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									Figure 4.1

Educational Attainment, by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1960 to 1998
Completed 4 Years of High School or More Percent of persons 25 years old and over

White Black Hispanic

100

80

60

40

20

0

(NA)

(NA)

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

19951

1997

19981

Completed 4 Years of College or More Percent of persons 25 years old and over 25

20

15

10

5

0

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

19952

1997

19982

NA Not available. 1High school graduate or more. 2College graduate or more. Note: Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: Chart prepared by U.S. Census Bureau. For data, see Table 263.

160 Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

Section 4

Education
This section presents data primarily concerning formal education as a whole, at various levels, and for public and private schools. Data shown relate to the schoolage population and school enrollment, educational attainment, education personnel, and financial aspects of education. In addition, data are shown for libraries, computer usage in schools, and adult education. The chief sources are the decennial census of population and the Current Population Survey (CPS), both conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau (see text, Section 1, Population); annual, biennial, and other periodic surveys conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, a part of the U.S. Department of Education; and surveys conducted by the National Education Association. The censuses of population have included data on school enrollment since 1840 and on educational attainment since 1940. The CPS has reported on school enrollment annually since 1945 and on educational attainment periodically since 1947. The National Center for Education Statistics is continuing the pattern of statistical studies and surveys conducted by the U.S. Office of Education since 1870. The annual Digest of Education Statistics provides summary data on pupils, staff, finances, including government expenditures, and organization at the elementary, secondary, and higher education levels. It is also a primary source for detailed information on Federal funds for education, projections of enrollment, graduates, and teachers. The Condition of Education, issued annually, presents a summary of information on education of particular interest to policymakers. Other sources of data include special studies by the National Center for Education Statistics and annual or biennial reports of education agencies in individual states. The census of governments, conducted by the Census Bureau every 5 years (for the years ending in “2” and “7”), provides data on school district finances and state and local government expenditures for education. Reports published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics contain data relating civilian labor force experience to educational attainment (see also Tables 653, 677, and 684 in Section 13, Labor Force). Types and sources of data—The statistics in this section are of two general types. One type, exemplified by data from the Census Bureau, is based on direct interviews with individuals to obtain information about their own and their family members’ education. Data of this type relate to school enrollment and level of education attained, classified by age, sex, and other characteristics of the population. The school enrollment statistics reflect attendance or enrollment in any regular school within a given period; educational attainment statistics reflect the highest grade completed by an individual, or beginning 1992, the highest diploma or degree received. For enrollment data starting in October 1994, the CPS used 1990 census population controls plus adjustment for undercount. Also the survey changed from paper to computer assisted technology. For years 1981 through 1993, 1980 census population controls were used; 1971 through 1980, 1970 census population controls had been used. These changes had little impact on summary measures (e.g., medians) and proportional measures (e.g., enrollment rates); however, use of the controls may have significant impact on absolute numbers. Beginning with data for 1986, a new edit and tabulation package for school enrollment has been introduced. In 1988 a new

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

edit and tabulation package was introduced for educational attainment data. The second type, generally exemplified by data from the National Center for Education Statistics and the National Education Association, is based on reports from administrators of educational institutions and of state and local agencies having jurisdiction over education. Data of this type relate to enrollment, attendance, staff, and finances for the Nation, individual states, and local areas. Unlike the National Center for Education Statistics, the Census Bureau does not regularly include specialized vocational, trade, business, or correspondence schools in its surveys. The National Center for Education Statistics includes nursery schools and kindergartens that are part of regular grade schools in their enrollment figures. The Census Bureau includes all nursery schools and kindergartens. At the higher education level, the statistics of both agencies are concerned with institutions granting degrees or offering work acceptable for degree-credit, such as junior colleges. School attendance—All states require that children attend school. While state laws vary as to the ages and circumstances of compulsory attendance, generally they require that formal schooling begin by age 6 and continue to age 16. Schools—The National Center for Education Statistics defines a school as “a division of the school system consisting of students composing one or more grade groups or other identifiable groups, organized as one unit with one or more teachers to give instruction of a defined type, and housed in a school plant of one or more buildings. More than one school may be housed in one school plant, as is the case when the elementary and secondary programs are housed in the same school plant.”

Regular schools are those which advance a person toward a diploma or degree. They include public and private nursery schools, kindergartens, graded schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools. Public schools are schools controlled and supported by local, state, or Federal governmental agencies; private schools are those controlled and supported mainly by religious organizations or by private persons or organizations. The Census Bureau defines elementary schools as including grades 1 through 8; high schools as including grades 9 through 12; and colleges as including junior or community colleges, regular 4-year colleges, and universities and graduate or professional schools. Statistics reported by the National Center for Education Statistics and the National Education Association by type of organization, such as elementary level and secondary level, may not be strictly comparable with those from the Census Bureau because the grades included at the two levels vary, depending on the level assigned to the middle or junior high school by the local school systems. School year—Except as otherwise indicated in the tables, data refer to the school year which, for elementary and secondary schools, generally begins in September of the preceding year and ends in June of the year stated. For the most part, statistics concerning school finances are for a 12month period, usually July 1 to June 30. Enrollment data generally refer to a specific point in time, such as fall, as indicated in the tables. Statistical reliability—For a discussion of statistical collection, estimation, and sampling procedures and measures of statistical reliability applicable to the Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics data, see Appendix III.

162 Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 253. School Enrollment: 1965 to 2008
[In thousands (54,394 represents 54,394,000). As of fall] All levels Total 1965 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54,394 59,838 61,004 58,305 57,916 57,591 57,432 57,150 57,226 57,709 58,254 58,485 59,436 60,267 61,605 62,686 63,241 63,986 64,803 65,674 66,170 67,309 67,871 68,334 68,728 69,040 69,338 69,657 69,942 70,160 70,305 70,351 Public 46,143 52,322 53,654 50,335 49,691 49,262 48,935 48,686 48,901 49,467 49,982 50,349 51,120 52,061 53,356 54,208 54,654 55,245 55,933 56,682 57,161 58,187 58,668 59,065 59,402 59,674 59,923 60,195 60,436 60,611 60,721 60,735 Private 8,251 7,516 7,350 7,971 8,225 8,330 8,497 8,465 8,325 8,242 8,272 8,136 8,316 8,206 8,248 8,478 8,587 8,741 8,869 8,993 9,010 9,121 9,203 9,269 9,324 9,366 9,413 9,461 9,506 9,549 9,584 9,616 K through grade 8 Public 30,563 32,558 30,515 27,647 27,280 27,161 26,981 26,905 27,034 27,420 27,933 28,501 29,152 29,878 30,506 31,088 31,504 31,898 32,341 32,759 32,951 33,522 33,722 33,903 34,055 34,124 34,124 33,958 33,756 33,584 33,489 33,455 Private 4,900 4,052 3,700 3,992 4,100 4,200 4,315 4,300 4,195 4,116 4,232 4,036 4,162 4,095 4,074 4,212 4,280 4,360 4,431 4,486 4,545 4,588 4,616 4,640 4,661 4,671 4,671 4,648 4,620 4,597 4,584 4,579 Grades 9 through 12 Public 11,610 13,336 14,304 13,231 12,764 12,405 12,271 12,304 12,388 12,333 12,076 11,687 11,390 11,338 11,541 11,735 11,961 12,213 12,500 12,834 13,003 13,270 13,420 13,537 13,643 13,800 13,951 14,263 14,579 14,785 14,854 14,746 Private 1,400 1,311 1,300 1,339 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,362 1,336 1,247 1,206 1,193 1,137 1,125 1,163 1,191 1,236 1,269 1,297 1,322 1,339 1,354 1,366 1,376 1,392 1,407 1,439 1,471 1,491 1,498 1,488 College Public 3,970 6,428 8,835 9,457 9,647 9,696 9,683 9,477 9,479 9,714 9,973 10,161 10,578 10,845 11,310 11,385 11,189 11,134 11,092 11,090 11,208 11,395 11,525 11,626 11,705 11,751 11,849 11,975 12,101 12,242 12,378 12,534 Private 1,951 2,153 2,350 2,640 2,725 2,730 2,782 2,765 2,768 2,790 2,793 2,894 2,961 2,974 3,049 3,103 3,116 3,145 3,169 3,210 3,143 3,194 3,233 3,263 3,287 3,303 3,335 3,374 3,415 3,461 3,502 3,549

Year

1986 . . . . 1987 . . . . 1988 . . . . 1989 . . . . 1990 . . . . 1991 . . . . 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 . . . . 1995 . . . . 1996 . . . . 1997, est. . 1998, proj. 1999, proj. 2000, proj. 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, proj. proj. proj. proj. proj. proj. proj. proj.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual, and Projections of Education Statistics, annual.

No. 254. School Expenditures, by Type of Control and Level of Instruction in Constant (1997-98) Dollars: 1960 to 1998
[In millions of dollars (131,342 represents $131,342,000,000). For school years ending in year shown. Total expenditures for public elementary and secondary schools include current expenditures, interest on school debt, and capital outlay. Data deflated by the Consumer Price Index, wage earners, and clerical workers through 1975; thereafter, all urban consumers, on a school year basis (supplied by the National Center for Education Statistics). See also Appendix III] Elementary and secondary schools Total 1960 . . . . 1970 . . . . 1975 . . . . 1980 . . . . 1985 . . . . 1986 . . . . 1987 . . . . 1988 . . . . 1989 . . . . 1990 . . . . 1991 . . . . 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 . . . . 1995 . . . . 1996, prel. 1997, prel. 1998, est. .
1

Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131,342 293,123 339,348 345,070 378,726 400,554 424,554 437,542 462,947 485,990 498,390 506,716 517,563 527,909 541,898 554,382 569,478 583,800

Colleges and universities Private
1

Total 92,000 184,899 215,000 214,929 228,467 240,494 254,755 262,490 279,434 294,211 300,652 305,741 311,324 318,033 325,188 333,127 341,992 351,300

Public 85,945 174,195 202,508 199,928 209,504 220,874 233,962 241,127 257,546 271,028 277,100 282,101 287,039 293,476 300,024 307,374 315,732 324,300

Total 39,342 108,223 124,348 130,141 150,259 160,059 169,799 175,052 183,513 191,779 197,739 200,974 206,239 209,875 216,710 221,256 227,486 232,500

Public 21,488 69,510 84,214 86,324 97,420 104,148 108,405 111,501 116,252 122,779 126,132 127,171 130,698 132,269 137,209 138,975 142,497 145,500

Private

1

6,055 10,704 12,492 15,001 18,962 19,620 20,793 21,362 21,887 23,183 23,552 23,640 24,285 24,557 25,163 25,753 26,260 27,000

17,854 38,713 40,134 43,817 52,839 55,911 61,394 63,551 67,261 69,001 71,607 73,804 75,541 77,606 79,501 82,281 84,989 87,000

Estimated.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest Education Statistics, annual.

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

163

No. 255. School Enrollment, Faculty, Graduates, and Finances, With Projections: 1990 to 2008
[As of fall, except as indicated (46,448 represents 46,448,000)] Item ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS School enrollment, total . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Kindergarten through grade 8 . . . . . 1,000. . . Grades 9 through 12 . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Kindergarten through grade 8 . . . 1,000. . . Grades 9 through 12 . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Kindergarten through grade 8 . . . 1,000. . . Grades 9 through 12 . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Enrollment rate: 5 and 6 year olds . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . 7 to 13 year olds . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . 14 to 17 year olds . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . Classroom teachers, total 1 . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . High school graduates, total 2 . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Public schools: 2 Average daily attendance (ADA) Constant (1997-98) dollars: Teachers’ average salary . . . Current school expenditure . . Per pupil in ADA . . . . . . . HIGHER EDUCATION Enrollment, total . Male . . . . . . . Full time. . . Part time . . Female . . . . . Full time. . . Part time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. 1,000. 1,000. 1,000. 1,000. 1,000. 1,000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,819 6,284 3,808 2,476 7,535 4,013 3,521 10,845 5,848 4,996 2,974 2,730 244 11,959 1,586 273 9,983 7,558 2,425 817 574 244 2,025 482 1,095 337 39 72
2

Unit

1990

1995

1997, est.

1998, proj.

2000, proj.

2005, proj.

2008, proj.

46,448 33,973 12,475 41,217 29,878 11,338 5,232 4,095 1,137 96.5 99.6 95.8 2,753 2,398 355 2,503 2,235 38,427 39,958 244.0 6,350

50,540 36,772 13,769 44,840 32,341 12,500 5,700 4,431 1,269 96.0 98.9 96.3 2,975 2,595 380 2,548 2,281 41,502 39,484 267.0 6,434

51,821 37,495 14,324 45,953 32,951 13,003 5,867 4,545 1,322 96.5 99.1 96.6 3,103 2,710 394 2,708 2,433 42,924 39,385 281.7 6,563

52,718 38,110 14,608 46,792 33,522 13,270 5,927 4,588 1,339 (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,126 2,728 399 2,751 2,465 43,372 (NA) (NA) (NA)

53,445 38,543 14,902 47,439 33,903 13,537 6,006 4,640 1,366 (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,211 2,802 409 2,875 2,576 43,973 (NA) (NA) (NA)

54,426 38,376 16,050 48,335 33,756 14,579 6,091 4,620 1,471 (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,394 2,963 430 2,985 2,675 44,803 (NA) (NA) (NA)

54,268 38,034 16,234 48,201 33,455 14,746 6,067 4,579 1,488 (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,460 3,022 438 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

. . . 1,000. . . . . . Dol. . . . . . . . Bil. dol. . . . . Dol. . . . .

14,262 6,343 3,807 2,535 7,919 4,321 3,598 11,092 5,815 5,278 3,169 2,955 215 12,232 1,732 298 10,335 7,752 2,583 932 657 275 2,248 555 1,165 406 45 77

14,350 6,239 3,667 2,572 8,111 4,424 3,687 11,207 5,863 5,344 3,143 2,914 229 12,357 1,716 277 10,346 7,799 2,547 936 664 273 2,222 520 1,172 406 45 78

14,590 6,324 3,718 2,606 8,266 4,562 3,704 11,395 5,969 5,426 3,195 2,961 234 12,600 1,716 273 10,554 7,959 2,595 952 675 277 2,226 528 1,166 410 46 76

14,889 6,442 3,816 2,626 8,447 4,727 3,720 11,626 6,114 5,512 3,263 3,024 239 12,915 1,706 269 10,829 8,168 2,661 947 673 274 2,254 543 1,173 418 47 73

15,516 6,684 4,010 2,674 8,833 5,075 3,758 12,101 6,413 5,688 3,415 3,165 250 13,511 1,728 278 11,401 8,593 2,809 (NA) (NA) (NA) 2,368 565 1,243 438 49 73

16,083 6,906 4,182 2,724 9,177 5,380 3,797 12,534 6,670 5,864 3,549 3,288 260 14,045 1,752 286 11,910 8,974 2,937 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Four-year institutions . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Two-year institutions . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Four-year institutions . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Two-year institutions . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Undergraduate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Graduate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . First-time professional . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Full-time equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Faculty, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Degrees conferred, total 2 Associate’s . . . . . . . . Bachelor’s . . . . . . . . . Master’s . . . . . . . . . . Doctorate’s . . . . . . . . First-professional . . . . NA Not available.
1

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

1,000. 1,000. 1,000. 1,000. 1,000. 1,000.

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

Full-time equivalents.

For school year ending June the following year.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual, and Projections of Educational Statistics, annual.

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No. 256. Federal Funds for Education and Related Programs: 1996 to 1998
[In millions of dollars (71,327.4 represents $71,327,400,000), except percent. For fiscal years ending in September. Figures represent on-budget funds] Level, agency, and program Total, all programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of Federal budget outlays . . . . . . . Elementary/secondary education programs . Department of Education 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Grants for the disadvantaged . . . . . . . . . School improvement programs . . . . . . . . Indian education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vocational and adult education . . . . . . . . Education reform—Goals 2000 . . . . . . . . Department of Agriculture 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Child nutrition programs . . . . . . . . . . . . Agricultural Marketing Service— commodities 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special milk program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Defense 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overseas dependents schools . . . . . . . . Section VI schools 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Health and Human Services . Head Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social security student benefits. . . . . . . . Department of the Interior 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Mineral Leasing Act and other funds . . . . Indian Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inmate programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job Corps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Veterans Affairs. . . . . . . . . . Vocational rehab for disabled veterans . . . Other agencies and programs . . . . . . . . . . Higher education programs . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Education 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Student financial assistance . . . . . . . . . . Federal Family Education Loans . . . . . . . Department of Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Commerce . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tuition assistance for military personnel . . Service academies 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Senior ROTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 71,327.4 4.6 34,391.5 14,323.8 7,020.5 1,247.4 77.4 3,222.2 1,348.1 271.5 8,408.1 3 7,875.0 400.0 (3) 1,313.1 813.3 336.1 5,185.9 3,570.0 684.9 486.5 56.9 428.5 175.9 179.4 4,084.0 1,114.0 344.3 349.6 70.0 15,775.5 12,257.6 6,861.6 3,664.0 32.9 3.4 864.9 260.3 171.7 218.2 1997 73,136.8 4.6 35,478.9 14,511.2 7,201.6 1,276.6 56.0 3,305.5 1,402.4 431.5 8,830.2 3 8,300.0 400.0 (3) 1,351.8 832.6 355.0 5,110.2 3,980.5 676.7 558.4 89.0 468.4 191.4 190.4 4,432.0 1,185.0 402.2 386.0 91.4 15,959.4 12,377.0 7,247.3 3,313.8 32.6 3.4 913.6 271.9 173.7 228.6 1998
1 1

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

Level, agency, and program Professional development education . . . . . . Department of Health and Human Services 2 . . Health professions training programs . . . . . . National Health Service Corps scholarships . National Institutes of Health training grants 7 . Department of the Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shared revenues, Mineral Leasing Act and other receipts—estimated education share . Indian programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Veterans Affairs 2 . . . . . . . . . . Post-Vietnam veterans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All-volunteer-force educational assistance. . . Other agencies and programs 2 . . . . . . . . . . . National Endowment for the Humanities . . . . National Science Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . United States Information Agency . . . . . . . . Other education programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Education 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rehabilitative services and handicapped research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Health and Human Services . . . Department of Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of the Treasury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other agencies and programs 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Agency for International Development . . . . . Library of Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Endowment for the Arts . . . . . . . . . National Endowment for the Humanities . . . . Research programs at universities and related institutions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Health and Human Services . . . National Aeronautics and Space Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Science Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1996 214.7 798.6 273.5 28.8 457.0 132.5 59.0 73.5 53.5 1,074.7 44.4 922.8 557.5 30.9 262.0 239.4 4,828.0 3,085.6 502.9 2,410.2 412.9 117.0 35.1 53.3 59.0 1,065.2 307.0 252.0 0.5 62.4 16,332.3 427.2 1,663.7 3,035.2 6,784.9 1,754.6 2,041.5

1997 229.3 801.9 313.7 30.0 417.0 165.6 89.3 76.3 58.3 992.7 16.3 863.9 614.3 25.8 355.0 204.8 5,021.2 2,882.3 412.6 2,462.2 413.6 144.0 46.1 49.4 51.0 1,434.8 355.6 261.0 2.8 68.7 16,677.3 516.6 1,452.8 3,150.5 7,210.2 1,652.2 2,040.0

1998

75,077.5 4.5 36,818.8 14,787.3 6,235.9 1,391.1 55.0 3,812.4 1,337.9 668.1 9,320.2 3 8,800.0 400.0 (3) 1,316.6 852.1 302.2 5,195.4 4,355.0 680.4 535.6 57.0 477.6 222.2 221.2 4,990.0 1,203.0 347.8 338.0 103.7 15,990.0 12,406.1 8,352.8 1,967.8 32.6 3.4 923.5 275.4 191.4 225.4

231.2 793.1 291.1 30.0 429.8 167.8 86.2 81.6 59.3 1,024.8 11.7 898.8 579.4 20.5 358.0 172.0 5,171.4 2,961.8 437.1 2,515.4 408.7 155.0 39.8 55.4 73.0 1,477.6 347.7 277.0 2.3 72.4 17,097.3 417.9 1,364.8 3,170.7 7,422.1 1,699.0 2,115.3

Education 165

1 Estimated. 2 Includes other programs and agencies, not shown separately. 3 The Special Milk Program is included in the Child Nutrition Program. 4 Purchased under Section 32 of the Act of August 1935 5 for use in child nutrition programs. Program provides for the education of dependents of Federal employees residing on Federal property where free public education is unavailable in the nearby community. 6 Instructional costs only including academics, audiovisual, academic computer center, faculty training, military training, physical education, and libraries. 7 Includes alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health training programs.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1998.

No. 257. School Expenditures, by Source of Funds in Constant (1996-97) Dollars: 1980 to 1996
[For school years ending in year shown. (345.0 represents $345,000,000,000). Includes nursery, kindergarten, and special programs when provided by school system. Data are deflated by the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers, on a school year basis (supplied by the U.S. National Center for Education Statistics). Distribution by source of funds is estimated] Source of funds and control of school Total . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal. State . . Local . . All other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expenditures (bil. dol.) 1980 345.0 39.4 134.0 90.2 81.5 286.3 30.8 133.1 89.8 32.5 58.8 8.5 1.3 49.0 215.0 19.6 93.1 86.7 15.6 200.0 19.6 93.1 86.7 0.6 15.0 130.2 19.8 40.8 3.5 65.8 86.3 11.3 40.0 3.1 31.9 43.8 8.5 1.3 34.0 1985 378.8 32.6 147.0 96.8 102.3 306.9 24.2 146.0 96.5 40.2 71.9 8.4 1.4 62.1 228.5 13.9 102.2 93.0 19.6 209.5 13.9 102.2 93.0 0.6 19.0 150.3 18.7 45.0 3.8 82.7 97.4 10.2 43.9 3.5 39.6 52.9 8.4 1.4 43.1 1990 486.0 40.2 181.1 124.8 139.9 393.8 29.2 179.3 124.3 61.0 92.2 11.0 2.3 78.9 294.2 16.6 128.2 119.7 29.7 271.0 16.6 128.2 119.7 6.6 23.2 191.8 23.7 52.9 5.0 110.2 122.8 12.7 51.2 4.5 54.4 69.0 11.0 2.3 55.7 1993 518.8 45.5 181.4 133.2 158.6 418.1 34.1 179.6 132.7 71.6 100.7 11.4 2.2 87.0 311.4 20.0 131.5 127.8 32.2 287.0 20.0 131.5 127.8 7.8 24.4 207.3 25.5 50.0 5.4 126.5 131.0 14.1 48.2 4.9 63.8 76.3 11.4 2.2 62.6 1994 527.9 46.5 181.6 138.3 161.5 425.7 35.3 180.0 137.7 72.7 102.3 11.3 2.2 88.7 318.0 20.7 132.5 132.5 32.4 293.5 20.7 132.5 132.5 7.8 24.6 209.9 25.9 49.1 5.9 129.1 132.3 14.6 47.5 5.3 64.9 77.6 11.3 2.2 64.2 1995 541.9 47.0 191.3 137.2 166.4 437.2 35.6 189.6 136.8 75.3 104.6 11.4 2.2 91.1 325.2 20.4 140.3 131.3 33.2 300.0 20.4 140.3 131.3 8.1 25.2 216.7 26.7 51.0 5.9 133.1 137.2 15.2 49.3 5.5 67.3 79.5 11.4 2.2 65.9 1996 554.4 47.1 197.4 139.1 170.7 446.4 35.8 195.8 138.5 76.2 108.0 11.3 2.2 94.5 333.1 20.4 146.0 132.8 33.9 307.4 20.4 146.0 132.8 8.2 25.8 221.2 26.7 51.4 6.3 136.8 139.0 15.4 49.8 5.8 68.0 82.3 11.3 2.2 68.8 Percent distribution 1980 100.0 11.4 38.8 26.1 23.6 100.0 10.8 46.5 31.4 11.4 100.0 14.5 2.1 83.3 100.0 9.1 43.3 40.3 7.3 100.0 9.8 46.6 43.3 0.3 100.0 100.0 15.2 31.4 2.7 50.6 100.0 13.0 46.4 3.6 37.0 100.0 19.5 2.9 77.6 1990 100.0 8.3 37.3 25.7 28.8 100.0 7.4 45.5 31.6 15.5 100.0 11.9 2.5 85.6 100.0 5.6 43.6 40.7 10.1 100.0 6.1 47.3 44.2 2.4 100.0 100.0 12.3 27.6 2.6 57.4 100.0 10.3 41.7 3.7 44.3 100.0 15.9 3.3 80.8 1996 100.0 8.5 35.6 25.1 30.8 100.0 8.0 43.9 31.0 17.1 100.0 10.5 2.0 87.5 100.0 6.1 43.8 39.9 10.2 100.0 6.6 47.5 43.2 2.7 100.0 100.0 12.1 23.2 2.8 61.9 100.0 11.1 35.8 4.1 48.9 100.0 13.7 2.7 83.6

Public. . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . State . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . All other . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . . State and local . All other . . . . .

Elementary and secondary Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All other . . . . . . . . . . . . Public . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . State . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . All other 1. . . . Private . . . . . . . Higher education . Federal . . . . . . . State . . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . All other . . . . . . Public . . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . State . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . All other . . . . . Private . . . . . . . Federal . . . . . State and local All other . . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Beginning in 1989-90, includes all fees for transportation, books, and food services.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

No. 258. School Enrollment, by Control and Level, With Projections: 1980 to 2008
[In thousands (58,305 represents 58,305,000). As of fall. Data are for regular day schools and exclude independent nursery schools and kindergartens, residential schools for exceptional children, subcollegiate departments of colleges, Federal schools for Indians, and federally operated schools on Federal installations. College data include degree-credit and nondegree-credit enrollment] Control of school and level Total . . . . . . . . . Public. . . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . . Kindergarten through 8 Public . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . Grades 9 through 12. . Public . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . College. . . . . . . . . . . Public . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 58,305 50,335 7,971 31,639 27,647 3,992 14,570 13,231 1,339 12,097 9,457 2,640 1985 57,226 48,901 8,325 31,229 27,034 4,195 13,750 12,388 1,362 12,247 9,479 2,768 1990 60,267 52,061 8,206 33,973 29,878 4,095 12,475 11,338 1,137 13,819 10,845 2,974 1995 64,803 55,933 8,869 36,772 32,341 4,431 13,769 12,500 1,269 14,262 11,092 3,169 1996, prel. 65,674 56,682 8,993 37,245 32,759 4,486 14,131 12,834 1,297 14,300 11,090 3,210 2000, proj. 68,334 59,065 9,269 38,543 33,903 4,640 14,902 13,537 1,366 14,889 11,626 3,263 2004, proj. 69,657 60,196 9,461 38,606 33,958 4,648 15,702 14,263 1,439 15,349 11,975 3,374 2005, proj. 69,942 60,436 9,506 38,376 33,756 4,620 16,050 14,579 1,471 15,516 12,101 3,415 2006, proj. 70,160 60,611 9,549 38,181 33,584 4,597 16,276 14,785 1,491 15,703 12,242 3,461 2007, proj. 70,305 60,721 9,584 38,073 33,489 4,584 16,352 14,854 1,498 15,880 12,378 3,502 2008, proj. 70,351 60,735 9,616 38,034 33,455 4,579 16,234 14,746 1,488 16,083 12,534 3,549

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual; Projections of Education Statistics, annual; and unpublished data.

166

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 259. School Enrollment, by Age: 1970 to 1997
[As of October (60,357 represents 60,357,000). Covers civilian noninstitutional population enrolled in nursery school and above. Based on Current Population Survey, see text, Section 1, Population] Age ENROLLMENT (1,000) Total 3 to 34 years old . . . . . . . 3 and 4 years old . . 5 and 6 years old . . 7 to 13 years old . . 14 and 15 years old 16 and 17 years old 18 and 19 years old 20 and 21 years old 22 to 24 years old . 25 to 29 years old . 30 to 34 years old . 35 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60,357 1,461 7,000 28,943 7,869 6,927 3,322 1,949 1,410 1,011 466 (NA) 57,348 2,280 5,853 23,751 7,282 7,129 3,788 2,515 1,931 1,714 1,105 1,290 58,013 2,801 6,697 22,849 7,362 6,654 3,716 2,708 2,068 1,942 1,218 1,766 60,588 3,292 7,207 25,016 6,555 6,098 4,044 2,852 2,231 2,013 1,281 2,439 62,084 3,063 7,252 25,768 6,861 6,272 4,012 3,027 2,577 1,907 1,344 2,473 62,730 3,275 7,298 26,110 7,011 6,339 4,063 2,810 2,579 1,942 1,303 2,634 66,427 3,917 7,752 26,768 7,519 6,895 4,180 3,133 2,724 2,070 1,468 2,845 66,939 4,042 7,901 27,003 7,651 6,997 4,274 3,025 2,545 2,216 1,284 2,830 67,317 3,959 7,893 26,936 7,598 7,220 4,539 3,017 2,605 2,265 1,286 2,979 69,041 4,194 7,964 27,616 7,744 7,538 4,618 3,231 2,754 2,223 1,159 2,989 1970 1980 1985 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

....

ENROLLMENT RATE Total 3 to 34 years old . . . . . . . 3 and 4 years old . . 5 and 6 years old . . 7 to 13 years old . . 14 and 15 years old 16 and 17 years old 18 and 19 years old 20 and 21 years old 22 to 24 years old . 25 to 29 years old . 30 to 34 years old . 35 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.4 20.5 89.5 99.2 98.1 90.0 47.7 31.9 14.9 7.5 4.2 (NA) 49.7 36.7 95.7 99.3 98.2 89.0 46.4 31.0 16.3 9.3 6.4 1.4 48.3 38.9 96.1 99.2 98.1 91.7 51.6 35.3 16.9 9.2 6.1 1.6 50.2 44.4 96.5 99.6 99.0 92.5 57.3 39.7 21.0 9.7 5.8 2.1 51.4 39.7 95.5 99.4 99.1 94.1 61.4 44.0 23.7 9.8 6.1 2.1 51.8 40.4 95.4 99.5 98.9 94.0 61.6 42.7 23.6 10.2 5.9 2.2 53.3 47.3 96.7 99.3 98.8 94.4 60.2 44.9 24.1 10.8 6.7 2.3 53.7 48.7 96.0 98.9 98.9 93.6 59.4 44.9 23.2 11.6 6.0 2.2 54.1 48.3 94.0 97.7 98.0 92.8 61.5 44.4 24.8 11.9 6.1 2.3 55.6 52.6 96.6 99.1 98.9 94.3 61.5 45.9 26.4 11.8 5.7 2.3

....

NA Not available. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516; and earlier reports.

No. 260. School Enrollment, by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Age: 1980 to 1997
[See headnote, Table 259. (47,673 represents 47,673,000)] Age ENROLLMENT (1,000) Total 3 to 34 years old . . 3 and 4 years old . . . . . 5 and 6 years old . . . . . 7 to 13 years old . . . . . 14 and 15 years old . . . 16 and 17 years old . . . 18 and 19 years old . . . 20 and 21 years old . . . 22 to 24 years old. . . . . 25 to 29 years old. . . . . 30 to 34 years old. . . . . 35 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47,673 1,844 4,781 19,585 6,038 5,937 3,199 2,206 1,669 1,473 942 1,104 48,899 2,700 5,750 20,076 5,265 4,858 3,271 2,402 1,781 1,706 1,090 2,096 54,142 3,191 6,266 21,601 6,099 5,894 3,688 2,651 2,143 1,717 892 2,444 8,251 371 904 3,598 1,088 1,047 494 242 196 187 124 186 8,854 452 1,129 3,832 1,023 962 596 305 274 162 119 238 10,876 780 1,269 4,538 1,220 1,220 659 347 393 278 171 394 4,263 172 491 2,009 568 454 226 111 93 84 54 (NA) 6,073 249 835 2,794 739 592 329 213 121 130 72 145 9,032 530 1,360 3,791 1,018 960 537 285 252 201 98 188 White 1980 1990 1997 1980 Black 1990 1997 Hispanic origin 1980 1990
1

1997

ENROLLMENT RATE Total 3 to 34 years old . . 3 and 4 years old . . 5 and 6 years old . . 7 to 13 years old . . 14 and 15 years old 16 and 17 years old 18 and 19 years old 20 and 21 years old 22 to 24 years old. . 25 to 29 years old. . 30 to 34 years old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

48.9 36.3 95.8 99.2 98.3 88.6 46.3 31.9 16.4 9.2 6.3 1.3

49.5 44.9 96.5 99.6 99.1 92.5 57.1 41.0 20.2 9.9 5.9 2.1

54.8 50.9 96.8 99.1 98.8 94.5 61.5 46.4 25.8 11.3 5.4 2.2

53.9 38.2 95.4 99.4 97.9 90.6 45.7 23.4 13.6 8.8 6.8 1.8

51.9 41.6 96.3 99.8 99.2 91.7 55.2 28.4 20.0 6.1 4.4 2.1

58.4 60.0 95.8 99.3 99.2 93.4 58.2 35.9 25.4 10.7 6.5 2.8

49.8 28.5 94.5 99.2 94.3 81.8 37.8 19.5 11.7 6.9 5.1 (NA)

47.4 29.8 94.8 99.4 99.0 85.4 44.1 27.2 9.9 6.3 3.6 2.1

50.8 36.6 96.6 99.1 98.4 91.1 49.4 28.9 16.4 7.3 3.7 1.8

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

35 years old and over . . . . . NA Not available.

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516; and earlier reports.

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

167

No. 261. Enrollment in Public and Private Schools: 1960 to 1997
[In millions (39.0 represents 39,000,000), except percent. As of October. For civilian noninstitutional population. For 1960, 5 to 34 years old; for 1970 to 1985, 3 to 34 years old; beginning 1986, for 3 years old and over] Public Year Total 1960 . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . . . 1979 . . . . . . . . 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.0 52.2 52.8 50.0 (NA) 49.7 49.2 48.7 49.0 49.0 51.2 51.7 52.2 52.5 53.8 54.5 55.0 56.0 58.6 58.7 59.5 61.6 85.7 84.5 (NA) 79.8 78.0 77.6 Nur- KinderElesery garten mentary (NA) 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.3 (NA) 59.5 68.2 71.7 71.3 69.7 (1) 2.6 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.3 (1) 84.4 80.7 78.3 76.9 77.4 27.5 30.0 27.2 24.8 24.4 24.8 24.4 24.2 24.1 23.8 24.2 24.8 25.5 25.9 26.6 26.6 27.1 27.7 28.1 28.4 28.1 29.3 84.3 83.1 80.9 78.9 77.5 77.4 High School College 9.2 13.5 14.5 14.0 (NA) 13.5 13.0 12.8 12.7 12.8 13.0 12.7 12.2 12.1 11.9 12.2 12.3 12.6 13.5 13.7 14.1 14.6 88.2 85.6 (NA) 79.2 76.9 77.1 2.3 5.7 7.7 7.7 (NA) 8.2 8.4 8.2 8.5 8.4 9.8 10.0 10.3 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.1 10.9 11.7 11.4 12.0 12.1 92.2 90.7 (NA) 84.1 81.9 80.3 Total 7.2 8.1 8.2 8.2 (NA) 8.7 8.2 9.0 8.3 9.0 9.4 8.9 8.9 8.9 9.2 9.4 9.4 9.4 10.7 11.1 10.8 10.5 95.7 93.4 (NA) 87.4 85.0 84.0 Private Nur- KinderElesery garten mentary (NA) 0.8 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.2 (NA) 91.1 89.0 89.6 88.7 85.4 (1) 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 (1) 88.2 87.0 83.2 84.1 82.4 4.9 3.9 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7 3.0 3.1 2.9 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.1 95.3 94.1 90.7 88.2 86.1 85.3 High School 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.1 (NA) 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 96.7 96.1 (NA) 89.4 86.0 86.5 College 1.3 1.7 2.0 2.3 (NA) 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.3 96.3 92.8 (NA) 85.0 81.1 81.6

1985 . . . . . 1986 2 . . . . 1987 2 . . . . 1988 2 . . . . 1989 2 . . . . 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

....... ....... .......

Percent White: 1960. . . . . . . 1970. . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . 1995. . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 Included in elementary school. 2 See Table 311 for college enrollment 35 years old and over. Also data beginning 1986 based on a revised edit and tabulation package. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516; and earlier reports.

No. 262. School Enrollment, by Sex and Level: 1960 to 1997
[In millions (46.3 represents 46,300,000). As of Oct. For the civilian noninstitutional population. For 1960, persons 5 to 34 years old; 1970-1979, 3 to 34 years old; beginning 1980, 3 years old and over. Elementary includes kindergarten and grades 1-8; high school, grades 9-12; and college, 2-year and 4-year colleges, universities, and graduate and professional schools. Data for college represent degree-credit enrollment] Year 1960 1970 1975 1978 1979 1980 1981 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 . . . . .
2 3

All levels Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46.3 60.4 61.0 58.6 57.9 58.6 58.4 59.9 59.4 59.3 58.9 59.8 60.1 60.5 60.6 61.1 61.5 63.0 63.9 64.6 65.4 69.3 69.8 70.3 72.0

1

Elementary Total 32.4 37.1 33.8 31.5 30.9 30.6 30.1 31.0 30.7 30.6 30.3 30.7 31.1 31.1 31.6 32.2 32.5 33.2 33.8 34.3 34.8 35.4 35.7 35.5 36.3 Male Female 16.7 19.0 17.3 16.1 15.9 15.8 15.5 15.9 15.8 15.7 15.6 15.7 16.1 16.1 16.3 16.6 16.7 17.1 17.3 17.7 17.9 18.2 18.3 18.3 18.7 15.7 18.1 16.5 15.3 15.0 14.9 14.7 15.0 14.9 14.8 14.7 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.3 15.6 15.8 16.0 16.4 16.6 16.9 17.2 17.4 17.3 17.6

High school Total 10.2 14.7 15.7 15.5 15.1 14.6 14.4 14.7 14.2 14.1 13.9 14.1 14.0 14.2 13.8 13.2 12.9 12.8 13.1 13.3 13.6 14.6 15.0 15.3 15.8 Male Female 5.2 7.4 8.0 7.8 7.7 7.3 7.3 7.5 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.2 7.0 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.8 6.8 7.0 7.4 7.7 7.9 8.0 5.1 7.3 7.7 7.6 7.4 7.3 7.1 7.3 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 6.8 6.4 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.6 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.7 Total 3.6 7.4 9.7 9.8 10.0 11.4 11.8 12.1 12.3 12.4 12.3 12.5 12.4 12.7 12.7 13.1 13.2 13.6 14.1 14.0 13.9 15.0 14.7 15.2 15.4

College Male 2.3 4.4 5.3 5.1 5.0 5.4 5.6 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.8 6.0 6.0 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.2 6.3 6.8 6.7 6.8 6.8
3

Male Female 24.2 31.4 31.6 30.1 29.5 29.6 29.5 30.3 30.0 30.1 29.9 30.0 30.4 30.6 30.7 30.7 30.8 31.5 32.1 32.2 32.9 34.6 35.0 35.1 35.9 22.0 28.9 29.4 28.6 28.3 29.1 28.9 29.6 29.4 29.2 29.0 29.7 29.7 30.0 29.9 30.5 30.7 31.5 31.8 32.3 32.5 34.6 34.8 35.2 36.2

Female 1.2 3.0 4.4 4.7 5.0 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.7 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 7.6 8.2 8.0 8.4 8.6

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. . . .. .. ..

4

... ... .. ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1995 . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . .

1 Beginning 1970, includes nursery schools, not shown separately. 2 Based on 1970 population controls. population controls. 4 Revised. Data beginning 1986, based on a revised edit and tabulation package.

Based on 1980

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516; and earlier reports.

168

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 263. Educational Attainment, by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1960 to 1998
[In percent. For persons 25 years old and over. 1960, 1970, and 1980 as of April 1 and based on sample data from the censuses of population. Other years as of March and based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. See Table 264 for data by sex] Asian and Pacific Islander Hispanic Total
3 2

Year Total COMPLETED 4 YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL OR MORE 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.1 49.0 52.3 62.5 66.5 73.9 77.6 81.7 81.7 82.1 82.8 43.2 51.3 54.5 64.5 68.8 75.5 79.1 83.0 82.8 83.0 83.7 20.1 27.2 31.4 42.5 51.2 59.8 66.2 73.8 74.3 74.9 76.0
1

White

Black

Mexican

Puerto Rican

Cuban

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 80.4 (NA) 83.2 84.9 (NA)

(NA) (NA) 32.1 37.9 44.0 47.9 50.8 53.4 53.1 54.7 55.5

(NA) (NA) 24.2 31.0 37.6 41.9 44.1 46.5 46.9 48.6 48.3

(NA) (NA) 23.4 28.7 40.1 46.3 55.5 61.3 60.4 61.1 63.8

(NA) (NA) 43.9 51.7 55.3 51.1 63.5 64.7 63.8 65.2 67.8

1985 . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . 1995 4 . . . . . 1996 4 . . . . . 1997 4 . . . . . 1998 4 . . . . .

COMPLETED 4 YEARS OF COLLEGE OR MORE 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7 9.4 10.7 13.9 16.2 19.4 21.3 23.0 23.6 23.9 24.4 8.1 9.9 11.3 14.5 17.1 20.0 22.0 24.0 24.3 24.6 25.0 3.1 4.7 4.4 6.4 8.4 11.1 11.3 13.2 13.6 13.3 14.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 39.9 (NA) 41.7 42.2 (NA) (NA) (NA) 4.5 (NA) 7.6 8.5 9.2 9.3 9.3 10.3 11.0 (NA) (NA) 2.5 (NA) 4.9 5.5 5.4 6.5 6.5 7.5 7.5 (NA) (NA) 2.2 (NA) 5.6 7.0 9.7 10.7 11.0 10.7 11.9 (NA) (NA) 11.1 (NA) 16.2 13.7 20.2 19.4 18.8 19.7 22.2

1985 . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . 1995 4 . . . . . 1996 4 . . . . . 1997 4 . . . . . 1998 4 . . . . .

1 2 NA Not available. Includes other races, not shown separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 3 Includes persons of other Hispanic origin, not shown separately. 4 Beginning 1995, persons who are high school graduates and those with a BA degree or higher. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census of Population, U.S. Summary, PC80-1-C1, and Current Population Reports P20-455, P20-459, P20-462, P20-465RV, P20-475, P20-476, P20-489, P20-493, P20-505, P20-513; and unpublished data.

No. 264. Educational Attainment, by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex: 1960 to 1998
[In percent. See Table 263 for headnote and totals for both sexes] All races
1

Year COMPLETED 4 YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL OR MORE 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

White Male Female

Black Male Female

Asian and Pacific Islander Male Female

Hispanic Male

2

Male Female

Female

39.5 48.0 51.9 63.1 67.3 74.4 77.7 81.7 81.9 82.0 82.8

42.5 49.9 52.8 62.1 65.8 73.5 77.5 81.6 81.6 82.2 82.9

41.6 50.2 54.0 65.0 69.6 76.0 79.1 83.0 82.7 82.9 83.6

44.7 52.2 55.0 64.1 68.1 75.1 79.0 83.0 82.8 83.2 83.8

18.2 25.8 30.1 41.6 50.8 58.4 65.8 73.4 74.3 73.5 75.2

21.8 28.4 32.5 43.3 51.5 60.8 66.5 74.1 74.2 76.0 76.7

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 84.0 (NA) 86.0 (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 77.2 (NA) 80.7 (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) 37.9 39.5 67.3 48.5 50.3 52.9 53.0 54.9 55.7

(NA) (NA) 34.2 36.7 65.8 47.4 51.3 53.8 53.3 54.6 55.3

1985 . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . 1995 3 . . . . . 1996 3 . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . .

COMPLETED 4 YEARS OF COLLEGE OR MORE 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7 12.0 13.5 17.6 20.1 23.1 24.4 26.0 26.0 26.2 26.5 5.8 7.1 8.1 10.6 12.8 16.0 18.4 20.2 21.4 21.7 22.4 10.3 12.7 14.4 18.4 21.3 24.0 25.3 27.2 26.9 27.0 27.3 6.0 7.3 8.4 11.0 13.3 16.3 19.0 21.0 21.8 22.3 22.8 2.8 4.9 4.2 6.7 8.4 11.2 11.9 13.6 12.4 12.5 13.9 3.3 4.5 4.6 6.2 8.3 11.0 10.8 12.9 14.6 13.9 15.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 44.9 (NA) 46.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 35.4 (NA) 37.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 7.8 8.3 9.4 9.7 9.8 10.1 10.3 10.6 11.1 (NA) (NA) 4.3 4.6 6.0 7.3 8.7 8.4 8.3 10.1 10.9

1985 . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . 1995 3 . . . . . 1996 3 . . . . . 1997 3 . . . . . 1998 3 . . . . .
3

1 2 NA Not available. Includes other races, not shown separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Beginning 1995, persons who are high school graduates and those with a BA degree or higher. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census of Population, 1960, 1970, and 1980, Vol.1; and Current Population Reports P20-459, P20-489, P20-493, P20-505, P20-513; and unpublished data.

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169

No. 265. Educational Attainment, by Selected Characteristic: 1998
[For persons 25 years old and over (172,211 represents 172,211,000). As of March. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover] Percent of population—highest level Characteristic Population (1,000) Total persons . . . . . Age: 25 to 34 years old . . 35 to 44 years old . . 45 to 54 years old . . 55 to 64 years old . . 65 to 74 years old . . 75 years old or over Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172,211 39,354 44,462 34,058 22,255 17,873 14,209 82,376 89,835 145,078 19,376 7,756 16,044 156,167 33,900 39,600 60,909 37,802 25,752 107,008 6,844 4,605 13,577 19,030 111,131 4,597 55,822 Not a high school graduate 17.2 11.9 12.0 13.0 20.5 28.9 38.0 17.2 17.1 16.3 24.0 16.5 44.5 14.4 16.2 14.2 19.9 16.7 16.0 14.5 27.0 25.8 37.9 15.6 10.5 23.0 30.2 High school graduate 33.8 31.9 34.0 32.1 37.3 36.4 33.2 32.3 35.2 33.9 36.0 25.5 26.8 34.5 36.3 37.3 33.9 27.7 30.2 34.0 34.6 36.2 34.4 36.8 32.6 38.8 35.9 Some college, but no degree 17.2 19.8 18.3 17.8 15.0 13.8 13.0 17.1 17.3 17.2 19.1 13.5 12.6 17.7 13.4 17.4 16.8 21.0 18.6 16.9 17.3 18.3 13.0 20.0 18.4 17.6 14.7 Associate’s Bachelor’s degree degree 1 7.5 8.7 9.3 8.5 5.2 4.3 3.2 6.9 8.0 7.7 6.2 7.1 5.1 7.7 7.2 8.0 6.8 8.4 7.1 7.8 6.8 7.3 4.1 8.8 8.9 6.9 4.7 16.4 21.3 18.3 17.5 13.0 10.0 8.1 17.1 15.8 16.8 10.3 24.7 7.8 17.3 17.3 15.7 15.3 18.2 19.9 17.9 9.8 8.8 7.2 12.3 19.9 9.9 10.0

Advanced degree 7.9 6.2 8.0 11.3 9.2 6.6 4.4 9.4 6.6 8.1 4.4 12.8 3.2 8.4 9.6 7.4 7.3 8.1 8.3 8.9 4.4 3.6 3.5 6.4 9.8 3.7 4.5

........... ........... ........... ........... ...........

Hispanic origin: Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Region: Northeast . . . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . West. . . . . . . . . . . . . Marital status: Never married . . . . . . Married spouse present Married spouse absent Separated . . . . . . . Widowed . . . . . . . . . . Divorced . . . . . . . . . . Civilian labor force status: Employed . . . . . . . . . Unemployed . . . . . . . Not in the labor force . .
1

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

......... ......... .........

Includes vocational degrees. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-513; and unpublished data.

No. 266. Earnings, by Highest Degree Earned: 1998
[For persons 18 years old and over with earnings. Persons as of March. Earnings for prior year. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. For definition of mean, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] Level of highest degree Characteristic Total persons MEAN EARNINGS (dol.) All persons 1 . . . . . Age: 18 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 34 years old . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic 2 . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . Not a high school graduate High school graduate only Some college, no degree

Associate’s

Bachelor’s

Master’s

Professional Doctorate

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29,514 11,264 26,462 34,081 37,242 35,924 21,588 36,556 21,528 30,515 37,933 21,799 21,909 25,080 19,161 20,766 23,520 16,781

16,124 7,737 16,262 18,532 20,800 21,096 13,482 19,575 10,725 16,596 20,071 10,700 13,185 15,423 10,607 15,069 17,447 10,503

22,895 12,001 21,637 26,235 26,925 26,202 13,734 28,307 16,906 23,618 29,298 17,166 18,980 22,440 15,789 19,558 22,253 15,747

24,804 9,813 23,489 30,353 35,090 26,392 21,880 31,268 18,104 25,442 32,294 18,083 22,105 26,743 18,346 20,825 24,807 16,258

29,872 15,931 25,978 32,429 34,606 32,063 33,313 36,392 24,009 30,509 37,362 24,059 25,527 29,099 23,416 25,478 29,627 21,705

40,478 19,444 35,027 45,298 46,773 45,129 29,958 50,056 30,119 41,439 51,678 30,041 32,062 35,792 29,091 33,465 37,963 29,173
1

51,183 23,007 40,798 53,594 56,922 53,547 26,154 63,220 38,337 52,475 65,421 38,428 40,610 46,729 37,425 46,556 54,790 35,425

95,148 14,045 58,079 103,418 115,697 145,699 54,246 109,206 62,113 97,487 110,977 63,450 51,004 (B) (B) (B) (B) (B)

77,445 4,158 47,779 77,982 86,237 79,931 65,543 87,426 51,189 79,947 89,110 54,587 (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B)

B Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a derived figure. separately. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-513.

Includes other races, not shown

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No. 267. Educational Attainment, by State: 1990 and 1998
[In percent. As of March 1998 and April 1990. For persons 25 years old and over, except as indicated. Based on the 1990 Census of Population and the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] 1990 State Not a high school graduate 24.8 33.1 13.4 21.3 33.7 23.8 15.6 20.8 22.5 26.9 25.6 29.1 19.9 20.3 23.8 24.4 19.9 18.7 35.4 31.7 21.2 21.6 20.0 23.2 17.6 35.7 26.1 19.0 18.2 21.2 17.8 23.3 24.9 25.2 30.0 23.3 24.3 25.4 18.5 25.3 28.0 31.7 22.9 32.9 27.9 14.9 19.2 24.8 16.2 34.0 21.4 17.0 High school graduate or more 75.2 66.9 86.6 78.7 66.3 76.2 84.4 79.2 77.5 73.1 74.4 70.9 80.1 79.7 76.2 75.6 80.1 81.3 64.6 68.3 78.8 78.4 80.0 76.8 82.4 64.3 73.9 81.0 81.8 78.8 82.2 76.7 75.1 74.8 70.0 76.7 75.7 74.6 81.5 74.7 72.0 68.3 77.1 67.1 72.1 85.1 80.8 75.2 83.8 66.0 78.6 83.0 Bachelors degree or more Total 20.3 15.7 23.0 20.3 13.3 23.4 27.0 27.2 21.4 33.3 18.3 19.3 22.9 17.7 21.0 15.6 16.9 21.1 13.6 16.1 18.8 26.5 27.2 17.4 21.8 14.7 17.8 19.8 18.9 15.3 24.4 24.9 20.4 23.1 17.4 18.1 17.0 17.8 20.6 17.9 21.3 16.6 17.2 16.0 20.3 22.3 24.3 24.5 22.9 12.3 17.7 18.8 Bachelor’s Advanced degree degree 13.1 10.1 15.0 13.3 8.9 15.3 18.0 16.2 13.7 16.1 12.0 12.9 15.8 12.4 13.6 9.2 11.7 14.1 8.1 10.5 12.7 15.6 16.6 10.9 15.6 9.7 11.7 14.1 13.1 10.1 16.4 16.0 12.1 13.2 12.0 13.5 11.1 11.8 13.6 11.3 13.5 11.2 12.3 10.5 13.9 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.9 7.5 12.1 13.1 7.2 5.5 8.0 7.0 4.5 8.1 9.0 11.0 7.7 17.2 6.3 6.4 7.1 5.3 7.5 6.4 5.2 7.0 5.5 5.6 6.1 10.9 10.6 6.4 6.3 5.1 6.1 5.7 5.9 5.2 7.9 8.8 8.3 9.9 5.4 4.5 5.9 6.0 7.0 6.6 7.8 5.4 4.9 5.4 6.5 6.8 8.9 9.1 7.0 4.8 5.6 5.7 Dropouts 1 11.2 12.6 10.9 14.4 11.4 14.2 9.8 9.0 10.4 13.9 14.3 14.1 7.5 10.4 10.6 11.4 6.6 8.7 13.3 12.5 8.3 10.9 8.5 10.0 6.4 11.8 11.4 8.1 7.0 15.2 9.4 9.6 11.7 9.9 12.5 4.6 8.9 10.4 11.8 9.1 11.1 11.7 7.7 13.4 12.9 8.7 8.0 10.0 10.6 10.9 7.1 6.9 1998 High school graduate or more 82.8 78.8 90.6 81.9 76.8 80.1 89.6 83.7 85.2 83.8 81.9 80.0 84.6 82.7 84.2 83.5 87.7 89.2 77.9 78.6 86.7 84.7 85.6 85.4 89.4 77.3 82.9 89.1 87.7 89.1 84.0 86.5 79.6 81.5 81.4 84.3 86.2 84.6 85.5 84.1 80.7 78.6 86.3 76.9 78.3 89.3 86.7 82.6 92.0 76.4 88.0 90.0 College graduate or more 24.4 20.6 24.2 21.9 16.2 26.4 34.0 31.4 25.1 36.5 22.5 20.7 24.0 20.3 25.8 17.7 20.3 28.5 20.1 19.5 19.2 31.8 31.0 22.1 31.0 19.5 22.4 23.9 20.9 20.6 26.6 30.1 23.1 26.8 23.3 22.5 21.5 20.5 27.7 22.1 27.8 21.3 21.8 16.9 23.3 27.6 27.1 30.3 28.1 16.3 22.3 19.8

United States. . . . . . . . Alabama . Alaska . . Arizona. . Arkansas California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia Hawaii . Idaho . . Illinois . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Iowa . . . Kansas. . Kentucky Louisiana Maine. . .

Maryland . . . . Massachusetts. Michigan. . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi . . .

Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . Oregon. . . . . Pennsylvania . Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

South Carolina. South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia. . . . . Washington . . West Virginia . Wisconsin . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . .

1 For persons 16 to 19 years old. A dropout is a person who is not in regular school and who has not completed the 12th grade or received a general equivalency degree.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census of Population, CPH-L-96, and Current Population Reports, P20-513.

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No. 268. Nonfatal Crimes Against Students: 1995 and 1996
[For students aged 12 through 18 (3,667.0 represents 3,667,000). For crimes occurring at school or going to or from school. Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey; see Appendix III] 1995 Student characteristic Total Total (1,000). . . . . . . . . . . . RATE PER 1,000 STUDENTS Total 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age: 12 to 14 years old . . . . . . . . . . 15 to 18 years old . . . . . . . . . . Race/ethnicity: White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic. Hispanic . . . . . . . . Other, non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 159 125 188 105 154 127 118 108 136 159 117 91 113 139 164 146 157 180 86 93 78 105 70 95 66 69 80 79 97 73 30 60 82 94 92 104 121 57 66 47 83 35 59 61 49 28 58 62 44 61 53 57 70 55 54 60 11 14 7 15 7 8 21 13 3 11 18 9 6 25 16 10 15 8 10 3 5 128 144 111 161 102 137 114 112 116 131 138 101 86 95 132 138 141 147 144 79 80 79 94 68 85 76 58 76 77 84 72 55 54 69 80 86 99 106 49 64 32 67 34 51 38 54 40 55 54 29 31 41 63 57 55 48 38 10 13 6 10 9 7 13 17 3 11 16 9 3 4
3 8 11 17 11 11 9 3 5

1996 Violent Violent
1

Theft 2,213.9

Total Serious 1,453.2

Total 3,347.7

Theft 2,075.6

Total 1,272.1

Serious

1

3,667.0

273.5

255.0

Urbanicity: 4 Urban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suburban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Household income: Less than $7,500 . . $7,500 to $14,999 . . $15,000 to $24,999 . $25,000 to $34,999 . $35,000 to $49,999 . $50,000 to $74,999 . $75,000 and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault. 2 Includes unknown household income. 3 Estimate based on fewer than 10 cases. 4 Urban—the largest city (or groupings of cities) of an MSA; suburban—those portions of metro areas outside central cities; rural—a place outside MSAs.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics and U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1998.

No. 269. Public Schools Reporting Criminal Incidents to the Police: 1996-97
[In percent. For crimes that took place in school buildings, on school buses or grounds, and places holding school-sponsored events. Based on the National Center for Education Statistics’ Fast Response Survey System; see source for details] Any incidents School characteristic Total Instructional level: Elementary school . . . . . . . . . . Middle school . . . . . . . . . . . . . High school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . School enrollment: Less than 300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 to 999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minority enrollment: Less than 5 percent . 5 to 19 percent . . . . 20 to 49 percent . . . 50 percent or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.1 74.1 76.9 37.8 59.6 89.1 46.7 57.7 58.1 68.3 54.4 53.2 59.4 58.8 59.2 City
2

Serious violent incidents
2

1

Urban fringe 2 Town 47.0 78.8 84.0 (B) 59.2 86.7 47.2 62.9 58.5 62.3 57.3 65.5 53.3 54.7 (B)

Rural

2

Total 4.2 18.7 20.6 3.9 9.3 32.9 5.8 10.9 11.1 14.7 8.6 11.7 11.6 8.9 10.2

City

2

Urban fringe 2 Town 3.3 21.7 33.0 (B) 9.0 29.8 5.9 11.3 10.1 17.8 9.9 13.3 8.6 10.3 (B)

2

Rural

2

46.9 86.7 88.8 (B) 54.2 93.1 (B) 52.0 54.7 64.8 50.6 56.0 76.1 60.8 58.5

52.6 70.0 84.2 44.9 67.3 86.5 53.9 64.0 66.7 81.5 64.2 57.2 63.1 66.6 (B)

34.2 62.0 64.1 38.0 56.8 (B) 40.8 45.0 53.3 74.9 41.2 39.5 52.5 52.0 (B)

6.1 35.8 48.0 (B) 12.5 44.2 (B) 14.5 19.1 17.6 12.2 18.4 34.2 22.9 8.4

2.0 7.0 12.7 8.8 3.2 15.9 3.3 10.6 5.0 4.4 7.1 7.1 3.0 2.0 (B)

5.1 15.0 9.4 2.5 13.9 (B) 7.3 6.8 8.0 11.6 5.6 11.6 8.6 2.3 (B)

Free/reduced price lunch eligibility: Less than 20 percent . . . . . . . . 21 to 34 percent . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 49 percent . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 74 percent . . . . . . . . . . . 75 percent or more . . . . . . . . .

B Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a derived figure. 1 Includes murder, rape or other sexual battery, suicide, physical attack or fight with a weapon, or robbery. 2 City—central city of an MSA; urban fringe—a place within an MSA but not its central city; town—a place outside an MSA, with a population greater than or equal to 2,500, and defined as urban by the U.S. Census Bureau; rural—a place with a population under 2,500 and defined as urban by the U.S. Census Bureau. Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics and U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1998.

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No. 270. Children Whose Parents Are Involved in School Activities: 1996
[In percent, except as indicated (22,920 represents 22,920,000). Based on the National Household Education Survey; see source for details] Students in grades K to 5 Parental involvement Twoparent Total families 22,920 83.5 38.2 4.4 40.9 86.6 51.6 5.4 29.6 72.0 33.2 4.2 34.6 49.6 37.4 3.1 9.1 16,363 87.0 26.5 3.2 57.2 88.1 42.1 4.5 41.5 74.6 23.0 3.1 48.4 54.9 38.9 3.2 12.8 One-parent families Total Mother 6,557 74.8 67.5 7.3 (X) 83.0 75.4 7.6 (X) 65.6 58.7 6.9 (X) 36.4 33.6 2.9 (X) 5,886 75.2 75.2 (X) (X) 84.0 84.0 (X) (X) 65.4 65.4 (X) (X) 37.4 37.4 (X) (X) Father 671 71.7 (X) 71.7 (X) 74.3 (X) 74.3 (X) 66.9 (X) 66.9 (X) 28.1 (X) 28.1 (X) Students in grades 6 to 8 Twoparent Total families 11,098 78.4 37.0 6.2 35.1 69.8 42.3 6.3 21.2 66.4 25.5 4.7 36.1 30.8 21.7 2.6 6.5 7,800 81.9 27.1 4.9 49.9 70.5 34.9 5.4 30.1 69.5 15.1 3.0 51.4 34.7 22.8 2.6 9.2 One-parent families Total Mother 3,298 70.0 60.5 9.5 (X) 68.1 59.7 8.4 (X) 58.9 50.2 8.7 (X) 21.5 19.0 2.5 (X) 2,867 69.6 69.6 (X) (X) 68.7 68.7 (X) (X) 57.7 57.7 (X) (X) 21.9 21.9 (X) (X) Father 431 72.6 (X) 72.6 (X) 64.2 (X) 64.2 (X) 66.3 (X) 66.3 (X) 18.7 (X) 18.7 (X)

Total students (1,000) . . . . . Any adult attending a meeting . Only mother attended . . . . . Only father attended. . . . . . Both attended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Any adult attending a conference . Only mother attended . . . . . . . Only father attended. . . . . . . . Both attended . . . . . . . . . . . . Any adult attending a class event. Only mother attended . . . . . . . Only father attended. . . . . . . . Both attended . . . . . . . . . . . . Any adult acted as a volunteer Only mother attended . . . . . Only father attended. . . . . . Both attended . . . . . . . . . . Number of activities at least one parent participated in: None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of activities mother participated in: 1 None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of activities father participated in: 2 None . . . . . . . . . . . . . One. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three . . . . . . . . . . . . Four . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of activities both parents participated in: None . . . . . . . . . . . . One. . . . . . . . . . . . . Two. . . . . . . . . . . . . Three . . . . . . . . . . . Four . . . . . . . . . . . . X Not applicable.
1

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

3.6 7.3 19.7 32.6 36.8

2.4 6.1 17.9 31.8 41.8

6.6 10.2 24.4 34.5 24.4

6.1 10.3 24.2 34.6 24.9

11.1 9.9 25.9 33.2 20.0

8.0 12.6 26.4 31.9 21.0

5.5 12.1 26.4 32.4 23.7

14.0 13.9 26.6 30.8 14.8

14.4 13.2 27.9 28.9 15.6

10.9 18.5 17.9 43.5 9.3

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

4.4 8.4 20.9 32.5 33.8

3.9 7.7 19.7 31.7 37.0

6.1 10.3 24.2 34.6 24.9

6.1 10.3 24.2 34.6 24.9

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

10.0 13.7 27.0 30.2 19.1

8.4 13.9 26.6 30.7 20.3

14.4 13.2 27.9 28.9 15.6

14.4 13.2 27.9 28.9 15.6

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

21.9 20.4 26.7 21.3 9.7

22.3 20.8 26.8 20.8 9.3

11.1 9.9 25.9 33.2 20.0

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

11.1 9.9 25.9 33.2 20.0

24.1 24.4 25.3 19.8 6.4

24.9 24.7 25.7 18.5 6.2

10.9 18.5 17.9 43.5 9.3

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

10.9 18.5 17.9 43.5 9.3

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

25.3 22.3 26.4 19.2 6.8

25.3 22.3 26.4 19.2 6.8

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)
2

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

29.0 25.9 24.7 16.3 4.2

29.0 25.9 24.7 16.3 4.2

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

Regardless if father participated.

Regardless if mother participated.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Fathers’ Involvement in Their Children’s School, October 1997.

No. 271. Public Elementary Schools Holding Activities and Parental Attendance: 1996
[In percent. For grades K to 8 during school year ending in year shown. Based on survey and subject to sampling error; see source for details] Schools holding activity . . . . . 97 96 92 85 84 Estimate of typical parental attendance Most or all 49 36 57 12 19 More than half 31 30 21 21 24
2 1

Type of activity Open house or back-to-school night . . . . . . . . . Arts event 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regularly scheduled school wide parent-teacher conferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sports event 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Science fairs or other academic demonstrations or events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

About half 13 16 11 20 20

Less than half 6 13 9 30 23

Few 1 5 3 17 14

Estimated by person most knowledgeable about parental involvement programs. performance. 3 Or other athletic demonstration.

Such as a play, dance, or musical

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, NCES 98-032, Parent Involvement in Children’s Education: Efforts by Public Elementary Schools, January 1998.

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

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No. 272. Children With Difficulty Speaking English: 1979 to 1995
[In percent, except total. For children 5 to 17 years old (1,250 represents 1,250,000). For children reported to speak English less than ‘‘very well.’’ Based on the Current Population Survey; see text Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Characteristic Total with difficulty speaking English (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of children 5 to 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin: White, non-Hispanic. . . Black, non-Hispanic . . . Hispanic 2 . . . . . . . . . Other, non-Hispanic 3. . Region 4: Northeast Midwest . South . . . West. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979 1,250 2.8 0.5 0.3 28.7 19.8 2.9 1.1 2.2 6.5 32.7 17.3 25.6 38.2 44.9 1989 1,850 4.4 0.8 0.5 27.4 20.4 4.8 1.3 3.8 8.8 34.9 22.6 22.5 38.5 38.1 1992 2,178 4.9 0.6 1.3 29.9 21.0 5.3 1.6 3.5 10.4 34.2 17.2 31.0 39.0 36.1 1995
1

2,431 5.1 0.7 0.9 31.0 14.1 5.0 2.3 3.4 11.4 36.5 19.0 31.8 41.9 31.1

Percent speaking another language at White, non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . Black, non-Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other, non-Hispanic 3. . . . . . . . . .
2

home . ..... ..... ..... .....

1 Reflects revised interviewing techniques and/or change in population controls to the 1990 Census-based estimates. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 3 Includes mostly Asian/Pacific Islanders, but also American Indian/Alaska Native children. 4 For composition of regions, see map, inside front cover.

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, America’s Children: National Indicators of Well-Being, 1998.

No. 273. Preprimary School Enrollment—Summary: 1970 to 1997
[As of October. Civilian noninstitutional population (10,949 represents 10,949,000). Includes public and nonpublic nursery school and kindergarten programs. Excludes 5 year olds enrolled in elementary school. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population and Appendix III] Item NUMBER OF CHILDREN (1,000) Population, 3 to 5 years old . . . . . . . Total enrolled Nursery . . . . . . Public . . . . . . Private . . . . . Kindergarten . . . Public . . . . . . Private . . . . . White . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . Hispanic 2 . . . . . 3 years old . . . . 4 years old . . . . 5 years old . . . .
1

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1994

1995

1996

1997

10,949 4,104 1,094 332 762 3,010 2,498 511 3,443 586 (NA) 454 1,007 2,643

10,183 4,954 1,745 570 1,174 3,211 2,682 528 4,105 731 (NA) 683 1,418 2,852

9,284 4,878 1,981 628 1,353 2,897 2,438 459 3,994 725 370 857 1,423 2,598

10,733 5,865 2,477 846 1,631 3,388 2,847 541 4,757 919 496 1,035 1,765 3,065

11,207 6,659 3,378 1,202 2,177 3,281 2,767 513 5,389 964 642 1,205 2,086 3,367

12,328 7,514 4,162 1,848 2,314 3,352 2,819 534 5,889 1,289 851 1,385 2,532 3,597

12,518 7,739 4,331 1,950 2,381 3,408 2,799 608 6,144 1,236 1,040 1,489 2,553 3,697

12,378 7,580 4,147 1,830 2,317 3,433 2,853 580 5,902 1,245 1,068 1,506 2,454 3,621

12,121 7,861 4,438 2,207 2,231 3,422 2,847 575 6,086 1,356 1,142 1,529 2,665 3,667

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

ENROLLMENT RATE Total enrolled White . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . Hispanic 2 . . . . . 3 years old . . . . 4 years old . . . . 5 years old . . . .
1

. . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

37.5 37.8 34.9 (NA) 12.9 27.8 69.3

48.6 48.6 48.1 (NA) 21.5 40.5 81.3

52.5 52.7 51.8 43.3 27.3 46.3 84.7

54.6 54.7 55.8 43.3 28.8 49.1 86.5

59.4 59.7 57.8 49.0 32.6 56.0 88.8

61.0 60.9 64.2 47.7 33.9 60.3 88.9

61.8 63.0 58.9 51.1 35.9 61.6 87.5

61.2 61.2 60.8 52.7 37.2 59.2 86.5

64.8 64.1 68.6 52.5 38.7 66.1 88.6

NA Not available. 1 Includes races not shown separately. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. The method of identifying Hispanic children was changed in 1980 from allocation based on status of mother to status reported for each child. The number of Hispanic children using the new method is larger. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516.

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 274. Public Elementary and Secondary Schools—Summary: 1980 to 1998
[For school year ending in year shown, except as indicated (48,041 represents 48,041,000). Data are estimates] Item Unit 1980 16,044 1985 15,812 1990 15,552 1995 14,947 1996 14,910 1997 14,891 1998 14,822

School districts, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . ENROLLMENT Population 5-17 years old 1 . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . Percent of resident population . . . . . Percent . . . Fall enrollment 2 . . . . . . . . . . Percent of population 5-17 years old . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary 3 . . . . . . . . . . Secondary 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . Percent . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . .

48,041 21.4 41,778 87.0 24,397 17,381 38,411 2,762

44,787 19.0 39,354 87.9 23,830 15,524 36,530 2,424

44,949 18.2 40,527 90.2 26,253 14,274 37,573 2,327

48,196 18.5 43,898 91.1 28,148 15,750 40,794 2,282

49,014 18.7 44,649 91.1 28,581 16,068 41,477 2,283

49,807 18.8 45,344 91.0 28,925 16,419 42,143 2,336

50,491 18.9 45,924 91.0 29,241 16,682 42,764 2,377

Average daily attendance (ADA) . . . . . 1,000 . . . . High school graduates . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF Total 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . Classroom teachers. . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . Average salaries: Instructional staff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dollar . . . . Classroom teachers. . . . . . . . . . . . Dollar . . . . REVENUES Revenue receipts . Federal . . . . . . State . . . . . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. dol dol dol dol . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,521 2,211 16,715 15,970

2,473 2,175 24,666 23,600

2,685 2,362 32,638 31,367

2,929 2,567 38,331 36,685

2,970 2,606 39,465 37,716

3,042 2,668 40,562 38,554

3,087 2,705 41,598 39,385

97,635 9,020 47,929 40,686 9.2 49.1 41.7

141,013 9,533 69,107 62,373 6.8 49.0 44.2

208,656 13,184 100,787 94,685 6.3 48.3 45.4

273,364 18,766 130,139 124,459 6.9 47.6 45.5

286,927 19,323 138,045 129,560 6.7 48.1 45.2

301,404 20,387 147,396 133,621 6.8 48.9 44.3

314,187 21,338 155,321 137,528 6.8 49.4 43.8

Percent of total: Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . . . State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . . . Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . . . EXPENDITURES Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current expenditures (day schools) . . . . . . . . . . Other current expenditures 6 . Capital outlay . . . . . . . . . . . Interest on school debt . . . . Percent of total: Current expenditures (day schools) . . . . . . . . . . Other current expenditures 6 . Capital outlay . . . . . . . . . . . Interest on school debt . . . . . . . . . Mil. dol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. dol dol dol dol . . . . . . . . . . . .

96,105 85,661 1,859 6,504 2,081

139,382 127,230 2,109 7,529 2,514

209,698 186,583 3,341 16,012 3,762

276,502 242,729 5,464 21,904 6,406

292,323 254,254 5,902 25,189 6,978

308,077 268,026 6,397 25,849 7,806

323,879 280,023 6,619 29,132 8,104

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent .

. . . .

. . . .

89.1 1.9 6.8 2.2

91.3 1.5 5.4 1.8

89.0 1.6 7.6 1.8

87.8 2.0 7.9 2.3

87.0 2.0 8.6 2.4

87.0 2.1 8.4 2.5

86.5 2.0 9.0 2.5

In current dollars: Revenue receipts per pupil enrolled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dollar . . . . Current expenditures per pupil enrolled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dollar . . . . In constant (1998) dollars: 7 Revenue receipts per pupil enrolled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dollar . . . . Current expenditures per pupil enrolled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dollar . . . .
1

2,337 2,050

3,583 3,233

5,149 4,604

6,227 5,529

6,426 5,695

6,647 5,911

6,842 6,098

4,870 4,273

5,476 4,941

6,555 5,862

6,695 5,945

6,726 5,960

6,764 6,015

6,842 6,098

Estimated resident population as of July 1 of the previous year. Estimates reflect revisions based on the 1990 Census of Population. 2 Fall enrollment of the previous year. 3 Kindergarten through grade 6. 4 Grades 7 through 12. 5 Full-time 6 equivalent. Current expenses for summer schools, adult education, post-high school vocational education, personnel retraining, etc., when operated by local school districts and not part of regular public elementary and secondary day-school 7 Compiled by U.S. Census Bureau. Deflated by the Consumer Price Index, all urban consumers (for school year) program. supplied by U.S. National Center for Education Statistics. Source: Except as noted, National Education Association, Washington, DC, Estimates of School Statistics Database (copyright).

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

175

No. 275. Elementary and Secondary Schools—Teachers and Pupil-Teacher Ratios With Projections: 1960 to 1998
[In thousands (1,600 represents 1,600,000), except ratios. As of fall. Data are for full-time equivalents. Schools are classified by type of organization, rather than by grade group; elementary includes kindergarten and secondary includes junior high] Total Item Total Number of teachers: 1960 . . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . 1989 . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . 1991 . . . . 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 . . . . 1995 . . . . 1996 . . . . 1997, prel. 1998, proj. Pupil-teacher 1960 . . . . 1970 . . . . 1975 . . . . 1980 . . . . 1985 . . . . 1988 . . . . 1989 . . . . 1990 . . . . 1991 . . . . 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 . . . . 1995 . . . . 1996 . . . . 1997, prel. 1998, proj. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,600 2,292 2,453 2,485 2,549 2,668 2,734 2,753 2,787 2,822 2,870 2,926 2,978 3,053 3,103 3,126 26.4 22.4 20.3 18.6 17.6 17.0 16.8 16.9 17.0 17.1 17.1 17.1 17.0 16.8 16.7 16.9 Elementary 991 1,283 1,353 1,401 1,483 1,604 1,662 1,680 1,713 1,752 1,775 1,794 1,814 1,856 1,882 1,894 29.4 24.6 21.7 20.1 19.1 18.6 18.4 18.5 18.5 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.6 18.4 18.3 18.5 Secondary 609 1,009 1,100 1,084 1,066 1,064 1,072 1,073 1,074 1,070 1,095 1,132 1,164 1,197 1,222 1,233 21.4 19.5 18.6 16.6 15.6 14.7 14.3 14.3 14.5 14.8 14.7 14.7 14.5 14.3 14.2 14.4 Total 1,408 2,059 2,198 2,184 2,206 2,323 2,357 2,398 2,432 2,459 2,504 2,552 2,598 2,666 2,710 2,728 25.8 22.3 20.4 18.7 17.9 17.3 17.2 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.4 17.3 17.3 17.1 17.0 17.2 Public Elementary 858 1,130 1,181 1,189 1,237 1,353 1,387 1,426 1,459 1,492 1,513 1,528 1,546 1,582 1,604 1,612 28.4 24.3 21.7 20.4 19.5 19.0 19.0 19.0 18.9 18.8 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.8 18.6 18.9 Secondary 550 929 1,017 995 969 970 970 972 973 967 991 1,024 1,053 1,084 1,106 1,116 21.7 19.8 18.8 16.8 15.8 14.9 14.6 14.6 14.9 15.2 15.1 15.1 14.8 14.6 14.5 14.7 Total 192 233 255 301 343 345 377 355 355 363 366 373 380 387 394 399 30.7 23.0 19.6 17.7 16.2 15.2 14.2 14.7 14.6 14.8 14.9 15.0 15.0 14.9 14.9 14.9 Private Elementary 133 153 172 212 246 251 275 254 254 260 262 266 269 274 278 281 36.1 26.5 21.5 18.8 17.1 16.1 15.1 16.1 16.0 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.4 16.3 16.3 Secondary 59 80 83 89 97 94 102 101 101 103 104 108 111 113 116 117 18.6 16.4 15.7 15.0 14.0 12.8 11.7 11.3 11.1 11.3 11.5 11.4 11.4 11.5 11.4 11.4

ratio: .... .... .... .... .... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

No. 276. Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, by Type and Size of School: 1996-97
[Enrollment in thousands (45,365 represents 45,365,000). Data reported by schools, rather than school districts] Enrollment size of school Total . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCENT Total . . . . . . . . . . Under 100 students. . . . 100 to 199 students . . . 200 to 299 students . . . 300 to 399 students . . . 400 to 499 students . . . 500 to 599 students . . . 600 to 699 students . . . 700 to 799 students . . . 800 to 999 students . . . 1,000 to 1,499 students . 1,500 to 1,999 students . 2,000 to 2,999 students . 3,000 or more students . Average enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.0 9.2 9.4 11.3 13.2 13.2 11.8 8.8 6.2 7.4 6.2 2.0 1.1 0.2 (X) 100.0 6.0 8.7 12.2 15.4 15.8 13.8 9.9 6.6 7.1 4.0 0.4 0.1 (X) 100.0 14.3 10.5 8.6 7.7 6.9 6.7 6.2 5.2 8.8 13.3 6.8 4.3 0.8 (X) 100.0 31.5 15.2 10.3 7.8 6.5 6.5 5.6 3.5 5.2 4.9 1.9 0.8 0.3 (X) 100.0 60.0 18.7 10.8 6.0 2.0 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.2 (X) 100.0 0.8 2.7 5.4 8.8 11.3 12.2 10.8 8.7 12.5 14.1 6.5 5.0 1.4 527 100.0 0.6 2.8 6.5 11.2 14.8 15.8 13.3 10.4 13.2 9.6 1.4 0.4 478 100.0 1.0 2.2 3.0 3.8 4.4 5.2 5.8 5.6 11.2 23.1 16.7 14.3 3.8 703 100.0 3.6 5.7 6.4 7.0 7.5 9.2 9.3 6.7 12.1 15.2 8.4 5.1 3.8 387 100.0 19.4 19.3 19.3 15.1 6.3 2.1 2.0 3.4 6.5 2.1 4.5 135 Number of schools Elemen- SecondTotal tary 2 ary 3 88,223 61,805 21,307 Combined 4 2,980 Other
5 1

Enrollment Elemen- SecondTotal tary 2 ary 3 45,365 29,572 14,564

Combined 4 1,152

Other

5

2,131

76

- Represents zero. X Not applicable. 1 Data for those schools reporting enrollment. 2 Includes schools beginning with grade 6 or below and with no grade higher than 8. 3 Includes schools with no grade lower than 7. 4 Includes schools with both elementary and secondary grades. 5 Includes special education, alternative, and other schools not classified by grade span. Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

176

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No. 277. Public Elementary and Secondary School Enrollment, by State: 1980 to 1996
[In thousands (27,647 represents 27,647,000), except rate. As of fall. Includes unclassified students] Enrollment State K through grade 8 1980 1985 1990
1

Grades 9 through 12 1996, prel. 1980 1985 1990 1996, prel. 1980 86.2 87.6 94.0 88.9 90.3 87.1 92.2 83.3 79.5 91.8 84.4 86.8 83.4 95.4 82.6 88.0 88.4 88.7 83.7 80.2 91.6 83.9 88.6 86.9 87.2 79.6 83.8 92.9 86.6 93.4 85.3 81.5 89.5 80.8 90.1 85.9 84.8 92.9 88.5 80.4 80.1 88.1 87.4 87.8 92.4 98.2 87.9 90.7 91.7 92.6 82.1 97.3

Enrollment rate

2

1985 87.7 89.6 99.4 90.8 91.8 89.5 92.7 83.4 80.1 96.8 86.7 88.2 84.2 93.6 83.3 88.4 89.1 91.0 85.8 83.9 93.3 84.9 86.3 87.8 89.4 81.0 84.9 93.8 87.7 93.3 87.5 82.9 91.6 82.3 91.2 89.2 85.6 94.3 89.7 80.3 81.2 89.6 90.7 88.3 93.2 96.3 89.3 94.0 92.2 92.2 83.8 97.0

1990 91.3 93.3 97.4 93.3 95.9 92.8 94.6 90.2 87.4 100.9 92.6 93.6 87.6 96.9 86.9 90.4 92.1 92.6 90.5 88.2 96.5 89.1 88.8 90.3 91.2 91.3 86.5 93.8 88.7 98.7 89.1 86.1 94.3 86.6 94.8 92.8 88.0 95.1 90.7 83.6 87.3 94.0 89.7 93.5 98.4 97.7 93.9 94.2 94.0 95.7 86.0 97.3

1996, prel. 91.7 95.8 95.4 92.5 94.8 92.4 93.1 92.6 87.1 105.7 91.3 96.3 87.9 95.4 88.1 90.7 93.2 92.2 92.8 89.3 93.8 89.8 90.3 91.1 91.6 91.4 87.7 93.8 89.0 96.0 90.5 85.8 91.9 88.5 91.9 95.6 88.6 95.9 90.9 85.2 88.6 94.3 95.4 94.9 98.7 98.2 96.5 93.5 93.1 96.9 87.5 97.4

United States . . . 27,647 27,034 29,878 32,759 13,231 12,388 11,338 12,834 Alabama . Alaska . . Arizona. . Arkansas California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 60 357 310 2,730 374 364 62 71 1,042 742 110 144 1,335 708 351 283 464 544 153 493 676 1,227 482 330 567 106 189 101 112 820 186 1,838 786 77 1,312 399 319 1,231 98 426 86 602 2,049 250 66 703 515 270 528 70 517 77 386 304 2,927 379 321 63 62 1,086 757 113 149 1,246 654 324 286 449 573 142 446 559 1,086 468 330 544 108 184 107 107 740 187 1,703 749 84 1,206 414 305 1,093 90 424 88 575 2,261 299 63 665 507 249 501 74 527 85 479 314 3,615 420 347 73 61 1,370 849 123 160 1,310 676 345 320 459 586 155 527 604 1,145 546 372 588 111 198 150 126 784 208 1,828 783 85 1,258 425 340 1,172 102 452 95 598 2,511 325 71 728 613 224 566 71 540 94 588 324 4,131 487 389 78 61 1,653 991 136 169 1,412 690 342 328 466 575 156 597 688 1,222 589 364 643 115 203 208 144 884 230 2,000 886 82 1,299 445 380 1,264 110 468 99 658 2,800 328 76 796 687 209 605 67 231 26 157 138 1,347 172 168 37 29 468 327 55 59 649 347 183 133 206 234 70 258 346 570 272 147 277 50 91 49 55 426 85 1,033 343 40 645 179 145 678 51 193 42 252 851 93 29 307 242 113 303 28 213 30 162 130 1,329 172 141 30 25 476 323 51 59 580 312 161 125 195 215 64 225 285 517 237 141 251 46 82 48 54 376 90 918 337 35 588 178 142 591 44 183 37 239 871 105 27 303 243 109 267 29 195 29 161 123 1,336 154 122 27 19 492 303 49 61 512 279 139 117 177 199 60 188 230 440 211 131 228 42 76 51 46 306 94 770 304 33 514 154 132 496 37 170 34 226 872 122 25 270 227 98 232 27 208 36 211 133 1,557 186 138 33 18 589 356 51 76 561 294 161 138 190 218 58 222 246 463 258 140 257 50 89 74 54 324 103 843 324 38 546 175 158 541 41 185 44 248 1,029 154 30 300 287 95 274 32

Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia Hawaii . Idaho . . Illinois . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Iowa . . . Kansas. . Kentucky Louisiana Maine. . .

Maryland . . . . Massachusetts. Michigan. . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi . . .

Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . Oregon. . . . . Pennsylvania . Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

South Carolina. South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia. . . . . Washington . . West Virginia . Wisconsin . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . .

1 Data include a small number of prekindergarten students. 2 Percent of persons 5-17 years old. Based on enumerated resident population as of April 1, 1980, and 1990, and estimated resident population as of July 1 for other years. Data not adjusted for revisions based on the 1990 Census of Population.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

177

No. 278. Public Elementary and Secondary School Enrollment, by Grade: 1980 to 1996
[In thousands (40,877 represents 40,877,000). As of fall of year. Kindergarten includes nursery schools] Grade 1980 1985 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996, prel. 45,592 32,759 4,208 3,769 3,596 3,518 3,447 3,447 3,486 3,457 3,398 434 12,834 3,793 3,316 2,925 2,582 218

Pupils enrolled . . . . . . . . 40,877 39,422 40,189 40,543 41,217 42,047 42,823 43,465 44,111 44,840 Kindergarten and grades 1 to 8 Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fifth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sixth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seventh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eighth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unclassified 1. . . . . . . . . . . Grades 9 to 12 . Ninth . . . . . . Tenth . . . . . . Eleventh . . . . Twelfth . . . . . Unclassified 1.
1

. 27,647 27,034 28,501 29,152 29,878 30,506 31,088 31,504 31,898 32,341 . 2,689 3,192 3,433 3,486 3,610 3,686 3,817 3,922 4,047 4,173 . 2,894 3,239 3,460 3,485 3,499 3,556 3,542 3,529 3,593 3,671 . 2,800 2,941 3,223 3,289 3,327 3,360 3,431 3,429 3,440 3,507 . 2,893 2,895 3,167 3,235 3,297 3,334 3,361 3,437 3,439 3,445 . 3,107 2,771 3,051 3,182 3,248 3,315 3,342 3,361 3,426 3,431 . 3,130 2,776 2,945 3,067 3,197 3,268 3,325 3,350 3,372 3,438 . 3,038 2,789 2,937 2,987 3,110 3,239 3,303 3,356 3,381 3,395 . 3,085 2,938 2,905 3,027 3,067 3,181 3,299 3,355 3,404 3,422 . 3,086 2,982 2,853 2,853 2,979 3,020 3,129 3,249 3,302 3,356 . 924 511 527 540 543 545 539 515 494 502 . 13,231 12,388 11,687 11,390 11,338 11,541 11,735 11,961 12,213 12,500 . 3,377 3,439 3,106 3,141 3,169 3,313 3,352 3,487 3,604 3,704 . 3,368 3,230 2,895 2,868 2,896 2,915 3,027 3,050 3,131 3,237 . 3,195 2,866 2,749 2,629 2,612 2,645 2,656 2,751 2,748 2,826 . 2,925 2,550 2,650 2,473 2,381 2,392 2,431 2,424 2,488 2,487 . 366 303 288 279 282 275 269 248 242 245

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

Includes ungraded and special education.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

No. 279. Public Elementary and Secondary School Teachers— Selected Characteristics: 1993-94
[For school year. (280 represents 280,000) Based on survey and subject to sampling error; for details, see source. Excludes prekindergarten teachers. See Table 295 for similar data on private school teachers] Age Characteristic Unit Under 30 years old 280 83.9 14.5 1.0 0.1 47.8 52.2 (X) (X) 259 27,151 24,737 30 to 39 years old 573 59.4 36.6 3.0 0.3 10.5 48.7 40.8 (X) 518 31,596 29,270 40 to 49 years old 1,070 46.3 47.0 5.4 0.7 4.3 16.9 47.5 31.3 974 38,106 35,751 Over 50 years old 637 40.9 50.4 6.1 1.4 1.3 7.3 24.2 67.1 590 42,243 39,931 Sex Race/ethnicity

Male 694 46.2 45.7 5.1 1.3 8.9 21.6 29.9 39.6 643 41,031 36,182

Female White 1,867 54.1 40.6 4.4 0.5 10.0 26.9 37.0 26.1 1,698 34,781 33,384

1

Black

1

Hispanic 109 62.8 29.8 4.6 1.4 16.7 32.1 34.1 17.1 103 35,197 32,996

Total teachers

2

. . . . . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent . Percent .

2,217 51.8 42.5 4.4 0.7 9.4 25.5 35.1 30.0 2,012 36,576 34,221

188 48.4 44.6 5.4 0.9 8.5 20.8 35.5 35.2 182 36,200 33,889

Highest degree held: Bachelor’s . . . . . . . Master’s . . . . . . . . Education specialist. Doctorate . . . . . . .

Full-time teaching experience: Less than 3 years . . . . . . . 3 to 9 years . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 20 years . . . . . . . . . 20 years or more . . . . . . .

Full-time teachers. . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . Earned income . . . . . . . . . Dol. . . . Salary . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dol. . . . Supplemental contract during school year: Teachers receiving . . . . . . 1,000 . . Salary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dol. . . . Supplemental contract during summer: Teachers receiving . . . . . 1,000 . . Salary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dol. . . . Teachers with nonschool employment: Teaching/tutoring . . . . . . . 1,000 . . Education related . . . . . . . 1,000 . . Not education related . . . . 1,000 . . X Not applicable.
1

114 1,777

205 2,163

329 2,107

168 2,109

349 2,923

467 1,442

723 2,067

49 2,325

32 1,930

52 1,819

102 1,942

161 2,053

86 2,404

147 2,530

254 1,803

328 2,015

41 2,221

24 2,477

12 8 28
2

25 20 50

50 34 101

32 18 59

37 39 124

81 41 113

100 69 208

11 5 16

6 4 7

Non-Hispanic.

Includes teachers with no degrees and associates degrees, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1997; and unpublished data.

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 280. Newly Hired Teachers, by Selected Characteristics: 1988 to 1994
[In percent. Based on sample and subject to sampling error; see source for details] Characteristic Total newly hired teachers . . . . . . . . . . . First-time teachers . . . . . Transfers. . . . . . . . . . . . Within state and sector. Across state . . . . . . . . Across sector . . . . . . . Reentrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public schools 1988 100.0 30.6 36.6 20.8 8.3 7.5 32.8 100.0 5.7 11.0 66.5 3.6 13.3 (NA) 100.0 10.3 17.4 18.0 27.8 26.5 (NA) 1991 100.0 41.7 34.3 21.6 7.1 5.6 24.0 100.0 5.2 10.0 58.4 4.4 22.0 18.0 100.0 19.1 17.9 10.4 19.3 33.3 23.8 1994 100.0 45.8 31.4 20.2 7.1 4.1 22.9 100.0 10.7 11.6 56.7 2.1 18.9 17.2 100.0 15.0 19.2 18.1 14.6 33.1 29.6 Private schools 1988 100.0 25.2 38.1 19.0 8.3 10.9 36.7 100.0 4.8 24.5 51.8 7.7 11.3 (NA) 100.0 8.9 21.2 20.0 28.6 21.3 (NA) 1991 100.0 34.0 36.1 18.1 7.0 11.0 30.0 100.0 7.5 20.6 48.7 5.8 17.4 12.0 100.0 11.7 26.1 5.6 23.1 33.6 18.7 1994 100.0 42.4 34.3 14.6 11.5 8.1 23.3 100.0 13.6 19.9 43.1 5.8 17.6 15.2 100.0 19.9 26.0 11.9 21.4 20.9 18.1

Main previous year activity: First-time teachers. . . . . . . . . . . . Work in education (nonteaching). Work outside education. . . . . . . College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homemaking and childrearing . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substitute teaching . . . . . . . . Reentrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work in education (nonteaching). Work outside education. . . . . . . College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homemaking and childrearing . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substitute teaching . . . . . . . . NA Not available.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Condition of Education, 1996.

No. 281. Public Elementary and Secondary Schools—Number and Average Salary of Classroom Teachers, 1970 to 1998, and by State, 1998
[Estimates for school year ending in June of year shown (2,008 represents 2,008,000). Schools classified by type of organization rather than by grade-group; elementary includes kindergarten] Teachers Year and state Total 1970 . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . 1989 . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . 1998, U.S. . AL . . . . . . . . AK. . . . . . . . AZ . . . . . . . . AR. . . . . . . . CA. . . . . . . . CO . . . . . . . CT. . . . . . . . DE. . . . . . . . DC . . . . . . . FL . . . . . . . . GA . . . . . . . HI . . . . . . . . ID . . . . . . . . IL . . . . . . . . IN . . . . . . . . IA . . . . . . . . KS. . . . . . . . KY. . . . . . . .
1 1

(1,000)

Avg. salary ($1,000) Elementary 8.4 11.3 15.6 23.2 27.5 29.0 30.8 32.5 33.5 34.4 35.2 36.2 37.3 38.2 39.1 32.8 51.7 33.9 29.7 43.2 36.9 50.5 42.5 46.8 34.5 36.9 38.4 32.7 42.0 39.8 33.2 36.8 34.2 Secondary 8.9 12.0 16.5 24.2 28.8 30.2 32.0 33.9 34.8 35.9 36.6 37.5 38.4 39.1 39.9 32.8 51.7 33.9 31.4 45.2 37.2 52.3 42.4 47.7 34.5 38.1 38.4 32.8 48.1 39.5 34.8 36.8 35.8 Year and state

Teachers

1

(1,000)

Avg. salary ($1,000) Elementary 29.7 34.0 40.8 43.9 49.3 39.3 28.3 33.5 30.3 32.7 36.8 36.6 49.4 30.0 48.0 33.2 28.4 38.6 30.5 41.8 47.1 44.2 33.3 27.4 35.0 32.9 33.1 37.0 35.5 38.8 33.1 39.5 32.2 Secondary 29.7 35.2 42.9 43.9 49.3 38.8 29.2 34.7 31.4 32.7 37.5 36.6 52.3 31.0 50.3 33.6 27.9 39.8 30.8 42.7 48.2 44.4 34.2 27.1 36.4 34.5 33.1 35.6 38.2 38.8 33.8 40.7 31.9

Elementary 1,109 1,169 1,206 1,212 1,308 1,354 1,390 1,435 1,466 1,496 1,517 1,535 1,559 1,607 1,608 27.4 5.2 32.2 13.5 176.2 18.6 27.3 3.4 3.4 64.5 50.5 6.1 6.8 84.1 30.4 15.3 16.5 26.7

SecAll ond- teachary ers 899 1,001 1,005 963 974 970 972 974 963 970 995 1,033 1,047 1,061 1,097 18.6 3.0 9.6 14.0 63.4 18.2 10.9 3.5 2.3 61.9 35.1 4.9 6.6 35.5 26.2 17.7 15.0 11.1 8.6 11.7 16.0 23.6 28.0 29.6 31.4 33.1 34.1 35.0 35.7 36.7 37.7 38.6 39.4 32.8 51.7 34.4 30.6 43.7 37.1 50.7 42.4 46.4 34.5 37.4 38.4 32.8 43.9 39.7 34.0 36.8 34.5

Total LA . ME MD MA MI . MN MS MO MT NE. NV. NH NJ . NM NY. NC ND OH OK OR PA . RI . SC. SD. TN. TX . UT. VT . VA . WA WV WI . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48.7 14.8 47.8 63.3 87.1 49.8 29.5 60.4 10.3 19.9 15.7 12.6 91.2 19.8 197.2 76.8 7.9 108.2 40.5 27.5 106.5 11.1 39.9 9.5 52.0 254.8 21.1 7.7 77.6 48.9 20.8 53.9 6.7

Elementary 34.5 10.3 27.0 27.2 63.3 26.8 15.5 13.4 7.0 11.7 9.3 8.8 57.5 14.2 98.8 47.8 5.1 72.2 21.1 18.2 54.7 6.3 27.6 6.7 37.8 132.5 11.0 4.0 47.8 28.0 12.5 37.6 3.3

SecAll ond- teachary ers 14.2 4.6 20.8 36.1 23.8 22.9 14.0 47.0 3.3 8.2 6.4 3.9 33.7 5.6 98.4 29.0 2.9 36.1 19.3 9.3 51.8 4.7 12.3 2.8 14.2 122.2 10.0 3.7 29.9 21.0 8.3 16.2 3.4 29.7 34.3 41.7 43.9 49.3 39.1 29.5 34.0 30.6 32.7 37.1 36.6 50.4 30.2 49.0 33.3 28.2 39.0 30.6 42.2 47.7 44.3 33.6 27.3 35.3 33.6 33.0 36.3 36.7 38.8 33.4 39.9 32.0

2,008 2,171 2,211 2,175 2,282 2,324 2,362 2,409 2,429 2,466 2,512 2,567 2,606 2,668 2,705 45.9 8.2 41.8 27.5 239.6 36.8 38.2 6.9 5.7 126.4 85.6 10.9 13.4 119.6 56.6 33.0 31.5 37.9

Full-time equivalent.

Source: National Education Association, Washington, DC, Estimates of School Statistics Database (copyright).

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No. 282. Average Salary and Wages Paid in Public School Systems: 1980 to 1998
[In dollars. For school year ending in year shown. Data reported by a stratified sample of school systems enrolling 300 or more pupils. Data represent unweighted means of average salaries paid school personnel reported by each school system] Position ANNUAL SALARY Central office administrators: Superintendent (contract salary) Deputy/assoc. superintendent . . Assistant superintendent . . . . . Administrators for— Finance and business . . . . . Instructional services . . . . . . Public relations/information . . Staff personnel services . . . . Subject area supervisors . . . . . School building administrators: Principals: Elementary . . . . . . . . . . Junior high/middle . . . . . Senior high. . . . . . . . . . Assistant principals: Elementary . . . . . . . . . . Junior high/middle . . . . . Senior high. . . . . . . . . . ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39,344 37,440 33,452 27,147 29,790 24,021 29,623 23,974 56,954 52,877 48,003 40,344 43,452 35,287 44,182 34,422 75,425 69,623 62,698 52,354 56,359 44,926 56,344 45,929 85,120 77,057 70,525 57,864 62,508 50,622 62,162 51,407 87,717 78,672 72,701 59,997 64,676 52,366 63,690 52,837 90,198 81,266 75,236 61,323 66,767 53,263 65,819 54,534 94,229 84,077 77,007 63,840 68,463 53,860 67,760 56,145 98,106 88,564 80,176 65,797 70,788 55,928 70,088 58,776 101,519 90,226 82,339 67,724 73,058 57,224 71,073 60,359 1980 1985 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

25,165 27,625 29,207 20,708 23,507 24,816 15,913 18,847 16,764 13,788

36,452 39,650 42,094 30,496 33,793 35,491 23,587 27,593 24,981 19,944

48,431 52,163 55,722 40,916 44,570 46,486 31,278 35,979 33,469 26,090

54,905 58,620 63,054 45,377 49,925 52,348 35,291 40,413 37,945 29,555

56,906 60,651 64,993 47,057 51,518 54,170 36,531 41,355 39,319 30,630

58,589 62,311 66,596 48,491 52,942 55,556 37,264 42,486 40,418 31,066

60,922 64,452 69,277 50,537 54,355 57,555 38,706 44,073 41,761 32,786

62,903 66,859 72,410 52,284 56,451 59,739 39,580 45,365 43,315 33,720

64,653 68,740 74,380 53,206 57,768 60,999 40,133 46,162 44,310 34,619

Classroom teachers. . . . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary professional personnel: Counselors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Librarians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . School nurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secretarial/clerical personnel: Central office: Secretaries . . . . . . . . . . Accounting/payroll clerks. Typists/data entry clerks . School building level: Secretaries . . . . . . . . . . Library clerks . . . . . . . . HOURLY WAGE RATE Other support personnel: Teacher aides: Instructional . . . . . . Noninstructional . . . Custodians . . . . . . . . Cafeteria workers . . . . Bus drivers . . . . . . . .

...... ...... ...... ...... ......

10,331 10,479 8,359 8,348 6,778

15,343 15,421 12,481 12,504 9,911

20,238 20,088 16,125 16,184 12,152

22,770 22,605 17,772 18,104 13,311

23,495 23,275 18,296 18,692 13,809

23,935 24,042 18,674 19,170 14,381

24,809 25,009 19,447 20,076 14,791

25,709 25,881 20,726 20,709 15,349

26,316 26,249 21,633 21,215 15,742

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

4.06 3.89 4.88 3.78 5.21

5.89 5.60 6.90 5.42 7.27

7.43 7.08 8.54 6.77 9.21

8.31 7.82 9.51 7.56 10.15

8.50 8.14 9.76 7.72 10.35

8.77 8.29 10.05 7.89 10.69

9.04 8.52 10.35 8.15 11.04

9.25 8.88 10.65 8.30 11.50

9.46 8.82 10.79 8.56 11.55

Source: Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA, National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, annual, Vols. 2 and 3. (All rights reserved. Copyright.)

No. 283. Public School Employment: 1982 and 1996
[In thousands (3,082 represents 3,082,000). Covers full-time employment. Excludes Hawaii. 1982 also excludes District of Columbia and New Jersey. 1982 based on sample survey of school districts with 250 or more students. 1996 based on sample survey of school districts with 100 or more employees; see source for sampling variability] Occupation All occupations . . . . . . . Officials, administrators . Principals and assistant principals . . . . . . . . . . Classroom teachers 2 . . Elementary schools . . Secondary schools . . Other professional staff . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982 Total 3,082 41 90 1,680 798 706 235 215 210 611 Male Female White 1,063 31 72 534 129 363 91 14 4 316 2,019 10 19 1,146 669 343 144 200 206 295
1

1996 Black
1

Total 3,718 47 101 2,051 1,024 755 263 365 258 633

Male Female White 1,013 27 55 522 137 324 60 38 6 304 2,705 19 45 1,529 887 431 203 327 252 330

1

Black

1

2,498 36 76 1,435 667 619 193 146 177 434

432 3 11 186 98 67 35 45 19 132

2,915 39 79 1,735 854 651 219 238 200 407
3

506 5 15 198 101 69 30 78 29 151 Includes

Teachers aides 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Clerical, secretarial staff . . . . . . . Service workers 4 . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 Excludes individuals of Hispanic origin. Includes other classroom teachers, not shown separately. technicians. 4 Includes craftworkers and laborers.

Source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Elementary-Secondary Staff Information (EEO-5), biennial.

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No. 284. Public Elementary and Secondary School Price Indexes: 1975 to 1997
[1983=100. For years ending June 30. Reflects prices paid by public elementary-secondary schools. For explanation of average annual percent change, see Guide to Tabular Presentation] Personnel compensation Year Index, total 1975 1980 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.7 76.6 105.0 112.0 118.5 123.3 129.8 136.3 144.3 152.3 158.5 162.2 167.1 170.9 177.3 181.7 Contracted services, supplies and equipment Supplies Equipand ment materi- replaceals ment 58.0 85.9 99.6 103.2 103.0 101.5 105.9 112.0 119.2 122.7 122.5 121.9 122.7 124.4 138.7 137.7 53.7 79.6 103.4 107.2 109.3 112.9 113.4 116.0 121.2 125.7 128.5 131.8 135.4 138.7 143.2 145.2 Library materials and textbooks 53.8 82.1 107.8 111.0 120.8 126.5 140.0 149.4 171.7 189.4 199.0 205.6 218.4 230.7 227.9 238.0

Profes- Nonprosional fessional Fringe Total salaries salaries benefits 53.4 75.9 106.0 113.7 121.1 127.4 134.5 141.6 150.0 158.3 165.4 169.6 175.1 179.2 185.6 190.2 56.0 76.7 105.7 113.4 121.4 128.4 135.5 142.2 150.1 158.1 165.8 169.2 175.1 178.9 185.7 190.2 55.6 77.8 104.5 111.3 117.6 121.9 127.5 133.3 139.4 146.5 152.4 155.1 159.3 163.7 169.2 174.5 40.9 71.0 108.3 117.1 123.3 128.8 137.0 147.0 159.3 169.8 175.8 184.5 190.2 194.9 200.3 204.2

Total 50.4 79.2 101.7 105.5 108.3 107.5 111.8 116.2 122.6 129.7 132.0 133.9 136.5 139.3 145.9 149.4

Services 55.7 77.4 105.6 112.4 117.4 123.7 126.1 131.8 137.7 142.5 148.0 151.5 154.0 157.2 161.8 165.2

Utilities 34.5 71.1 94.3 96.1 93.7 75.3 78.1 75.1 82.1 92.6 90.8 90.4 90.6 89.7 91.0 100.1

Fixed costs 45.2 77.9 105.4 110.8 116.2 122.7 128.4 134.6 140.3 144.9 148.9 153.8 158.7 163.9 169.1 172.9

Source: Research Associates of Washington, Arlington, VA, Inflation Measures for Schools, Colleges, and Libraries, annual (copyright).

No. 285. Finances of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, by Enrollment-Size Group: 1995-96
[In millions of dollars (289,230 represents $289,230,000,000), except as indicated. Data are estimates subject to sampling variability. For details, see source. See also Appendix III] School systems with enrollment of— Item All school systems 44,840 289,230 18,605 17,039 6,307 2,255 5,229 1,566 139,168 97,246 8,834 131,457 88,638 22,431 3,018 7,876 4,318 9,494 292,807 258,089 156,291 86,319 15,479 166,431 41,357 50,301 27,772 5,793 1,154 109,924 106,419 3,505 20,989 9,207 50,000 or more 8,718 56,236 4,756 4,474 1,740 445 1,408 283 26,468 16,924 1,784 25,012 13,191 8,822 406 1,223 598 1,370 57,451 50,876 30,914 16,505 3,456 32,889 8,876 9,111 5,458 1,084 33 21,773 21,668 105 5,028 1,684 25,000 to 49,999 4,883 29,657 2,057 1,899 697 226 646 159 15,039 9,897 1,142 12,560 8,605 1,923 247 799 428 986 30,150 26,323 15,650 8,915 1,758 17,364 4,075 4,884 3,188 592 46 11,139 10,922 217 2,541 895 15,000 to 24,999 4,241 24,878 1,539 1,438 523 190 480 101 13,377 9,735 870 9,961 6,516 1,731 218 708 409 789 25,236 21,971 13,343 7,197 1,432 14,497 3,372 4,102 2,630 557 78 10,073 9,911 161 1,455 847 7,500 to 14,999 6,729 42,096 2,367 2,198 822 291 712 169 20,970 14,985 1,225 18,759 13,253 2,649 243 1,152 692 1,461 42,574 37,470 22,925 12,291 2,254 24,463 6,049 6,958 4,032 885 188 16,142 15,605 538 2,667 1,381 5,000 to 7,499 4,217 27,428 1,438 1,333 491 191 425 106 12,651 9,094 739 13,338 9,655 1,809 222 757 457 896 27,782 24,603 15,140 8,115 1,348 16,085 3,833 4,685 2,460 555 165 10,273 9,862 412 1,780 896 3,000 to 4,999 5,322 34,861 1,742 1,610 605 218 513 131 15,572 11,323 847 17,547 12,727 2,275 420 956 591 1,168 35,154 31,097 19,220 10,206 1,671 20,172 4,803 6,122 3,167 767 124 14,818 14,278 540 2,721 1,226 Under 3,000 10,730 74,074 4,705 4,087 1,429 694 1,045 618 35,090 25,289 2,227 34,278 24,691 3,221 1,262 2,281 1,143 2,823 74,460 65,749 39,098 23,092 3,559 40,961 10,349 14,439 6,838 1,354 520 25,706 24,173 1,533 4,797 2,277

Fall enrollment (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . General revenue . . . . . . . . . . . From Federal sources. . . . . . Through State . . . . . . . . . Compensatory programs Handicapped programs . Child nutrition programs . Direct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

From State sources 1 . . . . . . . . General formula assistance . . Handicapped programs . . . . . From local sources. . . . . . . . . . Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributions from parent From other local governments. Current charges . . . . . . . . . . School lunch . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General expenditure . . . . . . . . . . Current spending . . . . . . . . . . . By function: Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . Support services . . . . . . . . Other current spending. . . . By object: Total salaries and wages . . Total employee benefits . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital outlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest on debt . . . . . . . . . . . . Payments to other governments . Debt outstanding . . . . Long-term. . . . . . . Short-term . . . . . . Long-term debt issued Long-term debt retired
1

.... .... .... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

Includes other sources, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Internet site <http://www.census.gov/govs/www/school.html> (released June 1999).

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181

No. 286. Public Elementary and Secondary Estimated Finances, 1980 to 1998, and by State, 1998
[In millions of dollars (101,724 represents $101,724,000,000), except as noted. For school years ending in June of year shown] Receipts Revenue receipts Year and state Source Nonrevenue reLocal ceipts 1 40,686 62,373 94,685 114,606 121,710 124,459 129,560 133,621 4,089 5,963 9,469 15,548 15,534 15,294 19,221 18,642 Expenditures Current expenditures Elementary Average per4pupil in ADA and Per second3 capita ary day Amount (dol.) schools (dol.) Rank 428 591 850 976 1,018 1,062 1,112 1,162 85,661 127,230 186,583 219,297 230,773 242,729 254,254 268,026 2,230 3,483 4,966 5,538 5,749 5,950 6,134 6,360 6,548 5,110 10,650 4,937 5,222 5,345 5,704 9,218 8,576 8,069 6,137 6,177 6,127 4,973 6,363 6,642 5,713 6,348 6,283 5,194 7,107 7,375 7,861 7,673 6,727 4,732 5,597 6,237 5,846 5,601 6,556 10,427 5,865 9,812 5,830 4,978 6,539 4,634 6,719 7,752 8,429 5,555 5,166 5,591 6,291 3,900 7,925 6,569 6,488 7,110 7,272 6,312 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 45 1 48 42 41 36 4 5 7 30 29 31 47 23 18 35 24 27 43 15 12 9 11 16 49 38 28 33 37 20 2 32 3 34 46 21 50 17 10 6 40 44 39 26 51 8 19 22 14 13 25

Total 1980 1985 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101,724 146,976 218,126 263,460 275,121 288,658 306,148 320,046

Total 97,635 141,013 208,656 247,912 259,587 273,364 286,927 301,404

Federal 9,020 9,533 13,184 17,381 18,434 18,766 19,323 20,387

State 47,929 69,107 100,787 115,924 119,443 130,139 138,045 147,396

Total

2

96,105 139,382 209,698 248,898 262,485 276,502 292,323 308,077

1998, total . Alabama . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . Arkansas . . . . California . . . . Colorado. . . Connecticut . Delaware . . District of Columbia . Florida . Georgia Hawaii . Idaho . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 333,149 314,187 . 4,125 4,030 . 1,325 1,183 . 4,858 4,389 . 2,462 2,322 . 35,479 35,055 4,625 5,117 983 496 16,079 9,569 1,364 1,436 15,176 7,269 3,388 3,339 3,882 4,811 1,562 6,572 7,533 14,691 7,279 2,610 6,168 1,004 1,703 2,037 1,466 12,651 2,627 29,881 7,518 686 13,793 3,373 3,930 15,337 1,272 4,500 788 4,701 26,362 2,250 837 6,727 7,049 2,226 7,551 681 4,184 5,113 966 452 14,583 8,580 1,364 1,345 13,650 7,007 3,189 3,091 3,882 4,251 1,520 6,268 7,533 13,579 6,504 2,503 5,841 989 1,689 1,755 1,365 12,556 2,328 27,691 7,128 669 12,694 3,119 3,525 15,327 1,272 4,157 787 4,491 23,920 2,249 815 6,662 6,723 2,176 7,054 661

21,338 155,321 137,528 380 2,601 1,049 148 752 283 344 2,109 1,936 193 1,536 594 3,108 19,921 12,026 235 236 69 67 1,058 563 102 88 954 346 117 166 290 511 95 358 385 896 252 326 345 98 66 74 43 390 205 1,807 506 78 858 302 250 844 66 312 73 356 1,833 141 39 362 465 187 304 45 1,860 2,065 650 7,068 4,485 1,232 870 3,651 3,759 1,727 1,815 2,563 2,117 698 2,524 2,720 11,102 3,726 1,423 2,337 481 627 551 84 4,738 1,639 11,165 4,690 279 5,495 1,951 2,175 6,315 539 2,176 250 2,314 10,282 1,409 228 2,469 4,588 1,368 3,881 318 2,089 2,812 247 385 6,457 3,531 31 387 9,044 2,901 1,345 1,110 1,029 1,623 727 3,385 4,428 1,581 2,526 755 3,159 411 996 1,130 1,239 7,428 484 14,719 1,932 312 6,341 866 1,100 8,168 667 1,668 464 1,822 11,805 699 547 3,831 1,669 622 2,869 299

18,961 323,879 94 4,369 142 1,303 469 4,843 139 2,544 425 34,786 441 4 17 44 1,496 989 91 1,526 262 199 248 560 42 304 1,111 775 107 327 15 15 282 100 95 299 2,190 390 17 1,099 254 405 10 344 1 210 2,442 1 22 65 326 49 497 20 4,423 5,117 984 598 15,763 9,672 1,300 1,356 13,757 7,203 3,074 2,967 3,830 4,142 1,562 6,454 7,312 13,400 7,073 2,564 5,545 1,011 1,850 2,015 1,338 12,663 2,404 28,610 7,530 623 13,504 3,132 3,844 13,688 1,215 4,080 765 4,847 26,102 2,197 801 7,630 8,065 2,220 7,159 647

1,210 280,023 1,011 3,669 2,138 1,202 1,064 3,792 1,008 2,230 1,081 30,159 1,136 1,566 1,339 1,129 1,074 1,291 1,090 1,122 1,147 1,228 1,077 1,141 979 951 1,258 1,267 1,196 1,370 1,509 939 1,025 1,151 1,117 1,200 1,142 1,571 1,394 1,577 1,013 972 1,206 943 1,185 1,140 1,231 1,077 1,036 902 1,346 1,064 1,360 1,132 1,437 1,223 1,376 1,347 3,636 4,719 878 566 12,646 7,922 1,075 1,164 11,530 5,997 2,716 2,659 3,569 3,764 1,463 5,704 6,931 11,866 5,348 2,232 4,669 913 1,598 1,500 1,194 12,042 1,744 25,198 6,669 567 11,084 2,705 3,296 12,968 1,177 3,488 660 4,670 22,554 1,771 725 6,797 5,994 1,991 6,041 570

... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Indiana . . Iowa . . . Kansas. . Kentucky Louisiana

Maine. . . . . . . Maryland . . . . Massachusetts. Michigan. . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi Missouri . . Montana . . Nebraska . Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina . . North Dakota . Ohio . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . Oregon. . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rhode Island . . South Carolina. South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia. . . . . Washington . . West Virginia . Wisconsin . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . .

- Represents or rounds to zero. X Not applicable. 1 Amount received by local education agencies from the sales of bonds and real property and equipment, loans, and proceeds from insurance adjustments. 2 Includes interest on school debt and other current expenditures not shown separately. 3 Based on U.S. Census Bureau estimated resident population, as of July 1, the previous year. Estimates reflect revisions based on the 1990 Census of Population. 4 Average daily attendance. Source: National Education Association, Washington, DC, Estimates of School Statistics Database (copyright).

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 287. Computers for Student Instruction in Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1998-99
[(52,289 represents 52,289,000) Market Data Retrieval collects student use computer information in elementary and secondary schools nationwide through a comprehensive annual technology survey that utilizes both mail and telephone methods] Number of Students per computcomers 2 (1,000) puter 8,921 8,213 3,742 1,497 2,437 536 352 256 86 9 357 148 47 162 5.9 5.7 6.3 5.8 5.1 4.4 7.6 7.7 7.3 6.2 6.9 7.2 4.7 7.3 Schools, by location of computer 1 (percent) Classrooms 90.9 93.2 94.4 91.3 91.5 90.6 78.7 80.8 65.9 82.7 78.2 82.9 65.7 73.6 Computer lab 78.4 78.7 72.7 93.0 88.5 75.1 87.6 86.3 96.6 78.8 67.6 61.4 87.9 72.9 Students Schools per with computer Library/ Internet with media access Internet center (percent) access 74.3 79.0 78.4 89.0 82.1 56.9 56.6 51.1 87.5 69.2 40.7 35.2 66.4 43.8 87.9 90.4 88.4 94.8 95.0 88.0 80.1 77.0 96.8 91.4 70.1 67.5 89.4 70.3 13.7 13.6 17.3 13.0 11.0 6.5 20.0 27.6 13.5 6.2 12.1 13.1 6.6 14.3

Level Total schools U.S. total . . . . . . . . . . . Public schools, total . Elementary . . . . . Middle/Junior High Senior High . . . . . K-12/other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109,174 87,317 51,459 13,268 15,632 6,958 8,189 6,793 1,234 162 13,668 6,773 1,058 5,837

Total enrollment (1,000) 52,289 47,155 23,681 8,655 12,479 2,341 2,659 1,972 632 55 2,475 1,069 220 1,186

Catholic schools, total . Elementary . . . . . . Secondary . . . . . . . K-12/other . . . . . . .

Other private schools, total. Elementary . . . . . . . . . Secondary . . . . . . . . . . K-12/other . . . . . . . . . .
2

1 Estimates based on responses of those indicating location of computers. Computers may also be in other locations. Includes estimates for schools not reporting number of computers.

Source: Market Data Retrieval, Shelton, CT, unpublished data (copyright).

No. 288. Public Schools With Access or Planned Access to the Internet: 1994 to 1998
[In percent. As of fall. Excludes special education, vocational education, and alternative schools. Based on sample and subject to sampling error; see source for details] Percent of schools in 1996 having or expecting to have access to the Internet by the year 1998 2000 51 51 52 54 53 45 57 59 52 37 95 94 98 93 96 97 95 97 98 91

Percent of schools with Internet access School characteristic

Percent of instructional classrooms with internet access

1994 Total
1

1995 50 46 65 39 52 69 52 58 54 40

1996 65 61 77 57 66 80 65 72 65 56

1997 78 75 89 75 78 89 84 87 73 63

1998 89 88 94 87 89 95 91 93 91 82

1994 3 3 4 3 3 3 6 4 4 3

1995 8 8 8 9 8 4 9 10 9 3

1996 14 13 16 15 13 16 18 18 12 5

1997 27 24 32 27 28 25 37 35 22 13

..............

35 30 49 30 35 58 38 38 38 27

Instructional level: Elementary . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . Size of enrollment: Less than 300 . . . . . . . . . . . 300 to 999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 or more . . . . . . . . . . . Percent minority enrollment: Less than 6 percent . . . . 6 to 20 percent . . . . . . . 21 to 49 percent . . . . . . 50 percent or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch: Less than 11 percent . . . . . 11 to 30 percent . . . . . . . . 31 to 70 percent . . . . . . . . 71 percent or more . . . . . .
1

. . . .

40 39 33 19

62 59 47 31

78 72 58 53

88 83 78 63

87 94 91 80

4 4 3 2

9 10 7 3

18 16 14 7

36 32 27 14

62 53 52 39

97 98 93 93

Includes combined schools.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, ‘‘Internet Access in Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-98’’, Issue Brief, February 1999.

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No. 289. Student Use of Computers at School: 1984 to 1997
[In percent. As of October. Based on the Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see Appendix III and source] 1997 Characteristic 1984, total Total . . . . . . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . Race/ethnicity: White 1 . . . . Black 1 . . . . Hispanic . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.3 29.0 25.5 30.0 16.8 18.6 28.6 18.7 21.0 22.4 25.9 26.7 30.5 30.5 32.3 32.8 35.5 36.0 27.4 26.5 1989, total 42.7 43.5 41.9 45.7 32.6 34.9 42.7 36.7 36.1 38.4 41.5 42.4 46.1 44.2 45.2 44.7 47.0 51.2 43.3 38.9 1993, total 59.0 59.4 58.7 61.6 51.5 52.3 59.0 51.2 53.3 56.4 58.1 56.4 60.0 59.1 60.7 59.3 62.6 64.6 60.2 52.1 Prekindergarten and kinderTotal garden 68.8 70.1 67.6 71.1 66.3 61.5 65.3 62.1 63.5 66.2 65.9 66.9 68.5 67.6 69.0 70.5 71.7 72.1 70.2 60.7 36.5 37.1 35.7 38.7 33.5 31.0 32.7 25.4 35.1 33.3 33.0 34.2 38.9 34.6 34.6 34.7 39.3 43.2 40.1 29.6

Grades 1-8 79.3 79.5 79.0 84.0 71.6 68.3 74.9 69.6 70.1 74.1 74.9 74.9 77.7 79.9 79.9 81.6 84.0 85.7 79.0 82.1

Grades 9-12 70.5 71.3 69.6 71.9 72.9 63.1 63.6 67.9 61.6 68.2 66.7 69.2 72.0 70.4 70.1 74.1 72.8 71.6 70.5 69.6

1st to 4th 5th or year of later year college of college 64.7 67.8 62.2 64.3 69.2 63.3 63.1 61.1 69.8 64.1 62.1 64.0 63.1 55.2 61.5 63.3 67.2 68.1 63.4 70.4 55.5 59.9 52.1 53.8 55.8 54.7 68.9 74.1 74.8 70.5 69.4 65.8 53.7 47.7 55.2 52.0 48.5 50.1 56.7 53.0

Household income: Less than $5,000 . . $5,000 to $9,999 . . $10,000 to $14,999 . $15,000 to $19,999 . $20,000 to $24,999 . $25,000 to $29,999 . $30,000 to $34,999 . $35,000 to $39,999 . $40,000 to $49,999 . $50,000 to $74,999 . $75,000 or more . . .

Control of school: Public . . . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Non-Hispanic.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1998.

No. 290. Availability and Use of Selected Teaching Resources: 1996
[In percent. For resources available at the worksite or used for instructional purposes. Based in a sample survey conducted in the spring of 1996. For details, see source] Sex Resource All teachers Level Elementary
1

School system size Less than 3,000 3,000 to 24,999 25,000 or more

Race

Male Female

Secondary

White Minority

RESOURCE READILY AVAILABLE Personal computers. . . . . . . . . . Computers with CD-ROM drive . . Networked computers . . . . . . . . Computers with modems . . . . . . VCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television monitor . . . . . . . . . . . Hypermedia or multimedia software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard software . . . . . . . . . . . Specialized instructional software . Online services/networks . . . . . . Instructional laser/video disks . . . Instructional videotapes . . . . . . . Distance learning/video conferencing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESOURCE REGULARY USED Personal computers. . . . . . . . . . Computers with CD-ROM drive . . Networked computers . . . . . . . . Computers with modems . . . . . . VCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television monitor . . . . . . . . . . . Hypermedia or multimedia software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard software . . . . . . . . . . . Specialized instructional software . Online services/networks . . . . . . Instructional laser/video disks . . . Instructional videotapes . . . . . . . Distance learning/video conferencing. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

83.7 58.2 45.0 37.5 92.9 85.4 39.9 71.3 56.3 35.3 37.3 79.7 11.2

81.6 62.8 50.5 43.7 93.4 87.4 43.6 76.8 52.4 42.8 41.2 77.6 13.9

84.4 56.6 43.1 35.4 92.7 84.6 38.6 69.4 57.6 32.6 36.0 80.4 10.2

86.9 58.9 41.2 35.8 93.3 82.0 41.3 68.3 62.7 29.3 34.9 78.5 7.9

80.9 57.6 48.4 39.0 92.9 88.9 38.8 74.3 50.6 40.7 39.8 80.7 14.2

85.5 60.5 48.6 39.4 94.7 84.9 40.0 73.7 60.6 40.4 32.6 81.3 14.2

86.8 60.9 46.0 37.0 92.2 85.1 40.4 72.5 53.7 35.0 40.0 81.2 9.7

76.7 51.1 39.1 36.4 92.1 86.2 38.9 66.6 56.3 30.1 37.7 75.4 10.4

84.7 59.7 45.5 38.4 93.6 86.0 40.7 73.1 57.2 36.7 38.0 80.8 10.9

77.1 44.4 41.6 30.8 85.3 78.0 33.7 55.9 50.5 24.5 32.7 70.8 14.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

60.8 29.4 23.9 12.8 72.3 63.6 20.0 44.3 38.3 8.9 16.1 62.7 2.7

58.8 34.0 28.4 18.2 72.7 66.0 20.3 51.7 32.4 13.4 17.5 59.7 3.7

61.5 27.8 22.3 10.9 72.2 62.8 19.9 41.6 40.4 7.3 15.7 63.7 2.4

68.8 32.0 23.6 13.3 72.2 58.3 23.5 40.6 47.2 7.9 16.4 63.7 1.9

53.7 26.8 24.1 12.6 72.7 68.9 16.8 47.9 30.4 9.8 16.0 62.2 3.6

63.3 33.2 27.1 12.8 74.6 64.3 18.8 43.8 42.2 9.4 13.5 65.9 3.2

63.8 30.8 24.1 13.2 73.8 64.9 21.9 46.0 36.8 9.3 17.7 64.0 2.5

53.1 22.9 20.1 12.2 67.3 60.5 17.8 41.8 37.0 7.7 16.1 56.6 2.8

61.7 30.5 24.5 13.2 73.3 64.5 20.5 45.6 39.5 9.6 16.4 63.6 2.4

52.7 17.0 19.6 8.7 61.1 52.0 15.0 34.3 31.4 3.8 12.7 54.3 4.7

Level as determined by respondent.

Source: National Education Association, Washington, DC, Status of the American Public School Teacher, 1995-1996 (copyright).

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No. 291. Technology in Public Schools: 1992 to 1998
[For school year ending in year shown (5,781 represents 5,781,000). Based on surveys of school districts conducted in the spring and summer of the school year. For details, see source] Technology Schools with interactive videodisk players 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Junior high 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Senior high 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,502 2,921 1,258 2,106 5,781 13,597 5,831 2,608 5,001 10,717 4,184 1,583 776 1,736 3,754 5,706 1,897 1,231 2,543 5,298 1,129 351 166 606 1,906 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1995 27,059 14,594 5,460 6,661 18,552 35,696 18,858 6,546 9,930 22,372 27,805 13,582 5,194 8,839 17,540 40,509 22,305 7,501 10,354 24,121 15,400 5,565 3,214 6,550 8,963 63,639 38,336 11,518 13,114 36,284 1996 29,759 16,200 6,009 7,195 20,258 40,147 21,733 7,286 10,682 24,688 31,986 16,189 5,971 9,562 19,997 45,918 25,965 8,341 11,150 27,070 16,298 6,014 3,409 6,782 9,270 64,310 38,714 11,575 13,282 36,950 1997 30,417 16,614 6,124 7,322 20,706 40,876 22,234 7,417 10,781 25,136 32,299 16,441 6,035 9,565 20,193 46,388 26,377 8,410 11,140 27,347 16,232 6,001 3,377 6,769 9,232 64,171 38,678 11,554 13,208 36,870 1998 46,804 25,907 9,202 10,687 (NA) 61,930 35,066 10,996 14,540 (NA) 49,178 26,422 9,003 12,853 (NA) 64,200 37,908 11,023 13,985 (NA) 17,457 6,962 3,255 7,052 (NA) 66,409 39,431 11,862 13,778 (NA) Percent of total 1992 8 6 10 14 14 16 11 20 30 25 5 3 6 10 9 7 4 9 15 12 1 1 1 4 4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1997 36 32 43 42 45 48 43 53 63 54 38 32 43 55 44 54 51 60 65 59 19 11 24 39 20 75 74 82 77 80 1998 54 49 64 61 (NA) 71 66 76 83 (NA) 56 50 62 73 (NA) 74 72 76 80 (NA) 20 13 23 40 (NA) 76 75 82 78 (NA)

Students represented (1,000) . . . . . . . . Schools with modems 1 Elementary 2 . . . . . . Junior high 3 . . . . . . Senior high 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Students represented (1,000) . . . . . . . . Schools with networks 1 . . Elementary 2 . . . . . . . . Junior high 3 . . . . . . . . Senior high 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Students represented (1,000) . . . . . . . . Schools with CD-ROMs 1 Elementary 2 . . . . . . . Junior high 3 . . . . . . . Senior high 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Students represented (1,000) . . . . . . . . Schools with satellite Elementary 2 . . . . Junior high 3 . . . . Senior high 4 . . . . dishes 1 ...... ...... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Students represented (1,000) . . . . . . . . Schools with cable 1 Elementary 2 . . . . Junior high 3 . . . . Senior high 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Students represented (1,000) . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 Includes schools for special education and adult education, not shown separately. 2 Includes K-12, preschool, preschool through 3, K-6, and K-8. 3 Includes schools with grade spans of 4-8, 7-8, and 7-9. 4 Includes 7-12, 9-12, 10-12, vocational technical, and alternative high schools. Source: Quality Education Data, Denver, CO, National Education Database.

No. 292. Student Participation in School Programs: 1993-94
[As of fall. (41,622 represents 41,622,000). Based on survey and subject to sampling error; for details see source] Total students Control and level Percent Number distribu(1,000) tion Public total School level 2: Elementary . . Secondary . . . Combined . . . ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ ........ ........ ........ 41,622 26,886 13,758 978 4,971 2,803 811 1,356 100.0 64.6 33.1 2.3 100.0 56.4 16.3 27.3 Percent of students participating in program or service English as a Remesecond Remedial landial mathguage reading ematics 3.97 4.75 2.58 1.88 0.58 0.45 0.62 0.83 10.88 13.46 5.63 13.70 6.35 7.22 4.24 5.82 6.90 7.77 5.03 9.39 4.16 4.33 3.06 4.46 ProPrograms grams for the for the gifted disand abled talented 6.88 6.76 6.54 14.84 2.98 0.93 3.43 6.95 6.43 6.25 6.90 4.72 4.93 3.34 8.56 6.05 Diagnostic and prescriptive 1 0.27 0.31 0.20 0.44 0.89 0.94 0.47 1.03

Bilingual education 3.07 3.98 1.39 1.80 0.81 0.77 0.19 1.25

Extended day 2.50 3.58 0.48 1.31 9.20 12.48 0.23 7.76

Private total. School level 2: Elementary . . . Secondary . . . . Combined . . . .

1 Includes testing for reading and cognitive disabilities, for example. 2 Elementary schools have grade 6 or lower and no grade higher than 8. Secondary schools have no grade lower than 7. Combined schools have grades lower than 7 and higher than 8.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1998.

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No. 293. Children and Youth With Disabilities Served by Selected Programs: 1990 to 1998
[For school year ending in year shown (4,210.8 represents 4,210,800). Excludes outlying areas. Through 1994, for persons age 6 to 21 years old served under IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Act) Part B and Chapter 1 of ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act), SOP (State Operated Programs); beginning 1995, IDEA, Part B only] Item All conditions (1,000). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Specific learning disabilities . . . . Speech or language impairments Mental retardation. . . . . . . . . . . Serious emotional disturbance . . Hearing impairments . . . . . . . . . Orthopedic impairments . . . . . . . Other health impairments . . . . . . Visually impaired . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple disabilities . . . . . . . . . . Deaf-blind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Autism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traumatic brain injury . . . . . . . . NA Not available. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48.6 23.1 13.0 9.0 1.3 1.1 1.2 0.5 2.0 (Z) (NA) (NA) 51.3 21.7 11.3 8.7 1.3 1.1 1.4 0.5 2.2 (Z) 0.3 0.1 50.9 21.4 11.3 8.7 1.3 1.2 1.7 0.5 2.3 (Z) 0.4 0.1 51.2 20.9 11.4 8.8 1.3 1.2 2.2 0.5 1.8 (Z) 0.5 0.1 51.3 20.3 11.3 8.7 1.3 1.2 2.6 0.5 1.8 (Z) 0.6 0.2 51.2 20.1 11.2 8.6 1.3 1.3 3.1 0.5 1.9 (Z) 0.7 0.2 51.0 19.8 11.0 8.5 1.3 1.3 3.6 0.5 2.0 (Z) 0.8 0.2 1990 4,210.8 1993 4,586.2 1994 4,730.4 1995 4,859.1 1996 5,028.7 1997 5,177.6 1998 5,339.4

Z less than .05 percent.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Data Analysis System (DANS).

No. 294. Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1967 to 1998
[As of October 1 (3,860 represents 3,860,000). Regular sessions only] Item Elementary schools . Pupils enrolled . . Teachers, total 1 . Religious . . . . Lay . . . . . . . . Secondary schools Pupils enrolled . Teachers, total 1 Religious . . . Lay . . . . . . .
1

Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number 1,000 . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . Number 1,000 . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . .

1967 10,133 3,860 110 61 49 2,192 1,081 51 30 21

1970 9,362 3,355 112 52 60 1,981 1,008 55 29 26

1975 8,340 2,252 99 35 64 1,653 890 50 20 30

1980 8,043 2,269 97 25 72 1,516 837 49 14 35

1985 7,811 2,061 97 18 78 1,434 760 50 11 39

1990 7,291 1,884 91 11 80 1,296 592 40 7 34

1995 7,022 2,011 119 10 109 1,228 624 48 6 42

1996 7,005 2,014 108 8 99 1,226 631 46 5 41

1997 7,004 2,015 106 7 98 1,219 634 47 5 42

1998 6,990 2,013 106 8 98 1,227 636 47 4 43

. . . . .

Beginning 1995, includes part-time teachers.

Source: National Catholic Educational Association, (NCEA) Washington, DC, United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools school year: Annual Statistical Report on Schools, Enrollment & Staffing (copyright.)

No. 295. Private Elementary and Secondary School Teachers— Selected Characteristics: 1993-94
[For school year (65 represents 65,000). Based on survey and subject to sampling error; for details, see source. See Table 279 for similar data on public school teachers] Age Characteristic Unit Under 30 to 39 40 to 49 30 years years years old old old 65 78.8 10.8 1.0 0.2 94 63.1 25.7 2.6 1.4 131 54.0 35.1 3.4 2.0 Over 50 years old 88 47.2 40.5 3.8 2.6 Sex Female White 285 62.8 26.3 3.0 0.8 Race/ethnicity Hispanic 12 57.4 19.9 4.4 2.3

Male 93 47.3 40.6 2.6 4.3

1

Black

1

Total teachers . . Highest degree held: Bachelor’s . . . . . . Master’s . . . . . . . . Education specialist Doctorate . . . . . . . Full-time teaching experience: Less than 3 years . 3 to 9 years . . . . . 10 to 20 years . . . . 20 years or more . . Full-time teachers . . . Earned income . . . Salary . . . . . . .

2

. 1,000 . . . . . . . Percent Percent Percent Percent . . . .

348 59.4 30.2 2.6 1.6

12 55.8 26.4 4.8 1.0

. . . . . . .

Percent Percent Percent Percent 1,000 . . Dol. . . . Dol. . . .
1

. . . . . . .

54.9 44.9 0.1 (Z) 53 18,384 16,062

21.7 51.2 27.1 (Z) 82 21,344 19,108
2

12.6 29.8 45.5 12.1 103 22,190 20,631

7.2 13.4 30.2 49.2 62 24,113 22,500

21.7 28.2 28.7 21.4 70 27,196 23,003

20.6 20.4 26.9 35.8 33.6 34.9 29.9 30.0 27.9 13.7 16.0 10.3 231 277 9 20,007 21,578 23,094 18,815 19,717 20,333

25.5 41.8 21.6 11.1 9 22,912 20,740

Z Less than .05 percent. separately.

Non-Hispanic.

Includes teachers with no degrees and associates degrees, not shown

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1997.

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No. 296. Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) Scores and Characteristics of CollegeBound Seniors: 1967 to 1998
[The complete publication including this copyright table is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service]

No. 297. American College Testing (ACT) Program Scores and Characteristics of College-Bound Students: 1970 to 1998
[For academic year ending in year shown. Except as indicated, test scores and characteristics of college-bound students. Through 1980, data based on 10 percent sample; thereafter, based on all ACT tested seniors] Type of test and characteristic TEST SCORES Composite . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . English . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Math . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Reading 3 . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Science reasoning 4 Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . Total 6 . . Male . . . . . . White . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

Unit

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1

1994

1

1995

1

1996

1

1997

1

1998

1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.9 20.3 19.4 18.5 17.6 19.4 20.0 21.1 18.8 19.7 20.3 19.0 20.8 21.6 20.0 788 52 (NA) 4

18.6 19.5 17.8 17.7 17.1 18.3 17.6 19.3 16.2 17.4 18.7 16.4 21.1 22.4 20.0 714 46 77 7

18.5 19.3 17.9 17.9 17.3 18.3 17.4 18.9 16.2 17.2 18.2 16.4 21.1 22.4 20.0 822 45 83 8

18.6 19.4 17.9 18.1 17.6 18.6 17.2 18.6 16.0 17.4 18.3 16.6 21.2 22.6 20.0 739 46 82 8

20.6 21.0 20.3 20.5 20.1 20.9 19.9 20.7 19.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 817 46 79 9

20.8 20.9 20.7 20.3 19.8 20.7 20.2 20.8 19.6 21.2 21.1 21.4 20.9 21.6 20.4 892 45 76 10

20.8 21.0 20.7 20.2 19.8 20.6 20.2 20.9 19.7 21.3 21.1 21.4 21.0 21.6 20.5 945 44 75 10

20.9 21.0 20.8 20.3 19.8 20.7 20.2 20.9 19.7 21.3 21.0 21.6 21.1 21.7 20.5 925 44 77 10

21.0 21.1 20.8 20.3 19.9 20.7 20.6 21.3 20.1 21.3 21.2 21.5 21.1 21.7 20.6 959 44 74 10

21.0 21.2 20.9 20.4 19.9 20.8 20.8 21.5 20.2 21.4 21.1 21.6 21.1 21.8 20.6 995 43 73 11

PARTICIPANTS

. . . .

1,000 . . Percent Percent Percent

Obtaining composite scores 7 of— 27 or above . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . 18 or below . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent . Planned educational major: Business 8 . . . . . . . . . . Engineering . . . . . . . . . Social science 9 . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent Percent Percent Percent . . . .

14 21 18 8 10 16

14 33 21 6 9 12

13 33 20 8 6 9

14 32 21 9 7 6

12 35 20 9 10 8

13 34 14 9 9 10

13 34 14 9 9 9

13 34 13 9 9 9

14 33 11 8 8 9

14 33 12 7 9 10

NA Not available. 1 Beginning 1990, not comparable with previous years because a new version of the ACT was introduced. Estimated average composite scores for prior years: 1989, 20.6; 1988, 1987, and 1986, 20.8. 2 Minimum score, 1; maximum score, 36. 3 Prior to 1990, social studies; data not comparable with previous years. 4 Prior to 1990, natural sciences; data not comparable with previous years. 5 Beginning 1985, data are for seniors who graduated in year shown and had taken the ACT in their junior or senior years. Data by race are for those responding to the race question. 6 788 represents 788,000. 7 Prior to 1990, 26 or above and 15 or below. 8 Includes political and persuasive (e.g. sales) fields through 1975; thereafter, business and commerce. 9 Includes religion through 1975. Source: The ACT, Inc., Iowa City, IA, High School Profile Report, annual.

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187

No. 298. Proficiency Test Scores for Selected Subjects, by Characteristic: 1977 to 1996
[Based on The National Assessment of Educational Progress Tests which are administered to a representative sample of students in public and private schools. Test scores can range from 0 to 500. For details, see source] Sex Test and year Total READING 9 year olds: 1979-80 . . . . . . . 1987-88 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . 13 year olds: 1979-80 . . . . . . . 1987-88 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . 17 year olds: 1979-80 . . . . . . . 1987-88 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . WRITING 2 4th graders: 1983-84 . . . . . . . 1987-88 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . 8th graders: 1983-84 . . . . . . . 1987-88 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . 11th graders: 1983-84 . . . . . . . 1987-88 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . MATHEMATICS 9 year olds: 1977-78 . . . . . . . 1985-86 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . 13 year olds: 1977-78 . . . . . . . 1985-86 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . 17 year olds: 1977-78 . . . . . . . 1985-86 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . SCIENCE 9 year olds: 1976-77 . . . . . . . 1985-86 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . 13 year olds: 1976-77 . . . . . . . 1985-86 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . 17 year olds: 1976-77 . . . . . . . 1985-86 . . . . . . . 1993-94 . . . . . . . 1995-96 . . . . . . . Male Female White
1

Race Less than high school

Parental education More than high school High school Some Total college College graduate

Black

1

Hispanic origin

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

215 212 211 212 259 258 258 259 286 290 288 287

210 208 207 207 254 252 251 253 282 286 282 280

220 216 215 218 263 263 266 265 289 294 295 294

221 218 218 220 264 261 265 267 293 295 296 294

189 189 185 190 233 243 234 236 243 274 266 265

190 194 186 194 237 240 235 240 261 271 263 265

194 193 189 197 239 247 237 241 262 267 268 267

213 211 207 207 254 253 251 252 278 282 276 273

226 220 221 220 271 265 269 270 299 300 299 297

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

204 206 205 207 267 264 265 264 290 291 285 283

201 199 196 200 258 254 254 251 281 282 276 275

208 213 214 214 276 274 278 276 299 299 293 292

211 215 214 216 272 269 272 271 297 296 291 289

182 173 173 182 247 246 245 242 270 275 267 267

189 190 189 191 247 250 252 246 259 274 271 269

179 194 188 190 258 254 250 245 274 276 269 260

192 199 202 203 261 258 259 258 284 285 279 275

217 212 (NA) (NA) 276 271 (NA) (NA) 299 298 (NA) (NA)

208 211 212 205 271 275 270 270 298 296 286 287

218 212 212 214 278 271 275 274 300 299 293 291

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

219 222 231 231 264 269 274 274 300 302 306 307

217 222 232 233 264 270 276 276 304 305 309 310

220 222 230 229 265 268 273 272 297 299 304 305

224 227 237 237 272 274 281 281 306 308 312 313

192 202 212 212 230 249 252 252 268 279 286 286

203 205 210 215 238 254 256 256 276 283 291 292

200 201 210 220 245 252 255 254 280 279 284 281

219 218 225 221 263 263 266 267 294 293 295 297

231 231 (NA) (NA) 280 278 (NA) (NA) 313 310 (NA) (NA)

230 229 239 238 273 274 277 278 305 305 305 307

231 231 238 240 284 280 285 283 317 314 318 317

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

220 224 231 230 247 251 257 256 290 289 294 296 205 259 286

222 227 232 232 251 256 259 261 297 295 300 300 203 259 288

218 221 230 228 244 247 254 252 282 282 289 292 206 259 285

230 232 240 239 256 259 267 266 298 298 306 307 215 267 292

175 196 201 201 208 222 224 226 240 253 257 260 177 239 265

192 199 201 207 213 226 232 232 262 259 261 269 180 243 267

199 204 211 215 224 229 234 232 265 258 256 261 177 241 263

223 220 225 222 245 245 247 248 284 277 279 282 197 251 276

233 235 (NA) (NA) 264 262 (NA) (NA) 304 300 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

237 236 239 242 260 258 260 260 296 295 295 297 214 264 287

232 235 239 240 266 264 269 266 309 304 311 308 216 270 296

HISTORY, 1993-94 4th graders . . . . . . . . 8th graders: . . . . . . . . 12th graders . . . . . . . GEOGRAPHY, 1993-94 4th graders . . . . . . . . 8th graders . . . . . . . . 12th graders . . . . . . .

206 260 285

208 262 288
2

203 258 281

218 270 291

168 229 258

183 239 268

186 238 263

197 250 274

(NA) (NA) (NA)

216 265 286

216 272 294

NA Not available. 1 Non-Hispanic. on a 0 to 400 rather than 0 to 500 scale.

Writing scores revised from previous years; previous writing scores were recorded

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

188

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 299. Advanced Placement Program—Summary: 1997 and 1998
[Includes exams taken by candidates abroad. In 1998 this represents 24,705 examinations taken by 16,911 students in 638 schools abroad. Minus sign (-) indicates decrease] Program total Item Schools represented, 1998
1

1998 Percent change, 1997-98 10 9 16 14 7 5 19 7 -11 -10 11 12 19 6 (X) 12 1 6 6 10 4 49 12 18 21 13 8 10 18 12 14 102 8 9 Grade level of test taker 10th grade 52,174 755 37 106 5,662 1,063 408 1,721 704 380 219 257 683 125 133 21,775 614 64 188 1,341 320 4 287 112 318 399 91 46 507 4,349 375 513 8,618 47,847 11th grade 342,280 1,735 696 1,367 27,234 14,399 4,449 22,566 2,431 1,501 2,035 2,265 54,964 9,325 1,436 7,549 3,444 288 732 4,889 815 88 1,604 884 1,190 8,056 1,350 511 5,734 17,157 1,954 2,876 136,756 239,859 12th grade 598,823 4,691 2,861 6,371 40,810 100,059 21,726 19,788 3,194 2,103 10,665 14,773 23,195 155,033 3,431 18,095 9,244 1,221 2,424 42,827 5,571 68 1,374 1,008 2,481 15,365 11,283 5,753 15,345 28,005 4,419 11,776 13,864 330,117 Sex of test taker Male 471,415 2,668 1,679 3,046 32,466 62,515 16,687 25,662 5,301 3,562 7,697 10,148 30,473 60,839 2,360 23,587 4,216 453 1,676 24,265 3,712 1,574 1,709 1,008 2,079 15,950 9,510 4,982 7,650 18,545 2,323 8,109 74,964 282,997 Female 545,242 4,664 2,007 5,048 42,995 55,156 10,401 19,275 1,177 495 5,546 7,520 49,543 106,355 2,803 24,711 9,505 1,165 1,817 25,669 3,123 2,178 1,602 1,047 2,005 8,326 3,429 1,433 14,324 32,879 4,652 7,377 87,015 352,171

1997

1998

Exams taken, total

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(X) 671 1,045 1,703 5,646 9,037 2,583 4,397 1,208 859 1,184 1,324 4,396 9,471 456 2,945 2,687 350 1,086 3,236 753 67 533 373 1,062 2,510 1,672 1,004 1,483 4,419 850 1,299 7,415 (X)

921,601 1,016,657 6,756 3,180 7,122 70,812 111,834 22,668 41,874 7,311 4,526 11,901 15,725 67,322 158,416 43,170 13,605 1,523 3,297 45,328 6,563 2,510 2,956 1,744 3,369 21,562 11,944 5,848 18,628 45,966 6,134 7,667 150,340 581,554
1

By subject area: Art History . . . . . . . . . Art, Drawing . . . . . . . . Art, General . . . . . . . . Biology . . . . . . . . . . . Calculus AB . . . . . . . . Calculus BC . . . . . . . . Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . Computer Science—A . Computer Science—AB Economics-Micro . . . . . Economics-Macro . . . . English Language/ Composition . . . . . . . English Literature/ Composition . . . . . . . Environmental Science . European History . . . . . French Language. . . . . French Literature . . . . . German Language . . . . Government and Politics—U.S. . . . . . . Government and Politics—Comparative . International English Language . . . . . . . . . Latin—Vergil . . . . . . . . Latin—Literature . . . . . Music Theory . . . . . . . Physics—B . . . . . . . . . Physics—Mechanics. . . Physics—Electricity and Magnetism . . . . . . . . Psychology . . . . . . . . . Spanish Language . . . . Spanish Literature . . . . Statistics . . . . . . . . . . U.S. History . . . . . . . . Candidates taking exams - Represents zero.
1

7,332 3,686 8,094 75,461 117,671 27,088 44,937 6,478 4,057 13,243 17,668 80,016 167,194 5,163 48,298 13,721 1,618 3,493 49,934 6,835 3,752 3,311 2,055 4,084 24,276 12,939 6,415 21,974 51,424 6,975 15,486 161,979 635,168

X Not applicable.

Includes students and exams taken in other grades not shown separately.

Source: The College Board, New York, NY, Advanced Placement Program, National Summary Report, 1998 (copyright).

No. 300. Foreign Language Enrollment in Public High Schools: 1970 to 1994
[In thousands (13,301.9 represents 13,301,900), except percent. As of fall, for grades 9 through 12] Language 1970 1974 1976 1978 1982 1985 1990 1994 11,847.5 5,001.9 42.2 4,813.0 3,219.8 1,105.9 326.0 43.8 42.3 16.4 40.6 27.2 9.3 2.8 0.4 0.4 0.1

Total enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,301.9 13,648.9 13,952.1 13,941.4 12,879.3 12,466.5 11,099.6 Enrolled in all foreign languages . . . . . 3,779.3 3,294.5 3,174.0 3,200.1 2,909.8 4,028.9 4,256.9 Percent of all students . . . . . . . . . . 28.4 24.1 22.7 23.0 22.6 32.3 38.4 Enrolled in modern foreign languages 1 . Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . French . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . German . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Italian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Russian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of all students 1 Spanish . . . . . . . . . French . . . . . . . . . . German . . . . . . . . . Italian . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . Russian . . . . . . . . . NA Not available. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,514.1 1,810.8 1,230.7 410.5 27.3 (NA) 20.2 26.4 13.6 9.3 3.1 0.2 (NA) 0.2
1

3,127.3 1,678.1 977.9 393.0 40.2 (NA) 15.1 22.9 12.3 7.2 2.9 0.3 (NA) 0.1

3,023.5 1,717.0 888.4 352.7 45.6 (NA) 11.3 21.7 12.3 6.4 2.5 0.3 (NA) 0.1

3,048.3 1,631.4 856.0 330.6 45.5 (NA) 8.8 21.9 11.7 6.1 2.4 0.3 (NA) 0.1

2,740.2 1,562.8 858.0 266.9 44.1 6.2 5.7 21.3 12.1 6.7 2.1 0.3 0.1 (Z)

3,852.0 2,334.4 1,133.7 312.2 47.3 8.6 6.4 30.9 18.7 9.1 2.5 0.4 0.1 0.1

4,093.0 2,611.4 1,089.4 295.4 40.4 25.1 16.5 36.9 23.5 9.8 2.7 0.4 0.2 0.2

Z Less than .05 percent.

Includes other foreign languages, not shown separately.

Source: The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Yonkers, NY, Foreign Language Enrollments in Public Secondary Schools, Fall 1994.

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

189

No. 301. Public High School Graduates, by State: 1980 to 1998
[In thousands (2,747.7 represents 2,747,000). For school year ending in year shown] State United States . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Arkansas. . . . . . . . California. . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware. . . . . . . . District of Columbia . Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi. . . . . . . 1980 2,747.7 45.2 5.2 28.6 29.1 249.2 36.8 37.7 7.6 5.0 87.3 61.6 11.5 13.2 135.6 73.1 43.4 30.9 41.2 46.3 15.4 54.3 73.8 124.3 64.9 27.6 1990 2,320.3 40.5 5.4 32.1 26.5 236.3 33.0 27.9 5.6 3.6 88.9 56.6 10.3 12.0 108.1 60.0 31.8 25.4 38.0 36.1 13.8 41.6 55.9 93.8 49.1 25.2 1995 2,273.5 36.3 5.8 31.0 24.6 255.2 32.4 26.4 5.2 3.0 89.8 56.7 9.4 14.2 105.2 56.1 31.3 26.1 37.6 36.5 11.5 41.4 47.7 84.6 49.4 23.8 1998, est. 2,433.4 35.3 6.1 36.1 25.9 282.7 34.7 28.8 5.9 2.7 95.4 63.0 9.8 15.1 113.9 58.2 33.8 27.8 37.0 36.9 12.6 43.9 49.9 93.7 54.9 24.2 State Missouri . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico. . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee. . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 62.3 12.1 22.4 8.5 11.7 94.6 18.4 204.1 70.9 9.9 144.2 39.3 29.9 146.5 10.9 38.7 10.7 49.8 171.4 20.0 6.7 66.6 50.4 23.4 69.3 6.1 1990 49.0 9.4 17.7 9.5 10.8 69.8 14.9 143.3 64.8 7.7 114.5 35.6 25.5 110.5 7.8 32.5 7.7 46.1 172.5 21.2 6.1 60.6 45.9 21.9 52.0 5.8 1995 48.9 10.1 18.0 10.0 10.1 67.4 14.9 132.4 59.5 7.8 109.4 33.3 26.7 104.1 7.8 30.7 8.4 43.6 170.3 27.7 5.9 58.3 49.3 20.1 51.7 5.9 1998, est. 51.9 10.6 20.3 11.6 9.3 72.2 15.4 140.5 59.4 8.1 109.0 33.6 27.7 111.4 7.0 34.0 12.0 46.0 185.1 32.0 6.2 64.4 55.0 20.1 56.3 6.1

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

No. 302. High School Dropouts, by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1975 to 1997
[In percent. As of October] Item EVENT DROPOUTS Total 3 . White . . . . . Male . . . . Female . . Black . . . . . Male . . . . Female . . Hispanic 4 . . Male . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 1

1975

1980

1985 1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

. . . . . . . . . .
5

. . . . . . . . . .

5.8 5.4 5.0 5.8 8.7 8.3 9.0 10.9 10.1 11.6

6.0 5.6 6.4 4.9 8.3 8.0 8.5 11.5 16.9 6.9

5.2 4.8 4.9 4.7 7.7 8.3 7.2 9.7 9.3 9.8

4.5 3.9 4.1 3.8 7.7 6.9 8.6 7.7 7.6 7.7

4.0 3.8 4.1 3.5 5.1 4.1 6.0 8.0 8.7 7.2

4.0 3.7 3.6 3.8 6.2 5.5 7.0 7.3 10.4 4.8

4.3 4.1 3.8 4.4 4.9 3.3 6.7 7.9 5.8 8.6

4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 5.4 5.7 5.0 5.4 5.7 5.0

5.0 4.7 4.6 4.9 6.2 6.5 5.7 9.2 8.4 10.1

5.4 5.1 5.4 4.8 6.1 7.9 4.4 11.6 10.9 12.5

4.7 4.5 4.8 4.1 6.3 4.6 7.8 8.4 9.2 7.6

4.3 4.2 4.9 3.5 4.8 4.1 5.7 8.6 10.4 6.7

STATUS DROPOUTS Total White . . . . Male . . . Female . Black . . . . Male . . . Female . Hispanic 4 . Male . . . Female .
3

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

15.6 13.9 13.5 14.2 27.3 27.8 26.9 34.9 32.6 36.8

15.6 14.4 15.7 13.2 23.5 26.0 21.5 40.3 42.6 38.1

13.9 13.5 14.7 12.3 17.6 18.8 16.6 31.5 35.8 27.0

14.4 14.1 15.4 12.8 16.4 18.6 14.5 37.7 40.3 35.0

13.6 13.5 14.2 12.8 15.1 13.6 16.2 37.3 39.8 34.5

14.2 14.2 15.4 13.1 15.6 15.4 15.8 39.6 44.4 34.5

12.7 12.2 13.3 11.1 16.3 15.5 17.1 33.9 38.4 29.6

12.7 12.2 13.0 11.5 16.4 15.6 17.2 32.7 34.7 31.0

13.3 12.7 13.6 11.7 15.5 17.5 13.7 34.7 36.1 33.1

13.9 13.6 14.3 13.0 14.4 14.2 14.6 34.7 34.2 35.4

12.8 12.5 12.9 12.1 16.0 17.4 14.7 34.5 36.2 32.7

13.0 12.4 13.8 10.9 16.7 17.5 16.1 30.6 33.2 27.6

1 Beginning 1989 reflects new editing procedures for cases with missing data on school enrollment. 2 Percent of students 3 who drop out in a single year without completing high school. For grades 10 to 12. Includes other races, not shown separately. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 5 Percent of the population who have not completed high school and are not enrolled, regardless of when they dropped out. For persons 18 to 24 years old.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516.

190

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 303. High School Dropouts by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1970 to 1997
[As of October (4,670 represents 4,670,000). For persons 14 to 24 years old. See Table 305 for definition of dropouts] Age and race Total dropouts 16 to 17 years . . . 18 to 21 years . . . 22 to 24 years . . . White 2 . . . . . . 16 to 17 years . . . 18 to 21 years . . . 22 to 24 years . . . Black 2 . . . . . . . 16 to 17 years . . . 18 to 21 years . . . 22 to 24 years . . . Hispanic 2 3 . . . 16 to 17 years . . . 18 to 21 years . . . 22 to 24 years . . .
1 2

Number of dropouts (1,000) 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,670 617 2,138 1,770 3,577 485 1,618 1,356 1,047 125 500 397 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1980 5,212 709 2,578 1,798 4,169 619 2,032 1,416 934 80 486 346 919 92 470 323 1990 3,854 418 1,921 1,458 3,127 334 1,516 1,235 611 73 345 185 1,122 89 502 523 1995 3,963 406 1,980 1,491 3,098 314 1,530 1,181 605 70 328 194 1,355 94 652 598 1997 3,708 387 1,929 1,307 2,842 294 1,489 987 693 73 354 257 1,196 77 561 542 1970 12.2 8.0 16.4 18.7 10.8 7.3 14.3 16.3 22.2 12.8 30.5 37.8 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

Percent of population 1980 12.0 8.8 15.8 15.2 11.3 9.2 14.7 14.0 16.0 6.9 23.0 24.0 29.5 16.6 40.3 40.6 1990 10.1 6.3 13.4 13.8 10.1 6.4 13.1 14.0 10.9 6.9 16.0 13.5 26.8 12.9 32.9 42.8 1995 9.9 5.4 14.2 13.6 9.7 5.4 13.8 13.4 10.0 5.8 15.8 12.5 24.7 10.7 29.9 37.4 1997 9.1 4.9 13.3 12.5 8.8 4.7 12.7 11.9 11.2 5.6 16.9 16.6 21.0 7.3 27.1 35.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 Includes other groups not shown separately. Includes persons 14 to 15 years, not shown NA Not available. separately. 3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516; and earlier reports.

No. 304. Enrollment Status, by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex: 1975 and 1997
[As of October (15,693 represents 15,693,000). For persons 18 to 21 years old. For the civilian noninstitutional population. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Total persons 18 to 21 years old (1,000) 1975 Total 1 White . . . . . . Black . . . . . . Hispanic 2 . . . Male 1 . . White . . . . . . Black . . . . . . Hispanic 2 . . . Female 1 . White . . . . . . Black . . . . . . Hispanic 2 . . .
1

Percent distribution High school graduates Enrolled in high school 1975 5.7 4.7 12.5 12.0 7.4 6.2 15.9 17.3 4.2 3.2 9.7 7.6 1997 9.2 8.0 14.6 11.8 10.7 9.1 18.8 12.8 7.6 6.9 10.7 10.8 Total 1975 78.0 80.6 60.4 57.2 76.6 79.7 55.0 54.6 79.2 81.4 65.0 59.3 1997 77.5 79.2 68.7 60.7 74.6 76.5 63.0 57.1 80.5 82.0 73.9 65.0 In college 1975 33.5 34.6 24.9 24.4 35.4 36.9 23.9 25.2 31.8 32.4 25.8 23.6 1997 44.7 46.1 33.4 27.5 42.0 43.5 28.1 23.9 47.5 48.8 38.1 31.7 Not high school graduates 1975 16.3 14.7 27.0 30.8 15.9 14.1 29.0 27.9 16.6 15.3 25.4 33.1 1997 13.3 12.7 16.9 27.1 14.7 14.3 18.4 30.0 11.8 11.1 15.4 23.8

Characteristic

1997 14,550 11,706 2,100 2,072 7,338 5,982 992 1,108 7,212 5,724 1,107 964
2

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

15,693 13,448 1,997 899 7,584 6,545 911 416 8,109 6,903 1,085 484

Includes other races not shown separately.

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516; and earlier reports.

No. 305. Employment Status of High School Graduates and School Dropouts: 1980 to 1998
[In thousands (11,622 represents 11,622,000), except percent. As of October. For civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years old. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Employment status, sex, and race Civilian population . . . . In labor force . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of population . . . Employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of labor force . . Unemployed . . . . . . . . . . . . Unemployment rate, total 4 . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not in labor force . . . . . . . . . . Percent of population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graduates 1980 11,622 9,795 84.3 8,567 87.5 1,228 12.5 13.5 11.5 10.8 26.1 1,827 15.7 1990 8,370 7,107 84.9 6,279 88.3 828 11.7 11.1 12.3 9.0 26.0 1,262 15.1
1 3

Dropouts 1998
3

2 3

1995

1980 5,254 3,549 67.5 2,651 74.7 898 25.3 23.5 28.7 21.6 43.9 1,705 32.5

1990 3,800 2,506 66.0 1,993 79.5 513 20.5 18.8 23.5 17.0 43.3 1,294 34.1

1995

1998

3

6,627 5,530 83.4 4,863 87.9 667 12.1 11.7 12.5 10.5 20.3 1,097 16.6

6,659 5,668 85.1 5,147 90.8 520 9.2 8.6 9.9 7.2 18.8 992 14.9

3,876 2,443 63.0 1,894 77.5 549 22.5 19.2 28.8 19.1 48.0 1,433 37.0

3,942 2,579 65.4 2,174 84.3 405 15.7 13.9 19.3 14.1 24.5 1,363 34.6

1 For persons not enrolled in college who have completed 4 years of high school only. 2 For persons not in regular school 3 and who have not completed the 12th grade nor received a general equivalency degree. See footnote 2, Table 649. 4 Includes other races not shown separately.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2307; News, USDL 99-175, June 25, 1999; and unpublished data.

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

191

No. 306. General Educational Development (GED) Credentials Issued: 1974 to 1996
[GEDs issued in thousands (295 represents 295,000). Includes outlying areas] Percent distribution by age of test taker Year 1974 1975 1980 1985 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEDs issued 295 342 488 427 419 465 476 499 513 514 Under 19 years old 35 33 37 33 35 32 33 34 37 40 20 to 24 years old 27 26 27 26 25 28 27 26 25 25 25 to 29 years old 13 14 13 15 14 13 14 13 13 13 30 to 34 years old 9 9 8 10 10 11 11 10 10 9 35 years old and over 17 18 15 16 17 16 16 16 15 15

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1998.

No. 307. College Enrollment of Recent High School Graduates: 1960 to 1997
[High school graduates in thousands (1,679 represents 1,679,000). For persons 16 to 24 who graduated from high school in the preceeding 12 months. Includes persons receiving GEDs. Based on surveys and subject to sampling error] Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of high school graduates Total
1

Percent enrolled in college Black (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 361 384 392 438 333 386 337 382 337 341 320 353 302 318 356 416 394
2

2

Male 756 1,254 1,343 1,513 1,500 1,508 1,390 1,429 1,286 1,331 1,278 1,334 1,208 1,169 1,139 1,216 1,118 1,244 1,238 1,297 1,354

Female 923 1,405 1,414 1,673 1,589 1,592 1,574 1,583 1,380 1,455 1,369 1,339 1,245 1,185 1,137 1,182 1,219 1,273 1,361 1,363 1,415

White 1,565 2,417 2,461 2,825 2,682 2,644 2,496 2,514 2,241 2,307 2,207 2,187 2,051 1,921 1,867 1,900 1,910 2,065 2,088 2,092 2,228

Total

1

Male 54.0 57.3 55.2 52.6 46.7 49.0 51.9 56.0 58.6 55.9 58.4 57.0 57.6 57.8 57.6 59.6 59.7 60.6 62.6 60.1 63.5

Female 37.9 45.3 48.5 49.0 51.8 52.1 53.4 54.5 56.9 51.9 55.3 60.8 61.6 62.0 67.1 63.8 65.4 63.2 61.4 69.7 70.3

White 45.8 51.7 52.0 51.2 49.9 52.0 55.0 57.9 59.4 56.0 56.6 60.7 60.4 61.5 64.6 63.4 62.8 63.6 62.6 65.8 67.5

Black (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 41.8 36.5 38.5 40.2 42.3 36.5 51.9 45.0 52.8 46.3 45.6 47.9 55.6 50.9 51.4 55.3 59.6

1,679 2,659 2,757 3,186 3,089 3,100 2,964 3,012 2,666 2,786 2,647 2,673 2,454 2,355 2,276 2,398 2,338 2,517 2,599 2,660 2,769
1

45.1 50.9 51.8 50.7 49.3 50.6 52.7 55.2 57.7 53.8 56.8 58.9 59.6 59.9 62.4 61.7 62.6 61.9 61.9 65.0 67.0

NA Not available.

Includes other races, not shown separately.

As of October.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

No. 308. College Enrollment, by Sex and Attendance Status: 1983 to 1997
[As of fall. In thousands (12,465 represents 12,465,000)] 1983 Sex and age Total Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male 14 18 20 22 25 30 35 ............. to 17 years old . . . to 19 years old . . . to 21 years old . . . to 24 years old . . . to 29 years old . . . to 34 years old . . . years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,465 6,024 102 1,256 1,241 1,158 1,115 570 583 6,441 142 1,496 1,125 884 947 721 1,126 Part time 5,204 2,264 16 158 205 382 624 384 494 2,940 16 179 204 378 658 553 953 1989 Total 13,539 6,190 71 1,342 1,189 1,090 1,038 603 857 7,349 101 1,515 1,253 1,104 1,052 750 1,574 Part time 5,878 2,450 12 113 198 367 639 439 682 3,428 12 184 213 470 732 563 1,253 1993 Total 14,305 6,427 83 1,224 1,294 1,260 950 661 955 7,877 93 1,416 1,414 1,263 1,058 811 1,824 Part time 6,177 2,537 10 138 209 392 564 484 739 3,640 6 172 279 493 689 575 1,427 1996, prel. Total 14,300 6,344 92 1,342 1,224 1,175 993 480 1,039 7,956 137 1,662 1,419 1,141 1,131 714 1,752 Part time 6,087 2,528 21 231 263 323 553 337 801 3,558 45 257 282 407 669 478 1,421 1997, est. Total 14,350 6,239 88 1,374 1,215 1,038 954 561 1,009 8,111 99 1,715 1,429 1,101 1,075 688 2,004 Part time 6,259 2,572 12 207 260 359 540 390 805 3,687 15 233 273 436 661 455 1,614

Female. . . . . . . . . . . . 14 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 19 years old . . . 20 to 21 years old . . . 22 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 29 years old . . . 30 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

192

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 309. College Enrollment, by Selected Characteristics: 1980 to 1996
[In thousands (12,086.8 represents 12,086,800). As of fall. Totals may differ from other tables because of adjustments to underreported and nonreported racial/ethnic data. Nonresident alien students are not distributed among racial/ethnic groups] Characteristic Total . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . Public. . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . 2-year . . . . . . . 4-year . . . . . . . Undergraduate. . Graduate . . . . . First professional White 1 . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . Public. . Private . 2-year . 4-year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 12,086.8 5,868.1 6,218.7 9,456.4 2,630.4 4,521.4 7,565.4 10,469.1 1,340.9 276.8 9,833.0 4,772.9 5,060.1 7,656.1 2,176.9 3,558.5 6,274.5 8,480.7 1,104.7 247.7 1,106.8 463.7 643.0 876.1 230.7 472.5 634.3 1,018.8 75.1 12.8 471.7 231.6 240.1 406.2 65.5 255.1 216.6 433.1 32.1 6.5 83.9 37.8 46.1 74.2 9.7 47.0 36.9 77.9 5.2 0.8 286.4 151.3 135.2 239.7 46.7 124.3 162.1 248.7 31.6 6.1 305.0 210.8 94.2 204.1 100.8 64.1 240.9 209.9 92.2 2.9 1988 13,819.5 6,284.4 7,535.1 10,844.7 2,974.8 5,240.1 8,579.4 11,959.2 1,586.2 274.1 10,723.0 4,861.3 5,861.7 8,385.4 2,337.6 3,954.3 6,768.7 9,272.6 1,228.4 222.0 1,247.1 484.7 762.4 976.5 270.6 524.3 722.8 1,147.2 83.9 16.0 782.6 354.0 428.6 671.4 111.1 424.2 358.3 724.6 47.2 10.9 102.8 43.1 59.7 90.4 12.4 54.9 47.9 95.5 6.2 1.1 572.5 294.9 277.6 461.0 111.6 215.2 357.3 500.5 53.2 18.8 391.5 246.3 145.2 260.0 131.5 67.1 324.4 218.7 167.3 5.4 1990 14,359.0 6,501.8 7,857.1 11,309.6 3,049.4 5,651.9 8,707.1 12,439.3 1,639.1 280.5 10,989.8 4,962.2 6,027.6 8,622.2 2,367.5 4,198.8 6,791.0 9,507.7 1,258.0 224.0 1,335.4 517.0 818.4 1,053.4 281.9 577.6 757.7 1,229.3 88.9 17.2 866.6 390.5 476.0 742.1 124.5 483.7 382.9 804.2 50.9 11.4 113.7 47.6 66.1 100.2 13.6 62.6 51.2 105.8 6.6 1.3 637.2 325.1 312.0 516.3 120.9 255.7 381.5 558.7 57.6 20.8 416.4 259.4 157.0 275.3 141.0 73.5 342.8 233.6 177.0 5.8 1992 14,487.4 6,524.0 7,963.4 11,384.6 3,101.7 5,722.4 8,765.0 12,537.7 1,668.7 280.9 10,875.4 4,884.6 5,990.8 8,492.8 2,382.6 4,131.2 6,744.3 9,387.6 1,267.2 220.6 1,392.9 536.9 856.0 1,100.5 292.3 601.6 791.2 1,280.6 94.1 18.2 955.0 427.7 527.3 822.3 132.7 545.0 409.9 887.8 55.3 12.0 119.3 50.2 69.1 103.3 15.9 64.4 54.9 110.9 7.0 1.5 697.0 351.5 345.6 565.9 131.1 289.5 407.5 613.0 61.5 22.5 447.7 273.1 174.6 299.5 148.1 90.6 357.0 257.9 183.6 6.2 1993 14,304.8 6,427.5 7,877.4 11,189.1 3,115.7 5,565.9 8,738.9 12,324.0 1,688.4 292.4 10,600.0 4,755.0 5,845.1 8,226.6 2,373.4 3,960.6 6,639.5 9,100.4 1,273.8 225.9 1,412.8 543.7 869.1 1,114.3 298.5 599.0 813.7 1,290.4 102.2 20.2 988.8 441.2 547.6 851.3 137.5 556.8 432.0 918.1 57.9 12.8 121.7 51.2 70.5 106.4 15.3 63.2 58.5 112.7 7.3 1.7 724.4 363.1 361.3 586.3 138.2 295.0 429.4 634.2 65.2 25.0 457.1 273.4 183.7 304.3 152.7 91.2 365.9 268.2 182.0 6.9 1994 14,278.8 6,371.9 7,906.9 11,133.7 3,145.1 5,529.7 8,749.1 12,262.6 1,721.5 294.7 10,427.0 4,650.7 5,776.3 8,056.3 2,370.6 3,861.7 6,565.3 8,916.0 1,286.8 224.2 1,448.6 549.7 898.9 1,144.6 304.1 615.0 833.6 1,317.3 110.6 20.7 1,045.6 464.0 581.6 898.7 146.8 582.9 462.7 968.3 63.9 13.4 127.4 53.0 74.4 110.7 16.6 66.2 61.2 117.4 8.1 1.8 774.3 385.0 389.3 622.1 152.2 312.5 461.8 674.1 72.6 27.6 455.9 269.5 186.4 301.2 154.7 91.4 364.5 269.4 179.5 7.0 1995, prel. 14,261.8 6,342.5 7,919.2 11,092.4 3,169.4 5,492.5 8,769.3 12,232.0 1,732.0 297.6 10,311.2 4,594.1 5,717.2 7,945.4 2,365.9 3,794.0 6,517.2 8,805.6 1,282.3 223.3 1,473.7 555.9 917.8 1,160.7 313.0 621.5 852.2 1,333.6 118.6 21.4 1,093.8 480.2 613.7 937.1 156.8 608.4 485.5 1,012.0 68.0 13.8 131.3 54.8 76.5 113.8 17.5 65.6 65.7 120.7 8.5 2.1 797.4 393.3 404.1 638.0 159.4 314.9 482.4 692.2 75.6 29.6 454.4 264.3 190.1 297.5 156.9 88.1 366.2 267.6 179.5 7.3 1996, est. 14,300.3 6,344.0 7,956.3 11,090.2 3,210.1 5,497.4 8,802.8 12,259.4 1,743.1 297.7 10,226.0 4,553.0 5,673.1 7,848.3 2,377.7 3,742.8 6,483.2 8,730.9 1,273.9 221.2 1,499.4 563.6 935.8 1,177.3 322.2 629.3 870.2 1,352.6 125.5 21.4 1,152.2 501.3 650.9 987.6 164.7 644.2 508.1 1,065.6 72.7 14.0 134.0 55.7 78.2 116.3 17.7 66.7 67.2 122.9 8.9 2.2 823.6 403.6 420.0 657.1 166.5 322.9 500.7 713.2 79.0 31.4 464.9 266.7 198.2 303.7 161.3 91.5 373.5 274.1 183.2 7.7

Undergraduate. . Graduate . . . . . First professional Black 1 . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . .

Public. . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . 2-year . . . . . . . . . . 4-year . . . . . . . . . . Undergraduate. . . . . Graduate . . . . . . . . First professional . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . Public. . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . 2-year . . . . . . . . . . 4-year . . . . . . . . . . Undergraduate. . . . . Graduate . . . . . . . . First professional . . . American Indian 1 . Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . Public. . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . 2-year . . . . . . . . . . 4-year . . . . . . . . . . Undergraduate. . . . . Graduate . . . . . . . . First professional . . . Asian 1 . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . Public. . . . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . 2-year . . . . . . . . . . 4-year . . . . . . . . . . Undergraduate. . . . . Graduate . . . . . . . . First professional . . . Nonresident alien . Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . Public. . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . 2-year . . . . . . . 4-year . . . . . . . Undergraduate. . Graduate . . . . . First professional
1

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

Non-Hispanic.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

193

No. 310. Foreign (Nonimmigrant) Student Enrollment in College: 1976 to 1998
[For fall of the previous year. (179 represents 179,000)] Enrollment (1,000) Region of origin Percent enrolled in— Engineering Science1 Business 1996 21 20 18 22 25 37 15 45 7 18 36 14 16 40 22 23 22 25 11 11 16

1976 1980 1985 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1980 1996 1980 1996 1980 All regions . . . Africa . . . . . . . . . . . Nigeria . . . . . . . . Asia 2. . . . . . . . China: Taiwan Hong Kong . . India . . . . . . . Indonesia . . . Iran . . . . . . . Japan . . . . . Malaysia . . . Saudi Arabia South Korea Thailand . . . Europe . . . . . . Latin America 3 Mexico . . . . Venezuela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 25 11 97 11 12 10 1 20 7 2 3 3 7 14 30 5 5 10 10 3 286 36 16 165 18 10 9 2 51 12 4 10 5 7 23 42 6 10 16 15 4
2

342 40 18 200 23 10 15 7 17 13 22 8 16 7 33 49 6 10 16 15 4

387 25 4 245 31 11 26 9 7 30 14 4 22 7 46 48 7 3 19 18 4

449 21 2 294 37 14 35 11 4 44 14 4 31 9 62 45 8 4 23 22 4

453 21 2 292 36 13 34 12 3 45 14 4 34 11 65 47 9 4 23 23 4

454 21 2 290 33 12 32 13 3 46 14 4 36 12 67 47 9 4 24 23 4

458 22 2 291 30 11 31 12 2 46 15 4 37 13 68 50 9 5 24 23 4
3

481 23 2 308 31 10 34 13 2 47 15 5 43 15 72 51 10 5 23 22 4

25 20 19 32 17 22 31 27 45 7 13 30 17 17 15 20 16 30 8 8 5

16 14 11 19 18 15 36 21 31 3 31 29 12 17 9 13 16 16 5 5 5

8 9 9 8 15 9 16 7 7 5 14 4 11 6 9 8 7 8 6 6 7

8 8 10 9 6 4 9 2 17 4 3 4 8 3 9 7 6 5 7 7 7

16 19 22 16 17 26 21 21 11 19 22 14 15 26 14 14 11 11 13 12 16

North America . . . . . Canada . . . . . . . . Oceania . . . . . . . . .

1 Physical and life sciences. America.

Includes countries not shown separately.

Includes Central America, Caribbean, and South

Source: Institute of International Education, New York, NY, Open Doors, annual (copyright).

No. 311. College Enrollment, by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1980 to 1997
[In thousands (11,387 represents 11,387,000). As of October for the civilian noninstitutional population, 14 years old and over. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Characteristic Total 2 . . . . . . . . . Male 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . 35 years old and over Female 3 . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . 35 years old and over White 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . 35 years old and over Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . Black 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . 35 years old and over Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 3 4 . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . 35 years old and over Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 1985 1989
1

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997 15,436 6,843 4,374 1,509 899 8,593 4,829 1,760 1,892 12,442 7,495 2,522 2,297 5,552 6,890 1,903 1,085 423 372 723 1,180 1,260 806 254 151 555 704

11,387 12,524 13,180 13,621 14,057 14,035 13,898 15,022 14,715 15,226 5,430 5,906 5,950 6,192 6,439 6,192 6,324 6,764 6,703 6,820 3,604 3,749 3,717 3,922 3,954 3,912 3,994 4,152 4,089 4,187 1,325 1,464 1,443 1,412 1,605 1,392 1,406 1,589 1,561 1,523 405 561 716 772 832 789 873 958 985 1,013 5,957 3,625 1,378 802 6,618 3,788 1,599 1,100 7,231 4,085 1,639 1,396 11,243 6,631 2,597 1,868 5,136 6,107 1,287 835 275 146 480 807 754 453 170 114 353 401 7,429 4,042 1,749 1,546 11,488 6,635 2,698 2,023 5,235 6,253 1,393 894 258 207 587 807 748 435 168 130 364 384 7,618 4,218 1,680 1,636 11,686 6,813 2,661 2,107 5,304 6,382 1,477 828 373 257 629 848 830 516 196 109 347 483 7,844 4,429 1,732 1,575 11,710 6,916 2,582 2,053 5,210 6,499 1,424 886 302 208 527 897 918 586 214 102 388 530 7,574 4,199 1,688 1,616 8,258 4,576 1,830 1,766 8,013 4,452 1,788 1,684 8,406 4,582 1,920 1,765

9,925 10,781 6,334 6,500 2,328 2,604 1,051 1,448 4,804 5,103 5,121 5,679 1,163 1,263 688 734 289 295 156 213 476 552 686 712 443 315 118 (NA) 222 221 580 375 189 (NA) 279 299

11,434 12,222 12,021 12,189 6,763 7,118 7,011 7,123 2,505 2,735 2,686 2,644 2,068 2,267 2,208 2,254 5,222 5,524 5,535 5,453 6,212 6,698 6,486 6,735 1,545 1,800 1,772 1,901 861 1,001 988 983 386 440 426 519 284 323 334 354 636 745 710 764 909 1,054 1,062 1,136 995 602 249 129 442 553 1,187 662 312 205 529 659 1,207 745 250 193 568 639 1,223 706 310 184 529 693

NA Not available. 1 Beginning 1989, based on a revised edit and tabulation package. 2 Includes other races not shown separately. 3 Includes persons 14 to 17 years old, not shown separately. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-516; and earlier reports.

194

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 312. Higher Education—Summary: 1970 to 1996
[Institutions, staff, and enrollment as of fall (474 represents 474,000). Finances for fiscal year ending in the following year. Covers universities, colleges, professional schools, junior and teachers colleges, both publicly and privately controlled, regular session. Includes estimates for institutions not reporting. See also Appendix III] Item ALL INSTITUTIONS Number of institutions 1 . . . . . . Number . . . 4-year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . 2-year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . Instructional staff— (Lecturer or above) 2 . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . Percent full-time . . . . . . . . . Percent . . . Total enrollment 3 . . Male . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . 4-year institutions 2-year institutions Full-time . . . . . . Part-time . . . . . . Public . . . . . . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,556 1,665 891 474 78 3,231 1,957 1,274 686 66 3,340 2,029 1,311 715 64 3,559 2,141 1,418 817 61 3,638 2,169 1,469 877 (NA) 3,632 2,190 1,442 915 60 3,688 2,215 1,473 915 (NA) 3,706 2,244 1,462 932 59 (NA) (NA) (NA) 890 (NA) 14,300 6,344 7,956 8,803 5,497 8,213 6,087 11,090 3,210 12,259 5,411 6,848 2,193 298 172 125 1,743 760 983 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) Unit 1970 1980 1985 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996, est.

8,581 12,097 12,247 13,819 14,486 14,305 14,279 14,262 5,044 5,874 5,818 6,284 6,524 6,427 6,372 6,343 3,537 6,223 6,429 7,535 7,963 7,877 7,907 7,919 6,262 7,571 7,716 8,579 8,765 8,739 8,749 8,769 2,319 4,526 4,531 5,240 5,722 5,566 5,530 5,493 5,816 7,098 7,075 7,821 8,162 8,128 8,138 8,129 2,765 4,999 5,172 5,998 6,325 6,177 6,141 6,133 6,428 9,457 9,479 10,845 11,385 11,189 11,134 11,092 2,153 2,640 2,768 2,974 3,102 3,116 3,145 3,169 7,376 10,475 10,597 4,254 5,000 4,962 3,122 5,475 5,635 2,063 2,588 2,292 173 278 274 159 199 180 15 78 94 1,031 1,343 1,376 630 675 677 400 670 700 11,959 12,538 12,324 12,263 12,232 5,380 5,583 5,484 5,422 5,401 6,579 6,955 6,840 6,840 6,831 2,257 2,184 2,161 2,133 2,169 273 281 292 295 298 167 169 173 174 174 107 112 120 121 124 1,586 1,669 1,688 1,721 1,732 737 772 771 776 768 849 896 917 946 965 179,227 48,647 22,076 41,910 17,538 173,351 136,024 16,429 96,013 189,121 51,507 23,243 44,343 18,336 182,969 144,158 17,205 109,707 197,973 55,260 23,939 45,693 18,868 190,476 151,446 17,599 128,837

Undergraduate 4 . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . First-time freshmen. First professional . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . Graduate 4 . . . . . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . Women . . . . . . . . Current funds revenues Tuition and fees . . . Federal government . State government . . Auxiliary enterprises.
5

. . . .

dol dol dol dol dol dol dol dol dol

. 23,879 65,585 100,438 149,766 170,881 . 5,021 13,773 23,117 37,434 45,346 . 4,190 9,748 12,705 18,236 21,015 . 6,503 20,106 29,912 39,481 41,248 . 3,125 7,287 10,674 14,903 16,663 . 23,375 64,053 97,536 146,088 . 17,616 50,074 76,128 114,140 . 2,988 7,288 10,528 14,272 . 13,714 23,465 50,281 72,049 165,241 128,978 15,562 92,239

Current funds expenditures 5 Educational and general 6 . Auxiliary enterprises. . . . . Endowment (market value) . . 2-YEAR INSTITUTIONS

Number of institutions 1 7 . . . . . Number . . . Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . Instructional staff— (Lecturer or above) Enrollment Public . . Private . Male . . . Female .
3 4 2

891 654 237 92 2,319 2,195 124 1,375 945 2,504 413 926 701 2,327 2,073 1,205

1,274 945 329 192 4,526 4,329 198 2,047 2,479

1,311 932 379 211 4,531 4,270 261 2,002 2,529

1,418 972 446 (NA) 5,240 4,996 244 2,233 3,007

1,469 1,024 445 (NA) 5,722 5,485 238 2,413 3,309

1,442 1,021 421 290 5,566 5,337 229 2,345 3,220

1,473 1,036 437 (NA) 5,530 5,308 221 2,323 3,207

1,462 1,047 415 285 5,493 5,278 215 2,329 3,164

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 5,497 5,283 214 2,348 3,149 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

. . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 Mil. Mil. Mil. Mil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

Current funds revenue 5 . Tuition and fees . . . . State government . . . Local government . . .

dol dol dol dol

8,505 12,293 18,021 20,805 21,961 22,977 24,614 1,618 2,618 4,029 5,218 5,594 5,643 6,323 3,961 5,659 8,001 8,647 8,730 9,252 9,848 1,623 2,027 3,044 3,524 3,936 4,139 4,324 8,212 7,608 3,764 11,976 17,494 19,941 21,187 22,078 23,522 11,118 16,270 18,578 19,763 20,616 22,053 5,398 7,903 9,018 9,476 9,829 10,312

Current funds expenditures. . . . Mil. dol . . . Education and general 6 . . . . Mil. dol . . . Instruction. . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. dol . . .

1 NA Not available. Beginning 1980, number of institutions includes count of branch campuses. Due to revised survey procedures, data beginning 1990 are not comparable with previous years. 2 Due to revised survey methods, data beginning 1990 not comparable with previous years. 3 Beginning 1980, branch campuses counted according to actual status, e.g., 2-year branch in 2-year category; previously a 2-year branch included in university category. 4 Includes unclassified students. (Students taking courses for credit, but are not candidates for degrees.) 5 Includes items not shown separately. 6 Data for 1970 are not strictly comparable with later years. 7 Beginning 1980, includes schools accredited by the National Association of Trade and Technical Schools.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual; Projections of Education Statistics, annual; and unpublished data.

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

195

No. 313. Colleges—Number, 1995 and Enrollment, 1996, by State
[Number of institutions beginning in academic year. Opening fall enrollment of resident and extension students attending full time or part time (14,300 represents 14,300,000). Excludes students taking courses for credit by mail, radio, or TV, and students in branches of U.S. institutions operated in foreign countries. See Appendix III] Number of institutions, 1995 1 1996 Enrollment, prel. (1,000) Minority enrollment Total Male Female 6,344 96 12 125 43 841 111 68 19 33 277 135 27 27 316 131 81 77 74 86 22 108 179 239 122 54 127 20 54 33 27 143 43 437 160 20 240 81 76 293 32 72 16 108 437 76 15 154 129 38 132 13 69 Public Private 3,210 23 1 23 11 258 34 58 8 67 110 69 14 11 189 65 51 17 30 29 18 43 237 88 67 11 101 5 20 2 28 64 6 455 70 4 132 23 24 287 35 26 7 53 117 37 15 61 40 11 54 1 Full time White
2

State

Total

3

Black

2

Hispanic 1,152 2 1 40 1 383 23 8 1 3 92 5 1 2 64 7 3 6 1 5 (Z) 6 18 12 4 1 5 1 2 6 1 32 33 103 5 (Z) 8 4 6 12 3 2 (Z) 3 202 4 (Z) 8 11 1 6 1 3
2

Nonresident alien 465 4 1 8 2 82 6 6 1 8 20 8 6 1 18 9 7 6 3 6 1 10 25 18 7 2 8 1 3 2 1 11 2 44 6 1 16 8 6 17 3 3 1 5 27 5 1 8 9 2 7 (Z) 1

United States. . Alabama . Alaska . . Arizona. . Arkansas California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,706 14,300 82 9 45 38 348 59 42 9 19 114 120 17 12 169 78 59 54 61 36 33 57 118 109 107 46 101 26 35 10 30 61 35 311 121 20 156 45 45 217 12 59 21 76 179 17 22 89 64 28 66 9 10 219 29 277 101 1,883 243 155 45 74 641 318 61 60 721 286 177 172 178 204 56 261 410 547 275 126 291 43 119 73 64 328 104 1,028 373 41 538 177 165 622 72 174 35 247 955 152 35 354 292 86 299 31 82

7,956 11,090 124 17 152 58 1,041 132 88 26 41 364 183 34 33 405 155 96 95 104 118 33 152 231 308 154 72 164 23 66 41 37 186 60 591 213 20 297 96 89 329 40 102 20 139 519 76 20 200 164 48 167 18 13 197 28 253 89 1,625 209 98 37 7 531 249 47 49 532 221 126 155 147 175 38 217 173 459 209 115 189 38 100 72 36 265 98 572 303 37 405 154 141 335 37 148 29 194 838 114 20 292 252 75 245 30 82

8,213 10,226 150 12 131 68 887 131 83 26 49 309 214 35 41 371 191 122 96 118 145 32 128 261 278 164 93 170 33 68 24 39 177 51 665 241 32 337 107 92 391 46 111 26 162 521 96 24 202 180 60 182 18 20 157 22 200 80 923 194 123 35 36 418 215 16 55 504 246 157 146 158 133 53 170 317 437 244 84 244 37 107 55 60 223 57 672 276 36 448 134 138 519 61 127 31 198 582 137 33 260 232 79 264 28 65

3,609 58 5 69 18 878 43 26 8 30 203 95 39 4 199 31 13 21 17 64 2 81 68 93 24 41 39 5 9 16 3 94 45 312 91 3 73 35 21 86 9 45 3 44 347 10 2 86 51 5 28 2 16

1,499 52 1 9 15 144 8 12 6 22 88 81 1 (Z) 92 18 5 8 12 54 (Z) 59 23 60 8 38 26 (Z) 3 4 1 39 3 137 75 (Z) 51 13 3 52 3 40 (Z) 37 95 1 (Z) 58 11 4 13 (Z) 11

Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia Hawaii . Idaho . . Illinois . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Iowa . . . Kansas. . Kentucky Louisiana Maine. . .

Maryland . . . . Massachusetts. Michigan. . . . . Minnesota . . . . Mississippi . . .

Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . New York . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . Oregon. . . . . Pennsylvania . Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

South Carolina. South Dakota . Tennessee . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . Virginia. . . . . Washington . . West Virginia . Wisconsin . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . .

U.S. military
3

..

1 - Represents zero. Z Fewer than 500. Branch campuses counted as separate institutions. Includes other races not shown separately. 4 Service schools.

Non-Hispanic.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

196

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U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

No. 314. Higher Education Price Indexes: 1970 to 1997
[1983=100. For years ending June 30. Reflects prices paid by colleges and universities] Personnel compensation Year Index, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.5 44.3 46.7 49.9 54.3 57.8 61.5 65.7 70.5 77.5 85.8 93.9 100.0 104.8 110.8 116.3 120.9 126.1 132.8 140.8 148.2 153.4 157.9 163.3 168.3 173.3 178.6 Professional salaries 47.7 52.0 54.3 57.2 60.3 63.5 66.4 69.9 74.1 79.4 86.3 93.7 100.0 104.7 111.4 118.2 125.0 130.9 138.8 147.6 155.6 160.8 165.0 170.3 176.1 181.7 187.2 Nonprofessional salaries 38.8 44.9 47.6 50.6 54.6 59.0 63.1 68.1 73.4 80.2 87.7 94.6 100.0 105.1 109.2 112.8 116.3 120.6 125.3 130.3 135.4 140.2 144.2 148.2 152.5 157.3 162.1 Fringe benefits 24.7 31.1 34.7 38.6 42.9 47.8 52.8 58.4 64.5 72.6 81.8 91.5 100.0 108.3 117.7 127.7 137.4 147.1 158.7 171.3 184.4 193.8 204.2 214.1 221.4 224.5 226.7 Contracted services, supplies, and equipment Supplies Servand ices materials 42.8 47.8 49.9 52.2 56.8 59.1 62.6 66.6 71.2 77.0 85.2 94.2 100.0 104.9 110.8 115.1 119.7 123.0 128.8 134.0 139.8 145.7 149.5 154.8 158.0 163.8 167.3 37.6 39.8 41.1 46.5 58.0 60.7 63.8 66.6 71.7 84.6 95.6 100.4 100.0 99.7 103.0 102.6 99.0 101.1 108.3 114.3 116.4 115.2 113.2 114.3 115.7 130.1 128.6 Equipment 41.9 45.1 46.5 49.4 58.3 61.7 64.8 69.3 74.7 81.6 89.6 96.4 100.0 102.3 104.8 107.2 108.9 120.5 115.1 119.6 123.3 126.3 128.6 130.8 133.5 137.0 139.3 Library acquisitions 25.7 34.9 37.7 41.6 46.7 52.1 56.8 63.2 70.0 77.8 85.9 93.5 100.0 105.3 111.3 121.2 132.9 140.5 153.5 167.0 179.8 193.9 204.3 216.2 228.8 245.0 260.9

Total 42.1 47.1 49.8 52.8 56.3 60.0 63.5 67.6 72.4 78.4 85.8 93.5 100.0 105.4 112.0 118.8 125.4 131.7 139.5 148.3 156.5 162.4 167.6 173.4 179.1 184.1 189.0

Total 31.9 36.0 37.6 41.4 48.5 51.3 55.7 60.2 65.1 75.0 85.9 94.9 100.0 103.0 107.1 109.0 107.4 109.8 112.8 118.7 123.2 126.9 129.4 133.9 136.1 141.3 148.0

Utilities 16.3 19.2 20.2 24.8 31.8 34.4 40.5 45.9 50.3 64.1 79.7 92.4 100.0 102.5 105.3 103.1 91.0 87.7 85.3 90.1 92.2 93.3 94.7 98.7 96.8 93.3 106.1

1970 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: Research Associates of Washington, Arlington, VA, Inflation Measures for Schools, Colleges, and Libraries, annual (copyright).

No. 315. Institutions of Higher Education—Finances: 1980 to 1996
[In millions of dollars (58,520 represents $58,520,000,000). For fiscal years ending in year shown. For coverage, see headnote, Table 312. See also Appendix III] Item Current funds revenues. Tuition and fees . . . . . Federal government . . State government . . . . Local government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 1980 58,520 11,930 8,902 18,378 1,588 2,808 1,177 1,239 6,481 (3) 6,015 56,914 44,543 18,497 5,054 5,099 4,700 3,876 1,624 2,567 2,200 905 1,296 1,817 732 6,486 4,757 1,128 1985 1990 1993 1994 1995 Total Public Private 74,472 32,003 10,267 1,450 533 6,814 3,841 2,002 7,272 6,336 3,954 70,952 55,360 19,157 7,545 5,442 4,326 4,293 1,603 3,820 8,110 5,756 2,355 1,686 980 6,290 6,062 3,240

92,473 139,635 170,881 179,227 189,121 197,973 123,501 21,283 33,926 45,346 48,647 51,507 55,260 23,257 11,509 17,255 21,015 22,076 23,243 23,939 13,672 27,583 38,349 41,248 41,910 44,343 45,693 44,243 2,387 3,640 4,445 4,998 5,166 5,608 5,075 4,896 2,096 2,127 10,100 7,475 3,015 7,781 3,144 3,632 13,938 13,217 4,753 9,660 3,628 5,038 16,663 18,124 5,715 10,203 3,670 5,294 17,538 18,960 5,931 10,867 3,988 5,603 18,336 19,100 6,967 11,903 4,562 5,531 18,868 18,612 7,998 5,089 721 3,529 11,595 12,276 4,044

Private gifts, grants, and contracts 1 . . . . . . . . . Endowment earnings . . . Educational activities 2 . . Auxiliary enterprises . . . Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . Other funds revenues 4 .

Current funds expenditures 5 . . . Educational and general. . . . . . Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Institutional support . . . . . . . Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plant operation 6 . . . . . . . . . Academic support . . . . . . . . Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student services . . . . . . . . . Scholarships and fellowships . Unrestricted funds . . . . . . Restricted funds . . . . . . . . Public service . . . . . . . . . . . Mandatory transfers . . . . . . . Auxiliary enterprises 5 . . . . . . . Hospitals 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Independent operations 5 . . . . .

89,951 134,656 165,241 173,351 182,969 190,476 119,525 70,061 105,585 128,978 136,023 144,158 151,446 96,086 28,777 42,146 50,341 52,776 55,720 57,810 38,653 8,587 12,674 15,250 15,926 16,845 18,256 10,710 7,552 12,506 15,291 16,118 17,110 17,518 12,076 7,345 9,458 10,784 11,368 11,746 12,331 8,005 6,074 9,438 11,073 11,678 12,279 13,297 9,004 2,362 3,254 3,685 3,908 4,166 4,293 2,691 4,178 6,388 8,165 8,563 9,060 9,631 5,810 3,670 6,656 10,148 11,238 12,285 13,195 5,085 1,962 3,854 5,949 6,645 7,329 8,213 2,457 1,709 2,802 4,199 4,593 4,956 4,982 2,628 2,861 4,690 5,935 6,242 6,691 7,007 5,321 1,016 1,630 1,991 2,115 2,423 2,401 1,420 10,012 13,204 15,562 16,429 17,205 17,599 11,309 8,010 12,679 17,050 17,510 18,071 17,941 11,879 1,868 3,187 3,652 3,387 3,534 3,491 251

1 Private grants represent nongovernmental revenue for sponsored research and other sponsored programs; includes private contracts. 2 Sales and service of educational departments only. 3 Included in other. 4 Includes sales and services of federally 5 Includes mandatory transfers which are primarily current funded research and development centers, and others sources. expenditures for plant. 6 Includes maintenance.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

197

No. 316. Federal Student Financial Assistance: 1990 to 1999
[For award years July 1 of year shown to the following June 30 (19,677 represents ($19,677,000,000). Funds utilized exclude operating costs, etc., and represent funds given to students] Award year impact data FUNDS UTILIZED (mil. dol.) Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Pell Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Work-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Perkins Loan . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Direct Student Loan (FDSL) . . . Federal Family Education Loans (FFEL) NUMBER OF AWARDS (1,000) Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Pell Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Work-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Perkins Loan . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Direct Student Loan (FDSL) . . . Federal Family Education Loans (FFEL) AVERAGE AWARD (dol.) Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Pell Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Work-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Perkins Loan . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Direct Student Loan (FDSL) . . . Federal Family Education Loans (FFEL) COHORT DEFAULT RATE 1 Federal Perkins Loan . . . . . . . . . . . . . FFEL/FDSL Combined Rates 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,918 1,377 661 1,059 1,318 (X) 2,762 (NA) 22.40 1,973 1,530 665 1,090 1,326 (X) 2,802 (NA) 17.80 1,986 1,543 667 1,092 1,333 (X) 2,871 12.24 15.00 2,321 1,506 705 1,084 1,342 (X) 3,312 11.42 11.60 2,498 1,502 715 1,081 1,464 3,779 3,515 10.76 10.70 2,596 1,515 706 1,087 1,497 3,548 3,653 12.57 10.40 2,677 1,577 640 1,123 1,516 3,547 3,748 12.95 9.60 2,655 1,698 727 1,215 1,564 3,435 3,667 12.47 (NA) 2,709 1,879 701 1,123 1,516 3,445 3,719 (X) (X) 2,738 1,935 701 1,123 1,516 3,639 3,606 (X) (X) . 19,677 20,342 21,926 29,274 32,683 35,477 38,865 38,107 40,451 . 4,906 5,793 6,176 5,655 5,520 5,472 5,780 6,326 7,211 . 503 586 651 753 755 764 762 811 777 . 728 760 780 771 757 764 776 906 1,002 . 870 868 892 919 971 1,029 1,022 1,062 1,058 . (X) (X) (X) (X) 1,790 8,296 9,796 9,838 10,400 . 12,669 12,336 13,427 21,177 22,891 19,152 20,729 19,163 20,003 . 10,258 10,312 11,039 12,614 13,082 13,667 14,516 14,355 14,933 . 3,562 3,786 4,002 3,756 3,675 3,612 3,666 3,725 3,838 . . . . . 761 687 660 (X) 4,587 771 697 654 (X) 4,403 976 714 669 (X) 4,677 1,068 712 685 (X) 6,394 1,057 701 663 474 6,512 1,083 702 688 2,339 5,243 1,191 691 674 2,762 5,531 1,116 746 679 2,864 5,225 1,109 892 698 3,018 5,378 41,903 7,373 774 1,044 1,058 11,363 20,291 15,306 3,811 1,118 930 698 3,122 5,627 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998, est. 1999, est.

NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 As of June 30. Represents the percent of borrowers entering repayment status in year shown who defaulted in the following year. For the Perkins Loans, prior to 1992-93 the default rate was based on the dollar amount of loans outstanding. 2 Prior to 1995, this rate was FFEL-only. Source: U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Postsecondary Education, unpublished data.

No. 317. Finances of Public Colleges, 1990 to 1996, and by State, 1997
[For academic years ending in year shown (7,959.7 represents 7,959,700). Data provided by the state higher education finance officers, except as noted] Appropriations for current Net tuition operations 2 revenues (mil. dol.) (mil. dol.)3 33,853.9 34,928.8 35,172.0 36,497.0 38,655.2 40,077.5 19,235.2 424.7 38.7 330.4 164.8 1,330.9 444.9 208.9 176.2 13.5 518.1 417.1 51.1 55.4 509.7 571.5 300.0 224.7 260.3 330.6 100.6 479.2 317.3 11,264.7 14,180.6 15,746.3 16,623.4 17,406.8 18,465.2 42,057.0 697.4 156.9 827.2 352.2 6,674.5 513.7 430.9 173.7 37.8 1,849.5 1,314.0 210.6 232.3 1,977.2 846.8 589.8 502.1 456.7 495.5 165.2 732.8 766.4 Appropriations for current Net tuition operations 2 revenues (mil. dol.) (mil. dol.)3 1,372.5 404.4 216.0 491.0 84.3 124.5 46.7 169.0 576.4 98.6 1,111.2 385.9 64.0 1,120.4 221.4 264.7 1,273.4 108.6 355.0 63.8 317.8 1,174.1 148.1 135.1 670.8 330.8 153.5 441.0 43.6 1,779.5 872.6 463.9 729.3 117.2 323.6 212.9 84.7 1,155.3 392.8 2,218.8 1,519.9 120.5 1,490.4 562.8 449.1 1,414.8 134.9 524.5 87.7 727.8 2,976.3 411.8 37.3 918.6 954.2 194.4 1,030.9 147.0

State

FTE 1 enrollment (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,959.7 8,325.4 8,397.7 8,334.0 8,262.7 8,267.1 8,315.2 170.9 17.2 165.7 75.4 1,309.2 136.3 56.7 27.2 4.8 402.4 217.2 30.6 40.6 357.0 173.5 106.1 100.3 115.0 136.1 27.2 155.2 114.3

State

FTE 1 enrollment (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313.8 157.3 117.8 130.2 33.1 66.8 37.3 27.9 181.6 62.8 422.1 237.8 30.9 336.1 111.5 99.0 279.7 24.8 125.4 21.4 155.5 628.2 83.4 15.2 217.7 194.8 60.8 179.6 23.9

Total, 1990 . . . . . . Total, 1992 . . . . . . Total, 1993 . . . . . . Total, 1994 . . . . . . Total, 1995 . . . . . . Total, 1996 . . . . . . Total, 1997 . . . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . Kansas. . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . Maine. . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . Massachusetts. . . .

Michigan. . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . Mississippi . . . . Missouri . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire . New Jersey 4. . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina . . North Dakota . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . Oregon. . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . Rhode Island . . . South Carolina. . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . . Washington . . . . West Virginia . . . Wisconsin . . . . . Wyoming . . . . .

1 Full-time equivalent (FTE). Credit and noncredit program enrollment including summer session. Excludes medical enrollments. 2 State and local appropriations. Includes aid to students attending in-state public institutions. Excludes sums for research, agriculture stations and cooperative extension, and hospitals and medical schools. 3 Excludes appropriated aid to students attending in-state public institutions. 4 Estimated by source. Source: Research Associates of Washington, Arlington, VA, State Profiles: Financing Public Higher Education, annual (copyright).

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No. 318. Institutions of Higher Education—Charges: 1985 to 1998
[In dollars. Estimated. For the entire academic year ending in year shown. Figures are average charges per full-time equivalent student. Room and board are based on full-time students] Academic control and year Public: 1985 . . . . 1990 . . . . 1991 . . . . 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 . . . . 1995 . . . . 1996 . . . . 1997 . . . . 1998 est. . Private: 1985 . . . . 1990 . . . . 1991 . . . . 1992 . . . . 1993 . . . . 1994 . . . . 1995 . . . . 1996 . . . . 1997 . . . . 1998 est. .
1

Tuition and required fees All institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 971 1,356 1,454 1,624 1,782 1,942 2,057 2,179 2,271 2,365 5,315 8,174 8,772 9,434 9,942 10,572 11,111 11,864 12,498 13,013 2-yr. colleges 584 756 824 937 1,025 1,125 1,192 1,239 1,276 1,318 3,485 5,196 5,570 5,752 6,059 6,370 6,914 7,094 7,236 7,536
2

1

Board rates All institutions 1,241 1,635 1,691 1,780 1,841 1,880 1,949 2,020 2,111 2,180 1,462 1,948 2,074 2,252 2,344 2,434 2,509 2,606 2,663 2,742 2-yr. colleges 1,302 1,581 1,594 1,612 1,668 1,681 1,712 1,681 1,789 1,864 1,294 1,811 1,989 2,090 1,875 1,970 2,023 2,098 2,181 2,321

2

Dormitory charges All institutions 1,196 1,513 1,612 1,731 1,756 1,873 1,959 2,057 2,148 2,243 1,426 1,923 2,063 2,221 2,348 2,490 2,587 2,738 2,878 2,990 2-yr. colleges 921 962 1,050 1,074 1,106 1,190 1,232 1,297 1,339 1,419 1,424 1,663 1,744 1,789 1,970 2,067 2,233 2,371 2,537 2,624 4-yr. colleges 1,237 1,561 1,658 1,789 1,856 1,897 1,992 2,104 2,187 2,280 1,753 2,411 2,654 2,860 3,018 3,277 3,469 3,680 3,826 4,001 Other 4-yr. schools 1,200 1,554 1,655 1,782 1,787 1,958 2,044 2,133 2,232 2,338 1,309 1,774 1,889 2,038 2,151 2,261 2,347 2,473 2,602 2,717

4-yr. Other col4-yr. leges schools 1,386 2,035 2,159 2,410 2,604 2,820 2,977 3,151 3,323 3,489 6,843 10,348 11,379 12,192 13,055 13,874 14,537 15,605 16,552 17,197 1,117 1,608 1,707 1,933 2,192 2,360 2,499 2,660 2,778 2,876 5,135 7,778 8,389 9,053 9,533 10,100 10,653 11,297 11,871 12,388

4-yr. Other col4-yr. leges schools 1,276 1,728 1,767 1,852 1,982 1,993 2,108 2,192 2,282 2,380 1,647 2,339 2,470 2,727 2,825 2,946 3,035 3,218 3,142 3,224 1,201 1,561 1,641 1,745 1,761 1,828 1,866 1,937 2,025 2,076 1,405 1,823 1,943 2,098 2,197 2,278 2,362 2,429 2,520 2,608

For in-state students.

Beginning 1990, rates reflect 20 meals per week, rather than meals served 7 days a week.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

No. 319. Voluntary Financial Support of Higher Education: 1970 to 1997
[For school years ending in years shown (1,780 represents $1,780,000,000); enrollment as of fall of preceding year. Voluntary support, as defined in Gift Reporting Standards, excludes income from endowment and other invested funds as well as all support received from Federal, state, and local governments and their agencies and contract research] Item Estimated support, total 1 Individuals . . . . . . . . . . Alumni . . . . . . . . . . . Business corporations . . Foundations . . . . . . . . . Religious organizations . Current operations . . . . Capital purposes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . 1,000 . Dollars Dollars Bil. dol Dollars Dollars . . . . . . 1970 1,780 822 381 269 434 102 960 820 8,094 220 925 24.7 3,052 12,833 1,045 1,472 1,154 292 26 1980 3,800 1,757 910 696 903 155 2,250 1,550 11,570 328 672 62.47 5,399 11,050 1,019 3,055 2,178 856 20 1985 6,320 2,876 1,460 1,574 1,175 208 3,800 2,520 12,242 516 776 98.26 8,026 12,065 1,114 5,295 3,522 1,728 45 1990 9,800 4,770 2,540 2,170 1,920 240 5,440 4,360 13,539 724 906 150.56 11,120 13,913 1,056 8,214 5,072 3,056 85 1994 12,350 6,210 3,410 2,510 2,540 240 6,710 5,640 14,306 863 939 189.73 13,262 14,571 992 10,326 6,103 4,138 84 1995 12,750 6,540 3,600 2,560 2,460 250 7,230 5,520 14,279 893 944 201.53 14,114 14,920 1,086 10,992 6,500 4,382 110 1996 14,250 7,440 4,040 2,800 2,815 255 7,850 6,400 14,210 1,003 1,031 212.40 14,947 15,288 1,104 12,251 7,163 4,943 145 1997 16,000 8,500 4,650 3,050 3,200 250 8,500 7,500 13,917 1,150 1,150 224.50 16,131 16,131 1,061 13,801 8,023 5,654 124

Enrollment, higher education . . Support per student. . . . . . . . In 1996-97 dollars . . . . . . . Expenditures, higher education Expenditures per student . . . . In 1996-97 dollars . . . . . . . Institutions reporting support Total support reported . . . Private 4-year institutions . Public 4-year institutions. . 2-year colleges . . . . . . . .
1

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

Number. Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol .

Includes other contributions, not shown separately. Source: Council for Aid to Education, New York, NY, Voluntary Support of Education, annual.

No. 320. Average Salaries for College Faculty Members: 1996 to 1998
[In thousands of dollars (50.4 represents $50,400). For academic year ending in year shown. Figures are for 9 months teaching for full-time faculty members in 4-year institutions. Fringe benefits averaged in 1996, $12,600 in public institutions and $14,600 in private institutions, in 1997, $12,600 in public institutions and $14,700 in private institutions, and in 1998, $13,200 in public institutions and $15,800 in private institutions] Type of control and academic rank Public: All ranks. . . . . Professor . . . . . . . Associate professor Assistant professor . Instructor . . . . . . .
1

1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50.4 63.9 48.2 40.2 30.8

1997 52.0 65.8 49.7 41.3 31.8

1998 53.6 68.0 51.2 42.4 32.4

Type of control and academic rank Private: 1 All ranks . . . Professor . . . . . . . Associate professor Assistant professor . Instructor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1996 57.5 75.6 51.5 42.4 32.9

1997 59.3 78.2 52.7 43.4 33.1

1998 61.5 81.8 54.5 44.9 34.5

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

Excludes church-related colleges and universities. Source: American Association of University Professors, Washington, DC, AAUP Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession.

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No. 321. Employees in Higher Education Institutions, by Sex and Occupation: 1976 to 1995
[In thousands (1,863.8 represents 1,863,800). As of fall. Based on survey and subject to sampling error; see source] Professional staff Year and status Total Total Executive, administrative, and managerial Male Female 74.6 72.0 2.6 85.4 82.9 2.5 82.7 80.1 2.7 82.1 79.2 2.9 26.6 25.0 1.7 59.3 56.2 3.1 60.9 57.7 3.2 65.3 61.8 3.6 Faculty
1

Research/ instruction assistants Male Female 106.5 18.6 87.9 119.1 (NA) 119.1 120.4 (NA) 120.4 124.0 (NA) 124.0 53.6 9.4 44.2 78.6 (NA) 78.6 82.4 (NA) 82.4 91.9 (NA) 91.9

Male Female 460.6 326.8 133.7 525.6 366.2 159.4 561.1 363.4 197.7 562.9 360.2 202.7 172.7 107.2 65.4 300.7 169.4 131.2 354.4 182.3 172.1 368.8 190.7 178.1

Nonprofessional staff, Male Female total Other 87.5 76.2 11.3 165.4 142.2 23.2 166.7 142.7 24.0 177.2 151.5 25.6 91.0 74.1 16.9 261.3 214.8 46.4 258.6 212.9 45.8 272.7 223.2 49.5 790.7 630.5 160.2 949.8 781.1 168.7 915.3 744.4 170.9 917.2 734.9 182.3

1976, total . . . . . . . 1,863.8 1,073.1 Full time . . . . . . . 1,339.9 709.4 Part time . . . . . . . 523.9 363.7 1991, total . . . . . . . 2,545.2 1,595.5 Full time . . . . . . . 1,812.9 1,031.8 Part time . . . . . . . 732.3 563.7 1993, total . . . . . . . 2,602.6 1,687.3 Full time . . . . . . . 1,783.5 1,039.1 Part time . . . . . . . 819.1 648.2 1995, total . . . . . . . 2,662.1 1,744.9 Full time . . . . . . . 1,801.4 1,066.5 Part time . . . . . . . 860.7 678.4

NA Not available. 1 Instruction and research. Source: U.S. Center for Education Statistics, Fall Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, 1995, March 1998.

No. 322. Faculty in Institutions of Higher Education: 1970 to 1995
[In thousands (474 represents 474,000), except percent. As of fall. Based on survey and subject to sampling error; see source] Employment status Total 1970 1975 1976 1977 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 628 633 678 675 686 705 710 724 717 715 722 793 824 826 915 932 Full time 369 440 434 448 445 450 461 462 471 462 459 459 523 524 536 546 551 Part time 104 188 199 230 230 236 244 248 254 255 256 263 270 300 291 370 381 Control Public 314 443 449 492 488 495 509 506 512 505 503 510 553 577 581 650 657 Private 160 185 184 186 187 191 196 204 212 212 212 212 240 247 245 265 275 Level 4-Year 382 467 467 485 494 494 493 493 504 504 504 506 548 584 591 626 647 2-Year 92 161 166 193 182 192 212 217 220 213 211 216 246 241 235 289 285 Part time 22 30 31 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 34 36 35 40 41 Percent Public 66 71 71 73 72 72 72 71 71 70 70 71 70 70 70 71 70 2-Year 19 26 26 28 27 28 30 31 30 30 30 30 31 29 28 32 31

Year

Source: U.S. Center for Education Statistics, Fall Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, 1995, March 1998.

No. 323. Higher Education Registrations in Foreign Languages: 1970 to 1995
[As of fall (1,111.5 represents 1,111,500)] Item (1,000) . Index (1960=100) . . . . . . . . . By selected language (1,000): Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . French . . . . . . . . . . . . . . German . . . . . . . . . . . . . Italian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . Russian . . . . . . . . . . . . . Latin . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . Ancient Greek Hebrew . . . . . Portuguese . . Arabic . . . . . . 12 languages
1

1970 ..... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,111.5 171.8 389.2 359.3 202.6 34.2 6.6 36.1 27.6 6.2 16.7 16.6 5.1 1.3 99.1

1972 1,008.9 155.9 364.5 293.1 177.1 33.3 8.3 36.4 24.4 10.0 20.6 21.1 4.8 1.7 98.7

1974 946.6 146.3 362.2 253.1 152.1 33.0 9.6 32.5 25.2 10.6 24.4 22.4 5.1 2.0 98.5

1977 933.5 144.3 376.7 246.1 135.4 33.3 10.7 27.8 24.4 9.8 25.8 19.4 5.0 3.1 98.3

1980 924.8 142.9 379.4 248.4 126.9 34.8 11.5 24.0 25.0 11.4 22.1 19.4 4.9 3.5 98.5

1983 966.0 149.3 386.2 270.1 128.2 38.7 16.1 30.4 24.2 13.2 19.4 18.2 4.4 3.4 98.6

1986 1,003.2 155.0 411.3 275.3 121.0 40.9 23.5 34.0 25.0 16.9 17.6 15.6 5.1 3.4 98.6

1990 1,184.1 183.0 533.9 272.5 133.3 49.7 45.7 44.6 28.2 19.5 16.4 13.0 6.2 3.5 98.5

1995 1,138.8 176.0 606.3 205.4 96.3 43.8 44.7 24.7 25.9 26.5 16.3 13.1 6.5 4.4 97.8

Registrations

1

............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. as percent of total

Includes other foreign languages, not shown separately.

Source: Association of Departments of Foreign Languages, New York, NY, ADFL Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 2, and earlier issues (copyright).

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No. 324. College Freshmen—Summary Characteristics: 1970 to 1998
[In percent, except as indicated. As of fall for first-time full-time freshmen. Based on sample survey and subject to sampling error; see source] Characteristic Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applied to three or more colleges . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average grade in A- to A+ . . . . B- to B+ . . . . C to C+. . . . . D. . . . . . . . . high school: ......... ......... ......... ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1970 55 45 15 16 58 27 1 34 45 17 16 4 16 11 9 2 14 (NA) 4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

1980 49 51 26 21 60 19 1 20 60 17 9 4 24 7 12 3 7 15 6 2 (NA) 2 1 33 8 16 13 21 9 4 15

1985 48 52 29 21 59 20 1 21 57 19 8 4 27 7 11 2 8 13 5 2 16 2 2 19 5 14 19 23 6 4 10

1990 46 54 36 23 58 19 23 55 20 9 4 21 10 8 2 10 15 4 1 16 2 2 23 7 16 22 23 8 6 10

1994 46 54 36 28 56 15 23 53 21 8 7 16 10 8 2 10 19 3 1 17 2 2 23 6 16 26 29 9 8 13

1995 46 54 36 28 56 15 21 54 20 10 7 16 10 7 2 9 18 4 1 17 2 2 23 6 16 26 29 9 10 13

1996 46 54 37 32 54 14 22 53 21 10 7 16 11 8 2 9 16 2 1 19 2 3 20 6 17 29 26 9 9 12

1997 46 54 36 32 54 14 22 55 19 9 6 16 10 9 2 8 15 4 2 19 2 3 22 6 17 27 25 9 11 12

1998 46 54 37 33 54 13 21 57 19 10 6 17 11 8 2 8 15 4 2 18 2 4 21 6 17 29 25 9 10 12

Political orientation: Liberal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Middle of the road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Probable field of study: Arts and humanities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data processing/computer programming Other 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Recipient of financial aid: Pell grant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplemental educational opportunity grant . State scholarship or grant. . . . . . . . . . . . . College grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal guaranteed student loan . . . . . . . . Perkins loan 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . College loan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . College work-study grant . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Attitudes—agree or strongly agree: Activities of married women are best confined to home and family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital punishment should be abolished . . . . . . Legalize marijuana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . There is too much concern for the rights of criminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abortion should be legalized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aspires to an advanced degree . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Median family income ($1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

48 56 38 52 (NA) 49 57 41 12

27 34 39 66 54 49 50 47 23

22 27 22 (NA) 55 51 52 50 34
1

25 22 19 (NA) 65 61 60 62 43 1969 data.

25 20 32 73 60 64 62 66 48
2

24 21 34 73 58 64 61 66 49

24 22 33 72 56 67 65 68 53

25 24 35 70 54 67 63 69 53

(X) 23 32 73 51 65 61 67 53

- Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available. X Not applicable. separately. 3 National Direct Student Loan prior to 1990.

Includes other fields, not shown

Source: The Higher Education Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, The American Freshman: National Norms, annual.

No. 325. Freshman Enrollment in Remedial Courses, by Institutional Characteristic: 1995
[In percent, except number of freshmen (2,128 represents 2,128,000). As of fall. Remedial courses are those developed for students lacking skills necessary to perform college-level work as required by the institution. Based on survey and subject to sampling error; for details, see source] Institutional characteristic All institutions . Control: Public, 2 year . Private, 2 year Public, 4 year . . Private, 4 year . . ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of freshmen (1,000) 2,128 943 56 726 403 338 1,790 Institutions offering courses Total 78 100 63 81 63 94 76 Reading 57 99 29 52 34 87 53 Writing 71 99 61 71 52 85 70 Math 72 99 62 78 51 93 70 Freshmen taking courses Total 29 41 26 22 13 43 26
2

Reading 13 20 11 8 7 25 11

Writing 17 25 18 12 8 29 15

Math 24 34 23 18 9 35 21

Minority enrollment: High 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Total enrollment, excluding nonresident aliens, is less than 50% White, non-Hispanic. nonresident aliens, is more than 50% White, Non-Hispanic.

Total enrollment, excluding

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, ‘‘Remedial Education at Higher Education Institutions in Fall of 1995,’’ NCES 97-584.

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No. 326. College Population, by Selected Characteristics: 1987 and 1997
[In thousands (190,058 represents 190,058,000), except percent. As of October. Based on the Current Population Survey. See text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III] Enrolled in college Characteristic Total population 190,058 90,610 99,449 162,757 21,520 13,687 21,410 7,078 11,712 42,374 107,484 207,727 100,067 107,660 173,542 24,749 21,039 19,463 7,040 10,423 39,276 131,526 Type of school Total 12,719 6,030 6,689 10,731 1,351 739 3,284 2,642 2,006 2,985 1,802 15,436 6,843 8,593 12,442 1,903 1,260 3,533 3,143 2,699 3,270 2,791
2

2-year 3,648 1,522 2,127 3,039 422 307 1,111 624 457 851 605 4,078 1,663 2,415 3,290 541 475 1,178 760 528 806 807

Graduate 4-year school 6,656 3,356 3,299 5,617 748 342 2,172 1,961 1,055 996 471 8,331 3,876 4,455 6,745 1,031 679 2,327 2,320 1,609 1,164 911 2,415 1,152 1,264 2,075 181 90 1 58 494 1,137 725 3,027 1,304 1,723 2,407 331 105 30 63 562 1,299 1,073

Percent enrolled full time 62.6 67.2 58.4 61.6 66.3 57.3 88.1 84.4 67.2 36.4 22.3 66.3 70.4 63.1 65.3 67.2 63.3 89.7 87.8 73.3 47.9 27.3

Percent employed Total 60.4 60.6 60.1 62.2 50.5 65.5 44.0 53.3 62.5 74.0 83.1 62.2 59.5 64.2 64.3 55.0 61.0 43.1 55.5 65.0 74.0 77.4 Full time 31.7 31.7 31.6 32.6 28.6 37.0 7.6 14.5 29.8 55.8 62.8 33.0 33.9 32.2 33.6 34.3 32.0 8.8 13.9 28.9 54.1 64.4 Part time 28.7 28.9 28.5 29.6 21.9 28.6 36.4 38.8 32.7 18.2 20.3 29.2 25.6 32.0 30.7 20.7 29.0 34.3 41.6 36.1 19.9 13.0

Total, 1987 1 . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin . . . . . . . 14 20 22 25 35 to 19 years old . and 21 years old to 24 years old . to 34 years old . years and older . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

Total, 1997 1 . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin . . . . . . . 15 20 22 25 35 to 19 years old . and 21 years old to 24 years old . to 34 years old . years and older .
1 2

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

Includes other races, not shown separately.

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-443 and P20-516.

No. 327. Salary Offers to Candidates for Degrees: 1996 to 1998
[The complete publication including this copyright table is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service]

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No. 328. Time Spent Earning Bachelor’s Degree, by Selected Characteristic: 1993
[As of spring (36,787 represents 36,787,000). Based on Survey of Income and Program Participation; for details, see source] Total with bachelor’s degrees (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,787 19,351 17,436 32,279 17,258 15,021 2,314 926 1,388 1,367 693 674 395 624 5,282 660 3,613 2,577 1,137 337 145 2,188 567 142 1,626 614 326 815 138 1,760 181 1,816 11,843 Years to B.A. degree from end of high school Number (1,000) 4 years or less 15,624 7,321 8,302 14,161 6,717 7,444 713 264 448 363 187 176 103 241 1,952 321 1,522 729 553 177 73 894 283 39 498 194 95 328 52 683 64 735 6,089 5 years or less 23,810 11,695 12,115 21,201 10,537 10,664 1,258 493 764 689 308 381 209 416 3,117 433 2,338 1,392 743 262 98 1,413 412 74 914 362 182 555 66 1,113 121 1,082 8,507 6 years or less 27,334 13,827 13,508 24,235 12,411 11,824 1,473 570 904 852 407 445 293 471 3,628 479 2,658 1,733 854 284 104 1,592 457 104 1,092 470 240 619 71 1,333 135 1,302 9,417 4 years or less 42.5 37.8 47.6 43.9 38.9 49.6 30.8 28.5 32.3 26.6 27.0 26.1 26.1 38.6 37.0 48.6 42.1 28.3 48.6 52.5 (B) 40.9 49.9 (B) 30.6 31.6 29.1 40.2 (B) 38.8 (B) 40.5 51.4 Percent 5 years or less 64.7 60.4 69.5 65.7 61.1 71.0 54.4 53.2 55.0 50.4 44.4 56.5 52.9 66.7 59.0 65.6 64.7 54.0 65.3 77.7 (B) 64.6 72.7 (B) 56.2 59.0 55.8 68.1 (B) 63.2 (B) 59.6 71.8
2

Characteristic

6 years or less 74.3 71.5 77.5 75.1 71.9 78.7 63.7 61.6 65.1 62.3 58.7 66.0 74.2 75.5 68.7 72.6 73.6 67.2 75.1 84.3 (B) 72.8 80.6 (B) 67.2 76.5 73.6 76.0 (B) 75.7 (B) 71.7 79.5

Mean duration 1 6.29 6.28 6.30 6.24 6.22 6.26 7.19 6.98 7.33 6.79 7.06 6.50 5.78 6.34 6.72 6.35 7.03 6.66 6.28 4.71 6.33 6.44 5.28 6.32 7.10 6.25 6.11 6.02 7.64 6.44 7.39 6.63 5.67

All persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field of bachelor’s degree: 3 Agriculture/Forestry . . . . . . . . . Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business/Management . . . . . . . Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English/Journalism . . . . . . . . . . Home Economics. . . . . . . . . . . Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liberal Arts/Humanities . . . . . . . Mathematics/Statistics . . . . . . . Medicine/Dentistry . . . . . . . . . . Nursing/Pharmacy/Technical Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical/Earth Sciences . . . . . . Police Science/Law Enforcement Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religion/Theology . . . . . . . . . . Social Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . Vo-tech Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advanced degree . . . . . . . . . . . .

B Base is less than 200,000 persons. 1 For definition of mean, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. origin may be of any race. 3 For persons whose highest degree is the B.A. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, unpublished data.

Persons of Hispanic

No. 329. Earned Degrees Conferred, by Level and Sex: 1960 to 1996
[In thousands (477 represents 477,000), except percent. Includes Alaska and Hawaii] All degrees Year ending Total 1960 1 . . 1965 . . . 1970 . . . 1975 . . . 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 660 1,271 1,666 1,731 1,752 1,788 1,815 1,819 1,828 1,830 1,823 1,835 1,873 1,940 2,025 2,108 2,167 2,206 2,218 2,248 Percent male 65.8 61.5 59.2 56.0 51.1 50.3 49.8 49.6 49.6 49.3 49.0 48.4 48.0 47.3 46.6 45.8 45.6 45.5 45.1 44.9 44.2 Associate’s Male Female (NA) (NA) 117 191 184 189 197 204 203 203 196 191 190 186 191 199 207 212 215 218 220 (NA) (NA) 89 169 217 228 238 246 250 252 250 245 245 250 264 283 297 303 315 321 336 Bachelor’s Male Female 254 282 451 505 474 470 473 479 482 483 486 481 477 483 492 504 521 533 532 526 522 138 212 341 418 456 465 480 490 492 497 502 510 518 535 560 590 616 632 637 634 642 Master’s Male Female 51 81 126 162 151 147 146 145 144 143 144 141 145 149 154 156 162 169 176 179 179 24 40 83 131 147 149 150 145 141 143 145 148 154 161 171 181 191 200 211 219 227 First professional Male Female (NA) 27 33 49 53 53 52 51 51 50 49 47 45 45 44 44 45 45 45 45 45 (NA) 1 2 7 17 19 20 22 23 25 25 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 31 32 Doctor’s Male Female 9 15 26 27 23 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 26 27 27 27 1 2 4 7 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 18

NA Not available. 1 First-professional degrees are included with bachelor’s degrees. Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

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No. 330. Degrees and Awards Earned Below Bachelor’s, by Field: 1996
[Covers associate degrees and other awards based on postsecondary curriculums of less than 4 years in institutions of higher education] Less than 1-year awards Total Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture and natural resources . . . . . . . Architecture and related programs . . . . . . . Area, ethnic, and cultural studies . . . . . . . . Biological/life sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business management and administrative services 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications and communications technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer and information sciences . . . . . . Construction trades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumer and personal services. . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and engineering technologies. . English language and literature/letters . . . . Foreign languages and literatures . . . . . . . Health professions and related sciences . . . Home economics and vocational home economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Law and legal studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liberal/general studies and humanities . . . . Library science. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics and repairers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi/interdisciplinary studies. . . . . . . . . . . Parks, recreation, leisure, and fitness . . . . . Physical sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precision production trades . . . . . . . . . . . Protective services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public administration and services . . . . . . . R.O.T.C. and military technologies . . . . . . . Social sciences and history . . . . . . . . . . . Theological studies, religion and philosophy Transportation and material moving . . . . . . Visual and performing arts . . . . . . . . . . . . Undistributed and unclassified. . . . . . . . . . - Represents zero.
1

Field of study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1- to less than 4-year awards Total 139,688 1,874 10 133 529 28,133 557 3,570 4,021 6,460 677 8,325 37 29 45,185 4,295 2,006 481 57 1 15,624 134 130 81 8,104 2,821 52 548 29 561 749 3,861 614 Women 83,810 549 9 114 205 23,600 240 1,868 200 4,764 627 1,026 26 22 38,637 3,879 1,719 340 49 754 60 78 30 1,393 813 39 419 20 255 120 1,576 379

Associate degrees Total 555,216 6,182 256 111 2,037 99,447 3,944 9,658 2,141 7,721 9,750 35,199 1,310 607 101,872 8,192 9,106 174,970 94 758 12,524 8,611 936 2,612 10,217 19,196 1,583 4,218 556 4,021 691 1,571 13,534 1,591 Women 335,702 1,964 216 83 1,220 72,091 1,698 4,704 106 2,754 6,641 4,414 839 444 84,577 7,435 7,987 106,976 81 295 801 4,399 391 1,154 2,098 5,769 1,177 3,453 42 2,533 332 246 7,728 1,054

Women 53,530 422 2 137 24 12,644 243 2,040 229 1,240 423 421 86 264 25,893 2,877 707 86 107 322 370 61 47 724 2,202 18 361 12 89 826 432 221

100,888 1,749 2 180 79 17,799 505 4,349 4,212 1,615 569 2,581 128 419 33,993 4,144 850 152 117 1 4,614 439 95 86 4,009 10,156 24 544 22 149 6,180 831 295

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Includes marketing.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1998.

No. 331. Bachelor’s Degrees Earned, by Field: 1971 to 1996
Field of study Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture and natural resources . . . . Architecture and environmental design . Area, ethnic and cultural studies . . . . . Biological sciences/life sciences . . . . . Business and management . . . . . . . . Communications 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer and information sciences . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English language and literature/letters . Foreign languages and literatures . . . . Health sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Law and legal studies . . . . . . . . . . . . Liberal/general studies . . . . . . . . . . . Library and archival sciences . . . . . . . Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Military technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi/interdisciplinary studies . . . . . . . Parks and recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . . Philosophy, religion, and theology . . . . Physical sciences 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public affairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social sciences 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visual and performing arts . . . . . . . . . Unclassified. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Represents zero.
1

Percent female 1971 839,730 12,672 5,570 2,582 35,743 114,729 10,802 2,388 176,307 50,046 64,342 20,536 25,226 11,167 545 7,481 1,013 24,937 357 6,286 1,621 11,890 21,412 2,045 38,187 5,466 155,324 30,394 662
2

1980 929,417 22,802 9,132 2,840 46,370 184,867 28,616 11,154 118,038 68,893 32,541 12,089 63,920 18,411 683 23,196 398 11,872 38 11,277 5,753 13,276 23,410 15,015 42,093 16,644 103,662 40,892 1,535

1990 1,051,344 12,900 9,364 4,613 37,204 248,698 51,308 27,257 105,112 81,322 47,519 12,386 58,302 14,491 1,592 27,985 77 15,176 196 16,267 4,582 12,068 16,066 15,354 53,952 13,908 118,083 39,934 5,628

1995 1,160,134 19,841 8,756 5,706 55,984 234,323 48,803 24,404 106,079 78,154 51,901 13,775 79,855 15,345 2,032 33,356 50 13,723 27 26,033 12,889 12,854 19,177 24,157 72,083 18,586 128,154 48,690 5,397

1996 1,164,792 21,431 8,352 5,786 60,994 227,102 48,003 24,098 105,509 77,437 50,698 13,952 84,036 15,803 2,052 33,997 58 13,143 7 26,515 13,983 12,746 19,647 24,810 73,291 19,849 126,479 49,296 5,718

1971 43.4 4.2 11.9 52.4 29.1 9.1 35.3 13.6 74.5 0.8 65.6 74.0 77.1 97.3 5.0 33.6 92.0 37.9 0.3 22.8 34.7 25.5 13.8 9.2 44.4 68.4 36.8 59.7 0.9

1996 55.1 36.8 36.1 65.7 52.7 48.6 58.8 27.5 75.1 16.1 66.0 69.8 81.6 88.1 72.9 60.6 86.2 45.7 65.0 49.3 30.2 36.0 38.4 73.0 78.8 47.9 59.2 21.9

Includes technologies.

Includes history.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

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No. 332. Master’s and Doctorate’s Degrees Earned, by Field: 1971 to 1996
Level and field of study MASTER’S DEGREES Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture and natural resources . . . . . . Architecture and related programs . . . . . . Area, ethnic and cultural studies . . . . . . . Biological sciences/life sciences . . . . . . . Business management and administrative services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications and technologies . . . . . Computer and information sciences . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and engineering technologies English language and literature/letters . . . Foreign languages . . . . . . . . . . . Health sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home economics . . . . . . . . . . . . Law and legal studies . . . . . . . . . Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities . . . . . . . Library science . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Military technologies . . . . . . . . . Multi/interdisciplinary studies . . . Parks and recreation. . . . . . . . . Philosophy, religion, and theology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230,509 2,457 1,705 1,032 5,728 25,977 1,856 1,588 87,666 16,443 10,686 5,217 5,749 1,452 955 885 7,001 5,695 2 821 218 4,036 6,367 194 5,717 7,785 16,539 6,675 63 298,081 3,976 3,139 852 6,510 54,484 3,082 3,647 101,819 16,243 6,189 2,854 15,704 2,690 1,817 2,646 5,374 3,382 46 2,306 647 5,126 5,219 1,805 9,938 17,560 12,176 8,708 142 324,301 3,382 3,499 1,212 4,869 76,676 4,362 9,677 84,881 24,772 6,567 2,760 20,321 2,100 1,888 1,999 4,341 4,146 2,834 529 6,265 5,449 1,151 10,730 17,399 11,634 8,481 2,377 397,629 4,252 3,923 1,639 5,393 93,809 5,609 10,326 101,242 29,670 7,845 3,136 31,243 2,864 2,511 2,565 5,057 4,181 124 2,457 1,755 6,620 5,753 1,706 13,921 23,501 14,845 10,277 1,405 406,301 4,569 3,993 1,713 6,157 93,982 5,604 10,151 106,253 28,566 7,893 3,124 33,398 2,917 2,751 2,778 5,099 4,031 136 2,347 1,751 6,409 5,847 1,812 13,792 24,229 15,012 10,280 1,707 40.1 5.9 13.8 38.3 33.6 3.9 34.6 10.3 56.2 1.1 60.6 64.2 55.3 93.9 4.8 44.6 81.3 27.1 25.0 29.8 27.1 13.3 10.3 40.6 50.0 28.5 47.4 55.9 42.0 40.9 53.4 52.9 37.6 61.3 26.7 76.3 17.2 64.3 67.4 79.0 83.0 36.4 65.4 79.0 38.8 2.9 53.9 48.0 39.1 32.2 36.5 72.4 71.4 46.1 57.6 24.9 Percent female 1971 1980 1990 1995 1996 1971 1996

...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Physical sciences and science technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective services . . . . . . . . . . . Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public administration and services .

Social sciences 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visual and performing arts . . . . . . . . . . . . Unclassified. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOCTORATE’S DEGREES Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture and natural resources . . . . . . Architecture and related programs . . . . . . Area, ethnic and cultural studies . . . . . . . Biological sciences/life sciences . . . . . . . Business management and administrative services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications and technologies . . . . Computer and information sciences . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering and engineering technology English language and literature/letters . . Foreign languages . . . . . . . . . . . Health sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home economics . . . . . . . . . . . . Law and legal studies . . . . . . . . . Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities . . . . . . . Library science . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi/interdisciplinary studies . . . Parks and recreation. . . . . . . . . Philosophy, religion, and theology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32,107 1,086 36 144 3,645 757 145 128 6,041 3,638 1,650 988 466 123 20 32 39 1,249 59 2 866 4,390 1 2,144 174 3,660 621 3

32,615 991 79 151 3,636 753 193 240 7,314 2,507 1,294 755 786 192 40 192 73 763 209 21 1,693 3,089 18 3,395 342 3,230 655 4

38,371 1,295 103 131 3,844 1,093 273 627 6,502 4,981 1,078 724 1,536 301 111 63 42 966 272 35 1,756 4,164 38 3,811 508 3,010 849 258

44,446 1,264 141 186 4,645 1,394 321 884 6,905 6,128 1,561 905 2,069 388 88 90 55 1,226 238 149 2,098 4,483 26 3,822 556 3,725 1,080 19

44,652 1,271 141 184 4,780 1,368 345 867 6,676 6,380 1,535 876 2,119 414 91 75 53 1,209 441 104 2,070 4,571 38 3,711 499 3,760 1,067 7

14.3 2.9 8.3 16.7 16.3 2.8 13.1 2.3 21.0 0.6 28.8 34.6 16.5 61.0 31.3 28.2 7.6 6.8 50.0 5.8 5.6 24.0 24.1 13.9 22.2 -

39.9 26.4 31.9 48.9 42.0 28.8 44.9 14.5 62.2 12.5 61.6 55.8 56.6 71.7 35.2 56.0 81.1 20.4 50.6 37.5 18.4 23.1 42.1 66.1 55.9 37.8 50.9 28.6

...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Physical sciences and science technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective services . . . . . . . . . . . Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public administration and services .

Social sciences 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visual and performing arts . . . . . . . . . . . . Unclassified. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Represents zero.
1

Includes history.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

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No. 333. First Professional Degrees Earned in Selected Professions: 1970 to 1996
[First professional degrees include degrees which require at least 6 years of college work for completion (including at least 2 years of preprofessional training). See Appendix III] Type of degree and sex of recipient Medicine (M.D.): Institutions conferring degrees . Degrees conferred, total . . . . . Percent to women . . . . . . . Dentistry (D.D.S. or D.M.D.): Institutions conferring degrees . Degrees conferred, total . . . . . Percent to women . . . . . . . Law (LL.B. or J.D.): Institutions conferring degrees . Degrees conferred, total . . . . . Percent to women . . . . . . . .... .... .... .... .... .... 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 119 15,341 40.9 53 3,697 35.8 183 39,828 43.5 184 5,879 25.2

86 104 112 120 124 120 122 121 119 8,314 12,447 14,902 16,041 15,075 15,243 15,531 15,368 15,537 8.4 13.1 23.4 30.4 34.2 35.7 37.7 37.9 38.8 48 3,718 0.9 52 4,773 3.1 58 5,258 13.3 59 5,339 20.7 57 4,100 30.9 52 3,593 32.3 55 3,605 33.9 53 3,787 38.5 53 3,897 36.4

.... 145 154 179 181 182 177 184 185 183 . . . . 14,916 29,296 35,647 37,491 36,485 38,848 40,302 40,044 39,349 .... 5.4 15.1 30.2 38.5 42.2 42.7 42.5 43.0 42.6 (NA) 5,298 2.3 (NA) 5,095 6.8 (NA) 7,115 13.8 (NA) 7,221 18.5 (NA) 5,851 24.8 (NA) 5,251 23.3 (NA) 5,447 24.8 186 5,967 24.8 192 5,978 25.7

Theological (B.D., M.Div., M.H.L.): Institutions conferring degrees . . . . . Degrees conferred, total . . . . . . . . . Percent to women . . . . . . . . . . . NA Not available.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

No. 334. Degrees Earned, by Level and Race/Ethnicity: 1981 to 1996
[For school year ending in year shown. Data exclude some institutions not reporting field of study and are slight undercounts of degrees awarded] Level of degree and race/ethnicity Associate’s degrees, total White, non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . Black, non-Hispanic . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . American Indian/Alaskan Native . Nonresident alien . . . . . . . . . . Bachelor’s degrees, total . White, non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . Black, non-Hispanic . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . American Indian/Alaskan Native . Nonresident alien . . . . . . . . . . Master’s degrees, total . . White, non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . Black, non-Hispanic . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . American Indian/Alaskan Native . Nonresident alien . . . . . . . . . . Doctor’s degrees, total . . White, non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . Black, non-Hispanic . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . American Indian/Alaskan Native . Nonresident alien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total 1981 410,174 339,167 35,330 17,800 8,650 2,584 6,643 934,800 807,319 60,673 21,832 18,794 3,593 22,589 294,183 241,216 17,133 6,461 6,282 1,034 22,057 32,839 25,908 1,265 456 877 130 4,203 71,340 64,551 2,931 1,541 1,456 192 669 1985 429,815 355,343 35,791 19,407 9,914 2,953 6,407 1990 450,263 369,580 35,327 22,195 13,482 3,530 6,149 1994 529,106 418,301 45,461 32,074 18,433 4,871 9,966 1995 538,545 419,323 47,142 36,013 20,717 5,492 9,858 1996 553,625 425,028 51,672 38,163 23,091 5,556 10,115 Percent distribution 1981 100.0 82.7 8.6 4.3 2.1 0.6 1.6 100.0 86.4 6.5 2.3 2.0 0.4 2.4 100.0 82.0 5.8 2.2 2.1 0.4 7.5 100.0 78.9 3.9 1.4 2.7 0.4 12.8 100.0 90.5 4.1 2.2 2.0 0.3 0.9 1996 100 76.8 9.3 6.9 4.2 1.0 1.8 100.0 77.8 7.8 5.0 5.5 0.6 3.2 100.0 73.4 6.4 3.6 4.5 0.4 11.8 100.0 62.2 3.7 2.2 5.9 0.4 25.6 100.0 77.6 6.5 4.5 8.6 0.6 2.1

968,311 1,048,631 1,165,973 1,158,788 1,163,036 826,106 884,376 936,227 913,377 904,709 57,473 61,063 83,576 87,203 91,166 25,874 32,844 50,241 54,201 58,288 25,395 39,248 55,660 60,478 64,359 4,246 4,392 6,189 6,606 6,970 29,217 26,708 34,080 36,923 37,544 280,421 223,628 13,939 6,864 7,782 1,256 26,952 32,307 23,934 1,154 677 1,106 119 5,317 71,057 63,219 3,029 1,884 1,816 248 861 322,465 251,690 15,446 7,950 10,577 1,101 35,701 38,113 25,880 1,153 788 1,235 99 8,958 70,744 60,240 3,410 2,427 3,362 257 1,048 385,419 288,288 21,937 11,913 15,267 1,697 46,317 43,149 27,156 1,393 903 2,025 134 11,538 75,418 60,140 4,444 3,134 5,892 371 1,437 397,052 292,784 24,171 12,907 16,842 1,621 48,727 44,427 27,826 1,667 984 2,690 130 11,130 75,800 59,402 4,747 3,231 6,397 412 1,611 405,521 297,558 25,801 14,412 18,161 1,778 47,811 44,645 27,756 1,636 999 2,646 158 11,450 76,641 59,456 5,016 3,476 6,617 463 1,613

First-professional degrees, total . White, non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black, non-Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian/Alaskan Native . . . . . . Nonresident alien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.

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No. 335. College and University Libraries—Summary: 1975 to 1995
[For school year ending in year shown, except enrollment as of fall of the prior year (10,322 represents 10,322,000). Prior to 1982, includes outlying areas] Item Number of libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total enrollment (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . COLLECTIONS (1,000) Number of volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Volumes added during year. . . . . . . . . . Number of serial subscriptions . . . . . . . . STAFF Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Librarians and professional . . . . . . . . . . OPERATING EXPENDITURES ($1,000) Total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,091,784 1,943,769 2,404,524 2,770,075 3,257,813 3,648,654 Salaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592,568 1,081,894 1,156,138 1,451,551 1,693,813 1,889,368 Collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327,904 561,199 750,282 891,281 1,040,928 1,197,293
1

1975 2,972 10,322

1982 3,104 12,372

1985 3,322 12,242

1988 3,438 12,767

1990 3,274 13,539

1992 3,274 14,359

1995 3,639 14,279

447,059 23,242 4,434

567,826 19,507 4,890

631,727 20,658 6,317

706,504 21,907 6,416

717,042 19,003 5,748

749,429 20,982 6,966

792,707 22,460 6,780

56,836 23,530

58,476 23,816

58,476 21,822

67,251 25,115

69,359 26,101

67,166 26,341

68,920 27,376

4,317,847 2,058,375 1,374,407

Includes other expenditures, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1997; and Academic Library Survey.

No. 336. Libraries—Number, by Type: 1980 to 1997
Type Total 1 . . . United States. Public . . . . . . . Public branches. Special 2 . . . . . Medicine . . . . Religious. . . . Law 3 . . . . . . Academic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 31,564 28,638 8,717 5,936 7,649 1,674 913 417 4,591 1985 32,323 29,843 8,849 6,330 7,530 1,667 839 435 5,034 1990 34,613 30,761 9,060 5,833 9,051 1,861 946 647 4,593 1997 37,591 33,108 9,815 6,435 9,898 1,900 1,010 1,153 4,700 Type Junior college . . . . Colleges, universities . . . . . Departmental . . . Law, medicine, religious . . . . Government . . . . . . . Armed Forces . . . . . . Outlying areas . . . . 1980 1,191 3,400 1,489 269 1,260 485 113 1985 1,188 3,846 1,824 531 1,574 526 114 1990 1,233 3,360 1,454 501 1,735 489 110 1997 1,270 3,430 1,452 491 1,897 363 (NA)

1 NA Not available. Includes Canadian libraries and libraries in regions administered by the United States, not shown separately. Data are exclusive of elementary and secondary school libraries. Law libraries with fewer than 10,000 volumes are included only if they specialize in a particular field. 2 Includes other types of special libraries, not shown separately. Increase between 1980 and 1990 is due mainly to revised criteria for identifying special libraries and improved methods of counting. 3 Increase in 1997 due to increased effort in identifying special libraries.

Source: R.R. Bowker Co., New York, NY, The Bowker Annual: Library and Book Trade Almanac and American Library Directory, annual. (Copyright by Reed Elsevier Inc.)

No. 337. Public Libraries, by Selected Characteristics: 1996
[Based on survey of public libraries (5,905 represents $5,905,000,000). Data are for public libraries in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The response rates for these items are between 97 and 100 percent] Number of— Population of service area Public libraries Total . . . . . . . . . 1,000,000 or more . 500,000 to 999,000 250,000 to 499,999 100,000 to 249,999 50,000 to 99,999 . . 25,000 to 49,999 . 10,000 to 24,999 . 5,000 to 9,999 . . 2,500 to 4,999 . . 1,000 to 2,499 . . Fewer than 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,946 20 52 90 313 510 863 1,679 1,498 1,327 1,636 958 Stationary outlets 1 16,047 864 1,132 1,039 1,960 1,573 1,662 2,162 1,677 1,365 1,653 960 Operating income— Source (percent) Total (mil. dol.) 2 5,905 771 999 688 959 729 718 643 239 92 52 14 State government 12.2 10.9 17.2 10.7 10.1 13.5 12.3 10.2 11.8 7.1 5.7 7.3 Local government 78.1 75.2 74.6 82.6 81.9 78.5 78.8 78.7 74.4 74.2 69.9 66.4 Paid staff
3

Total 117,812 13,954 17,531 12,526 19,341 15,096 15,046 13,945 5,792 2,518 1,590 473

Books Librarians and serial with ALAvolumes MLS 4 (per capita) 27,353 4,104.2 4,674.7 3,241.4 4,516.1 3,420.1 3,436.1 2,843.2 804.6 220.6 76.9 15.4 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.5 4.2 5.3 7.7 13.8

1 The sum of central and branches libraries. The total number of central libraries was 8,923; the total of branch libraries was 7,124. 2 Includes income from the Federal Government (1.0%) and other sources (8.7%), not shown separately. 3 Full-time equivalents. 4 Librarians with master’s degrees from a graduate library education program accredited by the American Library Association (ALA). Total librarians, including those without ALA-MLS, was 39,096.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Public Libraries in the United States: 1996.

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No. 338. Household Use of Public Library Services: 1996
[For the 50 states and DC (99,088 represents 99,088,000). Based on a survey conducted between January and April 1996; see source for details] Item All households Number of households (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCENT USING PUBLIC LIBRARIES Used in the past year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Used on the past month . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Way of using— Borrow or drop off books or tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go for other purpose 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Called library to renew book or to get information 2 . . Linked to library from home computer . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose for using— Enjoyment or hobbies 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To get information for personal use. . . . . . . . . . . . . School or class assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work assignment or to keep up to date at work . . . . To get information to help find a job . . . . . . . . . . . . For program or activity for children 6 to 12 years old . For activity for children under 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... ......... ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99,088 65 44 36 18 14 4 32 20 19 8 5 4 4 Households with Households with chldren under no chldren under 18 years old 18 years old 36,225 82 61 53 26 18 5 45 22 38 10 5 7 8 62,863 54 35 26 14 12 3 24 18 7 7 5 2 1

1 2 3 Including a lecture, story hour, or using equipment. Information other than library hours or directions. Including borrowing books or tapes or to attend activities. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Use of Public Library Services by Households in the United States: 1996, February 1997.

No. 339. Children Who Participated in Various Literacy Programs With a Parent or Family Member: 1991 to 1996
[In percent. For children 3 to 5 years old. Based on the National Household Education Survey; see source for details] Read to 3 or more times in Told a story at least once in the prior week the prior week 1991 Total participating 1 . . . . . . . School enrollment status: Not enrolled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Center-based programs 2 . . . . . . Kindergarten 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race/ethnicity: White 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parents highest education level: Less than high school diploma . . . High school diploma or GED . . . . Some college/vocational/technical. Bachelor’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . Graduate/professional school. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.4 68.8 75.2 71.1 77.7 59.0 53.0 53.8 63.5 74.0 82.1 88.3 1995 83.1 81.5 85.8 81.3 89.0 73.7 61.5 64.4 77.9 85.3 89.7 94.0 1996 82.9 80.0 85.2 83.8 88.9 75.9 65.3 58.8 77.4 86.5 90.9 96.1 1991 72.0 72.3 74.1 68.8 73.8 66.0 68.4 67.4 68.2 74.2 74.7 78.4 1995 81.4 80.3 82.7 81.0 83.9 74.4 75.1 71.9 77.6 82.9 85.0 88.2 1996 82.0 80.0 84.0 81.9 83.9 76.6 79.3 72.8 79.9 84.6 83.2 85.8 Visited a library in the past month 1991 36.6 30.5 41.0 41.7 40.7 27.8 24.5 18.3 26.0 38.5 52.0 59.1 1995 41.2 32.0 46.3 47.3 45.1 34.1 28.0 18.3 31.5 40.9 53.5 62.8 1996 38.2 31.5 42.6 42.1 42.5 34.1 25.9 19.4 30.1 37.1 51.9 59.5

Characteristic

1 2 Includes other race/ethnic groups, not shown separately. Center-based includes Head Start, nursery school, and prekindergarten; kindergarten includes transitional kindergarten, kindergarten and pre-first grade. 3 Non-Hispanic. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Condition of Education, 1998.

No. 340. Public Library Use of the Internet: 1998
[In percent, except number of outlets. As of spring. Based on sample survey; see source for details] Metropolitan status Item Total All libraries outlets 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connected to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connected with public access. . . . . . . . . . . . . Public access services provided— Only text-based terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . Some graphical workstations . . . . . . . . . . Speed of access— Less than 28.8kpbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.8kpbs to 56kpbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56kpbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than 56kpbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special software/hardware for persons with disabilities on: all workstations . . . . . . . . Some workstations . . . . . . . . . . . . No workstations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtering software not used on workstations With acceptable use policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,718 100.0 83.6 73.3 5.8 94.2 4.2 28.7 32.7 33.7 2.9 13.6 83.6 85.3 84.8 Urban 2,691 17.1 91.0 84.0 13.4 86.6 3.6 7.7 33.5 53.5 2.3 24.1 73.8 82.9 87.3 Suburban 4,933 31.4 88.1 76.7 5.3 94.7 3.7 21.3 35.1 39.1 1.2 15.1 83.7 83.3 85.9
1

Poverty status Less than 20 20 to 40 percent percent 12,757 81.2 84.1 73.2 5.7 94.3 4.8 30.6 32.0 31.8 2.4 12.7 84.9 85.8 84.5 2,644 16.8 80.9 72.8 5.0 95.0 0.9 21.6 34.8 42.4 5.3 16.9 77.9 83.1 86.6

2

Rural 8,094 51.5 78.4 67.6 3.2 96.8 4.7 42.2 30.7 22.2 4.2 8.3 87.5 87.9 83.1

More than 40 percent 317 2.0 83.3 79.5 16.1 83.9 3.8 11.1 42.6 40.9 0.8 23.0 76.1 85.4 86.3

... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Urban = inside central city; Suburban = in metro area, outside of a central city; Rural = outside a metro area. 2 Determined by the 1990 poverty status of the service area of the outlet. 3 Central libraries and branches; excludes bookmobiles. Source: The American Library Association, Washington, D.C., The 1998 National Survey of U.S. Public Library Outlet Internet Connectivity: Final Report, September 1998, by John Carlo Bartot and Charles R. McClure.

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No. 341. Participation in Adult Education: 1994-95
[In thousands (189,543 represents 189,543,000), except percent. For the civilian noninstitutional population 17 years old and over not enrolled full-time in elementary or secondary school at the time of the survey. Adult education is considered any enrollment in any educational activity at any time in the prior 12 months. Based on survey and subject to sampling error; source for details] Participants in adult education Characteristic Adult population (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189,543 22,407 40,326 42,304 31,807 21,824 30,876 90,256 99,287 144,587 20,806 15,689 8,461 38,627 114,678 36,238 77,787 111,756 12,808 16,511 62,956 6,327 34,433 9,975 46,535 117,826 8,155 63,562 16,814 12,500 4,812 15,666 20,460 17,355 1,908 11,441 8,309 4,488 1,989 2,022 30,198 13,523 13,116 13,812 16,386 28,628 20,446 29,161 24,274 Number taking adult ed. courses Percent of (1,000) total 76,261 10,539 19,508 20,814 14,592 6,117 4,691 34,450 41,811 59,982 7,704 5,281 3,294 17,094 48,200 10,967 36,103 40,158 1,283 3,332 19,341 2,648 16,978 5,601 27,078 59,734 2,983 13,544 12,219 7,070 3,300 7,131 10,727 8,238 500 4,977 2,515 1,295 519 1,194 6,883 3,610 4,176 4,339 6,208 12,220 9,567 15,169 14,089 40 47 48 49 46 28 15 38 42 41 37 34 39 44 42 30 46 36 10 20 31 42 49 56 58 51 37 21 73 57 69 46 52 47 26 43 30 29 26 59 23 27 32 31 38 43 47 52 58 Reason for taking course (percent) Personal/ social 44 39 41 40 39 52 86 34 51 44 45 40 40 37 45 48 43 44 52 45 44 44 45 39 43 37 39 72 37 37 32 41 43 37 40 30 28 35 33 35 48 51 45 47 45 45 41 39 43 Advance Train for a on the job new job 54 33 56 64 65 54 14 60 49 57 48 37 45 44 58 52 56 52 20 27 49 57 47 64 65 64 27 15 74 76 73 53 62 51 49 62 58 60 43 71 25 32 38 44 46 55 61 67 64 11 21 14 10 7 4 1 10 12 10 13 13 16 20 8 9 11 11 8 10 10 8 16 9 9 10 25 11 8 8 9 12 11 14 6 8 10 13 24 6 20 17 15 13 13 11 10 7 7
1

Complete degree or diploma 10 19 8 9 10 6 3 10 9 9 12 11 13 15 8 8 9 10 9 18 6 8 13 9 9 10 13 8 10 10 11 11 6 12 12 11 9 12 5 4 12 10 12 11 11 9 8 8 9

Total . . . . . . . . . . Age: 17 to 24 years old . 25 to 34 years old . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over

. . . . . . .

Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race/ethnicity: White 2 . . . . . Black 2 . . . . . Hispanic . . . . Other races 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Marital status: Never married . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currently married . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children under 18 in household: Yes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational attainment: Up to 8th grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9th to 12th grade . . . . . . . . . . . . High school diploma or GED . . . . . Vocational school after high school Some college . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Associate’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . Bachelor’s or higher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Labor force status: Employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unemployed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not in the labor force . . . . . . . . . . . Occupation: 3 Professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Executive, administrative and managerial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical and related support . . . Sales workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative support 4 . . . . . . . Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture, forestry, and fishing . . Precision production, craft and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine operators, assemblers 5 . Transportation and materials moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers and laborers . . . . . . . . Nonclassifiable, undetermined . . . Household income: Under $10,000 . . . . $10,001 to $15,000 . $15,001 to $20,000 . $20,001 to $25,000 . $25,001 to $30,000 . $30,001 to $40,000 . $40,001 to $50,000 . $50,001 to $75,000 . More than $75,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Reason for taking at least one course. Includes duplication. Excludes ‘‘to improve basic skills,’’ cited by no more than 6 2 3 percent of participants. Non-Hispanic. For those employed in the 12 months prior to the interview. Excludes those participating exclusively in full-time credential programs. 4 Includes clerical. 5 Includes inspectors.

Source: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, 1995 National Household Education Survey.

Education
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999

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