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Figure 3.1

Health and Nutrition

Personal Health Care Expenditures per Capita: 1970 to 1993
3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 Dollars

Source: Charts prepared by U.S. Bureau of the Census. For data , see table 150.

Figure 3.2

Consumer Price Indexes— Medical Services: 1970 to 1994
250 200 150 100 50 0
1Includes

1982–84=100

1970 1980 1993 1994

Total services1

Physician fees

Hospital room charges

other medical care services. Source: Charts prepared by U.S. Bureau of the Census. For data , see table 167.

Figure 3.3

Per Capita Food Consumption, by Selected Products: 1970 to 1993
100 75 50 25 0 Pounds

1970 1980 1992 1993

Beef

Pork

Chicken

Turkey

Fish

Source: Charts prepared by U.S. Bureau of the Census. For data , see table 225.

Section 3

Health and Nutrition
This section presents statistics on health expenditures and insurance coverage, including Medicare and Medicaid; medical personnel; hospitals; nursing homes and other care facilities; incidence of acute and prevalence of chronic conditions; nutritional intake of the population; and food consumption. Summary statistics showing recent trends on health care and discussions of selected health issues are published annually by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in Health, United States. Data on national health expenditures, medical costs, and insurance coverage are compiled by the U.S. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) and appear in the quarterly Health Care Financing Review and in the Annual Medicare Program Statistics series. Statistics on health insurance are also collected by NCHS and are published in series 10 of Vital and Health Statistics. The Census Bureau also publishes data on insurance coverage in Current Population Reports, series P70. Statistics on health facilities are collected by NCHS and are published in series 14 of Vital and Health Statistics. Statistics on hospitals are published annually by the American Hospital Association, Chicago, IL, in Hospital Statistics. Primary sources for data on nutrition are the quarterly National Food Review and the annual Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, both issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. NCHS also conducts periodic surveys of nutrient levels in the population, including estimates of food and nutrient intake, overweight and obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and clinical signs of malnutrition. National health expenditures.—HCFA compiles estimates of national health expenditures (NHE) to measure spending for health care in the United States. With the publication of the 1988 estimates, major revisions to the NHE back to 1960 have been incorporated into the accounts. The NHE accounts are structured to show spending by type of expenditure (i.e., hospital care, physician care, dental care, and other professional care; home health; drugs and other medical nondurables; vision products and other medical durables; nursing home care and other

In Brief
In 1993: 40 million with no health insurance. Hospital surgeries— percent outpatient: 1980 16 1993 55 Per capita consumption of chicken: 1980 33 pounds 1993 47 pounds personal health expenditures; plus nonpersonal health expenditures for such items as public health, research, construction of medical facilities, and administration) and by source of funding (e.g., private health insurance, out-of-pocket payments, and a range of public programs including Medicare, Medicaid, and those operated by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)). In all cases except private insurance (HCFA conducts its own survey of part of the health insurance industry), data used to estimate health expenditures come from existing sources which are tabulated for other purposes. The type of expenditure estimates rely upon statistics produced by such groups as the American Hospital Association, the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Source of funding estimates are constructed using administrative and statistical records from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, the Department of Defense and VA medical programs, the Social Security Administration, Census Bureau’s Governmental Finances, State and local governments, other HHS agencies, and other nongovernment sources. Detailed descriptions of sources and methods, along with the most recent analysis of health care expenditure estimates, are published in the Health Care Financing Review’s annual article on national health expenditures. Medicare and Medicaid.—Since July 1966, the Federal Medicare program has provided two coordinated plans for

108

Health and Nutrition
Statistics on the demographic characteristics of persons employed in the health occupations are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and reported in Employment and Earnings (monthly) (see table 649, section 13). Data based on surveys of health personnel and utilization of health facilities providing longterm care, ambulatory care, and hospital care are presented in NCHS series 13 and series 14, Data on Health Resources Utilization and Data on Health Resources: Manpower and Facilities. Statistics on patient visits to health care providers, as reported in health interviews, appear in NCHS series 10, National Health Interview Survey Data. The HCFA’s Health Care Financing Review and Health Care Financing Program Statistics present data for hospitals and nursing homes as well as extended care facilities and home health agencies. These data are based on records of the Medicare program and differ from those of other sources because they are limited to facilities meeting Federal eligibility standards for participation in Medicare. Data on patients in hospitals for the mentally ill and on mental health facilities are collected by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and appear in Mental Health, U.S., the Mental Health Statistics reports, (series CN), and the Mental Health Statistical Note series. Disability and illness.—General health statistics, including morbidity, disability, injuries, preventive care, and findings from physiological testing are collected by NCHS in its National Health Interview Survey and its National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and appear in Vital and Health Statistics, series 10 and 11, respectively. The Department of Labor compiles statistics on industrial injuries (see section 13). Annual incidence data on notifiable diseases are compiled by the Public Health Service (PHS) at its Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, and are published as a supplement to its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The list of diseases is revised annually and includes those which, by mutual agreement of the States and PHS, are communicable diseases of national importance. Nutrition.—Statistics on annual per capita consumption of food and its nutrient value

nearly all people age 65 and over: (1) A hospital insurance plan which covers hospital and related services and (2) a voluntary supplementary medical insurance plan, financed partially by monthly premiums paid by participants, which partly covers physicians’ and related medical services. Such insurance also applies, since July 1973, to disabled beneficiaries of any age after 24 months of entitlement to cash benefits under the social security or railroad retirement programs and to persons with end stage renal disease. Under Medicaid, all States offer basic health services to certain very poor people: Individuals who are pregnant, aged, disabled or blind, and families with dependent children. Medicaid eligibility is automatic for almost all cash welfare recipients in these States. Thirty-nine States also extend Medicaid to certain other persons who qualify, except for incomes above regular eligibility levels; those persons include those who have medical expenses which, when subtracted from their income, spend down to a State “medically needy” level or those who meet the higher “medically needy” income restrictions. Within Federal guidelines, each State determines its own Medicaid eligibility criteria and the health services to be provided under Medicaid. The cost of providing Medicaid services is jointly shared by the Federal Government and the States. Health resources.—Hospital statistics based on data from the American Hospital Association’s yearly survey are published annually in Hospital Statistics, and cover all hospitals accepted for registration by the Association. To be accepted for registration, a hospital must meet certain requirements relating to number of beds, construction, equipment, medical and nursing staff, patient care, clinical records, surgical and obstetrical facilities, diagnostic and treatment facilities, laboratory services, etc. Data obtained from NCHS cover all U.S. hospitals which meet certain criteria for inclusion. The criteria are published in Vital and Health Statistics reports, series 13. NCHS defines a hospital as a non-Federal shortterm general or special facility with six or more inpatient beds with an average stay of less than 60 days.

Health and Nutrition
are estimated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and published quarterly in National Food Review. Historical data can be found in Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, issued annually. Statistics on food insufficiency and food and nutrient intake are collected by NCHS to estimate the nation’s population diet. NCHS also collects physical examination data to assess the population’s nutritional status, including growth, overweight/obesity, nutritional deficiencies, and prevalence of nutrition-related

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conditions, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Statistical reliability.—For discussion of statistical collection, estimation, and sampling procedures and measures of reliability applicable to data from NCHS and HCFA, see Appendix III. Historical statistics.—Tabular headnotes provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. See Appendix IV.

No. 150. National Health Expenditures: 1960 to 1993
[Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas] TOTAL1 HEALTH SERVICES AND SUPPLIES Private Out-of-pocket payments YEAR Total (bil.dol.) 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.1 41.6 74.3 82.2 92.3 102.4 115.9 132.6 151.9 172.6 193.2 218.3 251.1 291.4 328.2 360.8 396.0 434.5 466.0 506.2 562.3 623.9 696.6 755.6 820.3 884.2 Per capita (dol.) 143 204 346 379 421 464 521 591 671 755 838 937 1,068 1,227 1,369 1,490 1,620 1,761 1,871 2,013 2,214 2,433 2,686 2,882 3,094 3,299 Percent of Total3 GDP2 (bil.dol.) 5.3 5.9 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.6 7.9 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.7 8.8 9.3 9.6 10.4 10.6 10.5 10.8 10.9 11.1 11.5 11.9 12.6 13.2 13.6 13.9 19.8 29.9 44.0 48.1 53.9 59.7 65.9 74.1 85.7 98.6 109.7 124.0 141.3 164.3 186.5 205.3 228.0 252.9 268.7 291.3 327.5 361.7 399.8 422.8 451.7 484.3 Percent of total private 67.5 63.6 57.7 55.9 55.0 54.5 54.3 52.8 50.4 48.2 46.5 45.1 43.4 42.4 41.0 40.4 39.6 39.1 39.1 38.3 37.6 35.3 34.6 33.9 33.3 32.5 Insurance premiums4 (bil.dol.) 5.9 10.0 16.9 19.2 22.0 24.8 27.5 32.0 38.5 46.7 53.6 62.2 72.1 85.1 99.1 110.6 125.1 139.8 147.8 162.3 184.8 211.7 236.9 252.8 272.7 296.1 Public Medical payments Public assistance (bil. dol.) 0.5 1.7 6.3 7.7 8.9 10.2 11.9 14.5 16.4 18.8 20.9 23.9 28.0 32.6 34.6 38.0 41.1 44.5 49.0 54.0 58.8 66.4 80.5 99.1 113.5 122.9

Total (bil.dol.) 13.4 19.0 25.4 26.9 29.6 32.6 35.8 39.1 43.2 47.5 51.0 55.9 61.3 69.6 76.5 83.0 90.4 98.8 105.0 111.6 123.0 127.8 138.3 143.3 150.6 157.5

Total (bil.dol.) 5.7 8.3 25.0 28.2 31.8 35.9 42.8 50.2 56.9 64.7 73.6 84.0 98.1 113.9 126.9 139.5 151.6 165.2 180.4 196.6 213.7 240.1 272.5 308.0 341.2 370.9

Medicare (bil. dol.)

– – 7.7 8.5 9.4 10.8 13.5 16.4 19.8 23.0 26.8 31.0 37.5 44.9 52.5 59.8 66.5 72.2 76.9 82.3 89.4 102.6 112.1 123.3 138.3 154.2

– Represents zero. 1 Includes medical research and medical facilities construction. 2 GDP=Gross domestic product; see table 701. 3 Includes other sources of funds not shown separately. 4 See footnote 2, table 151. Source: U. S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, winter 1994.

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Health and Nutrition
No. 151. National Health Expenditures, by Type: 1980 to 1993

[In millions of dollars, except percent. Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series B 248-261] TYPE OF EXPENDITURE Total . . . . . . . . . . . Annual percent change 1 . Private expenditures . Health services and supplies Out-of-pocket payments . . Insurance premiums 2 . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medical research . . . . . . . . Medical facilities construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 251,058 15.0 145,791 141,338 61,280 72,111 7,947 292 4,161 105,267 68.4 98,083 37,521 28,023 52 5,141 4,350 892 7,225 5,934 298 5,589 3,059 5,169 2,014 1985 434,498 9.7 259,436 252,936 98,798 139,796 14,342 538 5,963 175,062 70.4 165,166 72,190 44,465 51 7,971 7,498 1,262 12,323 8,713 401 7,030 3,263 7,302 2,594 1988 562,326 11.1 336,144 327,486 122,974 184,819 19,694 838 7,819 226,182 68.8 213,678 89,361 58,847 62 12,208 9,755 1,694 16,425 10,016 498 10,729 4,082 9,665 2,840 1989 623,914 11.0 370,731 361,682 127,837 211,725 22,119 881 8,168 253,184 69.1 240,124 102,606 66,412 64 14,298 10,321 1,795 19,019 10,641 523 10,583 3,860 10,379 2,681 1990 696,553 11.6 410,033 399,790 138,266 236,950 24,574 959 9,285 286,520 68.3 272,453 112,064 80,473 62 16,067 11,578 1,892 21,550 11,424 555 11,777 5,009 11,256 2,811 1991 755,551 8.5 432,913 422,791 143,296 252,826 26,669 1,091 9,031 322,638 69.6 308,004 123,291 99,093 66 17,163 12,849 2,017 22,938 12,377 594 11,858 5,757 11,804 2,830 1992 820,347 8.6 462,854 451,694 150,589 272,731 28,374 1,221 9,939 357,493 71.1 341,221 138,281 113,531 70 18,975 12,884 2,135 23,719 13,201 646 11,257 6,521 13,003 3,270 1993 884,205 7.8 496,387 484,278 157,466 296,142 30,670 1,248 10,861 387,818 72.3 370,916 154,202 122,917 73 21,128 13,436 2,209 24,708 14,287 681 10,255 7,020 13,130 3,772

Public expenditures . . . . . . . . . . Percent Federal of public . . . . . . Health services and supplies . . . . . . . . Medicare 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public assistance medical payments 4 Temporary disability insurance 5 . . . . Workers’ compensation (medical) 5 . . Defense Dept. hospital, medical. . . . . Maternal, child health programs . Public health activities . . . . . . . Veterans’ hospital, medical care. Medical vocational rehabilitation. State and local hospitals 6 . . . . Other 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medical research . . . . . . . . . . . . Medical facilities construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Change from immediate prior year. For explanation of average annual percent change, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. 2 Covers insurance benefits and amount retained by insurance companies for expenses, additions to reserves, and profits 3 (net cost of insurance). Represents expenditures for benefits and administrative cost from Federal hospital and medical insurance trust funds under old-age, survivors, disability, and health insurance programs; see text, section 12. 4 Payments made directly to suppliers of medical care (primarily Medicaid). 5 Includes medical benefits paid under public law by private insurance carriers and self-insurers. 6 Expenditures not offset by other revenues. 7 Covers expenditures for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; Indian Health Service; school health and other programs.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, fall 1994.

No. 152. National Health Expenditures, by Object: 1980 to 1993
[In billions of dollars. Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series B 221-235] OBJECT OF EXPENDITURE Total . . . . Spent by— Consumers . Government . Other 1 . . . . ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 251.1 133.4 105.3 12.4 239.4 220.1 102.7 45.2 13.3 6.4 1.9 21.6 4.5 20.5 4.0 12.1 7.2 5.5 6.2 1985 434.5 238.6 175.1 20.8 418.1 380.5 168.2 83.6 21.7 16.6 4.9 37.4 7.1 34.9 6.1 25.3 12.3 7.8 8.6 1988 562.3 307.8 226.2 28.4 541.2 500.2 211.7 116.9 27.1 27.8 6.4 49.0 8.9 43.9 8.6 24.5 16.4 10.5 10.7 1989 623.9 339.6 253.2 31.2 601.8 550.5 231.8 127.3 28.6 32.2 8.1 54.4 9.6 48.9 9.5 32.3 19.0 11.3 10.8 1990 696.6 375.2 286.5 34.8 672.2 612.4 256.5 140.5 30.4 36.0 11.1 61.2 10.5 54.8 11.4 38.3 21.6 12.2 12.1 1991 755.6 396.1 322.6 36.8 730.8 670.8 282.3 150.3 31.7 40.4 13.2 67.1 11.3 60.8 13.8 37.0 22.9 12.9 11.9 1992 820.3 423.3 357.5 39.5 792.9 729.7 306.0 161.8 34.7 46.4 16.8 70.8 12.0 65.5 15.8 39.5 23.7 14.2 13.2 1993 884.2 453.6 387.8 42.8 855.2 782.5 326.6 171.2 37.4 51.2 20.8 75.0 12.6 69.6 18.2 48.0 24.7 14.4 14.6

Spent for— Health services and supplies. . . . . . . . . . Personal health care expenses . . . . . . Hospital care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians’ services . . . . . . . . . . . . Dentists’ services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other professional services 2 . . . . . . Home health care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drugs/other medical nondurables . . . Vision products/other med. durables 3 Nursing home care . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other health services . . . . . . . . . . . Net cost of insurance and admin. 4 . . . . Government public health activities . . . .

Medical research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medical facilities construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes nonpatient revenues, privately funded construction, and industrial inplant. 2 Includes services of registered and practical nurses in private duty, visiting nurses, podiatrists, optometrists, physical therapists, clinical psychologists, chiropractors, naturopaths, and Christian Science practitioners. 3 Includes expenditures for eyeglasses, hearing aids, orthopedic appliances, artificial limbs, crutches, wheelchairs, etc. 4 Includes administrative expenses of federally financed health programs.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, fall 1994.

Personal Health Care Expenditures, by State
No. 153. Personal Health Care Expenditures, by State: 1993
[In millions of dollars. Data represent spending for services produced by each State’s health care providers, as opposed to those consumed by State residents or supplied by State employers] PERSONAL HEALTH CARE (PHC) EXPENDITURES STATE Hospital care Physician services Dental services 37,383 456 124 551 242 5,664 605 685 104 119 2,029 898 235 163 1,588 692 341 325 369 432 157 749 1,022 1,531 741 214 602 103 191 215 177 1,460 175 2,837 810 78 1,398 356 578 1,634 150 387 87 609 2,081 276 84 863 1,189 182 765 57
2

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Total

Other professional services 51,220 641 127 821 332 6,859 751 769 156 267 3,505 1,226 222 126 2,063 993 431 470 691 736 210 942 1,524 1,844 933 288 1,013 166 225 307 269 1,870 254 3,717 1,102 93 1,969 504 530 3,005 239 472 117 1,166 3,591 220 122 970 1,102 326 875 68

Home health care 22,982 602 5 317 145 1,640 195 391 51 45 2,323 729 32 49 853 308 137 152 357 410 104 314 835 714 414 300 347 50 74 120 71 718 62 3,562 541 16 649 273 122 796 103 216 16 899 1,583 100 52 368 380 150 265 29

Drugs

1

Vision products 2 12,636 155 26 227 56 1,522 226 192 35 34 872 331 64 35 604 270 148 107 141 160 46 272 269 457 277 60 244 36 80 76 43 457 69 1,090 268 28 531 121 91 617 33 115 30 228 883 117 24 295 242 74 240 17

Nursing home care 66,201 703 56 567 558 4,103 661 1,749 217 231 3,089 1,038 181 197 3,148 2,018 927 721 850 1,186 453 1,185 2,737 1,849 1,884 460 1,368 178 482 164 268 2,128 215 9,106 1,562 246 3,758 748 656 4,153 485 638 216 1,085 3,104 260 148 976 1,291 365 1,752 83

Other personal health care

MediMedicare caid PHC PHC expendi- expenditures tures 112,776 1,276 273 1,270 1,007 11,330 967 1,998 249 678 4,697 2,753 354 290 4,609 2,777 960 769 1,683 2,664 722 1,924 3,689 3,865 2,229 1,043 1,648 322 561 344 446 3,857 577 18,041 2,564 269 4,665 1,013 955 5,116 793 1,324 264 2,183 5,914 477 232 1,621 2,161 1,075 2,138 137

U.S. . . . . 778,510 323,919 171,226 AL . AK. AZ . AR. CA. CO CT. DE. DC FL . GA HI . ID . IL . IN . IA . KS. KY. LA . ME MD MA MI . MN MS MO MT NE. NV. NH NJ . NM NY. NC ND OH OK OR PA . RI . SC. SD. TN. TX . UT. VT . VA . WA WV WI . WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

74,956 1,247 165 1,124 684 9,017 919 996 214 175 4,450 2,117 416 265 3,263 1,594 743 695 1,196 1,269 333 1,749 1,961 2,937 1,146 720 1,420 209 421 408 319 2,452 409 5,081 2,027 160 3,218 874 762 3,519 310 978 163 1,635 5,131 439 161 2,015 1,474 574 1,290 113

17,988 150,374 323 68 230 127 1,565 327 467 79 130 912 516 104 55 636 264 127 140 228 328 153 312 597 532 386 141 346 74 99 67 136 570 131 1,635 413 52 511 196 391 798 219 317 63 235 1,325 99 82 395 425 192 415 55 2,625 101 2,276 1,422 17,347 1,556 2,134 377 603 12,484 3,549 496 384 6,404 3,126 1,447 1,326 2,143 2,730 605 2,692 4,712 5,405 2,164 1,367 3,439 391 746 732 473 4,838 565 11,872 3,553 374 6,177 1,665 1,521 10,056 664 1,541 364 3,549 8,765 624 241 2,736 2,360 1,106 2,397 150

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12,060 1,573 10,635 6,111 94,178 10,066 12,216 2,260 4,285 44,811 20,104 3,485 2,277 34,747 16,401 7,341 6,903 10,384 13,014 3,433 15,154 23,421 27,136 14,194 6,187 15,949 2,103 4,400 3,747 3,452 25,741 3,878 67,033 18,241 2,021 33,456 8,041 7,999 41,521 3,428 9,029 1,953 16,203 49,816 4,118 1,499 16,682 15,129 5,197 14,502 998

5,301 701 3,999 2,723 34,827 3,932 4,380 937 2,612 17,131 8,704 1,460 900 15,621 6,998 3,111 2,868 4,515 5,956 1,376 5,926 10,034 11,711 4,796 2,897 7,652 894 2,003 1,362 1,388 10,312 1,848 28,001 7,801 903 14,305 3,329 2,966 19,540 1,314 4,221 920 7,208 21,592 1,743 562 7,031 5,305 2,346 5,537 417

2,631 301 2,799 1,244 28,981 2,452 2,587 466 672 10,498 4,543 771 486 6,970 3,263 1,376 1,425 2,038 2,537 601 3,704 4,442 5,562 3,617 1,107 2,958 392 825 1,029 780 5,776 716 12,003 3,717 445 7,118 1,640 1,904 7,460 575 1,685 342 3,137 10,526 864 265 3,769 3,720 988 3,362 160

Includes other medical nondurables.

Includes other medical durables.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Office of the Actuary. Estimates prepared by the Office of National Health Statistics.

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Health and Nutrition

No. 154. Health Services and Supplies—Per Capita Consumer Expenditures, by Object: 1980 to 1993
[In dollars, except percent. Based on Social Security Administration estimates of total U.S. population as of July 1, including Armed Forces and Federal employees abroad and civilian population of outlying areas for 1960 through 1980. Years 1991 to 1993 are estimated by HCFA. Excludes research and construction. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series B 222-232] OBJECT OF EXPENDITURE Total, national . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual percent change 1 . . . . . . . . . Hospital care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians’ services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dentists’ services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other professional services 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Home health care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drugs and other medical nondurables. . . . . . Vision products and other medical durables 2 . Nursing home care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net cost of insurance and administration 2. . . Government public health activities . . . . . . . Total, private consumer 3 . . . . . . . . . Hospital care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians’ services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dentists’ services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other professional services 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Home health care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drugs and other medical nondurables. . . . . . Vision products and other medical durables 2 . Nursing home care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net cost of insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 1,018 14.0 437 192 57 27 8 92 19 87 17 51 31 567 187 135 54 19 3 85 17 34 34 1985 1,694 9.1 682 339 88 67 20 151 29 141 25 102 50 967 283 234 85 50 6 139 23 66 81 1987 1,940 7.6 772 414 101 90 24 180 32 161 31 77 58 1,089 321 278 98 67 9 164 25 74 53 1988 2,131 9.9 834 461 107 109 25 193 35 173 34 97 65 1,212 354 310 103 83 10 174 27 80 70 1989 2,347 10.1 904 497 112 126 31 212 37 191 37 126 74 1,324 381 329 108 96 12 191 28 81 97 1990 2,592 10.4 989 542 117 139 43 236 41 211 44 148 83 1,447 407 356 113 104 17 211 30 93 117
3

1991 2,787 7.5 1,077 572 121 154 50 256 43 232 53 141 87 1,511 429 373 116 114 18 227 30 94 110

1992 2,991 7.3 1,154 609 131 175 63 267 45 247 60 149 89 1,597 445 398 125 130 22 236 31 93 115

1993 3,191 6.7 1,218 638 139 191 78 280 47 260 68 179 92 1,693 473 411 132 138 26 245 32 92 142

1 Change from immediate prior year. 2 See footnotes for corresponding objects in table 152. payments and private health insurance. Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, fall 1994.

Represents out-of-pocket

No. 155. Government Expenditures for Health Services and Supplies: 1993
[In millions of dollars. Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas. Excludes medical research and construction] Medicare 2 (OASDHI) 154,202 92,700 34,817 6,124 3,101 Public assistance 3 122,917 45,473 12,952 36,070 8,569 5,082 OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Veterans 14,287 11,849 126 1,418 10 72 Defense Dept. 4 13,436 10,449 1,755 142 170 Workers’ compensation 5 21,128 10,014 7,663 413 495 -

TYPE OF SERVICE

Total

1

Federal

State and local 102,357 33,664 13,110 15,278 4,446 2,849 21,436

Total 1 . . . . . . . . . Hospital care . . . . . . . . Physicians’ services. . . . Nursing home care . . . . Drugs and other medical nondurables . . . . . . . . Administration. . . . . . . . Public health activities . .

. . . .

. . . .

370,916 182,864 58,143 43,612 9,177 9,175 24,708

268,559 149,200 45,033 28,334 4,732 6,326 3,273

.. .. ..

- Represents zero. 1 Includes other items not shown separately. 2 Covers hospital and medical insurance payments and administrative costs under old-age, survivors, disability, and health insurance program. 3 Covers Medicaid and other medical public assistance. Excludes funds paid into Medicare trust fund by States to cover premiums for public assistance recipients and medically indigent persons. 4 Includes care for retirees and military dependents. 5 Medical benefits. Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, fall 1994.

No. 156. Expenditures for Health Services and Supplies, by Type of Payer: 1970 to 1991
[In billions of dollars] TYPE OF PAYER Total expenditures . Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business . . . . . . . . . . . . Share of private health insurance premiums . . Households 1 . . . . . . . . . Share of private health insurance premiums . . Out-of-pocket spending. Nonpatient revenues 2 . . . Public. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal government . . . . State/local government . . .... .... .... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 69.1 50.1 13.7 9.8 35.0 6.0 18.9 1.5 18.9 10.4 8.5 1975 124.7 86.2 27.8 19.9 55.9 9.9 38.5 2.5 38.5 21.3 17.2 1980 238.9 162.0 64.3 47.9 90.8 16.6 59.5 7.0 76.8 42.6 34.2 1985 407.2 279.0 113.5 83.9 153.6 30.0 94.4 12.0 128.2 68.9 59.3 1986 438.9 301.8 125.9 92.2 163.1 30.9 100.9 12.9 137.1 71.6 65.5 1987 476.9 327.5 131.8 95.0 181.9 37.5 108.8 13.8 149.4 77.0 72.4 1988 526.2 362.5 151.0 110.9 196.1 37.7 118.5 15.4 163.7 84.3 79.4 1989 583.6 398.3 167.0 122.8 213.8 42.7 126.2 17.5 185.4 96.5 88.8 1990 652.4 436.6 187.9 140.2 228.9 46.6 136.5 19.8 215.8 113.7 102.1 1991 728.6 474.1 205.4 152.7 247.0 52.2 144.3 21.7 254.5 133.8 120.7

1 Includes other items not shown separately. 2 Includes philanthropy. Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, spring 1993.

Health Expenditures
No. 157. Personal Health Care—Third Party Payments and Private Consumer Expenditures: 1980 to 1993
[In billions of dollars, except percent. See headnote, table 158] ITEM Personal health care expenditures. . . . . . . Third party payments, total . . . . . Percent of personal health care Private insurance payments . . . . Government expenditures. . . . . . Other 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 220.1 158.8 72.2 64.1 87.0 7.7 133.1 48.2 49.0 78.9 32.2 53.3 1985 380.5 281.7 74.0 119.8 148.0 13.9 232.5 51.5 78.1 78.1 59.1 62.6 1987 453.8 342.2 75.4 148.9 176.4 16.9 277.4 53.7 90.6 79.6 72.0 65.5 1988 500.2 377.2 75.4 167.0 191.1 19.2 309.1 54.0 101.1 78.7 81.0 66.0 1989 550.5 422.7 76.8 186.8 214.3 21.6 336.3 55.6 110.1 80.0 87.0 69.0 1990 612.4 474.1 77.4 206.7 243.5 24.0 368.9 56.0 119.2 80.3 95.0 70.6 1991 670.8 527.5 78.6 223.9 277.6 26.1 393.2 56.9 127.5 80.7 100.5 72.1 1992 729.7 579.1 79.4 242.1 309.3 27.7 420.4 57.6 134.0 81.4 108.4 73.4

113

1993 782.5 625.0 79.9 258.0 337.0 30.0 445.5 57.9 143.7 81.9 113.1 74.4

Private consumer expenditures 2 . . Percent met by private insurance Hospital care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent met by private insurance Physicians’ services . . . . . . . . . . Percent met by private insurance

1 2 Includes nonpatient revenues and industrial inplant health services. Includes expenditures not shown separately. Represents out-of-pocket payments and private health insurance benefits. Excludes net cost of insurance.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, fall 1994.

No. 158. Personal Health Care Expenditures, by Object and Source of Payment: 1993
[In millions of dollars, except as indicated. Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas. Covers all expenditures for health services and supplies, except net cost of insurance and administration, government public health activities, and expenditures of philanthropic agencies for fund raising activities] Out of pocket payments 157,466 9,123 26,235 18,691 21,174 4,332 47,361 7,580 22,969 THIRD PARTY PAYMENTS Total 625,047 317,436 144,961 18,692 30,046 16,449 27,595 5,056 46,652 18,162 Private health insurance 258,050 117,752 84,079 16,794 15,843 2,540 18,417 886 1,739 Government 337,033 182,864 58,143 1,743 10,594 11,381 9,177 4,170 43,612 15,348 Other
1

OBJECT OF PAYMENT

Total

Private payments 2 445,480 143,695 113,053 35,640 40,626 9,400 65,778 8,466 26,009 2,814

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hospital care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicians’ services . . . . . . . . . . . . Dentists’ services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other professional services 3 . . . . . . Home health care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drugs/other medical nondurables . . . Vision products/other med. durables 3 Nursing home care . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

782,513 326,559 171,196 37,383 51,220 20,781 74,956 12,636 69,621 18,162

29,965 16,820 2,739 154 3,608 2,528 1,301 2,814

- Represents or rounds to zero. 1 Includes nonpatient revenues and industrial plant. 2 Covers out-of-pocket payments, private health insurance, and other. 3 See footnotes for corresponding items on table 152. Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, fall 1994.

No. 159. Medicare Enrollees and Expenditures: 1970 to 1993
[In millions. Enrollment as of July 1. Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas and enrollees in foreign countries and unknown place of residence] ITEM ENROLLEES Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hospital insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplementary medical insurance . . . . EXPENDITURES Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hospital insurance 1 . . . . . . Inpatient hospital . . . . . . Skilled nursing facility . . . Home health agency . . . . Hospice . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993, prel. 36.3 35.9 34.6

20.5 20.4 19.6

25.0 24.6 23.9

28.5 28.1 27.4

31.1 30.6 30.0

34.2 33.7 32.6

34.9 34.4 33.2

35.6 35.2 33.9

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .
1

7,493 5,281 4,827 246 51 2,212 1,790 114 34 26 11

16,316 11,581 10,877 278 160 4,735 3,416 643 95 80 39

36,802 25,557 24,116 395 540 11,245 8,187 1,897 234 203 114

72,294 48,414 44,940 548 1,913 43 23,880 17,312 4,319 38 720 558

110,984 66,997 59,501 2,528 3,663 358 43,987 29,609 8,482 74 2,827 1,476

121,447 72,570 62,839 2,575 5,342 561 48,877 32,313 9,783 65 3,531 1,644

135,845 85,015 71,444 3,935 7,466 846 50,830 32,546 10,776 79 3,983 1,876

150,370 94,391 76,325 5,473 10,415 1,077 55,979 35,780 11,543 107 5,002 1,547

Supplementary medical insurance 1 . Physician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outpatient hospital . . . . . . . . . . Home health agency . . . . . . . . . Group practice prepayment. . . . . Independent laboratory . . . . . . . - Represents or rounds to zero. shown separately.

Includes administrative expenses and, for hospital insurance, peer review activity, not

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Office of the Actuary.

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Health and Nutrition
No. 160. Medicare—Persons Served and Reimbursements: 1980 to 1992

[Persons served are enrollees who use covered services, incurred expenses greater than the applicable deductible amounts and for whom Medicare paid benefits. Reimbursements are amounts paid to providers for covered services. Excluded are retroactive adjustments resulting from end of fiscal year cost settlements and certain lump-sum interim payments. Also excluded are beneficiary (or third party payor) liabilities for applicable deductibles, coinsurance amounts, and charges for noncovered services. Includes data for enrollees living in outlying territories and foreign countries] TYPE OF COVERAGE AND SERVICE Persons served, total 2 . . . . . Hospital insurance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Inpatient hospital . . . . . . . . . . . Skilled-nursing services . . . . . . . Home health services 3 . . . . . . . Supplementary medical insurance 2 . Physicians’ and other medical services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outpatient services . . . . . . . . . . Home health services 3 . . . . . . . Persons served per 1,000 enrollees, total 2 . . . . . . . . . Hospital insurance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Inpatient hospital . . . . . . . . . . . Skilled-nursing services . . . . . . . Home health services 3 . . . . . . . Supplementary medical insurance 2 . Physicians’ and other medical services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outpatient services . . . . . . . . . . Home health services 3 . . . . . . . Reimbursements, total . . . . Per person served . . . . . . Hospital insurance . . . . . . . . . . . Inpatient hospital . . . . . . . . . . Skilled-nursing services . . . . . . Home health services 3 . . . . . . Supplementary medical insurance . Physicians’ and other medical services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outpatient services . . . . . . . . . Home health services 3 . . . . . .
2

Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . .

PERSONS 65 YEARS OLD AND OVER 1980 16,271 6,024 5,951 248 675 16,099 15,627 6,629 302 638 240 237 10 27 652 633 269 12 29,134 1,791 20,353 19,583 331 440 8,781 7,361 1,261 159 1990 24,809 6,367 5,906 615 1,818 24,687 24,193 14,055 38 802 209 194 20 60 832 815 474 1 1992 25,491 6,746 6,117 759 2,357 25,350 24,745 15,658 35 796 214 194 24 75 825 806 510 1 1980

DISABLED PERSONS 1 1990 2,390 680 644 23 122 2,365 2,249 1,496 734 209 198 7 38 804 764 508 11,239 4,703 6,694 6,346 85 264 4,545 2,831 1,714 1992 2,627 753 703 27 166 2,598 2,453 1,748 736 211 197 8 47 807 762 543 14,253 5,426 8,567 7,876 126 564 5,686 3,285 2,402 -

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

1,760 728 721 9 51 1,723 1,631 909 25 594 246 243 3 17 634 600 334 9 4,478 2,544 2,765 2,714 13 38 1,713 997 701 16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate Rate. Rate. Rate. Rate. Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. dol Dollars . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol . Mil. dol .

. . . . . . .

88,778 107,590 3,578 4,221 54,244 68,598 48,952 58,596 1,886 3,146 3,406 6,856 34,533 38,990 27,379 7,077 78 29,744 9,145 102

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. dol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. dol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mil. dol .

- Represents or rounds to zero. 1 Age under 65; includes persons enrolled because of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) only. Persons are counted once for each type of covered service used, but are not double counted in totals. 3 Beginning 1982, a change in legislation resulted in virtually all home health services being paid under hospital insurance. Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Medicare Program Statistics, annual; and unpublished data.

No. 161. Medicare—Utilization and Charges: 1970 to 1993
[Data reflect date expense was incurred based on bills submitted for payment and recorded in Health Care Financing Administration central records through May 1993. Includes Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, other outlying areas, and enrollees in foreign countries] PERSONS 65 YEARS OLD AND OVER 1970 Hospital inpatient care: Admissions 2 . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . Per 1,000 enrollees 3 . . . Rate . . Covered days of care . . . . Millions Per 1,000 enrollees 3 . . . Rate . . Per admission . . . . . . . . Days . . . . . . . 6,141 302 79 3,902 12.9 5,968 75 78.0 2,310 71.9 1980 9,258 369 98 3,885 10.5 28,615 293 70.0 9,011 78.0 1990 9,216 309 82 2,702 8.9 90,846 1,104 47.5 30,447 77.0 1993 10,038 309 81 2,493 8.1 125,444 1,550 49.6 35,255 76.2 1975 822 379 9 4,198 11.1 1,371 151 73.6 367 76.1 DISABLED PERSONS 1980 1,271 429 13 4,549 10.6 4,087 303 68.6 1,112 78.7 1990 1,257 396 11 3,464 8.8 11,910 1,057 46.5 2,907 75.7
1

ITEM

Unit

1993 1,369 356 11 2,871 8.1 17,016 1,550 49.6 3,917 76.2

Hospital covered charges . . Mil. dol. . Per covered day . . . . . . Dollars . . Percent of covered charges reimbursed 4 . . Percent . Physician allowed charges 5 . . Mil. dol. . Percent reimbursed . . . . . . Percent .

1 Disabled persons under age 65 and persons enrolled solely because of end-stage renal disease. 2 Beginning 1990, 3 represents number of discharges and includes pass-through amounts, except for kidney acquisition. Based on Hospital Insurance (HI) enrollment as of July 1. 4 Prior to 1990, billing reimbursements exclude: (1) PPS pass-through amounts for capital, direct medical education, kidney acquisitions, and bad debts by Medicare patients; (2) certain lump-sum interim payments. All 5 years exclude retroactive adjustments resulting from end-of-fiscal year cost reports. Calendar year data.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, unpublished data.

Medicare and Medicaid
No. 162. Medicare—Summary, by State and Other Areas: 1992 and 1993
1992 STATE AND AREA All areas . . U.S. . . . . AL . AK . AZ . AR . CA . CO. CT . DE . DC . FL . GA . HI . ID . IL. . IN . IA . KS . KY . LA . ME. MD. MA. MI . MN. MS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enrollment 1 (1,000) 35,649 34,901 607 28 534 405 3,435 384 485 93 78 2,448 771 137 139 1,579 791 467 373 555 553 191 568 898 1,288 608 378 Payments 2 (mil. dol.) 129,179 128,618 2,100 82 2,077 1,309 15,653 1,242 1,953 267 1,112 10,361 2,864 404 300 5,565 2,455 1,242 1,161 1,788 2,318 514 2,262 3,780 4,642 1,943 1,235 1993 Enrollment 1 (1,000) 36,271 35,497 618 30 554 410 3,504 396 491 96 78 2,494 791 141 142 1,593 803 469 376 565 563 194 578 911 1,309 615 384 Payments 2 (mil. dol.) 142,934 142,211 2,461 97 2,178 1,306 16,488 1,430 2,053 368 1,112 11,722 3,302 473 342 6,136 2,877 1,305 1,350 1,959 2,607 561 2,470 4,487 5,171 2,106 1,328 STATE AND AREA MO . . . . . . . MT . . . . . . . . NE . . . . . . . . NV . . . . . . . . NH . . . . . . . . NJ . . . . . . . . NM. . . . . . . . NY . . . . . . . . NC . . . . . . . . ND . . . . . . . . OH. . . . . . . . OK . . . . . . . . OR. . . . . . . . PA . . . . . . . . RI . . . . . . . . SC . . . . . . . . SD . . . . . . . . TN . . . . . . . . TX . . . . . . . . UT . . . . . . . . VT . . . . . . . . VA . . . . . . . . WA . . . . . . . WV . . . . . . . WI . . . . . . . . WY . . . . . . . PR . . . . . . Other areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 Enrollment 1 (1,000) 805 123 243 159 145 1,130 192 2,573 945 101 1,603 467 444 2,019 164 468 113 723 1,926 171 78 761 645 318 736 55 446 302 Payments 2 (mil. dol.) 2,674 307 631 598 428 4,188 489 10,269 3,006 352 5,721 1,471 1,357 8,365 588 1,244 276 2,895 6,978 427 200 2,226 2,145 931 2,126 98 556 5 1993 Enrollment 1 (1,000) 814 125 245 170 148 1,144 198 2,594 971 102 1,626 473 452 2,039 165 481 115 738 1,973 177 79 779 658 322 745 57 457 317

115

Payments 2 (mil. dol.) 3,122 370 689 664 462 4,749 557 11,448 3,242 347 6,086 1,547 1,444 9,271 628 1,440 331 3,252 8,007 591 228 2,420 2,167 1,017 2,305 139 709 13

1 Hospital and/or medical insurance enrollment as of September. 2 Benefit payments for all areas represent 100% fee for service experience and actual HMO expenditures through the fiscal year and relate to the State of the provider.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, unpublished data.

No. 163. Medicaid—Summary, by State and Other Areas: 1992 and 1993
[Data are for fiscal years] 1992 STATE AND AREA All areas . . U.S. . . . . AL . AK . AZ . AR . CA . CO. CT . DE . DC . FL . GA . HI . ID . IL. . IN . IA . KS . KY . LA . ME. MD. MA. MI . MN. MS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recipients 1 (1,000) 30,926 30,028 467 58 402 321 4,486 259 316 61 109 1,538 864 100 87 1,313 507 279 227 583 702 162 377 686 1,129 406 487 Payments 2 (mil. dol.) 90,814 90,651 1,056 187 209 885 8,692 814 1,663 219 499 3,518 2,149 270 275 4,070 2,225 855 620 1,543 2,479 642 1,612 3,248 2,802 1,750 881 1993 Recipients 1 (1,000) 33,432 32,664 522 65 404 339 4,834 281 334 69 120 1,745 955 110 100 1,396 565 289 243 618 751 169 445 765 1,172 425 504 Payments 2 (mil. dol.) 101,709 101,547 1,192 217 212 998 9,650 911 1,825 252 555 4,131 2,441 293 301 4,625 2,354 896 702 1,707 2,873 713 1,721 2,726 3,077 1,930 896 STATE AND AREA MO . . . . . . . . MT . . . . . . . . . NE . . . . . . . . . NV . . . . . . . . . NH . . . . . . . . . NJ . . . . . . . . . NM. . . . . . . . . NY . . . . . . . . . NC . . . . . . . . . ND . . . . . . . . . OH. . . . . . . . . OK . . . . . . . . . OR. . . . . . . . . PA . . . . . . . . . RI . . . . . . . . . SC . . . . . . . . . SD . . . . . . . . . TN . . . . . . . . . TX . . . . . . . . . UT . . . . . . . . . VT . . . . . . . . . VA . . . . . . . . . WA . . . . . . . . WV . . . . . . . . WI . . . . . . . . . WY . . . . . . . . PR . . . . . . . Virgin Islands 1992 Recipients 1 (1,000) 554 60 151 78 71 697 212 2,558 785 57 1,442 360 295 1,175 213 431 64 785 2,025 137 78 515 569 308 440 42 885 13 Payments 2 (mil. dol.) 1,350 217 468 282 340 2,802 478 15,281 2,083 253 4,308 1,004 748 3,547 774 1,151 231 1,735 4,407 365 222 1,511 1,347 795 1,677 114 158 5 1993 Recipients 1 (1,000) 609 89 165 88 79 794 241 2,742 898 62 1,491 387 325 1,223 191 470 70 909 2,308 148 81 576 633 347 471 46 757 11 Payments 2 (mil. dol.) 1,548 287 553 301 380 3,485 543 17,557 2,452 273 4,667 1,043 831 3,886 710 1,249 264 1,977 5,575 408 235 1,623 1,537 1,056 1,786 125 158 4

1 Persons who had payments made on their behalf at any time during the fiscal year. 2 Payments are for fiscal year and reflect Federal and State contribution payments. Data exclude disproportionate hospital share payments.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, unpublished data.

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Health and Nutrition
No. 164. Medicaid—Selected Utilization Measures: 1975 to 1993
[In thousands. For fiscal years ending in year shown. Includes Virgin Islands. See text, section 3] MEASURE 1975 2,336 22,941 1,212 199,715 69 9,060 1980 2,255 24,089 1,395 273,497 121 250,124 1985 2,390 29,562 1,375 277,996 147 47,324 1989 2,701 22,754 1,438 367,228 147 50,276 1990 3,261 27,471 1,461 360,044 146 49,730 1991 3,638 28,998 1,500 387,621 146 50,223 1992 3,866 29,921 1,573 408,191 151 53,538
2

1993 4,050 31,216 1,610 416,200 149 51,716 Mentally

General hospitals: Recipients discharged . . . . . . . . Total days of care . . . . . . . . . . . Nursing facilities: Total recipients . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total days of care . . . . . . . . . . . Intermediate care facilities: 2 Total recipients . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total days of care . . . . . . . . . . .
1

1 Includes skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities for all other than the mentally retarded. retarded.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Bureau of Data Management and Strategy, Division of Program Systems, Statistical Report on Medical Care: Eligibles, Recipients, Payments, and Services.

No. 165. Medicaid—Selected Characteristics of Persons Covered: 1988 to 1993
[In thousands, except percent. Represents number of persons as of March of following year who were enrolled at any time in year shown. Person did not have to receive medical care paid for by Medicaid in order to be counted. See headnote, table 590] 1993 POVERTY STATUS 1988 1990 Total
1

White 20,513 11,070 9,443 9.5 42.2 5.0

Black 9,213 6,692 2,521 28.0 61.5 11.4

Hispanic 2 6,272 3,872 2,400 23.6 47.6 13.0

Under 18 years old 16,482 10,531 5,951 23.8 67.0 11.1

18-44 years old 9,597 5,747 3,850 8.8 38.1 4.1

45-64 years old 2,750 1,493 1,257 5.5 31.7 2.8

65 years and over 2,709 1,031 1,678 8.8 27.5 6.2

Persons covered, total . . . . . . 20,674 Below poverty level. . . . . . . . . . . 13,185 Above poverty level . . . . . . . . . . 7,489 Percent of population covered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Below poverty level. . . . . . . . . . . Above poverty level . . . . . . . . . .
1

24,160 15,175 8,985 9.7 45.2 4.2
2

31,537 18,801 12,736 12.2 47.9 5.8

8.5 41.5 3.5

Includes other races not shown separately.

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, P60-188, earlier reports; and unpublished data.

No. 166. Medicaid—Recipients and Payments: 1980 to 1993
[For fiscal year ending in year shown; see text, section 10. Includes Puerto Rico and outlying areas. Medical vendor payments are those made directly to suppliers of medical care] BASIS OF ELIGIBILITY AND TYPE OF SERVICE Total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age 65 and over . . Blindness . . . . . . . Disabled 2 . . . . . . . AFDC 3 program . . Other and unknown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RECIPIENTS (1,000) 1980 21,605 3,440 92 2,819 14,210 1,499 3,680 66 121 1,398 13,765 4,652 3,234 9,705 1,531 3,212 392 13,707 1,129 1985 21,814 3,061 80 2,937 15,275 1,214 3,434 60 147 1,375 14,387 4,672 3,357 10,072 2,121 6,354 535 13,921 1,636 1990 25,255 3,202 83 3,635 17,230 1,105 4,593 92 147 1,461 17,078 4,552 3,873 12,370 2,804 8,959 719 17,294 1,752 1992 30,926 3,742 84 4,378 22,058 664 5,768 77 151 1,573 21,627 5,700 4,711 15,120 4,115 11,804 925 22,030 2,550 1993 33,432 3,863 84 4,932 23,790 763 5,894 75 149 1,610 23,746 6,174 5,229 16,436 4,839 12,970 1,067 23,901 2,538 1980 23,311 8,739 124 7,497 6,354 596 6,412 775 1,989 7,887 1,875 462 198 1,101 320 121 332 1,318 81 PAYMENTS (mil. dol.) 1985 37,508 14,096 249 13,203 9,160 798 9,453 1,192 4,731 11,587 2,346 458 251 1,789 714 337 1,120 2,315 195 1990 64,859 21,508 434 23,969 17,690 1,257 16,674 1,714 7,354 17,693 4,018 593 372 3,324 1,688 721 3,404 4,420 265 1992 90,814 29,078 530 33,326 26,676 1,204 23,503 2,196 8,550 23,544 6,102 851 538 5,279 2,818 1,035 4,886 6,765 500 1993 101,709 31,554 589 38,065 30,109 1,391 25,734 2,161 8,831 25,431 6,952 961 937 6,215 3,457 1,137 5,601 7,970 538

Inpatient services in— General hospital . . . . . . Mental hospital . . . . . . . Intermediate care facilities: Mentally retarded . . . . . Nursing facility services 4 . . Physicians . . . . . . . . . . . Dental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other practitioner . . . . . . . Outpatient hospital . . . . . . Clinic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory 5 . . . . . . . . . . Home health . . . . . . . . . . Prescribed drugs . . . . . . . Family planning . . . . . . . .

.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Recipient data do not add due to small number of recipients that are reported in more than one category. Includes recipients of, and payments for, other care not shown separately. 2 Permanently and totally. 3 Aid to families with dependent children. 4 Nursing facility services includes skilled nursing facility services and intermediate care facility services for all other than the mentally retarded. 5 Includes radiological services.

Source: U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Health Care Financing Review, quarterly.

Price Indexes—Consumer Expenditures
No. 167. Consumer Price Indexes of Medical Care Prices: 1970 to 1994

117

[1982-1984=100. Indexes are annual averages of monthly data based on components of consumer price index for all urban consumers; for explanation, see text, section 15. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series B 262-272 for similar data] MEDICAL CARE SERVICES YEAR Medical care Total Professional services
1

Total 1970 1975 1980 1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.0 47.5 74.9 113.5 130.1 138.6 149.3 162.8 177.0 190.1 201.4 211.0 32.3 46.6 74.8 113.2 130.0 138.3 148.9 162.7 177.1 190.5 202.9 213.4

1

Physicians 34.5 48.1 76.5 113.3 130.4 139.8 150.1 160.8 170.5 181.2 191.3 199.8

Dental 39.2 53.2 78.9 114.2 128.8 137.5 146.1 155.8 167.4 178.7 188.1 197.1
2

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGE 3 Medical Medical Medical care services care Hoscare com- Medical Hospital commod- care 1 PhysiTotal 1 cians Dental pital room ities 2 modroom ities 2 23.6 38.3 68.0 115.4 131.1 143.3 158.1 175.4 191.9 208.7 226.4 239.2 46.5 53.3 75.4 115.2 131.0 139.9 150.8 163.4 176.8 188.1 195.0 200.7 6.6 12.0 11.0 6.3 6.6 6.5 7.7 9.0 8.7 7.4 5.9 4.8 7.0 12.6 11.3 6.1 6.6 6.4 7.7 9.3 8.9 7.6 6.5 5.2 7.5 12.1 10.5 5.9 7.3 7.2 7.4 7.1 6.0 6.3 5.6 4.4 5.7 10.4 11.9 6.2 6.8 6.8 6.3 6.6 7.4 6.8 5.3 4.8
3

37.0 50.8 77.9 113.5 128.8 137.5 146.4 156.1 165.7 175.8 184.7 192.5

12.9 17.1 13.1 5.9 7.2 9.3 10.3 10.9 9.4 8.8 8.5 5.7

2.4 8.3 9.3 7.2 6.7 6.8 7.8 8.4 8.2 6.4 3.7 2.9

1 Includes other services not shown separately. from the immediate prior year.

Prior to 1980, covers drugs and prescriptions only.

Percent change

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, CPI Detailed Report, January 1995; and unpublished data.

No. 168. Average Annual Expenditures per Consumer Unit for Health Care: 1985 to 1993
[In dollars, except percent. See text, section 14, and headnote, table 718. For composition of regions, see table 27] HEALTH CARE, TOTAL ITEM Amount 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age of reference person: Under 25 years old. . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . 65 to 74 years old . . . . . . . . . 75 years old and over . . . . . . . Race: White and other . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Region of residence: Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Size of consumer unit: One person. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two or more persons . . . . . . . Two persons . . . . . . . . . . . Three persons . . . . . . . . . . Four persons . . . . . . . . . . . Five persons or more . . . . . Income before taxes: Complete income reporters 2 . . Quintiles of income: Lowest 20 percent . . . . . . Second 20 percent . . . . . Third 20 percent . . . . . . . Fourth 20 percent . . . . . . Highest 20 percent . . . . . Incomplete reporters of income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,108 1,135 1,135 1,298 1,407 1,480 1,554 1,634 1,776 349 1,128 1,673 1,817 2,176 2,610 2,883 1,890 894 1,732 1,642 1,928 1,732 1,204 2,006 2,192 1,804 1,932 1,863 1,772 1,080 1,658 1,733 1,989 2,396 1,831
2

Percent of total expenditures 4.7 4.8 4.6 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.8 2.0 3.9 4.5 4.4 6.6 11.0 15.7 5.9 4.3 5.5 5.7 6.6 5.0 6.7 5.6 6.9 5.1 4.6 4.7 5.6 7.7 8.4 6.5 5.3 4.0 6.8

Health insurance

Medical services 496 502 467 529 542 562 555 533 574 140 424 697 631 655 555 783 621 211 602 481 613 595 403 643 580 596 749 761 563 284 417 537 696 880 645

Drugs and medical supplies 1 238 261 276 294 327 337 344 375 402 68 217 305 450 514 665 718 427 202 373 377 457 368 290 448 549 393 366 335 409 302 444 367 418 516 381

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Health insurance 33.8 32.7 34.5 36.5 38.2 39.3 42.2 44.4 45.0 40.4 43.2 40.1 40.5 46.3 53.3 47.9 44.6 53.7 43.7 47.7 44.5 44.4 42.4 45.7 48.5 45.2 42.3 41.2 45.1 45.6 48.1 47.9 43.9 41.7 44.0 Medical Drugs and servmedical ices supplies 1 44.8 44.2 41.1 40.8 38.5 38.0 35.7 32.6 32.3 40.1 37.6 41.7 34.7 30.1 21.3 27.2 32.9 23.6 34.8 29.3 31.8 34.4 33.5 32.1 26.5 33.0 38.8 40.8 31.8 26.3 25.2 31.0 35.0 36.7 35.2 21.5 23.0 24.3 22.7 23.2 22.8 22.1 22.9 22.6 19.5 19.2 18.2 24.8 23.6 25.5 24.9 22.6 22.6 21.5 23.0 23.7 21.2 24.1 22.3 25.0 21.8 18.9 18.0 23.1 28.0 26.8 21.2 21.0 21.5 20.8

375 371 392 474 537 581 656 725 800 141 487 671 736 1,007 1,390 1,382 842 480 757 783 857 769 511 916 1,063 816 817 767 799 493 797 830 874 1,000 805

.... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes prescription and nonprescription drugs. of the major sources of income.

A complete reporter is a consumer unit providing values for at least one

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, annual.

118

Health and Nutrition

No. 169. Health Insurance Coverage Status, by Selected Characteristics: 1987 to 1993
[Persons as of following year for coverage in the year shown. Government health insurance includes Medicare, Medicaid, and military plans. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] NUMBER (mil.) Covered by private or Government health insurance Total persons Private Total
1

PERCENT Not covered by health insurance 31.0 32.7 33.4 34.7 35.4 37.4 39.7 21.7 18.1 30.5 6.8 8.4 9.6 6.8 9.1 7.0 4.1 2.8 0.4 Covered by private or Government health insurance Total
1

CHARACTERISTIC

Government Medicare 30.5 30.9 31.5 32.3 32.9 33.7 33.1 14.1 19.0 29.3 3.1 1.6 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.5 29.4 Medicaid 20.2 20.7 21.2 24.3 26.9 28.6 31.7 13.0 18.7 20.6 9.3 6.3 16.7 3.0 4.0 2.6 1.5 1.2 2.7

Total 182.2 182.0 183.6 182.1 181.4 180.8 182.4 89.4 93.0 158.6 16.6 12.0 47.0 15.7 28.6 31.4 23.3 15.9 20.3

Group health 2 149.7 150.9 151.6 150.2 150.1 148.2 148.3 74.2 74.1 128.9 13.7 10.0 39.7 11.1 25.4 28.1 20.7 13.3 9.9

Private 75.5 74.7 74.6 73.2 72.1 71.1 70.2 70.4 70.0 73.7 50.2 45.1 67.4 61.5 68.3 75.7 79.0 76.9 66.0

Medicaid 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.7 10.7 11.2 12.2 10.3 14.1 9.6 28.1 23.7 23.9 11.7 9.5 6.3 5.2 5.8 8.8

Not covered by health insurance 12.9 13.4 13.6 13.9 14.1 14.7 15.3 17.1 13.6 14.2 20.5 31.6 13.7 26.8 21.6 16.8 13.9 13.4 1.2

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

3

. . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

241.2 243.7 246.2 248.9 251.4 254.2 259.8 126.9 132.8 215.2 33.0 26.6 69.8 25.5 41.9 41.5 29.5 20.7 30.8

210.2 211.0 212.8 214.2 216.0 216.8 220.0 105.3 114.8 184.7 26.3 18.2 60.2 18.6 32.9 34.5 25.4 18.0 30.4

87.1 86.6 86.4 86.1 85.9 85.3 84.7 82.9 86.4 85.8 79.5 68.4 86.3 73.2 78.4 83.2 86.1 86.6 98.8

1993, total 3 4 . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin . . . . Age: Under 18 years . . 18 to 24 years . . . 25 to 34 years . . . 35 to 44 years . . . 45 to 54 years . . . 55 to 64 years . . . 65 years and over .
5

- Represents zero. 1 Includes other Government insurance, not shown separately. Persons with coverage counted only once in total, even though they may have been covered by more than one type of policy. 2 Related to employment of self or other 3 4 family members. Beginning 1992, data based on 1990 census adjusted population controls. Includes other races not shown separately. 5 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, March Supplement to the Current Population Survey, unpublished data.

No. 170. Persons Without Health Insurance, by State: 1991 to 1993
[In percent. Based on the Current Population Survey and subject to sampling error; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] STATE United States . Alabama . . . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia . Florida. . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Hawaii 2 . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 15.3 17.2 13.3 20.2 19.7 19.7 12.6 10.0 13.4 20.7 19.6 18.4 11.1 14.8 12.6 11.9 9.2 12.7 12.5 23.9 11.1 13.5 11.7 11.2 10.1 17.8 2-year average 1, 1992-93 15.2 17.0 15.1 17.9 19.8 19.9 12.7 9.1 12.3 21.2 19.7 18.8 8.6 15.7 12.9 11.5 9.8 11.8 13.6 23.1 11.1 12.4 11.2 10.6 9.1 18.6 3-year average 1, 1991-93 14.9 17.4 14.6 17.8 18.5 19.7 11.9 8.6 12.7 22.9 19.4 17.2 8.1 16.4 12.5 12.0 9.5 11.7 13.4 22.4 11.1 12.7 11.1 10.1 9.2 18.8 STATE Missouri. . . . . . Montana . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . New Hampshire New Jersey . . . New Mexico . . . New York . . . . . North Carolina . North Dakota . . Ohio . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . Oregon . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . Rhode Island . . South Carolina . South Dakota . . Tennessee . . . . Texas . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . Washington . . . West Virginia . . Wisconsin . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 12.2 15.3 11.9 18.1 12.5 13.7 22.0 13.9 14.0 13.4 11.1 23.6 14.7 10.8 10.3 16.9 13.0 13.2 21.8 11.3 11.9 13.0 12.6 18.3 8.7 15.0 2-year average 1, 1992-93 13.3 12.4 10.7 20.6 12.6 13.5 20.9 13.9 14.0 10.8 11.1 22.8 14.2 9.8 9.9 17.1 14.1 13.4 22.5 11.6 10.7 13.8 11.5 16.9 8.9 13.4 3-year average 1, 1991-93 13.0 12.5 9.9 20.0 11.7 12.7 21.3 13.5 14.3 9.7 10.8 21.4 14.3 9.2 10.0 15.8 12.7 13.4 22.6 12.4 11.4 14.7 11.2 16.5 8.6 12.6

1 Three-year average is recommended when comparing rates between States and 2-year average is recommended when comparing change in State rates to reduce somewhat the chances of misinterpreting differences and lessen the effect of sampling variability. 2 CPS does not adequately reflect health insurance coverage through State-specific plans, such as those that exist in Hawaii, because the same questions are used for every State.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Brief, SB/94-28.

Health Insurance Coverage
No. 171. Health Insurance Coverage, by Selected Characteristic: 1990-92
[Data represent persons covered by Government or private health insurance coverage during a 32-month period, beginning October 1989. Based on Survey of Income and Program Participation. See text, section 14] COVERED BY INSURANCE (mil.) Government or private For entire period 176.2 45.4 16.0 6.9 5.5 28.6 28.2 36.5 25.1 83.5 92.8 151.9 18.5 9.7 39.2 49.1 53.9 34.1 24.8 49.1 56.8 For part of the period 50.6 16.1 6.5 5.6 4.3 11.4 6.4 6.7 0.1 25.3 25.3 39.6 9.0 7.0 7.9 11.1 20.8 10.8 8.5 14.3 11.7 No coverage 8.9 2.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.9 1.5 1.8 4.9 4.1 7.0 1.5 1.9 1.0 1.8 4.3 1.9 2.5 2.8 1.2 Private for entire period 152.3 39.0 12.9 6.2 4.7 26.4 27.0 33.1 15.9 74.1 78.3 135.8 12.0 6.7 34.3 43.8 45.2 29.1 15.6 43.6 54.1 PERCENT COVERED BY INSURANCE Government or private For entire period 74.7 71.0 69.3 52.5 52.9 68.3 78.1 81.0 99.4 73.4 76.0 76.5 64.0 52.0 81.6 79.2 68.2 72.8 69.4 74.1 81.5 For part of the period 21.5 25.2 28.0 42.3 41.0 27.2 17.8 15.0 0.6 22.3 20.7 19.9 31.0 37.8 16.4 18.0 26.3 23.1 23.7 21.6 16.8 No coverage 3.8 3.8 2.6 5.2 6.2 4.4 4.1 4.0 4.3 3.3 3.5 5.1 10.1 2.0 2.8 5.5 4.1 7.0 4.2 1.7

119

CHARACTERISTIC

All persons (mil.)

Private for entire period 64.6 61.0 56.1 46.8 45.4 63.0 74.8 73.5 63.1 65.2 64.1 68.4 41.5 36.1 71.4 70.5 57.2 62.1 43.6 65.8 77.6

Total . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years old . . . . . Under 6 years old . . . . 18 to 21 years old . . . . . 22 to 24 years old . . . . . 25 to 34 years old . . . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . . 65 years old and over . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Residence: Northeast . . . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . West. . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational attainment: 2 High school . . . . . . . . High school, no college . . . . . . . . . . College, 1+ years . . . . Work-status: 3 Worked entire 28 months— Full time. . . . . . . . . Part time . . . . . . . . Had at least one work interruption . . . .

235.8 64.0 23.0 13.2 10.4 41.9 36.1 45.0 25.3 113.7 122.1 198.6 29.0 18.6 48.0 62.1 79.0 46.8 35.8 66.3 69.7

53.4 4.8 75.6

46.7 3.7 46.9

5.8 0.8 24.5

0.9 0.2 4.3

46.4 3.6 39.7

87.5 77.9 62.0

10.8 17.5 32.3

1.7 4.6 5.6
3

86.9 74.3 52.4 For wage

- Represents zero. 1 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 2 For persons 18 years old and over. and salary workers. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, series P70-37; and unpublished data.

120

Health and Nutrition
No. 173. Employment in the Health Service Industries: 1980 to 1994
[In thousands. See headnote table 668] INDUSTRY 1987 SIC code 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 801 802 804 805 8051 8052 8059 806 8062 8063 8069 1980 5,278 802 (NA) 96 997 (NA) (NA) (NA) 2,750 (NA) (NA) (NA) 105 (NA) 1985 6,293 1,028 439 165 1,198 791 (NA) (NA) 2,997 2,811 59 126 119 152 1990 7,814 1,338 513 277 1,415 989 200 227 3,549 3,268 104 176 166 291 1992 8,490 1,463 541 327 1,533 1,094 217 222 3,750 3,449 102 199 180 398 1993 8,767 1,512 560 356 1,580 1,130 222 228 3,787 3,485 97 205 190 462
2

1994 9,032 1,562 590 389 1,633 1,170 229 233 3,790 3,492 94 204 202 533

Health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offices and clinics of MD’s . . . . . . . . . Offices and clinics of dentist’s . . . . . . . Offices and clinics of other practitioners Nursing and personal care facilities . . . Skilled nursing care facilities . . . . . . Intermediate care facilities . . . . . . . . Other, n.e.c. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General medical and surgical hospitals Psychiatric hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . Specialty hospitals, exc. psychiatric. . .

Medical and dental laboratories . . . . . . . . . . 807 Home health care services . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808

NA Not available. 1 Based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification code; see text, section 13. industries not shown separately. 3 N.e.c. means not elsewhere classified.

Includes other

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2445, and Employment and Earnings, monthly, March and June issues.

No. 174. Annual Receipts for the Health Service Industries: 1988 to 1993
[In millions of dollars. For employer establishments] INDUSTRY TAXABLE FIRMS Health services 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offices and clinics of MD’s . . . . . . . . . . . Offices and clinics of dentist’s . . . . . . . . . Offices and clinics of doctors of osteopathy Offices and clinics of other practitioners 2 . Offices and clinics of chiropractors . . . . Offices and clinics of optometrists . . . . . Offices and clinics of podiatrists . . . . . . Nursing and personal care facilities . . . . . Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General medical and surgical hospitals Psychiatric hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . Specialty hospitals, exc. psychiatric. . . Medical and dental laboratories . Medical laboratories . . . . . . . Dental laboratories. . . . . . . . Home health care services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 801 802 803 804 8041 8042 8043 805 806 8062 8063 8069 807 8071 8072 808 203,827 101,034 25,726 2,336 12,167 4,007 3,773 (NA) 21,507 22,700 (NA) (NA) (NA) 8,119 6,641 1,506 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 220,088 107,902 27,306 2,323 12,795 4,476 3,893 (NA) 23,661 24,846 (NA) (NA) (NA) 8,933 7,425 7,573 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 247,305 117,682 29,070 2,517 15,112 4,923 4,322 1,710 26,962 28,758 22,047 5,237 1,474 9,981 8,296 1,685 6,374 10,849 1,276 5,459 266,353 125,490 30,394 2,604 16,015 5,124 4,497 1,848 29,408 31,229 23,964 5,584 1,681 10,685 8,978 1,707 7,673 12,855 1,510 6,671 289,560 136,386 33,422 2,743 17,812 5,984 4,737 1,985 31,311 33,578 26,059 5,576 1,943 11,328 9,511 1,817 9,385 13,595 1,883 6,639 304,135 139,376 35,429 2,783 19,344 6,538 5,053 2,100 33,831 35,335 28,117 4,995 2,223 12,184 10,318 1,866 10,864 14,989 2,168 7,014 1987 SIC code 1 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993

Miscellaneous allied services, n.e.c. 2 3 . . . . . 809 Kidney dialysis centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8092 Specialty outpatient facilities, n.e.c. 3. . . . . 8093 TAX EXEMPT FIRMS Selected health services 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805, 6, 8, 9 Offices and clinics of doctors of medicine . . . 801 Nursing and personal care facilities . . . . . . . 805 Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General medical and surgical hospitals Psychiatric hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . Specialty hospitals, exc. psychiatric. . . Home health care services . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous allied services, n.e.c. 2 3 . Kidney dialysis centers . . . . . . . . . . Specialty outpatient facilities, n.e.c. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806 8062 8063 8069 808 809 8092 8093

(NA) (NA) 8,660 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) 8,901 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

281,248 12,015 9,393 251,900 230,031 9,525 12,344 3,237 4,579 347 3,042

313,068 13,745 10,572 279,628 255,769 9,917 13,942 3,864 5,125 406 3,315

340,496 15,427 11,849 302,149 277,991 9,460 14,698 4,775 6,153 455 3,836
2

360,963 17,830 12,957 317,409 292,362 9,638 15,409 5,705 6,908 518 4,081

NA Not available. 1 Based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification code; see text, section 13. industries not shown separately. 3 N.e.c. means not elsewhere classified. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Business Reports, Service Annual Survey, BS/93.

Includes other

Physicians—Dentists—Nurses
No. 176. Dentists and Nurses: 1970 to 1993

121

[As of end of year, except as noted. Excludes Puerto Rico and outlying areas. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series B 281-290] ITEM Dentists, number 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Active (exc. in Federal service) 3 Rate per 100,000 population 4 Dental schools 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Students 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graduates 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nurses, number (active registered). Rate per 100,000 population 4 Nursing programs 6 . . . . . . . . . . . Students 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graduates 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1,000 . . 1,000 . . Rate . . Number 1,000 . . 1,000 . . 1,000 . . Rate . . Number 1,000 . . 1,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 116 96 47 53 16.6 3.7 750 368 1,343 165 44 1975 127 107 50 59 20.8 5.0 961 446 1,360 250 75 1980 141 121 53 60 22.8 5.3 1,273 560 1,385 231 76 1985 156 136 57 60 19.6 5.4 1,538 644 1,473 218 82 1989 168 144 58 58 16.2 4.3 1,679 676 1,457 201 62 1990 173 147 59 56 16.0 4.2 1,715 690 1,470 221 66
2

1991 179 149 59 55 15.9 4.0 1,758 697 1,484 238 72

1992 183 152 60 55 16.0 3.9 1,853 726 1,484 258 81

1993 187 154 60 54 16.3 3.8 (NA) (NA) 1,493 270 88

NA Not available. 1 Includes current year’s graduates. 2 Revised since originally published. 3 Source: American Dental Association, Bureau of Economic and Behavioral Research, Master Membership file and periodic censuses. 4 Based on Bureau of Census estimated resident population as of July 1. Estimates reflect revisions based on the 1990 Census of Population. 5 Number of schools and students as of fall; graduates for academic year ending in year shown. Based on data from the American Dental Association, Council on Dental Education, Annual Report on Dental Education. 6 Number of programs and students are as of October 15 and number of graduates are for academic year ending in year shown; from National League for Nursing, NLN Data Book, annual issues and State-Approved Schools of Nursing, RN, annual issues. Source: Except as noted, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, unpublished data. Prior to 1980, data were published by U.S. National Center for Health Statistics in Health Resources Statistics, annual.

122

Health and Nutrition

No. 178. Physician and Dental Contacts, by Patient Characteristics: 1970 to 1993
[See headnote, table 204. Based on National Health Interview Survey; see Appendix III] TOTAL VISITS (mil.) TYPE OF VISIT AND YEAR Sex Male PHYSICIANS 1970 1980 1983 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 426 470 498 515 523 530 552 558 589 624 634 531 832 610 903 694 1,018 733 1,074 756 1,110 765 1,118 774 1,139 771 1,148 806 842 889 917 1,178 1,243 1,286 1,314 87 115 126 132 131 140 136 140 148 152 181 183 4.1 4.0 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.4 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.6 6.9 7.0 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.7 6.0 6.1 6.2 3.9 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.6 4.7 4.9 4.9 5.8 5.7
2 5.9 2 6.7 2 6.5 2 3 2.9 3 3.2 3 3.2 3 4 4.6 4 4.0 4 4.0 4

VISITS PER PERSON PER YEAR Sex Male Female Race
1

Race

1

Age (years) 5 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 44 45 to 64 65 and over 6.3 6.4 7.6 8.3 9.1 8.9 8.7 8.9 9.2 10.4 10.6 10.9

Female

White Black

Under White Black 5

6.3

3.1

4.2

4.6 4.6 4.7 4.9 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.4 5.4

5.2 5.1 5.8 6.1 6.6 6.4 6.1 6.1 6.4 6.6 7.2 7.1

6.3 6.7 7.0 6.7 6.9 7.1 6.9 7.2
2 0.5 2 0.5 2

3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6
3 1.9 3 2.3 3

4.2 4.4 3.8 3.9 4.3 3.9 4.1 4.0
4 1.8 4 1.6 4

DENTISTS 1970 . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . 1983 . . . . . . . 1986 . . . . . . . 1989 . . . . . . .
1

. . . . .

. . . . .

133 158 183 210 221

171 207 239 256 271
2

283 333 382 416 441

17 26 31 37 34

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.9
3

1.7 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.2

1.6 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.2
4

0.8 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2

0.5 0.7 0.5

2.6 2.4 2.4

1.6 1.7 1.6

1.7 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.0

1.5 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4

1.1 1.4 1.5 2.1 2.0

See footnote 2, table 204.

Under 6 years.

6 to 17 years.

17 to 24 years.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 10, No. 190, and earlier reports; and unpublished data.

Office Visits—Medical Practice Characteristics
No. 179. Visits to Office Based Physicians: 1992
[Based on the National Ambulatory Care Survey and subject to sampling error; see source for details] Number of visits (1,000) Percent distribution 100.0 20.4 9.5 27.8 20.3 11.9 10.1 40.0 60.0 85.8 10.8 3.0 0.3 85.3 62.2 Visits per person per year 3.0 2.7 2.1 2.6 3.2 4.9 6.3 2.5 3.5 3.1 2.6 (NA) (NA) (X) (X) Number of visits (1,000) Percent distribution 23.0 14.7 32.9 11.0 19.2 19.1 19.9 2.1 1.6 6.3 61.6 24.2 9.6 2.8 2.9 0.7 1.1 0.8

123

CHARACTERISTIC

CHARACTERISTIC

Visits per person per year (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

All visits . . . . . . . . Age: Under 15 years old . . 15 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . 65 to 74 years old . . . 75 years old and over

. . . . . . 762,045 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155,168 . 72,016 . 211,897 . 154,997 . 90,625 . 77,341

New problem. . . . . . . . . . . 175,370 New patient . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112,381 Expected source of payment: 1 Private/commercial insurance Medicaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HMO/other prepaid . . . . . . . Patient paid . . . . . . . . . . . . Medicare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other government . . . . . . . . No charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other/unknown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250,870 84,098 146,338 145,459 151,656 15,622 12,454 48,100

Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304,676 Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457,369 Race: White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian/Pacific Islander . . . . . . American Indian/Eskimo/Aleut . 653,851 . 82,599 . 23,205 . 2,389

Visit status: Old patient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649,664 Old problem . . . . . . . . . . . 474,294

Disposition: 1 Return to at specified time . . . 469,155 Return if needed . . . . . . . . . . 184,144 No followup . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72,881 Telephone followup . . . . . . . . 21,202 Return to other clinic/physician. 22,445 Admit to hospital . . . . . . . . . . 5,385 Return to referring physician . . 8,097 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,408

NA Not available. X Not applicable. 1 More than one reported source of payment or disposition may be reported. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Advance Data, No. 253, August 18, 1994.

124

Health and Nutrition
No. 182. Hospitals and Nursing Homes—Summary Characteristics: 1971 to 1993
[Except as indicated, based on National Master Facility Inventory] FACILITIES UNDER— FACILITIES WITH— Fewer than 25 beds 1 8,902 8,266 636 8,852 8,498 354 9,903 290 259 12 9,613 326 290 17 310 260 24 1 25-74 beds 10,959 8,259 2,700 8,573 6,362 2,211 8,755 2,150 1,849 140 6 1 6,605 2,077 1,690 211 6 1 2,010 1,586 242 3 2 75 or more beds 9,821 5,479 4,342 12,691 8,205 4,486 13,942 4,514 3,848 432 38 3 9,428 4,376 3,631 506 28 3 4,260 3,557 471 22 2 Residents 2 (1,000) 2,262 1,076 1,186 2,427 1,396 1,031 2,427 874 690 139 13 1,553 840 673 128 10 781 634 107 9 Full-time employees (1,000) 3,007 568 2,439 3,919 5 798 3,121 (NA) 3,241 2,871 248 21 1 (NA) 3,562 3,168 262 18 1 3,783 3,401 231 16 1

YEAR AND TYPE OF FACILITY

Total

Gov’t. control 4,178 1,368 2,810 3,498 936 2,562 3,275 2,230 1,871 267 30 3 1,045 2,145 1,788 272 27 3 2,046 1,697 266 21 3

Proprietary control 18,091 17,049 1,042 19,611 18,669 942 21,399 1,176 829 218 4 20,223 1,203 711 350 2 1,167 660 358 1 -

Nonprofit control 7,413 3,587 3,826 7,007 3,460 3,547 7,926 3,548 3,256 99 10 1 4,378 3,431 3,112 112 5 1 3,367 3,046 113 4 1

1971: All facilities . . . . . . . . Nursing homes 3 . . Hospitals . . . . . . . 1980: All facilities . . . . . . . . Nursing homes 3 4 Hospitals . . . . . . . 1986: All facilities . . . . . . . . All hospitals 6 . . . . General . . . . . . Psychiatric . . . . Chronic . . . . . . Tuberculosis . . . Nursing homes 3 . . 1990: All hospitals 6 . . . . . . General . . . . . . . Psychiatric . . . . . Chronic . . . . . . . Tuberculosis . . . . 1993: All hospitals 6 . . . . . . General . . . . . . . Psychiatric . . . . . Chronic . . . . . . . Tuberculosis . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29,682 22,004 7,678 30,116 23,065 7,051 32,600 6,954 5,956 584 44 4 25,646 6,779 5,611 734 34 4 6,580 5,403 737 26 4

- Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available. 1 For hospitals, minimum of six beds; for nursing homes, minimum of three beds. 2 Number of residents as of date of interview. 3 See footnotes 1, 3, and 4, table 200. 4 Includes 1978 data for Alaska and South Dakota. 5 Estimated. 6 Includes types not shown separately. Based on data from the American Hospital Association. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Health Resources Statistics, 1971; and unpublished data.

128

Health and Nutrition
No. 189. Hospital Utilization Rates: 1970 to 1993

[Represents estimates of inpatients discharged from noninstitutional, short-stay hospitals, exclusive of Federal hospitals. Excludes newborn infants. Based on sample data collected from the National Hospital Discharge Survey, a sample survey of hospital records of patients discharged in year shown; subject to sampling variability. For composition of regions, see table 27] SELECTED CHARACTERISTIC 1970 . . . . 1980 . . . . 1985 . . . . 1986 . . . . 1987 . . . . 1988 2 . . . 1989 2 . . . 1990 2 . . . 1991 2 . . . 1992 2 . . . 1993, . . . . . . . . . . .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 2 total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patients discharged (1,000) 29,127 37,832 35,056 34,256 33,387 31,146 30,947 30,788 31,098 30,951 30,825 710 654 777 3,088 4,655 3,457 6,283 4,890 6,310 6,965 7,097 11,580 5,183 PATIENTS DISCHARGED PER 1,000 PERSONS 1 Total 144 168 148 143 138 128 126 124 124 122 120 181 41 21 87 113 85 127 262 446 136 116 131 93 Male 118 139 124 121 116 107 105 102 103 101 98 206 46 22 37 53 72 132 284 476 119 98 104 72 Female 169 194 171 164 159 147 145 144 144 142 141 156 37 20 138 171 99 123 245 430 152 134 156 114 DAYS OF CARE PER 1,000 PERSONS 1 Total 1,122 1,217 954 913 889 834 815 792 795 751 720 1,155 163 108 309 446 431 785 1,927 3,665 952 706 749 473 Male 982 1,068 849 817 806 757 741 704 715 680 644 1,265 169 110 204 313 424 831 2,033 3,764 876 638 658 419 Female 1,251 1,356 1,053 1,003 968 907 884 875 869 818 792 1,041 157 105 416 575 438 742 1,844 3,609 1,023 771 834 527 AVERAGE STAY (days) Total 8.0 7.3 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.0 6.4 3.9 5.1 3.5 4.0 5.1 6.2 7.4 8.2 7.0 6.1 5.7 5.1 Male 8.7 7.7 6.9 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.0 6.9 7.0 6.7 6.5 6.1 3.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 5.9 6.3 7.2 7.9 7.4 6.5 6.3 5.8 Female 7.6 7.0 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.6 6.7 4.3 5.2 3.0 3.4 4.4 6.1 7.5 8.4 6.7 5.8 5.4 4.6

Age: Under 1 year old . . . . 1 to 4 years old . . . . . 5 to 14 years old . . . . 15 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 34 years old . . . 35 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . 65 to 74 years old . . . 75 years old and over . Region: Northeast . Midwest . . South . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Based on Bureau of the Census estimated civilian population as of July 1. Estimates for 1980-90 do not reflect revisions based on the 1990 Census of Population. 2 Comparisons beginning 1988 with data for earlier years should be made with caution as estimates of change may reflect improvements in the design rather than true changes in hospital use.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 13; and unpublished data.

Outpatient and Emergency Room Visits
No. 190. Hospital Outpatient Department Visits: 1992

129

[An outpatient department is a hospital facility where nonurgent ambulatory care is provided under the supervision of a physician. Data exclude clinics where only ancillary services, such as radiology, are provided. Based on the National Ambulatory Care Survey and subject to sampling error; see source for details] CHARACTERISTIC All visits . . . . . . . . . Age: Under 15 years old . . . . 15 to 24 years old . . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . . 65 to 74 years old . . . . 75 years old and over . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian/Pacific Islander . . American Indian/Eskimo/ Aleut . . . . . . . . . . . . Visit status: Old patient . . . . . . . . . Old problem . . . . . . . New problem . . . . . . New patient . . . . . . . . . NA Not available. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number Percent Visits of visits distribu- per 100 (1,000) tion persons 56,605 12,713 7,242 16,484 11,295 5,031 3,840 21,864 34,741 42,034 12,549 1,609 414 44,180 35,635 8,545 12,425
1

CHARACTERISTIC Expected source of payment: 1 Medicaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private/commercial insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . Medicare . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patient paid . . . . . . . . . . . . HMO/other prepaid . . . . . . . Other government . . . . . . . No charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other and unknown . . . . . . Disposition: 1 Return to clinic: By appointment . . . . . . . As needed . . . . . . . . . . . Return to other clinic/ physician. . . . . . . . . . . . . Return to referring physician. No followup . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone followup . . . . . . . Admit to hospital . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number Percent Visits of visits distribu- per 100 (1,000) tion persons 17,647 13,478 9,240 7,747 4,364 3,684 1,640 4,828 31.2 23.8 16.3 13.7 7.7 6.5 2.9 8.5 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

100.0 22.5 12.8 29.1 20.0 8.9 6.8 38.6 61.4 74.3 22.2 2.8 0.7 78.0 63.0 15.1 22.0

22.5 22.5 21.1 20.3 23.3 27.2 31.2 17.9 26.9 20.1 39.9 (NA) (NA) (X) (X) (X) (X)

... ... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . .

36,776 9,720 3,899 3,417 2,287 1,408 705 2,736

65.0 17.2 6.9 6.0 4.0 2.5 1.2 4.8

(X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X)

X Not applicable.

More than one reported source of payment or disposition may be reported.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Advance Data, No. 248, March 9, 1994.

No. 191. Hospital Emergency Room Visits: 1993
[An emergency room is a hospital facility staffed by physicians for the provision of providing outpatient services to patients whose conditions require immediate attention and is staffed 24 hours a day. Data are for non-Federal short stay or general hospitals. Based on the National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey and subject to sampling error] NUMBER OF VISITS (1,000) CHARACTERISTIC All visits
2

VISITS PER 100 PERSONS Total 36.5 40.7 45.4 34.4 25.8 29.5 59.8 35.9 37.1 34.2 57.6 Urgent
1

Total 92,814 23,285 15,583 28,064 12,822 5,496 7,565 44,426 48,388 72,354 18,464
2

Urgent

1

Nonurgent 50,766 14,108 9,292 16,537 6,334 1,973 2,521 23,578 27,188 38,823 10,615

Injuryrelated 37,712 9,114 7,644 12,563 4,625 1,511 2,257 20,783 16,930 30,859 6,096

Nonurgent 20.0 24.6 27.1 20.3 12.7 10.6 19.9 19.1 20.8 18.4 33.1

Injuryrelated 14.8 15.9 22.3 15.4 9.3 8.1 17.8 16.8 13.0 14.6 19.0

................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42,048 9,176 6,291 11,526 6,488 3,523 5,044 20,848 21,200 33,531 7,849

16.5 16.0 18.3 14.1 13.0 18.9 39.9 16.9 16.2 15.9 24.5

Age: Under 15 years old. . . 15 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . 65 to 74 years old . . . 75 years old and over .

Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race: White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Patient requires immediate attention.

Includes other races, not shown separately.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data.

130

Health and Nutrition
No. 192. Hospital Discharges and Days of Care: 1993
[See headnote, table 189] DISCHARGES Days of Avercare age Per per Num1,000 1,000 stay ber (days) perper(1,000) sons 1 sons 1 DISCHARGES AGE AND FIRST-LISTED DIAGNOSIS Per Num1,000 ber per(1,000) sons 1 Days of Avercare age per stay 1,000 (days) persons 1

AGE AND FIRST-LISTED DIAGNOSIS

MALE All ages
2

FEMALE . . . . . . . 12,262 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,078 690 598 500 440 1,193 136 126 105 64 45 3,179 296 216 161 130 130 3,143 743 201 115 97 96 4,748 1,167 409 307 268 140
2

98.4 16.7 5.5 4.8 4.0 3.5 41.1 4.7 4.3 3.6 2.2 1.5 54.5 5.1 3.7 2.8 2.2 2.2 131.5 31.1 8.4 4.8 4.0 4.0

643.5 100.7 47.2 36.3 46.5 23.7 206.2 15.0 18.7 11.3 14.2 6.4 317.8 56.1 20.5 12.7 17.9 7.4 831.0 169.6 74.2 57.1 29.2 33.1

6.5 6.0 8.5 7.6 11.6 6.7 5.0 3.2 4.3 3.1 6.5 4.2 5.8 11.1 5.5 4.6 8.0 3.3 6.3 5.5 8.8 11.8 7.2 8.3 7.5 6.6 8.6 9.0 8.0 3.9

Diseases of heart . . . Malignant neoplasms . Pneumonia, all forms . Psychoses . . . . . . . . Fractures, all sites . . .

All ages 2 . . . Delivery . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . Malignant neoplasms . Pneumonia, all forms . Psychoses . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. 18,563 . 4,015 . 1,873 . 792 . 586 . 554 . . . . . . . . . . . 948 86 83 63 43 42 8,021 4,001 268 152 136 132 3,141 423 258 122 111 105 6,453 1,362 402 381 362 335
3

140.8 30.5 14.2 6.0 4.4 4.2 34.2 3.1 3.0 2.3 1.5 1.5 136.0 67.8 4.5 2.6 2.3 2.2 122.5 16.5 10.1 4.7 4.3 4.1

792.1 74.1 93.4 46.3 35.7 51.8 184.2 10.3 16.3 8.6 3.7 12.5 479.9 164.9 49.0 8.9 7.1 4.4 742.2 91.4 75.0 61.2 26.9 16.8

5.6 2.4 6.6 7.7 8.0 12.3 5.4 3.3 5.4 3.8 2.4 8.4 3.5 2.4 10.8 3.4 3.1 2.0 6.1 5.5 7.4 12.9 6.2 4.1 8.1 7.0 8.6 9.3 8.7 9.3 Includes

Under 15 years 2 . . . . . Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia, all forms . . . . Bronchitis, emphysema3 . . Congenital anomalies. . . . Fractures, all sites . . . . . .

Under 15 years 2 . . . . . Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia, all forms . . . . Bronchitis, emphysema 3 . Noninfectious enteritis 4 . . Congenital anomalies. . . . 15 to 44 years 2. . . Delivery . . . . . . . . . . Psycoses . . . . . . . . . Benign neoplasms . . . Cholelithiasis . . . . . . Pregnancy w/abortive outcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15 to 44 years 2. . . . . . . Psychoses . . . . . . . . . . . . Fractures, all sites . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . Alcohol dependence syndrome Intervertebral disk disorders. 45 to 64 years 2. . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . Psychoses . . . . . . . . . . Pneumonia, all forms . . . Cerebrovascular disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45 to 64 years 2. . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . Psychoses . . . . . . . . . . Bronchitis, emphysema 3 Benign neoplasms . . . . .

65 years old and older 2 Diseases of heart . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . Pneumonia, all forms . . . . Cerebrovascular disease . Hyperplasia of prostate. . .

357.2 2,691.2 87.8 580.1 30.8 265.8 23.1 208.9 20.2 162.3 10.5 41.5

65 years old and older 2 Diseases of heart . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . Fractures, all sites . . . . . . Cerebrovascular disease . Pneumonia, all forms . . . .

330.9 2,666.0 69.9 489.1 20.6 176.2 19.5 182.0 18.5 161.2 17.2 159.6
4

1 See footnote 1, table 189. colitis.

Includes other first-listed diagnoses not shown separately.

Includes asthma.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Health, United States, 1994; and unpublished data.

Hospital Discharges

131

No. 194. Procedures for Inpatients Discharged From Short-Stay Hospitals: 1980 to 1993
[Excludes newborn infants and discharges from Federal hospitals. See headnote, table 189] NUMBER OF PROCEDURES (1,000) 1980 Surgical procedures, total .... MALE Total 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cardiac catheterization . . . . . . . . . . . Prostatectomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduction of fracture 5 . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of inguinal hernia . . . . . . . . . . FEMALE Total 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures to assist delivery 4 . . . . . . Cesarean section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of current obstetric laceration . . Hysterectomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagnostic and other nonsurgical procedures 4 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MALE Total 4 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angiocardiography and arteriography 7 . CAT scan 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMALE Total 4 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagnostic ultrasound . . . . . . . . . . . . CAT scan 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 4

SEX AND TYPE OF PROCEDURE ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

RATE PER 1,000 POPULATION
1

2 1

1985 24,799 8,805 439 367 339 370 15,994 2,494 877 548 670 11,961 5,889 693 671 6,072 756 707

1990

1

1993

1980 108.6 78.1 2.1 3.1 3.0 4.4 137.1 20.5 5.3 3.0 5.6 30.7 31.1 3.3 1.4 30.3 1.7 1.3

1985 104.6 76.8 3.8 3.2 3.0 3.2 130.6 20.4 7.2 4.5 5.5 50.5 51.4 6.0 5.9 49.6 6.2 5.8

1990

1

1993

24,494 8,505 228 335 325 483 15,989 2,391 619 355 649 6,918 3,386 355 152 3,532 204 154

23,051 8,538 620 364 300 181 14,513 2,491 945 795 591 17,455 7,378 1,051 736 10,077 941 770

22,767 8,355 613 317 294 96 14,411 2,428 917 860 562 18,842 7,787 1,024 565 11,055 848 594

92.4 70.6 5.1 3.0 2.5 1.5 113.0 19.4 7.4 6.2 4.6 70.0 61.0 8.7 6.1 78.5 7.3 6.0

88.8 67.1 4.9 2.5 2.4 0.8 109.3 18.4 7.0 6.5 4.3 73.5 62.5 8.2 4.5 83.8 6.4 4.5

...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

1 Comparisons beginning 1990 with data for earlier years should be made with caution as estimates of change may reflect 2 Based on Bureau of the Census estimated civilian improvements in the design rather than true changes in hospital use. population as of July 1. Population estimates for the 1980’s do not reflect revised estimates based on the 1990 Census of 3 Population. Includes other types of surgical procedures not shown separately. 4 Beginning in 1990, the definition of some surgical and diagnostic and other nonsurgical procedures was revised, causing a discontinuity in the trends for some totals. 5 Excluding skull, nose, and jaw. 6 Includes other nonsurgical procedures not shown separately. 7 Using contrast material. 8 Computerized axial tomography. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 13; and unpublished data.

No. 195. Hospital Discharges—Principal Source of Expected Payment: 1993
[See headnote, table 189] PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF EXPECTED PAYMENT—PERCENT DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTIC Total discharges 1 (1,000) Government Private Worker’s insurance Medicare Medicaid compensation 33.9 42.2 49.4 55.4 4.8 31.4 42.2 43.5 53.9 5.7 35.5 42.2 51.7 56.9 4.0 36.5 25.4 32.0 33.5 34.9 33.7 33.6 37.8 1.4 4.6 15.9 90.3 41.9 0.9 9.4 18.4 89.4 35.1 2.0 2.7 13.3 90.9 41.5 25.7 35.4 38.6 42.0 38.0 30.7 14.7 40.0 25.2 11.2 1.3 10.9 41.1 15.8 9.4 1.1 17.2 38.5 28.9 12.9 1.5 9.6 31.6 17.9 14.7 12.2 13.7 20.4 1.3 (X) 2.1 2.0 0.2 2.0 (X) 4.8 2.4 0.3 0.8 (X) 1.0 1.6 0.2 1.2 0.8 1.8 1.0 0.7 1.8 1.2 No charge

Other

Self-pay

Other

2

AGE All ages . . . . . . Under 15 years old . . 15 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over SEX Male, all ages. . . . Under 15 years old . . 15 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over Female, all ages . . Under 15 years old . . 15 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over RACE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30,825 2,141 11,200 6,283 11,201 12,262 1,193 3,179 3,143 4,748 18,563 948 8,021 3,141 6,453 20,101 4,912 5,812 6,965 7,097 11,580 5,183

1.8 3.0 2.7 2.3 0.3 1.9 2.8 3.5 2.3 0.4 1.7 3.2 2.4 2.3 0.2 1.4 2.9 2.2 0.8 1.9 2.3 1.8

4.9 5.6 8.3 6.3 0.5 5.8 5.4 12.9 6.4 0.6 4.3 5.7 6.5 6.2 0.5 4.2 6.8 5.7 4.7 4.1 6.0 3.8

0.4 1.4 0.6 0.5 (3) 0.5 1.4 1.0 0.5 (3) 0.3 1.4 0.4 0.5 (3) 0.3 1.1 (3) 0.4 0.3 0.6 (3)

3.0 4.0 4.4 4.1 0.8 3.1 4.1 5.1 4.2 0.8 2.9 3.9 4.1 4.0 0.8 3.1 3.4 2.5 3.6 2.5 1.4 6.6

White . . . . . . . . . . . . All other. . . . . . . . . . . Not stated . . . . . . . . . REGION Northeast. Midwest. . South . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

X Not applicable. 1 Includes discharges for whom expected source of payment was unknown. 2 Includes all other nonprofit source of payment such as church, welfare, or United Way. 3 Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data.

132

Health and Nutrition
No. 196. Organ Transplants and Grafts: 1981 to 1994

[As of end of year. Based on reports of procurement programs and transplant centers in the United States, except as noted] NUMBER OF PROCEDURES PROCEDURE 1981 Transplant: Heart . . . . . . . Liver . . . . . . . Kidney . . . . . . Heart-lung . . . Lung . . . . . . . Pancreas/Islet cell . . . . . . . Cornea grafts 2 . . Bone grafts . . . . Skin grafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 26 4,883 5 (NA) 15,500 (NA) (NA) 1985 719 602 7,695 30 2 1990 1,998 2,534 9,433 52 187 1991 2,125 2,954 9,949 51 401 1992 2,172 3,059 10,210 48 535 1993 2,298 3,440 10,361 61 669
1 113 40,215 (NA) (NA) 2

NUMBER OF CENTERS 1994 2,342 3,646 10,463 69 713
1 98 (NA) (NA) (NA)

1987 104 45 200 23 (NA)
3

1994 165 117 248 92 85 116 (NA) (NA) (NA)

Number 1-year surof vival rates, people 1992 waiting, (percent) 1994 2,933 4,059 27,498 205 1,625 222 (NA) (NA) (NA) 82 77 97 59 69 89 4 95 (NA) (NA)

130 529 532 557 26,300 40,631 41,393 42,337 (NA) 350,000 350,000 350,000 (NA) 5,500 5,500 5,500

31 103 (NA) (NA)

- Represents zero. NA Not available. 1 Pancreas only. include Canada. 3 Eye banks. 4 Success rate.

1981 through 1992, number of procedures and eye banks

Source: Transplants: through 1992, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Organ Transplantation; beginning 1993, United Network for Organ Sharing, Richmond, VA; American Association of Tissue Banks, McLean, VA; and Eye Bank Association of America, Washington, DC; and unpublished data.

No. 197. Home Health and Hospice Care Patients, by Selected Characteristics: 1993
[See headnote, table 199] CURRENT PATIENTS ITEM Total 1,501.3 Home health agency 1,451.2
1 2

DISCHARGES Total 3,945.1 Home health agency 3,688.0

Hospice 50.1

Hospice 257.2

Total (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Age: Under 45 years old . . . . 45-54 years old. . . . . . . 55-64 years old. . . . . . . 65 years old and over . . 65-69 years old . . . . . 70-74 years old . . . . . 75-79 years old . . . . . 80-84 years old . . . . . 85 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.6 3.7 8.3 74.4 9.7 14.5 15.6 16.0 18.6 34.3 65.7 68.5 13.6 18.0 30.0 37.4 5.1 17.1 10.4

13.7 3.7 8.2 74.5 9.6 14.4 15.7 16.1 18.7 34.0 66.0 68.0 13.7 18.3 29.4 37.6 5.1 17.3 10.6

9.9 6.3 12.3 71.5 10.7 18.2 13.0 15.0 14.6 41.1 58.9 80.4 9.1 10.6 47.6 31.3 5.4 10.3 5.3

15.2 4.3 9.4 71.0 10.2 15.0 15.4 14.5 15.9 37.3 62.7 68.2 9.7 22.1 38.7 31.4 4.6 14.6 10.6

15.6 4.2 9.1 71.1 9.8 14.8 15.6 14.8 16.1 36.5 63.5 67.5 9.8 22.8 37.5 32.0 4.5 14.9 11.2

9.9 5.2 13.8 71.2 16.3 18.7 13.2 10.3 12.7 48.6 51.4 79.3 9.1 11.6 56.0 22.9 7.0 11.5 2.7

Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other or unknown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marital status: 3 Married . . . . . . . . . . Widowed . . . . . . . . . Divorced or separated Never married. . . . . . Unknown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Patients on the rolls of the agency as of midnight the day prior to the survey. 2 Patients removed from the rolls of the agency during the 12 months prior to the day of the survey. A patient could be included more than once if the individual had more than one episode of care during the year. 3 For current patients, marital status at admission; for discharged patients, status at time of discharge.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data.

Home Health and Hospice Care
No. 198. Elderly Home Health Care Patients: 1993

133

[Covers the civilian noninstitutionalized population 65 years old and over who are home health care patients. Home health care is provided to individuals and families in their place of residence. Based on the 1993 National Home and Hospice Care Survey] CURRENT PATIENTS 1 ITEM DISCHARGES
2

CURRENT PATIENTS 1 ITEM

DISCHARGES

2

Percent Number Number (1,000) distribu- (1,000) tion 100.0 2,622.7 54.5 1,059.8 47.1 873.2 12.2 227.8 35.2 26.5 38.2 2.1 13.6 3.4 25.4 25.8 782.9 533.2 631.1 21.4 196.7 35.2 429.1 650.7

Percent distribution 100.0 40.4 33.3 8.7 29.9 20.3 24.1 0.8 7.5 1.3 16.4 24.8

Percent Number Number (1,000) distribu- (1,000) tion 816.9 97.7 75.6 2,235.9 9.0 74.0

Percent distribution 85.3 2.8

Total 65 years old and over . . . . . . 1,080.2 Received help with— Bathing or showering. 589.0 Dressing. . . . . . . . . 508.6 Eating . . . . . . . . . . 132.2 Transferring in/out of a bed or chair . . . . 378.0 Using the toilet . . . . 286.6 Doing light house work . . . . . . . . . . 412.1 Managing money . . . 22.4 Shopping for groceries or clothes. 146.9 Using the telephone . 36.7 Preparing meals . . . 274.8 Taking medications. . 278.7 Primary source of payment of last billing: Private insurance . . . 32.7 Own income . . . . . . 25.1
1

3.0 2.3

128.1 39.5

4.9 1.5

Medicare . . . . . . . . Medicaid . . . . . . . . Services rendered last billing period: Skilled nursing. . . . . Personal care . . . . . Social services . . . . Counseling . . . . . . . Medications . . . . . . Physical therapy . . . Homemaker/ companion services Referral services . . . Dietary and nutrition services . . . . . . . . Physician services . . High tech care. . . . . Occupational/ vocational therapy . Speech therapy/ audiology . . . . . . .

894.2 475.9 124.1 44.2 63.5 188.8 201.1 19.9 27.4 17.0 12.8 39.5 14.5

82.8 2,203.4 44.1 842.6 11.5 299.3 4.1 117.7 5.9 176.3 17.5 822.9 18.6 1.8 2.5 1.6 1.2 3.7 1.3 274.4 52.4 71.2 39.8 50.5 132.5 41.3

84.0 32.1 11.4 4.5 6.7 31.4 10.5 2.0 2.7 1.5 1.9 5.1 1.6

Patients on the rolls of the agency as of midnight the day prior to the survey. 2 Patients removed from the rolls of the agency during the 12 months prior to the day of the survey. A patient could be included more than once if the individual had more than one episode of care during the year. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data.

No. 199. Home Health and Hospice Care Agencies, by Selected Characteristics: 1993
[In percent, except total in thousands. Based on the 1993 National Home and Hospice Care Survey. Home health care is provided to individuals and families in their place of residence. Hospice care is available in both the home and inpatient settings. Agencies which provide both types of care are classified according to how the majority of their patients are cared for. See source for details. For composition of regions, see table 27] AGENCIES ITEM Total 8.4 Home health Hospice agency 7.4 1.0 CURRENT PATIENTS Total 1,501.3
1

DISCHARGES Total 3,945.1 Home health agency 3,688.0

2

Home health Hospice agency 1,451.2 50.1

Hospice 257.2

Total (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Ownership: Proprietary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voluntary nonprofit. . . . . . . . . . . . Government and other . . . . . . . . . Certification: Medicare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medicaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Region: Northeast . Midwest . . South . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33.1 48.5 18.4 81.5 80.4 21.8 28.3 35.7 14.3

37.1 42.5 20.5 82.7 82.5 22.4 28.1 36.0 13.5

3.6 93.9 2.4 67.6 60.0 17.0 29.8 33.3 19.9

26.5 60.1 13.4 89.9 90.6 34.5 18.7 33.3 13.5

27.1 59.1 13.8 89.6 90.5 34.8 18.5 33.3 13.4

8.3 90.8 0.9 86.5 80.1 23.7 25.7 33.9 16.6

23.5 67.4 9.1 95.9 93.2 33.4 20.0 26.6 20.0

24.7 65.7 9.6 96.1 93.5 34.0 19.5 26.3 20.3

7.6 91.1 1.3 89.4 82.5 25.2 26.9 31.1 16.8

1 Patients on the rolls of the agency as of midnight the day prior to the survey. 2 Patients removed from the rolls of the agency during the 12 months prior to the day of the survey. A patient could be included more than once if the individual had more than one episode of care during the year.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data.

134

Health and Nutrition
No. 200. Nursing and Related Care Facilities: 1971 to 1993
ITEM Unit Number 1,000. . 1,000. . 1,000. . Rate . . . . . . . 1971 22,004 1,202 1,076 568 528 4,277 307 15.1 1976 20,468 1,415 1,293 653 505 3,922 309 13.7 1978
2

1980
3

1982
4

1986
4

1991
4

1993 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 11,309 617 16.3

Nursing and related care: 1 Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . Beds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resident patients . . . . . Employees, full-time. . . . Per 1,000 patients . . .

18,722 2 1,349 2 1,240 2 664 2 535 4,745 408 17.3

23,065 3 1,537 3 1,396 3 798 3 571 5,052 436 17.7

25,849 4 1,642 4 1,493 (NA) (NA) 5,408 488 19.1

25,646 4 1,707 4 1,553 (NA) (NA) 6,897 (NA) (NA)

33,006 4 1,921 4 1,729 (NA) (NA) 9,674 567 15.3

Skilled nursing facilities 5 . . Number . Beds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000. . . Per 1,000 Medicare enrollees 6 . . . . . . . Rate . . .

NA Not available. 1 Covers nursing homes with three beds or more and all other places providing some form of nursing, personal, or domiciliary care; standards vary widely among States. Includes skilled nursing facilities. 1971-1984 based on National Master Facility Inventory. Some changes in data beginning 1976 may be due to dependence on State collection. 1986 data based on the 1986 Inventory of Long Term Care Places. Data may not be strictly comparable with previous years. 1991 based on National Health Provider Inventory; excludes board and care homes for the mentally retarded. 2 Includes 1976 data for California, District of Columbia, New York, and North Carolina. 3 Excludes hospital-based nursing homes and includes 1978 data for Alaska and South Dakota. 4 Excludes hospital-based nursing homes. 5 Source: Through 1976, U.S. Social Security Administration, Health Insurance Statistics and unpublished data. Beginning 1978, U.S. Health Care Financing Administration, Medicare Participating Providers and Suppliers of Health Services, 1980; and unpublished data. Covers facilities and beds certified for participation under Medicare as of midyear. Includes facilities which have transfer agreements with one or more participating hospitals, and are engaged primarily in providing skilled nursing care and related services for the rehabilitation of injured, disabled, or sick persons. 6 Based on number of aged persons residing in United States who were enrolled in the Medicare hospital insurance program as of July 1 of year stated. Source: Except as noted, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Health Resources Statistics, annual through 1976 and 1978; 1982, 1986, and 1991 Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 111, No. 147, and No. 244; and unpublished data.

No. 201. Nursing and Related Care Facilities, by Selected Characteristics: 1991
[Excludes hospital-based nursing homes which numbered 767 with 51,897 residents in 1991. Based on the National Health Provider Inventor. For composition of regions, see table 27] TOTAL FACILITIES CHARACTERISTIC NURSING HOMES
1

BOARD AND CARE HOMES

2

Average OccuAverage OccuAverage Beds Beds Beds Homes (1,000) number pancy Homes (1,000) number pancy Homes (1,000) number of beds rate of beds rate of beds 1,920 58 90.0 14,744 1,558 106 91.5 18,262 362 20

Occupancy rate 83.6

Total . . . . . . . . . 33,006 REGION Northeast Midwest . South . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,834 9,142 9,499 8,531

414 583 608 315

71 64 64 37

93.5 89.7 89.7 86.8

2,654 5,137 4,708 2,245

328 519 502 209

124 101 107 93

95.3 90.3 91.2 89.6

3,180 4,005 4,791 6,286

86 64 106 106

27 16 22 17

86.6 84.7 83.0 81.3

OWNERSHIP Government. . . . . . . . 1,570 Proprietary. . . . . . . . . 24,256 Nonprofit . . . . . . . . . . 7,180 SIZE Fewer than 10 beds 10 to 24 beds . . . . 25 to 49 beds . . . . 50 to 74 beds . . . . 75 to 99 beds . . . . 100 to 199 beds . . . 200 to 299 beds . . . 300 to 499 beds . . . 500 beds or more . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,025 . 5,281 . 3,381 . 3,792 . 2,795 . 6,497 . 942 . 248 . 45 53 82 124 229 245 854 218 89 28 5 15 37 60 88 132 231 358 618 83.9 85.5 87.9 90.9 90.2 90.8 90.1 89.5 94.7 165 398 1,590 3,050 2,401 6,028 847 224 41 1 7 61 184 211 792 196 80 25 5 18 39 60 88 131 231 359 608 81.6 88.5 91.1 92.1 91.2 91.5 91.3 91.0 96.6 9,860 4,883 1,791 742 394 469 95 24 4 52 74 62 44 34 62 22 8 3 5 15 35 60 86 132 228 347 721 83.9 85.2 84.9 85.8 83.6 81.9 79.0 75.5 78.8 113 1,347 459 72 56 64 92.3 725 89.1 10,522 92.2 3,497 100 1,086 372 138 103 106 93.5 845 90.7 13,734 93.5 3,683 13 262 87 16 19 24 83.8 82.6 86.8

1 These facilities have three or more beds. 2 These facilities offer no nursing services and provide only personal care or supervisory care. Excludes board and care homes for the mentally retarded.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Advance Data From Vital and Health Statistics, No. 244; and unpublished data.

Mental Retardation—Mental Health Facilities
No. 202. Residential Facilities for Persons with Mental Retardation: 1970 to 1993

135

[For years ending June 30. Persons with mental retardation refers to those who have been so designated by State governments in the process of placing them into residential facilities] ITEM Number of facilities 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residents beginning of year . . . . . . . . Admissions 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deaths in institutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . Live releases 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residents end of year . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate per 100,000 population 7 . . . . . Average daily residents . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance expenditures per day per average daily resident (dollars) 8 . . . .
1

STATE OPERATED FACILITIES 1970 . . . . . . . . 1980
2

1

PRIVATE FACILITIES
2

3

1985

2

1990

2

1993

1977

1982

1990

1993

. 190 394 881 . 189,956 148,734 117,101 . 14,985 14,064 7,713 . 3,496 2,142 1,537 . 14,702 16,225 10,310 . 186,743 140,230 112,183 . 92.5 62.2 47.5 . 187,897 136,304 111,791 13 68 122

1,321 94,625 5,548 1,100 7,620 91,640 34.7 92,729 196

1,765 73,856 4,700 1,167 7,258 69,760 31.9 71,477 225

10,219 14,605 41,588 58,790 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 22,363 22,431 (NA) (NA) 891 920 (NA) (NA) 12,384 12,999 (NA) (NA) 89,120 115,032 188,902 229,279 40.9 50.0 76.0 89.6 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
9

..

19

9

37

(NA)

(NA)

NA Not available. Data as submitted by many State agencies; figures reflect some estimates. Resident patients at the end of a year do not equal the number at the beginning of a succeeding year. Includes estimates for underreporting. 2 Includes data for 142 facilities in 1980, 121 facilities in 1985, 108 in 1990, and 110 in 1993 operated as mental hospitals or other facilities and which have residents with mental retardation. The average daily number of residents with mental retardation in these facilities was 8,240 in 1980, 5,602 in 1985, 1,487 in 1990, and 1,515 in 1993. 3 A privately-operated living quarter which provides 24-hour, 7-days-a-week responsibility for room, board, and supervision of mentally retarded persons. Excludes single-family homes providing services to a relative; and nursing homes, boarding homes, and foster homes not formally licensed or contracted as 4 Beginning 1985, reflects the development of a large number of community based mental retardation service providers. State-operated facilities which were developed in the early 1980’s. 5 Includes readmissions and excludes transfers. Excludes people entering newly opened facilities. 6 1970, represents excess of residents released alive from facility over those returning 7 Based on Bureau of the Census estimated civilian population as of July 1. to facility. Beginning 1980, total live releases. 8 Reporting facilities only; includes salaries and wages, Estimates reflect revisions based on 1990 Census of Population. 9 purchased provisions, fuel, light, water, etc. Represents average daily reimbursement rate per resident. Source: 1970 State-operated facilities: U.S. Office of Human Development Services, Residents in Public Institutions for the Mentally Retarded, annual, and unpublished data; later State-operated facilities and private facilities: Center for Residential Services and Community Living (CRSCL), Institute on Community Integration, UAP, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, Magan, Blake, Prouty, and Larkin, Report No. 40, and earlier reports and unpublished data.

No. 203. Mental Health Facilities—Summary, by Type of Facility: 1990
[Revised 1990 data. Facilities, beds and inpatients as of year-end 1990; other data are for calendar year or fiscal year ending in a month other than December since facilities are permitted to report on either a calendar or fiscal year basis. Excludes private psychiatric office practice and psychiatric service modes of all types in hospitals or outpatient clinics of Federal agencies other than U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs. Excludes data from Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, and other territories] INPATIENT Number BEDS of faciliTotal ties (1,000) Rate 5,284 270 967 1,674 141 743 1,489 272.2 98.4 75.0 53.5 21.7 (X) 23.6 INPATIENTS
1

TYPE OF FACILITY

Total (1,000) 229.7 90.3 60.3 38.3 17.2 (X) 23.6

Rate

1

Average Inpatient care daily epiinpatients sodes 2 (1,000) (1,000) 224.4 89.7 58.4 38.6 17.3 (X) 20.4 2,260.9 365.7 509.0 997.6 215.6 (X) 173.0

EXPENDITURES Total (mil. dol.) 28,357 7,705 8,093 4,662 1,480 671 5,746

Patient care Per staff 4 capita 3 (1,000) (dol.) 116.3 31.6 33.2 19.1 6.1 2.8 23.5 471.8 112.8 99.6 80.7 29.7 14.3 134.7

Total . . . . . . . . . Mental hospitals: State and county . . . . . Private 5 . . . . . . . . . . General hospitals 6 . . . . . Veterans Administration 7 . Free-standing psychiatric outpatient clinics 8 . . . . . Other 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111.5 40.3 30.7 21.9 8.9 (X) 9.7

93.0 37.0 24.7 15.7 7.1 (X) 8.5

X Not applicable. 1 Rate per 100,000 population. Based on Bureau of the Census estimated civilian population as of July 1. 2 ‘‘Inpatient care episodes’’ is defined as the number of residents in inpatient facilities at the beginning of the year plus the total additions to inpatient facilities during the year. 3 Based on Bureau of the Census estimated civilian population as of July 1. 4 Full-time equivalent. 5 Includes residential treatment centers for emotionally disturbed children. 6 Non-Federal hospitals with separate psychiatric services. 7 Includes U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) neuropsychiatric hospitals, VA general hospitals with separate psychiatric settings and VA freestanding psychiatric outpatient clinics. 8 Includes mental health facilities which provide only psychiatric outpatient services. 9 Includes other multiservice mental health facilities with two or more settings, which are not elsewhere classified, as well as freestanding partial care facilities which only provide psychiatric partial care services. Number of facilities, expenditures, and staff data also include freestanding psychiatric partial care facilities. Source: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, unpublished data.

136

Health and Nutrition
No. 204. Days of Disability, by Type and Selected Characteristics: 1970 to 1993

[Covers civilian noninstitutional population. Beginning 1985, the levels of estimates may not be comparable to estimates for 19701980 because the later data are based on a revised questionnaire and field procedures; for further information, see source. Based on National Health Interview Survey; see Appendix III. For composition of regions, see table 27] ITEM Restricted-activity days 1 . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . White 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Black 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic 3 . . . . . . . . . . Under 65 years . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . Northeast . Midwest . . South . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL DAYS OF DISABILITY (millions) 1970 2,913 1,273 1,640 2,526 365 (NA) 2,331 582 709 691 996 518 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,222 503 720 959 263 417 243 175 222 108 114 1980 4,165 1,802 2,363 3,518 580 (NA) 3,228 937 862 989 1,415 899 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,520 616 904 1,190 330 485 271 215 204 95 109 1985 3,453 1,442 2,011 2,899 489 228 2,557 895 689 744 1,308 712 893 781 791 568 1,436 583 852 1,064 371 575 287 288 217 100 117 1990 3,669 1,558 2,111 3,057 536 (NA) 2,734 936 656 836 1,404 773 662 758 715 912 1,521 625 896 1,115 406 621 303 319 212 100 112 1992 4,096 1,739 2,357 3,384 586 (NA) 3,005 1,091 684 946 1,518 948 712 847 750 940 1,585 648 938 1,130 455 597 280 317 215 101 114 1993 4,346 1,844 2,502 3,598 616 (NA) 3,289 1,057 798 978 1,564 1,006 741 857 849 1,086 1,708 688 1,020 1,286 422 666 315 351 250 121 129 1970 14.6 13.2 15.8 14.4 16.2 (NA) 12.9 30.7 14.5 12.4 15.9 15.6 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 6.1 5.2 6.9 5.3 13.8 5.4 5.0 5.9 4.9 4.7 5.1 DAYS PER PERSON 1980 19.1 17.1 21.0 18.7 22.7 (NA) 16.6 39.2 17.9 17.2 19.8 22.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 7.0 5.9 8.0 6.1 13.8 5.0 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.8 5.7 1985 14.8 12.8 16.6 14.5 17.4 13.2 12.4 33.1 13.8 12.7 16.3 15.7 25.8 16.7 12.1 9.9 6.1 5.2 7.1 5.1 13.7 5.3 4.8 6.0 4.8 4.4 5.3 1990 14.9 13.1 16.7 14.8 17.7 (NA) 12.6 31.4 13.2 14.0 16.7 14.8 27.3 19.1 13.5 10.3 6.2 5.2 7.1 5.2 13.6 5.3 4.7 5.9 4.6 4.3 5.0 1992 16.3 14.2 18.2 16.2 18.6 (NA) 13.6 35.4 13.7 15.4 18.0 17.1 29.0 22.1 14.6 10.3 6.3 5.3 7.3 5.1 14.8 5.1 4.4 5.9 4.6 4.2 5.0 1993 17.1 14.9 19.2 17.0 19.2 (NA) 14.7 33.8 15.9 15.8 18.3 17.7 30.2 22.3 15.7 11.2 6.7 5.6 7.8 5.8 13.5 5.6 4.8 6.4 5.3 5.0 5.5

Family income: Under $10,000 . . . $10,000 to $19,999 $20,000 to $34,999 $35,000 or more . .

Bed-disability days 4 . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 65 years . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . Work-loss days 5 . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . School-loss days 6 . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . .

NA Not available. 1 A day when a person cuts down on his activities for more than half a day because of illness or injury. Includes bed-disability, work-loss, and school-loss days. Total includes other races and unknown income, not shown separately. 2 Beginning 1980, race was determined by asking the household respondent to report his race. In earlier years the racial 3 classification of respondents was determined by interviewer observation. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 4 A day when a person stayed in bed more than half a day because of illness or injury. Includes those work-loss and school-loss 5 days actually spent in bed. A day when a person lost more than half a workday because of illness or injury. Computed for persons 17 years of age and over (beginning 1985, 18 years of age and over) in the currently employed population, defined as those who were working or had a job or business from which they were not on layoff during the 2-week period preceding the week of interview. 6 Child’s loss of more than half a school day because of illness or injury. Computed for children 6-16 years of age. Beginning 1985, children 5-17 years old. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 10, No. 190; and earlier reports and unpublished data.

Injuries
No. 207. Injuries, by Sex: 1970 to 1993

137

[Covers civilian noninstitutional population and comprises incidents leading to restricted activity and/or medical attention. Beginning 1982, data not strictly comparable with other years. See headnote, table 204. Based on National Health Interview Survey; see Appendix III] INJURIES (mil.) Male 1970 1975 1980 1983 1984 1985 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.8 39.4 39.0 33.0 33.7 34.6 34.0 Female 24.2 32.5 29.1 28.1 27.4 28.0 28.4 RATE PER 100 POPULATION Total 28.0 34.4 31.2 26.6 26.4 26.8 26.4 Male 33.0 39.1 37.1 29.8 30.1 30.6 29.8 Female 23.3 30.0 25.8 23.7 22.9 23.1 23.3 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INJURIES (mil.) Male 33.6 32.4 31.7 33.6 32.2 32.8 33.4 Female 28.4 26.8 26.3 26.6 27.5 26.8 28.7 RATE PER 100 POPULATION Total 26.0 24.6 23.8 24.4 24.0 23.7 24.4 Male 29.1 27.7 26.9 28.1 26.7 26.8 27.0 Female 23.1 21.6 20.9 21.0 21.5 20.7 22.0

YEAR

YEAR

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 10, No. 190, and earlier reports; and unpublished data.

138

Health and Nutrition
No. 208. Injuries, by Age and Condition: 1993
[See headnote, table 207] AGE AND TYPE INJURIES (mil.) Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.1 5.0 12.5 29.1 15.6 7.9 14.2 12.5 12.1 15.4
2

RATE PER 100 POPULATION Female 28.7 2.2 4.9 12.4 9.1 3.6 6.8 3.9 5.9 8.5
3

Male 33.4 2.7 7.6 16.7 6.5 4.3 7.4 8.6 6.2 6.8

Total 24.4 24.9 26.2 27.5 19.2 3.1 5.6 4.9 4.8 6.1

Male 27.0 26.6 31.0 32.0 17.4 3.5 6.0 7.0 5.0 5.5

Female 22.0 23.1 21.2 23.2 20.7 2.8 5.2 3.0 4.5 6.5

Total 1 . . . . . Under 5 years . . . 5 to 17 years . . . . 18 to 44 years . . . 45 years and over.

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

Fractures 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sprains and strains . . . . . . . . Open wounds and lacerations . Contusions 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Includes unknown place of accident not shown separately.

Includes dislocations.

Includes superficial injuries.

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 10, No. 190, and earlier reports; and unpublished data.

No. 209. Persons With Disabilities: 1991-92
[Covers the civilian noninstitutional resident population 15 years old and over and members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post. The criteria for presence of disability varied by age. In general, a disability is considered a reduced ability to perform tasks one would normally do at a given stage in life. Based on the Survey of Income and Program Participation; for details, see source] CHARACTERISTIC Total 15 years old and over . . With a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . Severe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not severe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With functional limitations . . . . . Has difficulty— Seeing words and letters . . . . . Hearing normal conversation . . . Having speech understood . . . . Lifting or carrying 10 lbs. . . . . . Climbing stairs without resting . . Walking three city blocks . . . . . Is unable to— See words and letters . . . . . . . Hear normal conversation . . . . . Have speech understood . . . . . Lift or carry 10 lbs. . . . . . . . . . Climb stairs without resting . . . . Walk three city blocks . . . . . . . With limitations of activities of daily living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Has difficulty— Getting around inside the house. Getting in/out of bed or a chair . Taking a bath or shower . . . . . . Dressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting to or using the toilet . . . Needs personal assistance with— Getting around inside the house. Getting in/out of bed or a chair . Taking a bath or shower . . . . . . Dressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting to or using the toilet . . . With limitations of instrumental activities of daily living . . . . . . Has difficulty— Going outside the home . . . . . . Keeping track of money and bills Preparing meals . . . . . . . . . . . Doing light housework . . . . . . . Using the telephone. . . . . . . . . Needs personal assistance with— Going outside the home . . . . . . Keeping track of money and bills Preparing meals . . . . . . . . . . . Doing light housework . . . . . . . Using the telephone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERSONS (1,000) Total 195,729 46,023 23,588 22,435 34,163 9,685 10,928 2,284 16,205 17,469 17,319 1,590 924 237 7,734 9,116 8,972 7,919 3,664 5,280 4,501 3,234 1,077 2,084 1,706 2,022 2,718 2,060 487 1,157 11,694 7,809 3,901 4,530 6,313 3,130 6,011 3,425 3,685 4,745 933 Male 93,985 21,040 9,593 11,447 14,774 4,006 6,421 1,316 5,218 6,465 6,653 661 529 141 2,375 3,277 3,236 3,013 1,376 2,006 1,550 1,262 437 767 698 796 1,028 866 226 477 4,601 2,759 1,621 1,699 2,191 1,749 2,017 1,460 1,447 1,626 509 Female 101,744 24,982 13,995 10,987 19,389 5,679 4,506 968 10,987 11,003 10,665 929 396 95 5,359 5,839 5,736 4,907 2,288 3,274 2,951 1,971 640 1,317 1,008 1,227 1,691 1,193 261 680 7,093 5,050 2,280 2,831 4,122 1,381 3,994 1,965 2,238 3,119 424 PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Total 100.0 23.5 12.1 11.5 17.5 5.0 5.6 1.2 8.3 8.9 8.9 0.8 0.5 0.1 4.0 4.7 4.6 4.1 1.9 2.7 2.3 1.7 0.6 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.1 0.3 0.6 6.0 4.0 2.0 2.3 3.2 1.6 3.1 1.8 1.9 2.4 0.5 Male 100.0 22.4 10.2 12.2 15.7 4.3 6.8 1.4 5.6 6.9 7.1 0.7 0.6 0.2 2.5 3.5 3.4 3.2 1.5 2.1 1.7 1.3 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.2 0.5 4.9 2.9 1.7 1.8 2.3 1.9 2.2 1.6 1.5 1.7 0.5 Female 100.0 24.6 13.8 10.8 19.1 5.6 4.4 1.0 10.8 10.8 10.5 0.9 0.4 0.1 5.3 5.7 5.6 4.8 2.3 3.2 2.9 1.9 0.6 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.7 1.2 0.3 0.7 7.0 5.0 2.2 2.8 4.1 1.4 3.9 1.9 2.2 3.1 0.4

.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, P70-33.

Immunizations—Reportable Diseases
No. 210. Children Immunized Against Specified Diseases: 1991 to 1993

139

[In percent. Covers civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 19 months to 35 months. Based on estimates from the National Health Interview Survey. Excludes respondents with unknown or missing information. See Appendix III] VACCINATION Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis diphtheria-tetanus: 3+ doses . . . . . . . . . 4+ doses . . . . . . . . . Polio: 3+ doses . . . . . . . . Hib 1: 3+ doses . . . . . . . . Hepatitis B: 3+ doses . . . . Measles containing . . . . . . 3 DPT/3 polio/1 MMR 2 . . . 4 DPT/3 polio/1 MMR 2 3 . .
3

1991, total

1992, total

1993 Total White Black Other

(DPT)/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.8 43.3 53.2 1.7 (NA) 82.0 50.0 37.0 83.0 59.0 72.4 28.2 (NA) 82.5 68.7 55.3 88.2 72.1 78.9 55.0 16.3 84.1 74.5 67.1 89.4 73.0 79.8 57.0 16.3 86.0 75.7 68.4 82.6 69.2 73.4 44.8 16.0 76.9 69.2 61.8 84.5 64.7 80.8 56.9 16.7 72.5 68.0 58.4

2 NA Not available. 1 Haemophilus B. Measles, measles/rubella, measles/mumps, and measles/mumps/rubella. Up-to-date for age. Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, the National Health Interview Survey.

No. 211. Specified Reportable Diseases—Cases Reported: 1970 to 1993
[Figures should be interpreted with caution. Although reporting of some of these diseases is incomplete, the figures are of value in indicating trends of disease incidence. Includes cases imported from outside the United States. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series B 291-303, for related data] DISEASE AIDS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amebiasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aseptic meningitis . . . . . . . . . . . Botulism 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brucellosis (undulant fever) . . . . . Chickenpox (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . Diphtheria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encephalitis: Primary infectious 4 . . . . . . . . . Post infectious 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Haemophilius influenza . . . . . . . . Hepatitis: B (serum) (1,000) . . . . . A (infectious) (1,000) . . . . . . . . Unspecified (1,000) . . . . . . . . . Non-A, non-B (1,000) 5 . . . . . . Legionellosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leprosy (Hansen disease) . . . . . . Leptospirosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lyme disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measles (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meningococcal infections . . . . . . . Mumps (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pertussis 6 (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . Plague . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poliomyelitis, acute 7. . . . . . . . . . Psittacosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rabies, animal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rabies, human . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rheumatic fever, acute 8 . . . . . . . Rubella 9 (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . Salmonellosis 10 (1,000) . . . . . . . Shigellosis 11 (1,000) . . . . . . . . . Tetanus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toxic-shock syndrome . . . . . . . . . Trichinosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tuberculosis 12 (1,000) . . . . . . . . Tularemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typhoid fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typhus fever: Flea-borne (endemic-murine) . . Tick-borne (Rocky Mt. spotted fever) Sexually transmitted diseases: Gonorrhea (1,000) . . . . . . . . . Syphilis (1,000). . . . . . . . . . . . Other (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 (NA) 2,888 6,480 12 213 (3) 435 1,580 370 (3) 8.3 56.8 (3) (3) (3) 129 47 (3) 3,051 47.4 2,505 105.0 4.2 13 33 35 3,224 3 3,227 56.6 22.1 13.8 148 (3) 109 37.1 172 346 27 380 600 91 2.2 1980 (NA) 5,271 8,028 89 183 190.9 3 1,362 40 ( 3) 19.0 29.1 11.9 ( 3) ( 3) 223 85 ( 3) 2,062 13.5 2,840 8.6 1.7 18 9 124 6,421 432 3.9 33.7 19.0 95 ( 3) 131 27.7 234 510 81 1,163 1,004 69 1.0 1985 8,249 4,433 10,619 122 153 178.2 3 1,376 161 ( 3) 26.6 23.2 5.5 4.2 830 361 57 ( 3) 1,049 2.8 2,479 3.0 3.6 17 7 119 5,565 1 90 0.6 65.3 17.1 83 384 61 22.2 177 402 37 714 911 68 2.3 1988 31,001 2,860 7,234 84 96 192.9 2 882 121 (3) 23.2 28.5 2.5 2.6 1,085 184 54 (3) 1,099 3.4 2,964 4.9 3.5 15 9 114 4,651 158 0.2 48.9 30.6 53 390 45 22.4 201 436 54 609 720 103 5.2 1989 33,722 3,217 10,274 89 95 185.4 3 981 88 (3) 23.4 35.8 2.3 2.5 1,190 163 93 (3) 1,277 18.2 2,727 5.7 4.2 4 9 116 4,724 1 144 0.4 47.8 25.0 53 400 30 23.5 152 460 41 623 733 111 4.9 1990 41,595 3,328 11,852 92 85 173.1 4 1,341 105 (3) 21.1 31.4 1.7 2.6 1,370 198 77 (3) 1,292 27.8 2,451 5.3 4.6 2 6 113 4,826 1 108 1.1 48.6 27.1 64 322 129 25.7 152 552 50 651 690 134 4.6 1991 43,672 2,989 14,526 114 104 147.1 5 1,021 82 2,764 18.0 24.4 1.3 3.6 1,317 154 58 9,465 1,278 9.6 2,130 4.3 2.7 11 9 94 6,910 3 127 1.4 48.2 23.5 57 280 62 26.3 193 501 43 628 620 129 4.0 1992 45,472 2,942 12,223 91 105 158.4 4 774 129 1,412 16.1 23.1 0.9 6.0 1,339 172 54 9,895 1,087 2.2 2,134 2.6 4.1 13 6 92 8,589 1 75 0.2 40.9 23.9 45 244 41 26.7 159 414 28 502 501 113 2.2 1993 103,691 2,970 12,848 97 120 134.7 919 170 1,419 13.4 24.2 0.6 4.8 1,280 187 51 8,257 1,411 0.3 2,637 1.7 6.6 10 3 60 9,377 3 112 0.2 41.6 32.2 48 212 16 25.3 132 440 25 456 439 101 1.7

- Represents zero. NA Not available. 1 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was not a notifiable disease until 1984. Figures are shown for years in which cases were reported to the CDC. Beginning 1993, based on revised classification system and 2 expanded surveillance case definition. Beginning in 1980, includes foodborne, infant, wound, and unspecified cases. 3 Disease was not notifiable. 4 Beginning 1980, reported data reflect new diagnostic categories. 5 Includes some persons positive for antibody to hepatitis C virus who do not have hepatitis. 6 Whooping cough. 7 Revised. Data subject to annual revisions. 8 Based on reports from States: 38 in 1970, 37 in 1980, 31 in 1985, 29 in 1988, 28 in 1989, 30 in 1990, 23 in 1991, and 26 in 1992 and 1993. 9 German measles. 10 Excludes typhoid fever. 11 Bacillary dysentery. 12 Newly reported active cases. New diagnostic standards introduced in 1980. Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, Summary of Notifible Diseases, United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 43, No. 32, August 19, 1994.

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No. 212. Selected Measures of Hospital Utilization for Patients Discharged With the Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): 1985 to 1993
[See headnote, table 189] MEASURE OF UTILIZATION Number of patients discharged 1 . Rate of patient discharges 2 . . . . Number of days of care . . . . . . . Rate of days of care 2 . . . . . . . . Average length of stay 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1,000 . Rate . 1,000 . Rate . Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 23 1.0 387 16.3 17.1 1989 140 5.7 1,731 70.2 12.4 1990 146 5.9 2,188 87.7 14.9 1991 165 6.6 2,108 84.1 12.8 1992 194 7.6 2,136 84.3 11.0 1993 225 8.8 2,561 99.9 11.4

1 Comparisons beginning 1989 with data for earlier years should be made with caution as estimates of change may reflect improvements in the 1988 design rather than true changes in hospital use. 2 Per 10,000 population. Based on Bureau of the Census estimated civilian population as of July 1. Population estimates for the 1980’s do not reflect revised estimates based on the 1990 Census of Population. 3 For similar data on all patients, see table 189.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 13.

No. 213. AIDS Cases Reported, by Patient Characteristic: 1981 to 1994
[Provisional. For cases reported in the year shown. For data on AIDS deaths, see table 130. Data are subject to retrospective changes and may differ from those data in table 211] CHARACTERISTIC Total
1

Total

19811985 15,331 201 23 3,224 7,214 3,215 1,143 311 14,247 1,084 9,125 3,981 2,133 92 5,295 3,498 1,066 830 952 344 337 285 229 296 285 177 95 174 104 173 167 82 90 126 55 25 78 55 39 52 57 35 33 18 98.2

1986 13,083 155 27 2,794 6,078 2,685 966 378 12,028 1,055 7,769 3,392 1,810 112 3,804 2,524 1,031 949 781 347 305 303 190 286 237 165 214 158 151 170 180 73 81 166 58 72 77 71 32 61 98 41 51 36 97.2

1987 21,503 271 56 4,382 9,826 4,661 1,594 713 19,666 1,837 13,253 5,435 2,608 207 4,010 5,188 1,633 1,666 1,516 628 665 518 457 454 466 334 342 244 212 324 255 241 209 226 84 73 214 133 154 165 130 96 109 89 96.9

1988 30,703 443 127 6,261 14,176 6,539 2,142 1,015 27,417 3,286 17,050 9,141 4,236 276 6,945 5,692 2,650 2,214 2,461 984 852 841 549 708 504 402 504 350 455 341 413 410 277 325 174 329 275 78 212 176 167 115 152 119 96.6

1989 33,631 494 103 6,703 15,555 7,351 2,418 1,007 29,973 3,658 18,597 10,292 4,371 371 5,991 6,449 3,448 2,382 2,235 1,120 1,072 1,098 711 750 496 507 492 397 505 525 432 443 446 388 326 266 322 397 216 227 176 130 168 178 96.0

1990 41,762 583 144 8,087 18,994 9,764 2,940 1,250 36,871 4,891 22,378 13,250 5,685 449 8,368 7,373 4,018 3,317 2,457 1,269 1,223 1,229 983 839 733 701 692 748 580 752 427 580 571 365 376 340 315 294 239 336 203 212 206 189 95.6

1991 43,776 530 149 7,827 20,026 10,655 3,248 1,341 38,087 5,689 22,163 14,684 6,446 483 8,135 7,713 5,471 3,053 2,296 1,612 1,233 1,468 972 959 711 822 631 682 636 583 565 658 602 431 342 353 280 313 376 257 215 213 188 261 96.0
2

1992

1993

1994 78,279 739 211 12,971 35,527 20,783 5,971 2,077 64,221 14,058 33,180 31,457 12,699 943 14,944 12,136 8,617 5,879 4,993 3,104 2,528 2,245 2,722 1,401 1,399 1,239 1,184 1,162 1,035 932 912 713 1,187 816 1,158 764 612 622 582 606 422 379 269 387 95.7

. . . . . . . . 427,392 . 4,711 . 1,184 . 78,838 . 195,304 . 103,894 . 31,319 . 12,142 . 368,920 . 58,472 . 214,061 . 146,159 . 62,419 . 4,753 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83,197 78,084 43,978 30,712 25,089 14,255 12,754 12,228 10,534 9,254 7,129 6,611 6,509 6,318 6,240 5,922 5,754 5,635 5,419 4,571 4,441 3,833 3,774 3,314 3,023 2,942 2,346 2,180 2,170 2,162 96.0

45,964 103,360 615 142 7,918 20,760 11,632 3,442 1,455 39,608 6,356 22,507 16,103 6,789 565 8,322 8,821 5,086 2,930 2,024 1,887 1,347 1,399 1,201 863 710 825 778 780 741 564 649 713 585 406 397 408 382 400 440 288 217 230 270 248 95.5 680 202 18,671 47,148 26,609 7,455 2,595 86,802 16,558 48,039 38,424 15,642 1,255 17,383 18,690 10,958 7,492 5,374 2,960 3,192 2,842 2,520 2,698 1,588 1,439 1,577 1,623 1,821 1,558 1,754 1,722 1,371 1,322 1,471 1,203 1,219 948 733 774 661 729 724 637 95.8
3

Age: Under 5 years old . 5 to 12 years old . . 13 to 29 years old . 30 to 39 years old . 40 to 49 years old . 50 to 59 years old . Over 60 years old . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . Race/ethnic group: White 2 . . . . . . . . Black 2 . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . Other/unknown . . . Leading States: 3 New York . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . Florida . . . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . New Jersey. . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . District of Columbia Louisiana . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . Washington. . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . South Carolina . . . Tennessee . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . Alabama . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . Wisconsin. . . . . . . Oklahoma. . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . Percent of total .

1 Includes other States not shown separately, and persons whose residence is unknown. at least 2,000 total cases reported through 1994.

Non-Hispanic.

States with

Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, unpublished data.

Acute and Chronic Conditions
No. 214. Acute Conditions, by Type: 1970 to 1993

141

[Covers civilian noninstitutional population. Estimates include only acute conditions which were medically attended or caused at least 1 day of restricted activity. Based on National Health Interview Survey; see Appendix III. See headnote, table 204. For composition of regions, see table 27] NUMBER OF CONDITIONS (mil.) YEAR AND CHARACTERISTIC Respiratory Infective and Common Influparasitic cold enza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48.2 47.6 53.6 47.8 51.7 46.1 56.2 54.3 10.8 20.0 4.2 11.0 5.7 2.4 23.9 30.3 47.1 5.9 11.7 10.7 23.1 8.7 5.7 7.4 11.9 21.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 61.5 71.2 64.6 68.2 13.2 18.9 6.4 17.8 8.0 3.9 31.5 36.7 56.1 9.5 13.4 17.6 20.7 16.5 9.3 9.8 12.7 26.2 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 106.8 129.6 107.3 132.6 13.0 35.1 13.3 46.6 17.2 7.5 59.9 72.8 117.9 9.6 18.5 37.0 34.0 43.1 14.2 21.2 31.6 49.1 Digestive system 23.0 21.6 24.9 16.3 13.0 16.5 17.6 16.1 2.0 4.0 1.7 5.0 2.3 1.1 6.8 9.3 13.1 2.7 2.1 3.4 6.1 4.6 2.5 2.7 3.6 4.9 Injuries 59.2 76.2 72.7 64.0 60.1 59.7 59.6 62.1 5.0 12.5 7.4 21.8 9.3 6.2 33.4 28.7 52.9 7.5 11.3 18.5 19.8 12.4 7.0 10.5 13.6 22.7 RATE PER 100 POPULATION Respiratory Infective and Common Influparasitic cold enza 24.1 22.8 24.6 20.5 21.0 18.5 22.4 21.3 54.4 42.2 17.5 13.5 11.4 7.8 19.3 23.2 22.3 18.3 23.3 17.3 27.1 15.3 23.2 19.4 22.0 22.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 25.0 28.6 25.7 26.8 66.3 39.8 26.4 21.8 16.1 12.6 25.5 28.1 26.6 29.6 26.7 28.4 24.3 29.0 38.0 25.5 23.5 27.1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 43.4 52.1 42.7 52.2 65.4 73.7 55.0 57.1 34.6 23.9 48.4 55.7 55.8 29.9 37.1 59.6 39.8 75.9 57.8 55.1 58.7 50.7 Digestive system 11.5 10.3 11.4 7.0 5.3 6.6 7.0 6.3 9.9 8.4 7.2 6.1 4.6 3.6 5.5 7.1 6.2 8.5 4.2 5.4 7.1 8.0 10.0 7.1 6.7 5.0 Injuries 29.6 36.4 33.4 27.4 24.4 24.0 23.7 24.4 24.9 26.2 30.5 26.6 18.8 19.9 27.0 22.0 25.0 23.4 22.7 29.8 23.2 21.9 28.6 27.4 25.2 23.5

1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993, total 1 . . . . . Under 5 years old . . . 5 to 17 years old . . . . 18 to 24 years old . . . 25 to 44 years old . . . 45 to 64 years old . . . 65 years old and over Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . Northeast. . . . . . . . . Midwest. . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . Family income: Under $10,000 . . . $10,000 to $19,999 $20,000 to $34,999 $35,000 or more . .

NA Not available. 1 Includes other races and unknown income not shown separately. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 10, No. 190, and earlier reports; and unpublished data.

No. 215. Prevalence of Selected Chronic Conditions, by Age and Sex: 1993
[Covers civilian noninstitutional population. Conditions classified according to ninth revision of International Classification of Diseases. Based on National Health Interview Survey; see Appendix III. See headnote, table 204] RATE CHRONIC CONDITION Conditions (1,000) Male Under 45 years old 28.0 30.1 11.7 18.0 9.2 31.4 2.5 48.7 17.3 101.1 11.2 7.2 19.1 4.7 8.8 22.1 27.9 35.1 4.6 21.3 43.8 53.9 87.4 119.3 45 to 64 65 to 74 years years old old 182.7 34.0 20.0 27.4 16.3 67.3 13.7 189.3 68.2 183.1 18.9 38.1 31.1 8.6 64.8 23.4 131.3 210.6 19.2 66.3 49.0 30.1 98.9 174.7 373.8 21.4 49.9 23.3 25.0 89.6 87.1 320.5 110.5 146.4 29.3 69.0 21.3 29.4 99.6 2 8.7 346.8 323.3 39.0 79.7 58.6 51.9 75.6 174.5 75 years old and over 467.2 2 18.9 27.2 52.8 35.8 154.1 139.4 458.8 79.4 183.0 38.1 87.6 49.9 60.8 102.1 2 2.7 375.6 304.5 33.1 42.1 45.9 2 26.4 41.9 126.4 Under 45 years old 36.6 49.0 20.2 17.4 14.0 13.1 2 1.3 34.3 15.1 95.5 14.2 4.8 17.1 12.2 8.5 63.9 38.1 32.4 26.5 30.2 58.3 53.8 99.1 150.6
1

Female 45 to 64 65 to 74 75 years years years old and old old over 280.6 44.3 27.4 37.6 50.2 32.9 25.9 101.1 52.1 162.4 30.5 27.8 39.8 38.9 59.1 93.2 107.6 223.1 87.0 67.1 72.6 58.9 113.4 195.2 533.3 48.3 42.9 48.1 54.6 44.6 135.9 206.0 93.5 178.0 41.5 63.0 52.7 43.4 103.7 29.3 223.8 359.4 93.9 72.2 78.2 53.8 87.4 167.9 583.2 40.5 29.0 77.0 60.9 133.3 247.6 360.4 101.3 210.2 35.0 75.5 49.0 102.6 108.3 27.4 332.8 387.7 100.7 90.7 53.1 50.0 71.7 115.0

Arthritis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dermatitis, including eczema . . . Trouble with— Dry (itching) skin. . . . . . . . . . Ingrown nails . . . . . . . . . . . . Corns and calluses . . . . . . . . Visual impairments . . . . . . . . . . Cataracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hearing impairments . . . . . . . . . Tinnitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deformities or orthopedic impairments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ulcer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hernia of abdominal cavity . . . . . Frequent indigestion . . . . . . . . . Frequent constipation . . . . . . . . Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Migraine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heart conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . High blood pressure (Hypertension) . . . . . . . . . . . . Varicose veins of lower extremities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hemorrhoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic bronchitis. . . . . . . . . . . Asthma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hay fever, allergic rhinitis without asthma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic sinusitis. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32,642 9,896 5,170 6,237 5,117 9,302 6,067 24,160 8,845 31,182 4,569 4,900 6,253 4,460 7,813 11,023 21,255 27,549 7,641 10,111 13,820 13,074 23,743 37,293

1 Conditions per 1,000 persons. 2 Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 10, No. 190, and earlier reports; and unpublished data.

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No. 216. Substance Abuse Treatment Services: 1992

[As of September 30. Based on the National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey (NDATUS), a census of all known drug abuse and alcoholism treatment facilities in the United States. Data collected in cooperation with State agencies which defined what constitutes a facility for reporting purposes] Service locations reporting 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,315 1,026 566 928 963 2,481 7,528 2,496 332 1,440 4,923 1,727 312 994 1,480 139 255 45 Drug abuse clients only 237,004 1,444 1,142 1,675 2,671 16,644 196,239 10,932 6,258 30,987 140,795 29,941 5,708 3,447 15,322 2,526 7,505 773 Alcoholism clients only 348,677 2,377 2,730 4,266 5,580 11,708 303,998 17,319 700 62,094 208,259 33,784 3,999 5,854 16,153 3,316 15,046 173 Clients with both problems 359,198 4,435 2,785 10,641 10,825 43,017 252,368 33,983 1,144 53,860 157,721 54,873 20,951 13,824 32,895 3,933 20,412 729 Clients Clients with with a an alcohol drug 3 problem 2 problem 596,202 5,879 3,926 12,316 13,496 59,661 448,607 44,915 7,402 84,847 298,515 84,815 26,659 17,272 48,217 6,459 27,917 1,502 707,876 6,812 5,514 14,907 16,406 54,725 556,366 51,302 1,844 115,954 365,980 88,657 24,950 19,678 49,048 7,249 35,458 902

TYPE OF CARE AND LOCATION Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TYPE OF CARE Detoxification: 4 Hospital inpatient Free-standing residential . . . . . . Rehab/residential: 5 Hospital inpatient . . . . . . . . . . . Short-term—30 days or less . . . . Long-term—over 30 days . . . . . . Ambulatory: 6 Outpatient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intensive outpatient 7 . . . . . . . . . Detoxification 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT LOCATION Community mental health care . . . . Free-standing nonresidential facility . Hospital 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correctional facility . . . . . . . . . . . . Halfway house . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other residential facility . . . . . . . . . Other site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unknown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

All clients 944,880 8,256 6,656 16,582 19,077 71,368 752,605 62,234 8,102 146,941 506,774 118,599 30,658 23,125 64,369 9,775 42,963 1,675

1 Some units provide more than one type of treatment but are counted only once in the total. 2 The sum of clients with a drug problem and clients with both diagnoses. 3 The sum of clients with an alcohol problem and clients with both diagnoses. 4 24 hour care for the withdrawal and transition to ongoing treatment. 5 Other than detoxification. Provides treatment services for dependency. 6 Ambulatory care provides care in a nonresidential setting. 7 ‘‘Intensive’’ outpatient involves at least 2 hours of treatment a day for 3 or more days a week. 8 Less than 24 hour care. 9 Includes general hospitals, alcoholism hospitals, mental/psychiatric hospitals, and other specialized hospitals. Source: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and U.S. Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1992 National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey: Final Report.

No. 217. Drug Use, by Type of Drug and Age Group: 1974 to 1993
[In percent. Current users are those who used drugs at least once within month prior to this study. Based on national samples of respondents residing in households. Subject to sampling variability; see source] AGE AND TYPE OF DRUG 12 TO 17 YEARS OLD Marijuana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cocaine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inhalants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hallucinogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heroin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stimulants 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sedatives 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tranquilizers 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analgesics 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cigarettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 TO 25 YEARS OLD Marijuana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cocaine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inhalants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hallucinogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heroin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stimulants 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sedatives 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tranquilizers 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analgesics 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cigarettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 YEARS OLD AND OVER Marijuana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cocaine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inhalants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hallucinogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heroin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stimulants 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sedatives 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tranquilizers 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analgesics 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cigarettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EVER USED 1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.0 3.6 8.5 6.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 3.0 (NA) 54.0 52.0 52.7 12.7 9.2 16.6 4.5 17.0 15.0 10.0 (NA) 81.6 68.8 9.9 0.9 1.2 1.3 0.5 3.0 2.0 2.0 (NA) 73.2 65.4 1979 30.9 5.4 9.8 7.1 0.5 3.4 3.2 4.1 3.2 70.3 54.1 68.2 27.5 16.5 25.1 3.5 18.2 17.0 15.8 11.8 95.3 82.8 19.6 4.3 3.9 4.5 1.0 5.8 3.5 3.1 2.7 91.5 83.0 1985 23.2 4.8 9.6 3.2 0.4 5.5 4.1 4.9 6.0 55.4 45.3 59.4 24.4 13.0 11.6 1.3 17.5 11.8 12.6 11.5 92.0 75.2 26.6 9.2 5.3 6.0 1.1 7.9 5.6 7.8 5.9 89.2 80.6 1988 17.4 3.4 8.8 3.5 0.6 4.2 2.3 2.0 4.1 50.2 42.3 56.4 19.7 12.5 13.8 0.3 11.3 5.5 7.8 9.4 90.3 75.0 30.7 9.9 3.9 6.6 1.1 6.6 3.3 4.5 4.5 88.6 79.6 1993 11.7 1.1 5.9 2.9 0.2 2.1 1.4 1.2 3.7 41.3 34.5 47.4 12.5 9.9 12.5 0.7 6.4 2.7 5.4 8.7 87.1 66.7 34.3 12.5 4.3 8.8 1.3 6.5 3.8 4.9 5.5 88.7 76.9 1974 12.0 1.0 0.7 1.3 (B) 1.0 1.0 1.0 (NA) 34.0 25.0 25.2 3.1 (B) 2.5 (B) 3.7 1.6 1.2 (NA) 69.3 48.8 2.0 (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (B) (NA) 54.5 39.1 CURRENT USER 1979 16.7 1.4 2.0 2.2 (B) 1.2 1.1 0.6 0.6 37.2 12.1 35.4 9.3 1.2 4.4 (B) 3.5 2.8 2.1 1.0 75.9 42.6 6.0 0.9 0.5 (B) (B) 0.5 (B) (B) (B) 61.3 36.9 1985 11.9 1.4 3.7 1.2 0.1 1.6 1.0 0.6 1.7 31.0 15.3 21.9 7.5 0.8 1.8 0.3 3.8 1.6 1.6 2.0 70.7 36.6 6.0 1.9 0.5 (B) (B) 0.7 0.6 1.0 0.9 59.8 32.7 1988 6.4 1.1 2.0 0.8 (B) 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.9 25.2 11.8 15.5 4.5 1.7 1.9 (B) 2.4 0.9 1.0 1.5 65.3 35.2 3.9 0.9 0.2 (B) (B) 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.4 54.8 29.8 1993 4.9 0.4 1.4 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.7 18.0 9.6 11.1 1.5 1.1 1.3 0.4 0.9 0.6 0.6 1.4 59.3 29.0 3.0 0.5 0.2 (B) (B) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 52.1 25.3

B Base too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a derived figure. NA Not available. 1 Nonmedical use; does not include over-the-counter drugs. Source: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, annual.

Drug Use
No. 218. Use of Selected Drugs, by Age of User: 1993
[In percent. See headnote, table 217. For composition of regions, see table 27] SUBSTANCE AND AGE GROUP CURRENT USERS Cigarettes: Total . . . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Alcohol: Total . . . . . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Marijuana: Total . . . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Cocaine: Total . . . . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.2 9.6 29.0 30.1 23.8 49.6 18.0 59.3 62.8 48.8 4.3 4.9 11.1 6.7 1.9 0.6 0.4 1.5 1.0 0.4 2.9 2.0 6.4 4.4 1.9 26.2 9.3 30.9 31.4 26.7 57.4 18.3 64.5 70.1 59.1 6.0 5.5 16.5 9.0 2.5 0.9 0.4 1.7 1.6 0.6 5.9 3.9 12.7 8.9 3.7 22.3 10.0 27.2 28.8 21.3 42.5 17.7 54.3 55.7 39.9 2.8 4.3 5.7 4.5 1.4 0.4 0.4 1.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 (3) 0.2 0.1 0.3 24.7 11.0 32.7 31.1 23.4 52.7 19.2 65.3 66.3 51.5 4.2 4.5 12.5 6.8 1.7 0.5 0.3 1.6 0.9 0.2 3.5 2.7 8.5 5.9 1.9 23.4 4.0 16.3 30.5 28.0 37.6 13.1 45.0 54.5 35.5 5.6 5.8 9.2 9.9 2.7 1.3 0.3 1.3 1.8 1.4 1.5 0.2 1.1 0.2 2.5 21.2 8.4 25.5 24.8 21.5 45.6 17.5 49.9 56.0 47.1 4.7 6.7 7.8 4.1 2.9 1.1 1.0 2.1 1.1 0.7 1.1 0.9 1.9 1.0 0.8 25.4 10.5 32.9 30.6 24.7 54.1 20.4 61.0 65.0 54.7 4.2 5.0 12.2 7.3 1.4 0.7 0.2 1.9 1.3 0.3 2.2 0.9 4.2 1.6 2.3 24.3 11.1 26.9 30.7 24.5 48.6 19.5 61.2 64.7 47.0 3.5 5.0 10.2 5.2 1.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.5 3.0 2.2 6.9 4.2 2.0 24.3 8.4 29.7 31.8 23.2 44.9 15.4 55.6 58.9 42.8 4.3 3.7 11.2 6.1 2.1 0.6 0.4 1.5 0.9 0.3 3.9 2.9 7.7 6.6 2.2 SEX Total
1

143

RACE/ETHNICITY
2

REGION Northeast Midwest South West

Male

Female White

Black

2

Hispanic

22.7 9.0 26.7 26.2 22.9 54.2 18.1 62.4 64.6 55.1 5.5 6.7 10.9 8.7 2.7 0.8 0.6 2.3 1.0 0.4 2.0 1.1 5.5 3.8 0.6

Smokeless tobacco: Total . 12 to 17 years old . . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . . 35 years old and over . EVER USED Crack: Total . . . . . . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Inhalants: Total . . . . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Hallucinogens: Total . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Stimulants: 4 Total . . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Sedatives: 4 Total . . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Tranquilizers: 4 Total . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over Analgesics: 4 Total . . . . 12 to 17 years old . . . 18 to 25 years old . . . 26 to 34 years old . . . 35 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.8 0.4 3.5 4.2 0.9 5.3 5.9 9.9 9.4 2.8 8.7 2.9 12.5 15.9 6.6 6.0 2.1 6.4 10.5 5.3 3.4 1.4 2.7 4.8 3.6 4.6 1.2 5.4 7.1 4.2 5.8 3.7 8.7 9.0 4.4

2.6 0.2 4.6 5.9 1.5 7.4 5.5 12.4 12.9 4.7 11.8 3.4 15.2 19.7 10.0 7.4 2.0 7.2 12.1 7.0 4.1 1.2 3.4 5.5 4.4 5.0 1.0 5.8 8.0 4.6 6.7 2.8 9.3 11.1 5.4
2

1.1 0.5 2.5 2.5 0.4 3.3 6.3 7.4 6.1 1.1 5.9 2.4 9.9 12.2 3.7 4.8 2.2 5.7 8.9 3.8 2.8 1.6 2.0 4.0 2.8 4.1 1.4 4.9 6.2 3.8 4.9 4.5 8.1 7.0 3.6

1.6 0.2 4.0 3.8 0.7 5.8 6.5 12.4 11.5 2.8 10.1 3.1 15.8 19.6 7.3 6.9 2.5 8.0 12.7 5.7 3.6 1.4 3.1 5.9 3.5 5.2 1.4 7.0 8.4 4.5 6.3 4.1 10.6 10.3 4.6
3

3.4 0.3 2.1 7.2 3.3 2.9 1.7 2.0 4.0 3.1 3.0 0.2 1.9 5.3 3.1 3.0 0.2 1.3 3.2 4.2 2.2 0.9 1.5 1.8 2.9 2.3 0.4 1.2 3.0 2.9 3.5 2.7 4.6 3.4 3.5

2.0 1.2 3.5 3.2 0.9 4.9 7.7 7.2 5.0 3.0 5.9 4.1 7.8 6.7 5.1 3.9 2.2 4.4 5.8 3.3 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.8 1.1 2.4 3.6 3.0 3.9 3.2 4.4 5.9 2.8

1.7 0.2 3.3 3.5 1.1 4.3 5.7 10.4 7.7 1.9 7.6 2.0 10.6 13.7 6.1 6.2 0.9 4.9 7.8 6.8 2.8 1.2 2.2 3.7 3.0 3.7 1.0 4.0 5.3 3.6 5.3 3.7 7.6 7.0 4.5

1.2 0.1 2.4 3.0 0.6 5.1 4.7 11.5 8.9 2.9 7.5 2.0 12.5 14.1 5.8 4.4 2.1 5.3 9.7 3.1 2.0 0.6 1.4 4.2 1.8 4.3 0.4 4.3 6.9 4.4 4.3 3.0 7.8 7.4 3.0
4

1.7 0.4 3.5 4.4 0.5 4.7 4.6 8.3 10.1 2.1 7.6 2.6 11.2 15.1 5.1 5.2 2.0 4.6 9.0 4.8 3.3 1.5 2.8 5.0 3.1 4.2 1.6 6.2 7.1 3.2 5.3 3.3 7.4 8.0 4.2

3.0 0.7 4.9 5.7 1.9 7.3 9.7 10.4 10.5 4.8 13.2 5.5 16.4 20.8 11.0 9.3 3.1 11.8 16.1 7.4 6.1 2.4 4.3 5.9 7.2 6.3 1.9 6.2 8.9 6.3 8.8 5.1 12.5 14.0 6.7

1 Includes other races, not shown separately. does not include over-the-counter drugs.

Non-Hispanic.

Low precision; no estimate reported.

Nonmedical use;

Source: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: 1993.

144

Health and Nutrition
No. 219. Current Cigarette Smoking: 1965 to 1992

[In percent. Prior to 1992, a current smoker is a person who has smoked at least 100 cigarettes and who now smokes. Beginning 1992, definition includes persons who smoke only ‘‘some days.’’ Excludes unknown smoking status. Based on the National Health Interview Survey; for details, see Appendix III] SEX, AGE, AND RACE Total smokers, 18 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . White, total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . Black, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . Female, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . White, total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . Black, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1965 42.4 51.9 54.1 60.7 58.2 51.9 28.5 51.1 53.0 60.1 57.3 51.3 27.7 60.4 62.8 68.4 67.3 57.9 36.4 33.9 38.1 43.7 43.7 32.0 9.6 34.0 38.4 43.4 43.9 32.7 9.8 33.7 37.1 47.8 42.8 25.7 7.1 1974 37.1 43.1 42.1 50.5 51.0 42.6 24.8 41.9 40.8 49.5 50.1 41.2 24.3 54.3 54.9 58.5 61.5 57.8 29.7 32.1 34.1 38.8 39.8 33.4 12.0 31.7 34.0 38.6 39.3 33.0 12.3 36.4 35.6 42.2 46.4 38.9 8.9 1979 33.5 37.5 35.0 43.9 41.8 39.3 20.9 36.8 34.3 43.6 41.3 38.3 20.5 44.1 40.2 47.5 48.6 50.0 26.2 29.9 33.8 33.7 37.0 30.7 13.2 30.1 34.5 34.1 37.2 30.6 13.8 31.1 31.8 35.2 37.7 34.2 8.5 1983 32.1 35.1 32.9 38.8 41.0 35.9 22.0 34.5 32.5 38.6 40.8 35.0 20.6 40.6 34.2 39.9 45.5 44.8 38.9 29.5 35.5 32.6 33.8 31.0 13.1 29.4 36.5 32.2 34.8 30.6 13.2 32.2 32.0 38.0 32.7 36.3 13.1 1985 30.1 32.6 28.0 38.2 37.6 33.4 19.6 31.7 28.4 37.3 36.6 32.1 18.9 39.9 27.2 45.6 45.0 46.1 27.7 27.9 30.4 32.0 31.5 29.9 13.5 27.7 31.8 32.0 31.0 29.7 13.3 31.0 23.7 36.2 40.2 33.4 14.5 1987 28.8 31.2 28.2 34.8 36.6 33.5 17.2 30.5 29.2 33.8 36.2 32.4 16.0 39.0 24.9 44.9 44.0 44.3 30.3 26.5 26.1 31.8 29.6 28.6 13.7 26.7 27.8 31.9 29.2 29.0 13.9 28.0 20.4 35.8 35.3 28.4 11.7 1990 25.5 28.4 26.6 31.6 34.5 29.3 14.6 28.0 27.4 31.6 33.5 28.7 13.7 32.5 21.3 33.8 42.0 36.7 21.5 22.8 22.5 28.2 24.8 24.8 11.5 23.4 25.4 28.5 25.0 25.4 11.5 21.2 10.0 29.1 25.5 22.6 11.1 1991 25.6 28.1 23.5 32.8 33.1 29.3 15.1 27.4 25.1 32.1 32.1 28.0 13.7 35.0 15.0 39.4 44.4 42.0 24.3 23.5 22.4 28.4 27.6 24.6 12.0 23.7 25.1 28.4 27.0 25.3 12.1 24.4 11.8 32.4 35.3 23.4 9.6 1992 26.5 28.6 28.0 32.8 32.9 28.6 16.1 28.2 30.0 33.5 30.9 28.1 14.9 32.2 16.2 29.5 47.5 35.4 28.3 24.6 24.9 30.1 27.3 26.1 12.4 25.1 28.5 31.5 27.6 25.8 12.6 24.2 10.3 26.9 32.4 30.9 11.1

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Health, United States, 1993.

No. 220. Cancer—Estimated New Cases, 1994, and Survival Rates, 1974-76 to 1983-90
[The 5-year relative survival rate, which is derived by adjusting the observed survival rate for expected mortality, represents the liklihood that a person will not die from causes directly related to their cancer within 5 years. Survival data shown are based on those patients diagnosed while residents of an area listed below during the time periods shown. Data are based on information collected as part of the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, a collection of population-based registries in Connecticut, New Mexico, Utah, Iowa, Hawaii, Atlanta, Detroit, Seattle-Puget Sound, and San Francisco-Oakland] ESTIMATED NEW CASES, 1 1994 (1,000) Total All sites 2 . . . . . . . . . 1,208 Lung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 183 Breast 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colon and rectum . . . . . . . 149 Prostate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Bladder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Corpus uteri . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4 45 Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma . Oral cavity and pharynx . . . 30 29 Leukemia 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Melanoma of skin . . . . . . . 32 Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Kidney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Stomach . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Ovary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 15 Cervix uteri 5 . . . . . . . . . . Male 632 100 1 75 200 38 (X) 25 20 16 17 13 17 15 (X) (X) Female 576 72 182 74 (X) 13 31 20 10 12 15 14 11 9 24 15 1974 -76 50.3 12.4 74.9 49.8 67.7 73.6 88.6 47.5 54.9 34.8 80.0 2.6 51.4 14.4 36.3 69.2 5-YEAR RELATIVE SURVIVAL RATES (percent) White 1977 -79 50.8 13.6 75.2 52.1 71.9 75.7 86.2 48.3 54.2 37.5 81.8 2.3 50.7 16.0 37.5 68.8 1980 -82 51.8 13.5 76.9 54.7 74.3 78.8 82.7 51.6 55.1 38.3 82.3 2.8 50.9 16.2 38.7 67.7 1983 -89 55.5 13.7 81.6 60.1 81.3 80.7 84.9 52.6 54.6 39.5 85.3 3.0 56.9 17.5 41.6 69.9 1974 -76 38.8 11.4 62.9 44.5 58.0 47.8 60.4 47.9 36.3 31.5 66.4 2.3 48.9 16.3 40.1 63.5 Black 1977 -79 38.9 10.9 62.8 45.4 62.1 54.9 57.5 50.4 36.3 29.6 50.8 3.8 51.4 15.3 39.8 61.9 1980 -82 39.4 12.1 65.7 46.2 64.4 58.3 53.7 50.1 30.5 32.7 56.9 4.8 55.0 19.3 37.6 60.4 1983 -90 40.4 11.1 65.9 49.5 66.4 60.0 55.2 45.4 33.6 30.8 70.3 4.9 52.0 18.8 38.4 56.4

SITE

X Not applicable. 1 Estimates provided by American Cancer Society are based on rates from the National Cancer Institute’s 2 3 SEER program. Includes other sites not shown separately. Survival rates for female only. 4 All types combined. 5 Invasive cancer only. Source: U.S. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Cancer Statistics Review, annual.

Health Practices—Medical Devices
No. 221. Personal Health Practices, by Selected Characteristic: 1990

145

[In percent, except total persons. For persons 18 years of age and over. Based on the National Health Interview Survey and subject to sampling error; for details see source and Appendix III] Total persons (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181,447 86,278 95,169 155,301 20,248 14,314 166,599 117,413 30,439 33,413 38,367 69,405 73,244 18,469 30,452 40,216 29,795 36,199 Eats breakfast 1 56.4 54.6 58.0 57.8 46.9 52.5 56.7 57.8 61.5 46.9 58.6 52.6 58.8 54.1 56.6 55.2 53.7 57.2 Rarely snacks 25.5 25.6 25.4 25.8 22.7 29.3 25.2 25.3 31.2 20.9 27.8 24.3 25.5 27.6 25.9 25.1 23.8 25.8 Exercised regularly 2 40.7 44.0 37.7 41.5 34.3 34.9 41.2 39.4 34.3 51.3 25.9 37.0 52.1 32.9 32.3 40.5 46.1 51.7 Had two or more drinks on any day 3 5.5 9.7 1.7 5.8 4.3 4.6 5.6 5.3 5.3 6.6 5.1 5.9 5.4 4.8 4.9 5.8 5.6 6.7 Current smoker 25.5 28.4 22.8 25.6 26.2 23.0 25.7 24.6 30.3 24.3 31.8 29.6 18.3 31.6 29.8 26.9 23.4 19.3 20 percent or more above weight 4 27.5 29.6 25.6 26.7 38.0 27.6 27.5 29.2 29.1 19.8 32.7 28.6 23.8 29.3 28.5 28.2 27.8 24.9

CHARACTERISTIC All persons 5 . . . . . . Sex: Male . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . Race: White . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin: Hispanic . . Non-Hispanic . . . . . . . . Marital status: Currently married . . . . . Formerly married . . . . . Never married . . . . . . . Education level: Less than 12 years . . . . 12 years . . . . . . . . . . . More than 12 years . . . . Income: Less than $10,000 $10,000 to $19,999 . . . . $20,000 to $34,999 . . . . $35,000 to $49,999 . . . . $50,000 or more . . . . . .

..... ..... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Almost every day. 2 Or played sports regularly. 3 On average per day in the past 2 weeks. 4 Above desirable weight. 5 Based on 1983 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company standards. Height and weight data are self-reported. Includes persons whose characteristics are unknown. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention: United States, 1990, Vital and Health Statistics, series 10, No. 185.

No. 222. Persons Using Devices or Features to Assist With Impairments, by Age: 1990
[In percent, except as indicated. For the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Based on the Current Population Survey; see text, section 1, and Appendix III] DEVICE OR FEATURE Persons using assistive technology devices 1 (1,000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anatomical devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leg brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foot brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arm brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hand brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neck brace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Artificial leg or foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Artificial arm or hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobility devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cane or walking stick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Walker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheelchair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scooter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other mobility devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hearing devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hearing aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TDD/TTY 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other hearing devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Persons using home accessibility features (1,000) Ramps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extra-wide doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elevator or stair lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hand rails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raised toilet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adaptive door locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lowered counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slip-resistant floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total 13,128 28.4 6.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 2.3 8.9 6.5 1.4 0.3 48.8 5.1 33.5 12.9 10.8 0.5 1.9 30.4 28.8 1.3 0.6 4.3 7,102 29.7 23.2 5.8 47.8 18.6 5.8 3.4 3.0 22.5 Under 25 years old 1,048 61.7 19.9 6.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 6.5 23.0 2 0.8 1.1 22.9 8.3 3.0 3.2 13.3 2 0.6 2 1.7 14.5 14.1 2.1 2 0.7 2.3 1,395 41.4 28.5 4.7 30.5 9.0 4.1 3.7 2.9 22.4 25 to 44 years old 2,228 61.4 12.9 2.0 3.9 4.2 5.3 18.8 16.6 1.3 2 0.2 27.3 7.8 14.3 3.2 7.6 2 0.5 1.3 11.5 10.2 1.0 2 0.8 2.5 1,272 36.0 26.2 2.2 33.0 10.5 2.3 3.7 3.2 24.6 45 to 64 years old 3,022 34.8 6.9 1.0 2.0 2.1 3.6 15.2 4.8 2.1 2 0.3 45.8 6.9 33.5 9.1 10.0 2 0.6 2.2 27.1 24.6 1.8 0.8 4.5 1,484 32.8 27.6 3.0 46.2 19.2 6.1 4.0 5.3 23.3 65 to 74 years old 2,756 14.1 3.5 1.1 0.7 0.8 1.0 4.6 1.7 1.7 2 0.3 52.1 5.0 37.4 12.7 11.8 2 0.7 2.1 41.4 40.0 0.9 2 0.2 5.1 1,284 25.0 19.4 7.6 60.6 21.5 6.7 1.7 1.9 22.8 75 years old and over 4,073 6.8 1.5 2 0.3 2 0.3 2 0.1 2 0.4 2.4 1.2 0.9 2 67.2 1.6 49.3 23.5 11.7 2 0.3 2.1 39.7 38.3 1.2 0.6 5.0 1,667 16.0 15.8 10.4 65.2 30.3 8.9 3.7 1.6 19.8

- Represents or rounds to zero. 1 Includes other devices, not shown separately. Excludes any implanted devices, such as pacemakers. 2 Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision. 3 TDD/TTY is a typewriter-like device for the deaf that communicates over telephone lines using text. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 217, September 16, 1992.

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No. 223. Cumulative Percent Distribution of Population, by Height and Sex: 1976-80
[For persons 18 to 74 years old. Height was measured without shoes. Based on sample and subject to sampling variability; see source] MALES HEIGHT Percent under— 4’8’’ . . . . . . . 4’9’’ . . . . . . . 4’10’’ . . . . . . 4’11’’. . . . . . . 5’ . . . . . . . . . 5’1’’ 5’2’’ 5’3’’ 5’4’’ 5’5’’ 5’6’’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-24 years 0.18 0.18 0.34 0.61 2.37 3.85 8.24 16.18 26.68 38.89 53.66 68.25 80.14 88.54 92.74 96.17 98.40 25-34 years 0.05 0.31 0.42 0.54 1.55 4.36 9.51 15.25 26.69 39.68 55.35 69.67 81.58 89.95 95.57 97.98 99.23 35-44 years 0.27 0.34 0.87 2.07 3.68 6.36 12.39 17.63 26.40 42.52 57.01 70.70 81.15 90.04 95.05 97.82 99.19 45-54 years 0.19 0.70 1.50 2.55 5.72 11.39 21.24 33.56 50.39 63.38 76.94 85.83 93.43 98.01 99.35 99.70 55-64 years 0.27 0.72 0.92 2.78 5.28 9.29 17.54 29.10 43.53 58.21 71.51 83.09 90.99 96.28 97.66 98.90 99.79 65-74 years 0.24 1.22 2.66 5.97 10.53 18.31 29.42 41.63 57.75 69.96 81.95 89.59 94.52 97.82 99.17 99.86 100.00 18-24 years 0.05 0.43 0.94 2.22 4.22 9.13 17.75 29.06 41.81 58.09 74.76 85.37 92.30 96.23 98.34 99.38 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 25-34 years 0.23 0.64 1.65 3.65 8.60 19.11 32.96 47.43 61.36 74.92 85.65 93.28 97.19 99.49 99.68 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 FEMALES 35-44 years 0.10 0.34 0.95 1.94 4.56 7.75 18.24 33.11 49.90 63.88 78.07 87.95 93.43 97.18 99.19 99.39 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 45-54 years 0.28 0.35 1.22 4.20 8.88 16.16 27.68 39.83 57.21 70.47 84.64 91.21 96.28 98.17 99.58 99.84 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 55-64 years 0.46 1.07 3.02 6.43 11.40 19.70 31.71 45.87 63.89 77.44 88.91 94.56 97.70 99.36 99.78 99.81 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 65-74 years 1.04 2.27 4.23 9.33 17.20 29.00 44.34 59.15 76.44 86.97 94.63 97.86 99.20 99.81 99.92 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

5’7’’ . 5’8’’ . 5’9’’ . 5’10’’ 5’11’’. 6’ . . . 6’1’’ 6’2’’ 6’3’’ 6’4’’ . . . .

- Represents or rounds to zero. Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics, series 11, No. 238.

No. 224. Nutrition—Nutrients in Foods Available for Civilian Consumption per Capita per Day: 1950 to 1990
[Computed by the Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP). Based on Economic Research Service (ERS) estimates of per capita quantities of food available for consumption from ‘‘Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures,’’ on imputed consumption data for foods no longer reported by ERS, and on CNPP estimates of quantities of produce from home gardens. Food supply estimates do not reflect loss of food or nutrients from further marketing or home processing. Enrichment and fortofication levels of iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and ascorbic acid are included. See Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series G 851-856 for related details] NUTRIENT Food energy . . . . . Carbohydrate . . . . . Protein . . . . . . . . . Total fat 1 . . . . . . . Saturated . . . . . . Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated . Cholesterol . . . . . . Vitamin A . Carotenes . Vitamin E . Vitamin C . Thiamin. . . Riboflavin . Niacin . . . . Vitamin B6 . Folacin . . . Vitamin B12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Calories . . Grams . . . Grams . . . Grams . . . Grams . . . Grams . . . Grams . . . Milligrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

1950-59 3,100 382 93 141 60 57 18 510 1,310 420 11.7 101 1.9 2.4 19.9 1.9 292 9.2 940 1,460 330 14.1 11.8 1.6 3,630

1960-69 3,200 374 96 150 62 61 22 490 1,320 410 12.4 96 1.9 2.3 21.3 1.9 275 9.8 890 1,460 320 14.5 12.2 1.6 3,500
3

1970-79 3,300 388 99 158 59 64 28 460 1,520 570 13.6 110 2.2 2.4 24.4 2.1 287 10.1 870 1,480 320 18.7 12.6 1.6 3,480

1980-89 3,500 416 101 165 60 66 32 440 1,460 580 14.7 113 2.4 2.5 26.7 2.1 294 9.2 880 1,530 330 17.8 12.6 1.7 3,480

1990 3,700 452 105 165 59 67 32 410 1,420 620 15.7 110 2.5 2.6 27.9 2.2 296 8.7 920 1,600 350 19.3 12.7 1.7 3,540

Micrograms RE 2 . Micrograms RE 2 . Milligrams α-TE 3 . Milligrams. . . . . . Milligrams. . . . . . Milligrams. . . . . . Milligrams. . . . . . Milligrams. . . . . . Micrograms. . . . . Micrograms. . . . . Milligrams. Milligrams. Milligrams. Milligrams. Milligrams. Milligrams. Milligrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Calcium . . . Phosphorus . Magnesium . Iron . . . . . . Zinc . . . . . . Copper . . . . Potassium . .
1

Includes other types of fat not shown separately.

Retinol equivalents.

Alpha-Tocopherol equivalents.

Source: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Data published by Economic Research Service in Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, annual; and National Food Review, quarterly.

Food Consumption
No. 225. Per Capita Consumption of Major Food Commodities: 1970 to 1993

147

[In pounds, retail weight except as indicated. Consumption represents the residual after exports, nonfood use and ending stocks are subtracted from the sum of beginning stocks, domestic production, and imports. Based on Bureau of the Census estimated population. Estimates reflect revisions based on the 1990 Census of Population. For similar but unrevised data, see Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970, series G 881-915] COMMODITY Red meat, total (boneless, trimmed weight) 1 2 Beef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Veal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lamb and mutton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pork (excluding lard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fish and shellfish (edible weight) 3 . . . . . . . . Fresh and frozen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Canned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tuna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poultry products: (boneless weight) 2 4 . . . . . . Chicken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eggs (farm weight) (number) . . . . . . . . . . . . Dairy products: Total (milk equivalent, milkfat basis) 5 . . . . . Fluid milk and cream 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beverage milks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plain whole milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plain lowfat milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plain skim milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flavored whole milk. . . . . . . . . . . . Flavored lowfat and skim milks . . . . Buttermilk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yogurt (excl. frozen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cream 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sour cream and dip . . . . . . . . . . . . . Condensed and evaporated milk: Whole milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skim milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cheese 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cheddar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Italian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mozzarella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Swiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cream and Neufchatel . . . . . . . . . . Cottage cheese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice cream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fats and oils: Total, fat content only 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Butter (product weight) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Margarine (product weight) . . . . . . . . . . Lard (direct use) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edible tallow (direct use) . . . . . . . . . . . . Shortening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salad and cooking oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other edible fats and oils . . . . . . . . . . . Flour and cereal products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheat flour 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rye flour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rice, milled 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corn products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oat products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barley products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Caloric sweeteners, total 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sugar, refined cane and beet . . . . . . . . . . Corn sweeteners (dry weight) . . . . . . . . . . Low-calorie sweeteners (sugar sweetness equivalent) 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saccharin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aspartame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other: Cocoa beans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coffee (green beans). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peanuts (shelled) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tree nuts (shelled) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 131.7 79.6 2.0 2.1 48.0 11.7 6.9 4.4 2.5 0.4 33.8 27.4 6.4 308.9 563.8 275.1 269.1 213.5 29.8 11.6 5.6 3.0 5.5 0.8 3.8 1.1 7.0 5.0 11.4 7.0 5.8 2.1 1.2 2.3 0.9 0.6 5.2 17.8 7.7 52.6 5.4 10.8 4.6 (NA) 17.3 15.4 2.3 135.3 110.9 1.2 6.7 11.1 4.4 1.0 122.9 101.8 19.6 5.8 5.8 3.9 13.6 5.5 1.7 1975 125.8 83.0 2.8 1.3 38.7 12.1 7.5 4.2 2.8 0.4 32.9 26.4 6.5 276.0 539.1 261.4 254.0 174.9 53.2 11.5 6.3 3.3 4.7 2.1 3.3 1.6 5.1 3.5 14.3 8.2 6.0 3.2 2.1 2.9 1.1 0.7 4.6 18.6 7.6 52.6 4.7 11.0 3.2 (NA) 17.0 17.9 2.0 138.8 114.5 1.0 7.6 10.8 4.1 0.9 119.0 89.2 28.4 6.1 6.1 3.2 12.2 6.0 1.9 1980 126.4 72.1 1.3 1.0 52.1 12.4 7.8 4.3 3.0 0.3 40.6 32.5 8.1 271.1 543.2 245.6 237.4 141.7 70.1 11.6 4.7 5.3 4.1 2.6 3.4 1.8 3.8 3.3 17.5 9.6 6.9 4.4 3.0 3.4 1.3 1.0 4.5 17.5 7.1 57.2 4.5 11.3 2.6 1.1 18.2 21.2 1.5 144.6 116.9 0.7 9.4 12.9 3.7 1.1 124.4 83.6 39.5 7.7 7.7 3.4 10.3 4.8 1.8 1985 124.9 74.6 1.5 1.1 47.7 15.0 9.7 5.0 3.3 0.3 45.2 36.1 9.1 255.4 593.7 241.0 229.7 119.7 83.3 12.6 3.7 6.0 4.4 4.1 4.4 2.3 3.6 3.8 22.5 12.2 9.8 6.5 4.6 3.9 1.3 1.2 4.1 18.1 6.9 64.3 4.9 10.8 1.8 1.9 22.9 23.5 1.6 156.1 124.6 0.7 9.0 17.1 3.7 1.0 131.5 62.7 67.5 18.1 6.0 12.1 4.6 10.5 6.3 2.5 1990 112.3 64.0 0.9 1.0 46.4 15.0 9.6 5.1 3.7 0.3 56.0 42.2 13.8 233.3 570.7 233.4 221.7 87.6 98.3 22.9 2.8 6.6 3.5 4.1 4.6 2.5 3.2 4.8 24.6 11.1 9.0 9.0 6.9 4.5 1.4 1.7 3.4 15.8 7.7 62.2 4.4 10.9 1.9 0.6 22.2 24.2 1.2 183.3 135.6 0.6 16.2 21.7 8.2 1.0 139.6 64.4 73.8 22.2 6.7 15.5 5.4 10.3 6.0 2.6 1991 111.9 63.1 0.8 1.0 46.9 14.8 9.6 4.9 3.6 0.3 58.0 43.9 14.1 232.7 565.3 233.1 221.2 84.7 99.7 23.9 2.7 6.8 3.4 4.2 4.6 2.6 3.2 5.0 25.0 11.1 9.0 9.4 7.2 4.6 1.2 1.8 3.3 16.3 7.4 63.8 4.2 10.6 1.7 1.4 22.4 25.2 1.3 185.6 136.6 0.6 16.8 21.9 8.6 1.0 140.6 63.8 75.4 24.3 7.3 17.0 5.7 10.4 6.5 2.3 1992 114.1 62.8 0.8 1.0 49.5 14.7 9.8 4.6 3.5 0.3 60.0 45.9 14.2 234.0 564.9 230.9 218.7 81.5 99.4 25.0 2.7 6.9 3.2 4.3 4.8 2.7 3.3 5.2 26.0 11.3 9.2 10.0 7.7 4.7 1.2 2.0 3.1 16.3 7.1 65.6 4.2 11.0 1.7 2.4 22.4 25.6 1.4 187.0 138.1 0.6 16.9 21.9 8.5 0.9 143.8 64.5 77.9 (NA) (NA) (NA) 5.7 10.3 6.2 2.4 1993 111.9 61.5 0.8 1.0 48.7 14.9 10.1 4.5 3.5 0.3 61.1 47.1 14.1 233.4 572.2 226.6 214.2 77.8 97.1 26.7 2.7 6.9 3.0 4.3 4.9 2.7 3.0 5.2 26.3 11.4 9.1 9.8 7.5 5.0 1.2 2.1 2.9 16.1 6.9 65.0 4.5 10.8 1.8 2.0 22.9 24.3 1.7 189.2 139.4 0.6 17.5 22.1 8.6 0.9 147.1 64.2 81.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) 5.8 10.0 6.0 2.3

- Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available. 1 Excludes edible offals. 2 Excludes shipments to Puerto Rico and 3 the other U.S. possessions. Excludes consumption from recreational fishing, approximately 3 to 4 pounds per capita. 4 Includes backs, necks, skin, and giblets. 5 Includes other products, not shown separately. 6 Fluid milk figures are aggregates of commercial sales and milk produced and consumed on farms. 7 Heavy cream, light cream, and half and half. 8 Excludes cottage, pot, and baker’s cheese. 9 Includes other cheeses not shown separately. 10 The fat content of butter and margarine is 80 percent of product weight. 11 White, whole wheat, semolina, and durum flour. 12 For crop year beginning in previous year. 13 Dry weight. Includes edible syrups (maple, molasses, etc.) and honey not shown separately. 14 Assumes saccharin is 300 times as sweet as sugar and aspartame 200 times as sweet as sugar. Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, annual.

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Health and Nutrition

No. 226. Per Capita Utilization of Selected Commercially Produced Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: 1970 to 1993
[In pounds, farm weight. Domestic food use of fresh fruits and vegetables reflects the fresh-market share of commodity production plus imports and minus exports. All data are on a calendar year basis except for citrus fruits, October or November; apples, August; grapes and pears, July. See headnote, table 225] COMMODITY Fresh fruits, total . . . . . . . . . Noncitrus . . . . . . . . . . . . Bananas . . . . . . . . . . . Apples . . . . . . . . . . . . Grapes . . . . . . . . . . . . Nectarines and peaches Pears . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strawberries . . . . . . . . Pineapples . . . . . . . . . Plums and prunes . . . . Other 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Citrus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oranges . . . . . . . . . . . Grapefruit . . . . . . . . . . Other 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected melons . Watermelons. . Cantaloups . . . Honeydews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 79.6 50.8 17.4 17.0 2.9 5.8 1.9 1.7 0.7 1.5 1.9 28.9 16.2 8.2 4.5 21.6 13.5 7.2 0.9 85.6 0.4 0.5 8.8 6.0 0.7 7.3 7.8 2.8 22.4 10.1 1.5 2.2 12.1 3.0 121.7 61.8 28.5 17.4 12.0 2.0 5.4 1.3 0.3 1.0 1975 83.5 54.5 17.6 19.5 3.6 5.0 2.7 1.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 29.0 15.9 8.3 4.8 17.7 11.4 5.2 1.1 88.6 0.4 1.0 9.1 6.4 0.9 6.9 7.8 2.8 23.5 10.5 1.4 2.5 12.0 3.4 121.9 52.6 37.1 15.5 14.7 2.0 5.4 1.9 0.7 1.2 1980 87.3 61.2 20.8 19.2 4.0 7.1 2.6 2.0 1.5 1.5 2.5 26.1 14.3 7.3 4.5 17.9 10.7 5.8 1.4 92.5 0.3 1.4 8.1 6.2 1.1 7.5 6.5 3.9 25.6 11.4 1.3 2.9 12.8 3.5 114.7 51.1 35.4 16.5 9.8 1.9 4.4 2.7 1.2 1.5 1985 86.9 65.4 23.5 17.3 6.8 5.5 2.8 3.0 1.5 1.4 3.6 21.5 11.6 5.5 4.4 24.1 13.5 8.5 2.1 102.1 0.5 2.6 8.2 6.5 1.8 7.0 6.4 4.4 23.7 13.6 1.3 3.8 14.9 7.4 122.4 46.3 45.4 17.6 11.2 1.9 5.4 3.6 1.8 1.8 1989 96.7 73.1 24.7 21.4 7.9 5.7 3.2 3.3 2.0 1.4 3.5 23.5 12.2 6.6 4.7 26.5 13.6 10.4 2.5 114.9 0.6 3.8 7.9 7.9 2.3 7.5 6.4 4.8 28.8 14.8 1.2 4.7 16.8 7.4 127.1 50.0 46.8 17.5 10.8 2.0 4.1 3.5 2.0 1.5 1990 92.5 71.1 24.4 19.7 7.9 5.5 3.2 3.2 2.1 1.5 3.6 21.4 12.4 4.4 4.6 24.6 13.3 9.2 2.1 112.3 0.6 3.4 7.8 8.0 2.2 7.2 6.5 4.7 27.8 15.1 1.1 4.5 15.5 7.9 127.7 45.8 50.2 17.0 12.8 1.9 4.6 3.7 2.0 1.7 1991 89.7 70.6 25.1 18.3 7.3 6.4 3.2 3.6 1.9 1.4 3.4 19.1 8.5 5.8 4.8 23.3 12.8 8.7 1.9 109.6 0.6 3.1 7.5 7.5 2.0 6.8 5.7 4.6 26.1 15.7 1.1 5.1 15.4 8.4 130.4 46.4 51.3 17.3 13.7 1.7 4.0 3.6 1.9 1.7 1992 98.2 73.9 27.3 19.3 7.2 6.0 3.2 3.5 2.0 1.8 3.6 24.4 12.9 5.9 5.6 24.5 14.2 8.3 2.0 114.0 0.6 3.4 7.7 8.6 1.9 6.7 6.7 5.2 25.9 16.1 1.4 5.5 15.2 9.1 132.4 48.9 51.0 17.5 13.2 1.8 4.3 3.5 1.9 1.6 1993 99.9 74.0 26.8 19.4 7.0 5.9 3.4 3.6 2.1 1.3 4.5 26.0 14.2 6.2 5.6 24.4 14.2 8.5 1.6 113.0 0.6 2.8 8.4 8.4 1.7 6.2 6.3 5.5 24.6 15.7 1.6 5.9 15.9 9.4 135.7 51.9 51.3 17.5 13.1 1.9 3.9 3.9 1.9 2.0

Selected fresh vegetables . Asparagus . . . . . . . . . Broccoli . . . . . . . . . . . Cabbage . . . . . . . . . . Carrots. . . . . . . . . . . . Cauliflower . . . . . . . . . Celery . . . . . . . . . . . . Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cucumbers . . . . . . . . . Iceberg lettuce . . . . . . Onions . . . . . . . . . . . . Snap beans . . . . . . . . Green peppers . . . . . . Tomatoes . . . . . . . . . . Other fresh vegetables 3 Potatoes . . . . . . . . . . Fresh. . . . . . . . . . . For freezing . . . . . . For chips/shoestrings For dehydrating . . . . For canning . . . . . . Sweet potatoes 4. . . . . Mushrooms . . . . . . . . For fresh . . . . . . . . For processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 Includes apricots, avocados, cherries, cranberries, kiwifruit, mangos, and papayas. Includes tangerines, tangelos, lemons, and limes. 3 Includes artichokes, Brussels sprouts, eggplant, escarole/endive, garlic, romaine and leaf lettuce (after 4 Fresh and processed. 1984), radishes, and spinach.

Source: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Food Consumption, Prices and Expenditures, annual; and unpublished data.

No. 227. Per Capita Consumption of Selected Beverages, by Type: 1970 to 1993
[In gallons. See headnote, table 225] COMMODITY Nonalcoholic 1 . . . . . . . . . Milk (plain and flavored) . Whole . . . . . . . . . . . Lowfat . . . . . . . . . . . Skim . . . . . . . . . . . . Tea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coffee. . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottled water . . . . . . . . Soft drinks . . . . . . . . . . Selected juices . . . . . . . Alcoholic (adult population) Beer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distilled spirits . . . . . . . NA Not available.
1

1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95.8 31.3 25.5 4.4 1.3 6.8 33.4 (NA) 24.3 (NA) 35.7 30.6 2.2 3.0

1975 103.2 29.5 21.1 7.1 1.3 7.5 31.4 (NA) 28.2 6.6 39.7 33.9 2.7 3.1

1980 106.3 27.6 17.0 9.2 1.3 7.3 26.7 2.4 35.1 7.2 42.8 36.6 3.2 3.0

1985 109.1 26.7 14.3 10.9 1.5 7.1 27.4 4.5 35.7 7.7 40.7 34.6 3.5 2.6

1989 116.5 26.0 11.3 12.3 2.3 6.9 26.3 7.4 42.2 7.7 39.1 33.9 3.1 2.2

1990 118.1 25.7 10.5 12.6 2.6 6.8 27.0 8.0 43.7 6.9 40.0 34.9 2.9 2.2

1991 120.5 25.7 10.2 12.7 2.8 6.9 27.1 8.0 44.9 7.9 37.8 33.2 2.7 2.0

1992 120.3 25.4 9.8 12.7 2.9 7.1 26.9 8.2 45.4 7.3 37.3 32.6 2.7 2.0

1993 122.1 24.8 9.4 12.4 3.1 7.1 26.0 9.2 46.6 8.4 36.8 32.4 2.5 1.9

Excludes vegetable juices.

Source: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, annual; and unpublished data.