159,172 42,750 23,804 3,905 528 1,007 55,120 2,431 15,039 7,660 2,166 13,955 1,733 436 1995 224,378 27,337 1,041 5,073 52,334 48,789 24,166 3,524 24,623 3,545 139,487 37,512 20,375 4,541 446 1,823 47,382 2,399 11,829 5,998 2,969 11,310 1,692 500

Cases pending 1996 243,703 26,999 2,301 4,486 65,823 62,087 34,096 2,037 27,991 3,736 144,094 42,545 24,212 3,938 760 1,869 50,353 1,989 11,742 6,273 2,872 9,153 1,646 496 1997 259,536 31,613 3,881 3,951 72,250 68,154 36,621 2,438 3,533 4,096 151,655 46,096 26,669 3,648 504 1,630 50,392 1,905 12,199 6,765 2,591 12,978 1,668 435 1998 269,119 32,403 6,129 3,971 84,073 80,114 50,838 1,576 29,276 3,959 148,630 46,718 27,097 2,921 510 1,602 44,905 1,959 11,807 7,037 2,998 14,844 1,507 416

......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Contract actions 1. . . . . . . . . . Recovery of overpayments 2 . Real property actions . . . . . . . Tort actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal injury . . . . . . . . . . Personal injury product liability 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Asbestos . . . . . . . . . . Other personal injury . . . . Personal property damage . . Actions under statutes 1 . . . . . Civil rights 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Employment . . . . . . . . . . Bankruptcy suits . . . . . . . . . Commerce (ICC rates, etc.) . Environmental matters . . . . . Prisoner petitions . . . . . . . . Forfeiture and penalty . . . . . Labor laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . Protected property rights 3 . . Securities commodities and exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . Social Security laws . . . . . . Tax suits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freedom of information . . . .

1 Includes other types not shown separately. 2 Includes enforcement of judgments in student loan cases, and overpayments of veterans benefits. 3 Includes copyright, patent, and trademark rights. Source of Tables 357 and 358: Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, Statistical Tables for the Federal Judiciary, annual.

No. 359. U.S. District Courts—Offenders Convicted and Sentenced to Prison and Length of Sentence: 1998
Most serious offense of conviction Total 1 . . . . . . . . . Violent offenses . . . . . . Property offenses . . . . . Fraudulent offenses 2 . Embezzlement. . . . Fraud 3 . . . . . . . . Forgery . . . . . . . . Other offenses 2 . . . . Larceny . . . . . . . . Drug offenses 2 . . . . . . Convicted offenders Offenders sentenced convicted to prison 60,958 3,078 11,862 9,752 916 7,532 147 2,110 1,344 20,867 43,041 2,808 7,114 5,860 497 4,584 66 1,254 693 19,280 Length of sentence (mo.) 58.8 84.2 25.4 22.3 15.7 23.3 17.9 40.3 32.6 78.8 Most serious offense of conviction Possession . . . . . . . Trafficking and manufacturing . . . . . Public-order offenses. . . Regulatory offenses . . Other offenses . . . . . Weapons . . . . . . . Immigration . . . . . . Tax law violations 4. Misdemeanors . . . . . . . Convicted offenders Offenders sentenced convicted to prison 1,450 19,417 14,687 1,187 13,500 3,160 7,569 752 10,375 1,267 18,013 12,218 506 11,712 2,914 6,880 376 1,590 Length of sentence (mo.) 84.2 78.5 47.3 27.9 48.1 100.6 26.4 18.6 11.4

1 2 Total may include offenders for whom offense category could not be determined. Includes offenses not shown separately. 3 Excludes tax fraud. 4 Includes tax fraud. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, annual.

216 Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
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No. 360. U.S. District Courts—Civil Rights-Related Complaints and Disposition: 1990 to 1998
[Covers civil rights complaints related to employment, housing, welfare, or voting rights, but excludes prisoner petitions] Complaints Jurisdiction Year Cases involving U.S. Government Total 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,793 19,892 24,233 27,655 32,622 36,600 42,007 43,278 42,354 Plaintiff 747 816 639 747 718 668 486 561 672 Defendant 1,736 1,532 1,773 1,970 2,268 2,358 2,433 2,356 2,366 Private Cases cases disposed 16,310 16,992 21,821 24,938 29,636 33,574 39,088 40,361 38,835 17,811 17,975 25,094 23,416 26,596 30,175 34,986 38,131 40,185 Disposition Percent of cases disposed Dismissed Total 65.6 67.2 65.9 67.5 69.4 69.4 69.7 70.5 70.9 Settled 30.7 31.5 31.5 31.5 34.8 33.4 33.7 34.2 35.2 Judgment Total 34.4 32.9 34.1 32.4 30.6 30.6 30.3 29.5 29.2 Trial 7.8 7.6 7.3 6.6 6.7 6.0 5.7 5.2 4.9

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Civil Rights Complaints in U.S. District Courts, 1990-98, Series NCJ 173427, January 2000.

No. 361. Federal Environmental Enforcement Actions Initiated by Type of Violation and Enforcement Action: 1995 to 1997
Type of violation or statute violated Total actions . . . . . . . . Environmental protection . . . . Clean Air Act. . . . . . . . . . . Clean Water Act . . . . . . . . Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) . . . . Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) . . . . . . Toxic Substances control Act (TSCA) . . . . . . . . . . . Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wildlife
4

Total 1995 3,722 (NA) 303 1,936 192 1996 2,902 (NA) 338 1,167 336 1997 4,129 3,842 457 1,812 505

Administrative actions 1 1995 2,969 (NA) 232 1,774 92 1996 2,171 (NA) 242 998 238 1997 3,427 3,427 391 1,642 423 1995 207 200 35 74 25

Civil

2

Criminal 1997 207 204 35 62 82 1995 546 234 36 88 34 1996 511 203 40 97 37

3

1996 220 211 56 72 21

1997 446 211 31 108 59

320 193 454 (NA)

259 191 292 (NA)

391 191 486 287

280 187 404 (NA)

234 178 281 (NA)

305 185 481 (NA)

66 (NA) (NA) 7

61 (NA) 1 6

23 (NA) 2

15 6 43 312

4 12 5 308

4 6 3 235

...............

1 - Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available. Represents actions such as requiring the violator to comply with Federal environmental standards, suspending the violator’s permit to discharge, and/or assessing a penalty for noncompliance. 2 Represents filing by U.S. attorneys in U.S. district court only. Statistics describing administrative actions for wildlife and 3 conservation offenses were not available. Criminal actions include only those offenses classified as felonies or Class A misdemeanors. 4 Includes Endangered Species Act, Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and Lacey Act.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Federal Enforcement of Environmental Laws, 1997, Series NCJ 175686, November 1999.

No. 362. Federal Prosecutions of Public Corruption: 1980 to 1998
[As of Dec. 31. Prosecution of persons who have corrupted public office in violation of Federal Criminal Statutes] Prosecution status Total: 1 Indicted . . . . . . . . . . . Convicted . . . . . . . . . . . . . Awaiting trial. . . . . . . . . . . . Federal officials: Indicted . . . . Convicted . . . . . . . . . . . . . Awaiting trial. . . . . . . . . . . . State officials: Indicted . . . . . . Convicted . . . . . . . . . . . . . Awaiting trial. . . . . . . . . . . . Local officials: Indicted. . . . . . Convicted . . . . . . . . . . . . . Awaiting trial. . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 727 602 213 123 131 16 72 51 28 247 168 82 1985 1,157 997 256 563 470 90 79 66 20 248 221 49 1989 1,348 1,149 375 695 610 126 71 54 18 269 201 122 1990 1,176 1,084 300 615 583 103 96 79 28 257 225 98 1991 1,452 1,194 346 803 665 149 115 77 42 242 180 88 1992 1,189 1,081 380 624 532 139 81 92 24 232 211 91 1993 1,371 1,362 403 627 595 133 113 133 39 309 272 132 1994 1,165 969 332 571 488 124 99 97 17 248 202 96 1995 1,051 878 323 527 438 120 61 61 23 236 191 89 1996 984 902 244 456 459 64 109 83 40 219 190 60 1997 1,057 853 327 459 392 83 51 49 20 255 169 118 1998 1,174 1,014 340 442 414 85 91 58 37 277 264 90

1 Includes individuals who are neither public officials nor employees but who were involved with public officials or employees in violating the law, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Prosecutions of Corrupt Public Officials, 1970-1980 and Report to Congress on the Activities and Operations of the Public Integrity Section, annual.

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217

No. 363. Delinquency Cases Disposed by Juvenile Courts by Reason for Referral: 1986 to 1996
[In thousands (1,180 represents 1,180,000), except rate. A delinquency offense is an act committed by a juvenile for which an adult could be prosecuted in a criminal court. Disposition of a case involves taking a definite action such as waiving the case to criminal court, dismissing the case, placing the youth on probation, placing the youth in a facility for delinquents, or such actions as fines, restitution, and community service] Reason for referral All delinquency offenses Case rate 1. . . . . . . . . . Violent offenses . . . . . . . . . . . Criminal homicide . . . . . . . . Forcible rape . . . . . . . . . . . Robbery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aggravated assault . . . . . . . Property offenses. . . . . . . . . . Burglary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Larceny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle theft . . . . . . . Arson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delinquency offenses . . . . . . . Simple assault . . . . . . . . . . Vandalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drug law violations . . . . . . . Obstruction of justice. . . . . . Other 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986 1,180 45.5 71 2 5 26 39 518 142 327 43 6 590 101 87 72 72 258 1987 1,181 46.2 66 1 4 22 38 519 134 331 48 6 595 105 86 72 74 258 1988 1,190 47.0 70 2 4 22 43 518 132 325 55 7 601 109 84 81 75 253 1989 1,236 49.1 80 2 5 23 51 545 136 334 68 7 611 114 85 78 77 256 1990 1,320 51.7 97 2 5 28 62 564 146 341 71 7 658 128 100 71 80 278 1991 1,413 54.4 109 2 6 31 70 613 154 381 72 7 690 139 112 65 76 298 1992 1,484 55.8 121 2 6 33 79 617 158 381 71 8 746 155 118 73 80 320 1993 1,515 55.8 124 3 7 35 80 593 149 374 63 8 798 171 119 91 90 328 1994 1,605 58.2 135 3 6 37 88 594 142 381 61 9 877 184 124 125 102 343 1995 1,703 60.7 141 3 7 39 93 619 139 416 53 11 943 204 120 159 109 351 1996 1,758 61.8 137 2 7 37 90 623 141 422 52 9 998 217 120 176 126 359

1 Number of cases disposed per 1,000 youth (ages 10 to 17) at risk. 2 Includes such offenses as stolen property offenses, trespassing, weapons offenses, other sex offenses, liquor law violations, disorderly conduct, and miscellaneous offenses. Source: National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA, Juvenile Court Statistics, annual.

No. 364. Delinquency Cases and Case Rates by Sex and Race: 1987 to 1996
[A deliquency offense is an act committed by a juvenile for which an adult could be prosecuted in a criminal court. Disposition of a case involves taking a definite action such as waiving the case to criminal court, dismissing the case, placing the youth on probation, placing the youth in a facility for delinquents, or such actions as fines, restitution, and community service. Offenses may not add to total sex and race categories due to rounding] Sex, race, and offense Male, total. Person . . . . . Property . . . . Drugs. . . . . . Public order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of cases 1987 954,100 152,900 578,400 60,800 162,000 226,700 38,000 134,000 11,300 43,400 831,800 110,200 522,100 48,200 151,300 315,000 76,000 168,000 22,300 48,700 34,000 4,700 22,400 1,600 5,400 1992 1,197,100 243,500 693,500 63,900 196,200 286,700 64,700 167,100 8,700 46,100 975,800 177,000 604,500 37,500 156,700 453,800 121,300 221,300 33,500 77,700 54,300 9,900 34,900 1,600 7,900 1996 1,359,000 285,800 671,100 151,100 251,000 398,600 95,700 203,300 25,200 74,400 1,158,600 224,600 611,500 114,100 208,400 530,100 143,100 223,700 57,800 105,500 69,000 13,800 39,200 4,400 11,500 1987 72.7 11.7 44.1 4.6 12.3 18.2 3.0 10.7 0.9 3.5 40.2 5.3 25.2 2.3 7.3 82.4 19.9 43.9 5.8 12.7 32.5 4.5 21.4 1.5 5.1 Case rate
1

1992 87.7 17.8 50.8 4.7 14.4 22.2 5.0 12.9 0.7 3.6 45.8 8.3 28.4 1.8 7.4 113.7 30.4 55.4 8.4 19.5 42.6 7.8 27.3 1.3 6.2

1996 92.9 19.5 45.9 10.3 17.2 28.8 6.9 14.7 1.8 5.4 51.0 9.9 26.9 5.0 9.2 124.1 33.5 52.3 13.5 24.7 46.7 9.3 26.6 3.0 7.8

Female, total . Person . . . . . . . Property . . . . . . Drugs. . . . . . . . Public order. . . . White, total . Person . . . . . . Property . . . . . Drugs. . . . . . . Public order. . . Black, total . Person . . . . . . Property . . . . . Drugs. . . . . . . Public order. . . Other races, Person . . . . . . Property . . . . . Drugs. . . . . . . Public order. . .
1

. . . . . . . . . .

total .... .... .... ....

Cases per 1,000 youth at risk.

Source: National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA, Juvenile Court Statistics, annual.

218 Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
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No. 365. Child Abuse and Neglect Cases Substantiated and Indicated— Victim Characteristics: 1990 to 1998
[Based on reports alleging child abuse and neglect that were referred for investigation by the respective child protective services agency in each state. The reporting period may be either calendar or fiscal year. The majority of states provided duplicated counts. Also, varying number of states reported the various characteristics presented below. A substantiated case represents a type of investigation disposition that determines that there is sufficient evidence under state law to conclude that maltreatment occurred or that the child is at risk of maltreatment. An indicated case represents a type of disposition that concludes that there was a reason to suspect maltreatment had occurred] Item TYPES OF SUBSTANTIATED MALTREATMENT Victims, total 1 2 . . . . . . . . . Neglect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sexual abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emotional maltreatment . . . . . . . . Medical neglect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEX OF VICTIM Victims, total 2 . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victims, total 2 1 year and younger . 2 to 5 years old. . . . 6 to 9 years old. . . . 10 to 13 years old . . 14 to 17 years old . . 18 and over . . . . . . AGE OF VICTIM ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 Number Percent 1996 Number Percent 1997 Number Percent 1998 Number Percent

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

690,658 338,770 186,801 119,506 45,621 (NA) 742,519 323,339 369,919 731,282 97,101 172,791 157,681 135,130 103,383 4,880

(X) 49.1 27.0 17.3 6.6 (NA) 100.0 43.5 49.8 100.0 13.3 23.6 21.6 18.5 14.1 0.7

955,516 493,158 224,967 117,058 55,199 25,412 855,713 336,315 371,700 863,466 90,752 185,375 178,802 141,009 110,751 5,995

(X) 51.6 23.5 12.3 5.8 2.7 100.0 39.3 43.4 100.0 10.5 21.5 20.7 16.3 12.8 0.7

790,157 431,563 192,872 96,070 48,407 18,524 790,395 315,045 348,001 789,303 83,819 166,523 165,845 130,346 97,050 2,954

(X) 54.6 24.4 12.2 6.1 2.3 100.0 39.9 44.0 100.0 10.6 21.1 21.0 16.5 12.3 0.4

861,602 461,274 195,891 99,278 51,618 20,338 760,438 359,568 388,187 767,749 105,097 187,522 193,316 151,126 111,894 4,210

(X) 53.5 22.7 11.5 6.0 2.4 100.0 47.3 51.0 100.0 13.7 24.4 25.2 19.7 14.6 0.5

.... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 More than one type of maltreatment may be substantiated per child. Therefore, totals for this category will add up to more than 100 percent. Victim totals and maltreatment types are based on subset of states which reported both the number of child victims and maltreatment incidences by type for that year. 2 Includes other and unknown not shown separately.

No. 366. Child Abuse and Neglect Cases Reported and Investigated by State: 1998
[Based on reports alleging child abuse and neglect that were referred for investigation by the respective child protective services agency in each state. The reporting period may be either calendar or fiscal year. The majority of states provide duplicated counts] Number of children subject of Number an investiof reports gation 1 Number of children subject of Number an investiof reports gation 1 48,119 9,676 8,272 13,705 6,391 75,988 12,781 142,174 125,862 4,221 84,657 34,790 17,300 22,589 8,117 20,000 5,313 32,286 121,183 16,931 1,883 32,902 32,880 16,350 22,232 1,927 75,178 19,004 14,641 23,229 8,974 75,988 13,403 240,655 125,862 7,098 135,628 60,340 27,680 22,589 9,863 38,238 5,313 32,286 172,718 27,222 1,973 49,026 47,281 64,483 22,232 2,209

State

Population under 18 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of child victims 2 903,395 16,668 7,138 8,983 8,578 157,683 7,010 16,923 2,894 4,916 82,119 24,567 2,185 7,936 35,657 18,962 7,311 5,312 22,875 13,773 3,579 14,234 27,559 22,744 10,572 6,079

State

Population under 18 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,406,616 224,403 445,642 467,107 298,610 1,990,439 504,210 4,502,611 1,919,774 162,611 2,844,005 879,367 825,170 2,859,828 237,917 959,296 200,937 1,331,402 5,629,200 701,300 141,347 1,644,678 1,472,490 404,254 1,351,044 129,406

Number of child victims 2 12,556 3,292 4,219 8,014 1,159 9,851 4,241 83,537 37,357 (NA) 58,070 16,584 10,147 5,392 3,448 8,432 2,647 9,930 39,925 7,990 887 9,766 12,926 7,793 8,168 807

U.S. 3 . AL . . . . AK . . . . AZ . . . . AR . . . . CA . . . . CO . . . . CT . . . . DE . . . . DC . . . . FL. . . . . GA . . . . HI . . . . . ID . . . . . IL . . . . . IN . . . . . IA . . . . . KS . . . . KY . . . . LA . . . . ME . . . . MD . . . . MA MI . MN MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 69,872,059 1,851,267 2,972,862 . 1,084,135 24,413 35,912 . 192,261 11,202 11,326 . 1,263,404 34,930 60,610 . 653,721 20,511 29,572 . 8,911,372 122,622 413,372 . 1,040,580 28,573 39,141 . 790,715 31,221 40,905 . 179,071 6,473 9,693 . 102,959 4,077 9,862 . 3,539,932 125,359 186,967 . 2,022,351 47,007 74,180 . 298,327 2,129 3,568 . 351,158 10,100 26,682 . 3,187,332 64,357 110,658 . 1,517,366 102,155 102,155 . 722,139 19,412 28,072 . 697,452 18,480 26,751 . 988,293 63,439 63,439 . 1,191,412 27,117 45,318 . 291,585 4,121 9,030 . 1,287,190 31,091 55,964 . . . . 1,457,703 2,551,615 1,259,447 756,875 37,091 62,659 16,197 18,002 52,899 156,425 24,844 32,404

MO . MT . NE . NV . NH . NJ. . NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI . SC . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SD . TN . TX . UT . VT . VA . WA . WV . WI. . WY .

1 The number of Children Subject of An Investigation is calculated from the total number of children by NA Not available. Disposition, and is a national estimate for the 50 states and the District of Columbia based on submissions from reporting states. 2 Victims are defined as children subject of a substantiated or indicated maltreatment. In 1998, Ohio included ‘‘In Need of Services,’’ and North Dakota did not use these dispositions. 3 Includes estimates for states that did not report.

Source of Tables 365 and 366: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, Child Maltreatment 1998: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect System, April 2000.

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

219

No. 367. Jail Inmates by Sex and Race: 1990 to 1999
[Data are for midyear. Excludes Federal and state prisons or other correctional institutions; institutions exclusively for juveniles; stateoperated jails in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont; and other facilities which retain persons for less than 48 hours. As of June 30. Data for 1993 based on National Jail Census; for other years, based on sample survey and subject to sampling variability] Characteristic Total inmates
1

1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1993 459,804 415,600 44,200 180,900 203,500 69,200 6,200

1994 486,474 437,600 48,800 190,100 213,400 74,900 8,100

1995 507,044 455,400 51,600 203,300 220,600 74,400 8,800

1996 518,492 462,500 55,800 215,900 213,100 80,900 8,600

1997 567,079 507,200 59,900 230,300 237,900 88,900 10,000

1998 592,462 (NA) (NA) 244,900 244,000 91,800 11,800

1999 605,943 (NA) (NA) 249,900 251,800 93,800 10,400

Male . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . White non-Hispanic. Black non-Hispanic . Hispanic . . . . . . . . Other 1 . . . . . . . . .

405,320 368,002 37,318 169,600 172,300 58,100 5,400

NA Not available.

Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, through 1994, Jail Inmates, annual; beginning 1995, Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear, annual.

No. 368. State and Federal Correctional Facilities—Inmates and Staff: 1990 and 1995
[Covers all state and Federal correctional institutions or places of confinement such as prisons, prison farms, boot camps, and community based halfway houses and work release centers. Excludes jails and other regional detention centers, private facilities, facilities for the military, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Marshall Service, and correctional hospital wards not operated by correctional authorities] Characteristic FACILITIES Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type of facility: Confinement . Community. . Federal . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,287 1,037 250 80 1,207 816 260 185 26 314 163 373 379 58 1,500 1,196 304 125 1,375 854 286 306 54 497 273 366 310 45 9 1990 1995 Characteristic INMATES Total . . . . . . . . . Male. . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . Type of facility: Confinement . . . . . . Community. . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . Custody level: Maximum/close/high. Medium . . . . . . . . . Minimum/low . . . . . Not classified . . . . . ....... ....... ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715,649 675,624 40,025 698,570 17,079 56,821 658,828 150,205 292,372 219,907 53,165 1,023,572 961,210 62,362 992,333 31,239 81,930 941,642 202,174 415,688 366,227 39,483 1990 1995

Size of facility: Fewer than 500. 500-999 . . . . . . 1,000-2,499 . . . 2,500 or more . .

Age of facility: Less than 10 years . . 10-19 years old . . . . . 20-49 years old . . . . . 50-99 years old . . . . . 100 years old or more Not reported . . . . . . .

STAFF Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

264,201 18,451 245,750

347,320 25,379 321,941

- Represents zero. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 1995.

No. 369. Federal and State Prisoners by Sex: 1980 to 1997
[Based on U.S. Census Bureau estimated resident population, as of December 31. Includes all persons under jurisdiction of Federal and state authorities rather than those in the custody of such authorities. Represents inmates sentenced to maximum term of more than a year] Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
1

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315,974 353,167 394,374 419,820 443,398 480,568 522,084 560,812 603,732

Rate

1

State 295,363 331,504 371,864 393,015 415,796 447,873 485,553 521,289 560,994

Male 303,643 338,940 378,045 402,391 424,193 458,972 497,540 533,990 573,587

Female 12,331 14,227 16,329 17,429 19,205 21,296 24,544 26,822 30,145

Year 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total 680,907 739,980 789,610 846,277 932,074 1,016,691 1,085,022 1,137,722 1,194,581

Rate

1

State

Male

Female 37,264 40,564 43,802 46,501 54,037 60,125 63,963 69,599 73,794

. . . . . . . . .

139 154 171 179 188 202 217 231 247

276 633,739 643,643 297 689,577 699,416 313 732,914 745,808 332 780,571 799,776 359 857,675 878,037 389 936,896 956,566 411 1,001,359 1,021,059 427 1,048,907 1,068,123 444 1,099,594 1,120,787

Rate per 100,000 estimated population.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in State and Federal Institutions on December 31, annual.

220 Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 370. State Prisons Expenditures by State: 1996
[In millions of dollars (22,033.2 represents $22,033,200,000), except as indicated. For fiscal year ending in year indicated] Operating expenditures per inmate (dol.) Per year 20,142 7,987 32,415 19,091 13,341 21,385 21,020 31,912 17,987 21,296 17,327 15,933 23,318 16,277 19,351 20,188 24,286 22,242 16,320 12,304 33,711 22,247 26,002 28,067 37,825 11,156 Per day 55.18 21.88 88.81 52.30 36.55 58.59 57.59 87.43 49.28 58.34 47.47 43.65 63.88 44.60 53.02 55.31 66.54 60.94 44.71 33.71 92.36 60.95 71.24 76.89 103.63 30.56 MO MT . NE . NV . NH . NJ . NM. NY . NC . ND . OH. OK . OR. PA . RI . SC . SD . TN . TX . UT . VT . VA . WA WV WI . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating expenditures per inmate (dol.) Per year 12,832 20,782 22,271 15,370 20,839 30,773 29,491 28,426 25,303 17,154 19,613 10,601 31,837 28,063 35,739 13,977 17,787 22,904 12,215 32,361 31,094 16,306 26,662 17,245 27,771 19,456 Per day 35.16 56.94 61.02 42.11 57.09 84.31 80.80 77.88 69.32 47.00 53.74 29.04 87.22 76.88 97.92 38.29 48.73 62.75 33.47 88.66 85.19 44.67 73.05 47.25 76.08 53.30

State

Total expenditures

Operating expenditures

Capital expenditures 1,295.3 3.2 4.3 8.9 9.2 112.2 15.3 22.5 0.7 1.6 124.3 12.9 3.5 1.9 7.6 12.5 2.3 12.4 9.9 2.8 3.5 39.4 5.2 6.5 1.6 4.9

State

Total expenditures 262.8 42.4 69.9 122.0 43.0 839.3 125.6 2,220.6 756.8 10.7 1,014.9 198.3 254.3 978.8 109.6 315.5 34.2 350.6 1,713.9 113.4 33.5 476.7 357.9 46.9 360.4 29.0

Operating expenditures 249.4 41.9 67.9 119.0 42.4 827.1 123.9 1,948.8 733.8 10.6 873.6 193.6 253.4 902.2 108.7 277.9 33.6 349.2 1,565.2 111.8 33.4 452.4 311.1 43.7 313.4 27.0

Capital expenditures 13.4 0.6 2.0 2.9 0.5 12.2 1.7 271.8 23.1 0.2 141.3 4.7 0.9 76.5 0.9 37.7 0.6 1.4 148.7 1.6 0.1 24.4 46.7 3.2 47.1 2.0

U.S. . . . 22,033.2 20,737.9 AL . AK . AZ . AR . CA . CO. CT . DE . DC . FL . GA . HI . ID . IL. . IN . IA . KS . KY . LA . ME. MD. MA. MI . MN. MS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169.0 116.7 418.1 133.7 3,031.0 249.8 497.8 88.0 213.7 1,224.9 560.4 87.4 57.0 740.4 338.2 146.1 170.8 208.7 316.2 51.7 520.3 309.7 1,167.6 186.0 148.9 165.8 112.4 409.2 124.5 2,918.8 234.5 475.4 87.3 212.1 1,100.7 547.5 83.9 55.0 732.8 325.7 143.8 158.5 198.8 313.5 48.2 480.9 304.5 1,161.1 184.4 143.9

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, State Prison Expenditures, 1996, Series NCJ 172211, August 1999.

No. 371. Prisoners Under Jurisdiction of State and Federal Correctional Authorities—Summary by State: 1980 to 1998
[For years ending December 31] 1998, advance State 1980 U.S. AL . . . AK 2 . . AZ 3 . . AR . . . CA . . . CO . . . CT 2 . . DE 2 . . DC 2 . . FL 3. . . GA 3 . . HI 2 . . . ID . . . . IL 3 . . . IN . . . . IA 3 . . . KS . . . KY . . . LA . . . ME . . . MD . . . MA 3 4 . MI 3 4 . MN . . . MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1998, advance State 1980 MO . MT . NE . NV . NH . NJ. . NM . NY . NC . ND . OH . OK 4 OR . PA . RI 2 . SC . SD . TN . TX . UT . VT 2 VA . WA . WV . WI. . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,726 739 1,446 1,839 326 5,884 1,279 21,815 15,513 253 13,489 4,796 3,177 8,171 813 7,862 635 7,022 29,892 932 480 8,920 4,399 1,257 3,980 534 1990 14,943 1,425 2,403 5,322 1,342 21,128 3,187 54,895 18,411 483 31,822 12,285 6,492 22,290 2,392 17,319 1,341 10,388 50,042 2,496 1,049 17,593 7,995 1,565 7,465 1,110 1997 23,998 2,517 3,402 9,024 2,164 28,361 4,688 69,108 31,612 797 48,016 20,542 7,999 34,964 3,371 21,173 2,242 16,659 140,351 4,301 1,270 28,385 13,214 3,148 16,277 1,549 Percent change, 1997Total 1998 24,974 2,734 3,676 9,651 2,169 31,121 4,985 72,638 31,811 915 48,450 20,892 8,927 36,377 3,445 22,115 2,435 17,738 144,510 4,391 1,426 28,560 14,161 3,478 18,451 1,571 4.1 8.6 8.1 6.9 0.2 9.7 6.3 5.1 0.6 14.8 0.9 1.7 11.6 4.0 2.2 4.4 8.6 6.5 3.0 2.1 12.3 0.6 7.2 10.5 13.4 1.4

1990

1997

Percent change, 1997Total 1998 4.9 4.6 -1.6 7.8 6.2 3.9 6.3 2.1 2.3 6.4 4.0 7.6 -1.1 4.4 5.5 7.2 6.6 3.4 2.7 10.1 -0.5 1.5 -1.0 2.5 4.6 16.7

. 329,821 773,919 1,240,962 1,302,019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,543 822 4,372 2,911 24,569 2,629 4,308 1,474 3,145 20,735 12,178 985 817 11,899 6,683 2,481 2,494 3,588 8,889 814 7,731 3,185 15,124 2,001 3,902 15,665 2,622 14,261 7,322 97,309 7,671 10,500 3,471 9,947 44,387 22,411 2,533 1,961 27,516 12,736 3,967 5,775 9,023 18,599 1,523 17,848 8,345 34,267 3,176 8,375 22,290 4,165 23,484 10,021 155,790 13,461 17,241 5,435 9,353 64,626 36,505 4,978 3,911 40,788 17,903 6,938 7,911 14,600 29,265 1,620 22,232 11,947 44,771 5,326 14,296 23,326 4,097 25,311 10,638 161,904 14,312 17,605 5,558 9,949 67,224 39,262 4,924 4,083 43,051 19,197 7,394 8,183 14,987 32,227 1,612 22,572 11,832 45,879 5,572 16,678

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 State-level data excludes Federal inmates. 2 Includes both jail and prison inmates (state has combined jail and prison system). 3 Numbers are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. 4 Data are for custody counts until 1995 when jurisdiction counts are reported.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 1998, Series NCJ 175687; and earlier reports.

Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prison 221
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 372. Adults on Probation, in Jail or Prison, or on Parole: 1980 to 1997
[As of December 31, except jail counts as of June 30] Year Total 1980 . 1981 . 1982 . 1983 . 1984 . 1985 . 1986 . 1987 . 1988 . 1989 . 1990 . 1991 . 1992 . 1993 . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of adult population (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8

1

Probation 1,118,097 1,225,934 1,357,264 1,582,947 1,740,948 1,968,712 2,114,621 2,247,158 2,356,483 2,522,125 2,670,234 2,728,472 2,811,611 2,903,061 2,981,022 3,077,861 3,164,996 3,266,837

Jail
2 182,288 2

Prison 319,598 360,029 402,914 423,898 448,264 487,593 526,436 562,814 607,766 683,367 743,382 792,535 850,566 909,381 990,147 1,078,542 1,127,764 1,176,922

Parole 220,438 225,539 224,604 246,440 266,992 300,203 325,638 355,505 407,977 456,803 531,407 590,442 658,601 676,100 690,371 679,421 679,733 690,752

Male (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2,606,000 2,829,100 3,021,000 3,223,000 3,501,600 3,746,300 3,913,000 4,050,300 4,215,800 4,377,400 4,546,400 4,663,600 4,797,200
2

Female (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 405,500 410,300 438,600 491,100 554,000 601,700 622,600 712,300 728,200 763,900 828,100 859,400 895,300

1,840,400 2,006,600 2,192,600 2,475,100 2,689,200 3,011,400 3,239,400 3,459,600 3,714,100 4,055,600 4,348,000 4,535,600 4,762,600 4,944,000 5,141,300 5,335,100 5,482,900 5,692,500
1

195,085 207,853 221,815 233,018 254,986 272,735 294,092 341,893 393,303 403,019 424,129 441,781 455,500 479,800 499,300 510,400 557,974

1995 . . . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available.

Totals may not add due to individuals having multiple correctional statuses.

Estimated.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Populations in the United States, annual.

No. 373. Prisoners Under Sentence of Death by Characteristic: 1980 to 1998
[As of December 31. Excludes prisoners under sentence of death who remained within local correctional systems pending exhaustion of appellate process or who had not been committed to prison] Characteristic Total
1

1980 688 418 270 11 173 334 186 10 68 74 204 162 43 163 268 229 217

1988 2,117 1,235 882 11 195 1,048 823 47 180 184 692 657 180 231 898 594 632

1989 2,243 1,308 935 6 191 1,080 917 56 183 178 739 695 192 263 956 610 684

1990 2,346 1,368 978 8 168 1,110 1,006 64 178 186 775 729 209 279 998 632 726

1991 2,466 1,450 1,016 14 179 1,087 1,129 73 173 181 810 783 222 313 1,071 663 746

1992 2,575 1,508 1,067 12 188 1,078 1,212 85 181 180 836 831 232 315 1,132 663 780

1993 2,727 1,575 1,152 13 211 1,066 1,330 96 185 183 885 887 244 332 1,222 671 823

1994 2,905 1,653 1,252 19 231 1,088 1,449 103 186 198 930 939 255 382 1,320 707 863

1995 3,064 1,732 1,332 20 264 1,068 1,583 119 191 195 979 995 272 422 1,412 718 924

1996 3,242 1,833 1,409 17 288 1,088 1,711 138 196 201 1,040 1,037 282 486 1,507 739 996

1997 3,328 1,864 1,464 16 275 1,077 1,809 151 205 206 1,069 1,084 288 476 1,555 740 1,033

1998 3,452 1,906 1,546 15 267 1,101 1,899 170 206 217 1,111 1,120 297 501 1,641 749 1,062

.............

White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black and other . . . . . . . . . . Under 20 years. . . 20 to 24 years . . . 25 to 34 years . . . 35 to 54 years . . . 55 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Years of school completed: 7 years or less . . . . . . . 8 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 11 years . . . . . . . . 12 years . . . . . . . . . . . More than 12 years . . . . Unknown . . . . . . . . . . .

Marital status: Never married . . . . . . . . . . Married . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Divorced 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Time elapsed since sentencing: Less than 12 months 12 to 47 months . . . 48 to 71 months . . . 72 months and over . Legal status at arrest: Not under sentence . Parole or probation 3 Prison or escaped . . Unknown . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

185 389 102 38 384 115 45 170

293 812 409 610 1,207 545 93 279

231 809 408 802 1,301 585 94 270

231 753 438 934 1,345 578 128 305

252 718 441 1,071 1,415 615 102 321

265 720 444 1,146 1,476 702 101 296

262 716 422 1,316 1,562 754 102 298

280 755 379 1,476 1,662 800 103 325

287 784 423 1,560 1,764 866 110 314

306 816 447 1,673 1,881 894 112 355

262 844 456 1,766 1,957 880 116 375

275 813 482 1,882 2,029 877 127 419

1 2 Revisions to the total number of prisoners were not carried to the characteristics except for race. Includes persons married but separated, widows, widowers, and unknown. 3 Includes prisoners on mandatory conditional release, work release, leave, AWOL, or bail. Covers 28 prisoners in 1990, 29 in 1991 and 1992, 33 in 1993 and 1995, 31 in 1994 and 1996, and 30 in 1997.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Capital Punishment, annual.

222 Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

No. 374. Movement of Prisoners Under Sentence of Death: 1980 to 1998
[Prisoners reported under sentence of death by civil authorities. The term ‘‘under sentence of death’’ begins when the court pronounces the first sentence of death for a capital offense] Status Under sentence of death, Jan. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Received death sentence 1 2 . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dispositions other than executions . . . . . . . . . . . . Executions. . . . . . . . . . . . . Under sentence of death, Dec. 31 1 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 595 203 125 77 101 688 425 268 1988 1,967 296 196 91 128 11 2,117 1,238 853 1989 2,117 251 133 114 102 16 2,243 1,308 898 1990 2,243 244 147 94 108 23 2,346 1,368 940 1991 2,346 266 163 101 116 14 2,466 1,450 1,016 1992 2,465 265 147 114 124 31 2,575 1,508 1,029 1993 2,580 282 146 130 108 38 2,727 1,575 1,111 1994 2,727 306 162 136 112 31 2,890 1,645 1,197 1995 2,905 310 168 138 105 56 3,054 1,730 1,275 1996 3,064 299 174 119 99 45 3,242 1,833 1,358 1997 3,242 256 146 106 89 74 3,335 1,876 1,406 1998 3,328 285 145 132 93 68 3,452 1,906 1,486

2 Revisions to total number of prisoners under death - Represents zero. 1 Includes races other than White or Black. sentence not carried to this category. Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Capital Punishment, annual.

No. 375. Prisoners Executed Under Civil Authority by Sex and Race: 1930 to 1999
[Excludes executions by military authorities. The Army (including the Air Force) carried out 160 (148 between 1942 and 1950; 3 each in 1954, 1955, and 1957; and 1 each in 1958, 1959, and 1961). Of the total, 106 were executed for murder (including 21 involving rape), 53 for rape, and 1 for desertion. The Navy carried out no executions during the period] Year or period All years, 1930-99 . . . . 1930 1940 1950 1960 1968 1977 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 to to to to to to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1939 . 1949 . 1959 . 1967 . 1976 . 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Executed for murder Total
1

Male 4,423 1,656 1,272 709 190 595 18 25 11 16 23 14 31 38 31 56 45 74 66 98

Female 35 11 12 8 1 3 2 -

White 1,971 827 490 336 98 11 11 13 6 8 16 7 19 23 20 33 31 45 48 61

Black 2,201 816 781 376 93 7 7 12 5 8 7 7 11 14 11 22 14 27 18 33

Total

1

White 1,884 803 458 316 87 11 11 13 6 8 16 7 19 23 20 33 31 45 48 61

Black 1,770 687 595 280 68 7 7 12 5 8 7 7 11 14 11 22 14 27 18 33

4,458 1,667 1,284 717 191 598 18 18 25 11 16 23 14 31 38 31 56 45 74 68 98

3,692 1,514 1,064 601 155 18 18 25 11 16 23 14 31 38 31 56 45 74 68 98

- Represents zero. 1 Includes races other than White or Black. 2 Includes 25 armed robbery, 20 kidnapping, 11 burglary, 8 espionage (6 in 1942 and 2 in 1953), and 6 aggravated assault. Source: Through 1978, U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration; thereafter, U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Populations in the United States, annual; and Capital Punishment, annual.

No. 376. Prisoners Under Sentence of Death and Executed Under Civil Authority by State: 1977 to 1999
[Alaska, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin are jurisdictions without a death penalty] State U.S. . AL AZ AR CA DE FL. GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977 to 1999 1996 1997 1998 1999 598 19 19 21 7 10 44 23 45 1 2 1 2 3 2 2 74 3 2 4 1 68 1 4 1 1 4 1 98 2 7 4 2 2 1 State ID . . IL . . IN . . LA . MD . MS . MO . NE . NV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977 to 1999 1996 1997 1998 1999 1 12 7 25 3 4 41 3 8 1 1 1 6 1 1 2 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 9 1 State NC . OK . SC . TX . UT . VA . WA . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977 to 1999 1996 1997 1998 1999 15 19 24 199 6 73 3 1 2 6 3 1 8 1 2 37 9 3 4 7 20 13 1 4 6 4 35 1 14 -

- Represents zero. Source: Through 1978, U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration; thereafter, U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Capital Punishment, annual.

Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000

223

No. 377. Fire Losses—Total and Percent Change: 1980 to 1998
[Includes allowance for uninsured and unreported losses but excludes losses to government property and forests. Represents incurred losses] Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
1

Total (mil. dol.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,579 5,625 5,894 6,320 7,602 7,753 8,488

Per capita 1 24.56 24.53 25.61 27.20 32.35 32.70 35.21

Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total (mil. dol.) 8,504 9,626 9,514 9,495 11,302 13,588 11,331

Per capita 1 34.96 39.11 38.33 38.07 44.83 53.29 43.96

Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total (mil. dol.) 12,778 11,887 12,544 12,940 12,313

Per capita 1 49.09 45.24 47.30 48.33 45.55

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

Based on Census Bureau resident population as of July 1.

Source: Insurance Information Institute, New York, NY, Insurance Facts, annual (copyright).

No. 378. Fires—Number and Loss by Type and Property Use: 1995 to 1998
[Number: 1,966 represents 1,966,000. Property loss: 8,918 represents 8,918,000. Based on annual sample survey of fire departments. No adjustments were made for unreported fires and losses. Property loss includes direct property loss only] Type and property use Fires, total. . . . . . . . . . Structure . . . . . . . . Outside of structure 1 Brush and rubbish . . Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number (1,000) 1995 1,966 574 61 778 406 147 15 9 9 29 426 320 94 12 39 18 29 1996 1,975 578 63 766 414 154 16 9 8 27 428 324 93 11 41 18 31 1997 1,795 552 57 662 397 127 15 8 8 27 407 303 93 11 36 17 34 1998 1,755 517 62 653 381 142 16 8 9 25 381 283 86 12 36 16 26 1995 8,918 7,620 77 1,152 69 336 84 31 2 681 4,363 3,615 649 99 710 6 1,248 167 Property loss (mil. dol.) 1996 9,406 7,933 91 1,333 49 330 65 24 665 4,962 4,121 748 93 949 7 733 205 1997 8,525 7,087 99 1,269 70 327 58 25 612 4,585 3,735 718 132 577 723 180 1998 8,629 6,717 497 1,337 78 354 84 23 462 4,391 3,642 631 118 687 496 220

Structure by property use: Public assembly . . . . . . Educational . . . . . . . . . Institutional . . . . . . . . . Stores and offices . . . . . Residential. . . . . . . . . . 1-2 family units 3 . . . . Apartments. . . . . . . . Other residential 4 . . . Storage 5. . . . . . . . . . . Industry, utility, defense 5 Special structures . . . . .

- Represents zero. 1 Includes outside storage, crops, timber, etc. 1998 property loss data include $390 million loss in timber from Florida wildfires. 2 Includes an estimated $135 million in property loss that occurred in the explosion and fire in the federal office building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. 3 Includes mobile homes. 4 Includes hotels and motels, college dormitories, 5 boarding houses, etc. Data underreported as some incidents were handled by private fire brigades or fixed suppression systems which do not report. 6 Includes estimated losses of $500 million in an industrial complex fire in Massachusetts and $200 million in a manufacturing plant in Georgia in 1995. 7 Includes $280 million in property in a storage property fire in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1996. Source: National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, ‘‘1998 U.S. Fire Loss’’, NFPA Journal, September 1999, and prior issues (copyright 1999).

No. 379. Fires and Property Loss for Incendiary and Suspicious Fires and Civilian Fire Deaths and Injuries by Selected Property Type: 1995 to 1998
[Based on sample survey of fire departments] Characteristic NUMBER (1,000) Structure fires, total . Structure fires of incendiary or suspicious origin . . . . . Fires of incendiary origin . Fires of suspicious origin . PROPERTY LOSS (mil. dol.)
1

1995

1996

1997

1998

Characteristic CIVILIAN FIRE DEATHS

1995

1996

1997

1998

574 91 58 33

578 85 52 33

552 78 52 26

517 76 47 29

Deaths, total 3. . . Residential property . . . One- and two-family dwellings . . . . . . . Apartments . . . . . . . Vehicles . . . . . . . . . .

... ... ... ... ...

4,585 3,695 3,035 605 535

4,990 4,080 3,470 565 710

4,050 3,390 2,700 660 480

4,035 3,250 2,775 445 575

CIVILIAN FIRE INJURIES 7,620
2

Structure fires, total . Structure fires of incendiary or suspicious origin . . . . . Fires of incendiary origin . Fires of suspicious origin .

7,933 1,405 897 508

7,087 1,309 802 507

6,717 1,249 816 433

1,647 1,116 531

Injuries, total 3 . . Residential property . . . One- and two-family dwellings . . . . . . . Apartments . . . . . . . Vehicles . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 25,775 25,550 23,750 23,100 . . . 19,125 19,300 17,775 17,175 . . . 13,450 13,700 12,300 11,800 . . . 5,200 5,175 5,000 5,000 . . . 2,525 2,225 2,125 2,225

1 Direct property loss only. 2 Includes $135 million in property loss that occurred in the explosion and fire in the federal office building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. 3 Includes other not shown separately.

Source: National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, ‘‘1998 U.S. Fire Loss’’, NFPA Journal, September 1999, and prior issues (copyright 1999).

224 Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000


								
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