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					 General Status of Building
Energy Consumption in China:
   Survey and Comparison



    Borong LIN, Dr. Associate Professor
     Building Energy Research Centre
        Tsinghua University, China
                Mar., 2008
                                          1
               Content
• Chinese building energy consumption data
• Comparison between China & developed
  countries
• Stratagem to rising Chinese building
  energy efficiency




                                             2
         Chinese building energy
            consumption data
• Building energy investigation from 1995
• Data source
   – China yearbook
   – On-site survey and statistics
• Two dominating energy sources in bldg.
   – Coal Consumption
      • Heating in Buildings in North of China
   – Electricity Consumption
      • Rural
      • Urban

                                                 3
   Survey on Building Energy consumption
                                       Relating to Manufacture
                    Industrial bldg.   Procedure
      All
                    Res. bldg. in      70% is bio-energy
      Bldg. in      rural area
      China                            30% comm. energy
                    Civil bldg. in
                    towns & cities     Major part

• Classify energy consumption for urban bldg.
  – Heating in Buildings in North of China
   – Energy consumption in buildings excluding heating
      • Residential Bldg.
      • Ordinary Commercial Bldg.
      • Large-scale Commercial Bldg.


                                                                 4
            BEC in China - Breakdown
     Heating at
      北方城镇采暖
     North China
          能耗
           25%
                              Rural area
                              农村能耗
                               35%
                                                       BEC in each sector
Heating at
  长江流域住宅
Yangzi River
1% 采暖能耗
      1%
Large-scale
  大型公共建筑
Commercial
      能耗
4%     4%
                        Residential
                        城镇住宅除采
       一般公共建筑
   Ordinary
           能耗
                        building except
                         暖外能耗
   Commercial               16%     Gm2
            19%         heating
   19%                             30
                        16%
                                   25       24


                                   20


                                   15

                                                                 10
                                   10
                                                     6.5
                                                                              5.5
Building area in each               5

sector                              0
                                                                                           0.5

                                           Rural   Heating   Residential    Ordinary       Large
                                                                           commercial   commercial   5
      Current situation - Breakdown
                                           Annual energy
                                  Area
                                            consumption       (kWh/m2·a)
                                  (bm2)
                                             (*104 tce)
                 (Primary bio-
   BEC in
                    energy         24           19200           7.5~15
  rural area
                 not included)
  Heating in
   northern                        6.5          12740             57
     area
                  Residential      10           7820            10~30
    BEC            Ordinary
                                   5.5          9470            20~60
   except         commercial
   heating     Large commercial    0.5          1760           70~300
                  Urban total      16         130Mtce             52

    Total                          40          51730         30 kWh/m2·a

BEC accounts for 25.5% of Total social terminal energy consumption in China
                                                                              6
  Comparisons
   Building energy data by per participant [kWh/(p.a)]

 20000           18206
         16030
 15000


 10000
                          7774
                                                          5219
  5000                                  Building energy data by floor area [kWh/(m2.a)]
                                  240
                                   743       1623
                                                    202
     0                                    187                    178
          USA    Canada   Japan   China
                                  180       China     Europe
                                            Urban                                       146
                                  120

                                                                                65
   Building energy data            60
                                                                        30
 from different countries
                                    0
                                          USA    Canada      Japan     China   China   Europe
                                                                               Urban
Data source: EIA 2005
                                                                                                7
           Differences in BEC
• Urban residential in China:
   – Less domestic hot water service
   – Difference in operation
   – High consumption in heating
• Commercial buildings
   – High standard LCB: same level
   – Normal commercial: much lower
• Rural residential in China:
   – 70% of energy are primary bio-energy
   – Much low living standard comparing


                                            8
 BEC comparison
- residential buildings




                          9
                                              Heating at
                                               北方城镇采暖
                                              North China
                                                   能耗


BEC in rural area                       Heating at
                                           长江流域住宅
                                                   25%




                                         Yangzi River
                                                                  Rural area
                                                                  农村能耗
                                                                   35%



                                        1% 采暖能耗
• 60% of total building area                  1%
                                        Large-scale
                                          大型公共建筑
                                        Commercial
                                              能耗

  35% of BEC                            4%     4%
                                               一般公共建筑
                                           Ordinary
                                                            Residential
                                                            城镇住宅除采
                                                            building except
                                                             暖外能耗
                                                   能耗
                                           Commercial
                                                    19%         16%
                                                            heating
  commercial energy 7.5~15kWh/m2.a         19%
                                                            16%



• Commercial energy consumption: 1/3 of
  urban residents in terms of per m2
• Primary bio-energy (firewood, corn stalk,
  etc.)
  takes a great portion (no accurate data)
• No accurate data about primary energy,
  being investigated




                                                                               10
                        Comparison between
                         China urban & US
  • Heating energy: same level
  • Electricity: large difference
                  160

                                      20.02
                  120
                                                  hotwater
       kWh/m2.a




                           26.2       67.21       appliance
                   80
                                                  cooking
                           13.8
                                      4.29        heating
                   40
                           56.9       51.5

                    0
                        North China    US


                                                     Terminal energy converted
                                                     to electricity equivalent
Data source: 2005 Buildings Energy Data Book, U.S. Department of Energy      11
       Reasons for difference
• Different operation manner
  – Less domestic hot water consumption
     • Only 60% of families have hot water system
     • Less than 10% in total energy consumption
  – Part time part space AC
     • 2~3 rooms in 6 rooms run AC
     • Most of AC run less 200 hours per year
• Economizing custom
  – lighting is well controlled manually


                                                    12
        Energy Comparison for Residential
                  (kWh/m2.a)
              Total   Cook   Hot water   Lighting          Appliance   AC
              总量      炊事     生活热水         照明               家用电器        空调
 China 中国      27     9.5      3~5         6.7               5~15      1~5

 Beijing北京    10~30                                                    2~4

 Shanghai上海   20~40                                                    5~10

  USA美国        97     7.2      24. 5      14.8               36.7      13.8

  Japan日本      41     3.5      15.6                 20.4                1.3




中国此部分能耗水平是美国的1/4,日本的60%
About ¼ of USA and 60% of Japan.                                              13
    BEC comparison
- Heating in North China




                           14
                     Heating Energy Comparison
                                   北京采暖建筑耗热量调查
                       Field investigated heating energy data in Beijing
           120
                             83kWh/m2a
           100              平均83kWh/m2.年

           80
kWh/m2.年




           60
                                                                           Heating Energy consumption comparison
           40
                                                                     250
                                                                                        单体别墅    连体别墅   连排房    公寓楼
           20
                                                                     200
                                                                            Germany             France
             0
                 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47
                                                                     150
                                                          kWh/m2.年




                                                                                                             Greece
                                                                                      Denmark
                                                                     100                                              Beijing, China


                                                                      50



   Beijing VS. city of developed                                       0
   countries                                                                 德国        丹麦         法国           希腊           北京   15
 Parameters of heating
                                          Factors on Heating
                                          影响采暖能耗的参数


                 建筑构造                                                运行性能
             Building structure                                      Operation


         保温水平               体型系数               渗风量                运行时间            室内温度
         Insulation        Shape factor      Infiltration      Length operation Indoor temp.


          Insulation         Shape factor       Infiltration        Operation      Indoor
                                                                    time            temp.

China         1              0.2~0.5       Close window: 0.5~1/hr Beijing: 120days 18~20℃
中国                                         Open window :3~10/hr Northeast: 170

Europe                                                              Any time       18~22℃
           ½ ~ 1/3            >0.5             1~2 /hr
欧洲                                                                  If needed

因此,中国采暖能耗并非是发达国家的2~3倍,而是基本差不多
Therefore, heating energy consumption level in China is similar to developed countries.     16
   BEC comparison
- commercial buildings




                         17
                                                                             Data source: on-site survey by THU;
            EC in LCB                                                          Dissertation, Xue Zhifeng, 2005

                                                      LCBs in Beijing
            350
                      Shopping
                      mall
                                                  Hotel                    Office         Government
            300

            250
kWh/m2.yr




            200

            150

            100

             50
                                                                        LCBs worldwide
              0                             350                   323
                                                                               302.8
                  1     5   9        17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69
                                 13300
                                            250
                                                                                              199
                                 kWh/m2.a




                                            200                                                            186
                                                     161
                                            150
                                            100
                                            50
                                             0
                                                   HK_Office    HK_Mall       US_campus   Canada_hotel   UK_hotel
                                                                                                                    18
                            Comparison about LCB
                                     Office

           200
           180                                               others                         (Energy for heating in
                     26
           160              5                                                             Chinese buildings excluded)
           140                                               hot water
kWh/m2.a




           120       61                 12
           100                           0
                                                             lighing,applianc
            80                          63                   e                              Hotel
            60       49
                                                             fans,pumps
            40                                               350
                                        31
            20       41                                       resource
                                                             300                                           hot water
             0                          14
                                                                                     28
                    Japan             China                  250
                                                  kWh/m2.a

                                                                                                           lighing,appliance
                                                             200               120                  0
                                                             150                                100        fans,pumps
                                                             100                76
                                    Shopping mall                                                   76     cooling/heating
                                                              50                                           resource
                                                                                65
           200                                                 0                                    25
                                                                   others   Japan              China
                      26
           150                  5
                                                                   hot water
kWh/m2.a




                      61
                                             20
           100                                0                    lighing,appliance
                      49                     46
            50                                                     fans,pumps
                                             39
                      41                 cooling/heating
             0                               13
     Data                                resource
                 source:Environment Management for the                               Sustainable Building. Japan,2004
                    Japan       China
                                                                                                                             19
           Case Study in USA
• 1,3 million m2, Campus
• Location: Philadelphia
• distributed CHW System

  – Office Building
  – Laboratory
  – School Building
  – Hotels
  – Residential (few)


                               20
   Energy consumption in campus buildings
               (China & US)




         Office             Dental School           Lab & Office
  4,650m2,34kWh/m2.a    6,425m2,313kWh/m2.a    3,360m2,56kWh/m2.a




 School of Technology       Business School       School of Science
27,000m2,64kWh/m2.a     30,000m2,356kWh/m2.a   15,000m2,98kWh/m2.a  21
          End-use electricity
• More than 50% used by HVAC
  – Fans in AHUs of Buildings
  – Pumps: primary, secondary
  – Chillers
                                     Office

                         450

                         360
                               163            fans and pumps
               MJ/m2.a




                         270
                                              cooling resource
                               63
                         180
                                              Lighting,Elevato
                                       31     rs,PCs,etc.
                          90   180     14
                                       76
                           0
                               US     China
                                                                 22
              Investigation
• Reasons for high EC
  – Counteraction of cooling and heating
  – Longer running time-24h
  – Different indoor temp. setting 20℃ summer
• Factors causing large difference in EC
  between commercial buildings
  – HVAC System
  – Operation manner
  – Less related to technology

                                                23
            Factors influence BEC
Real building        Performance          Energy


                        (Good)
                  Building envelope       (Low)
                         (Bad)



                    (High efficient)     Energy
                  System efficiency    Consumption
                    (low efficient)


                                          (High)
                     (Economized)
                   Operation mode
                    (Uneconomized
                                                     24
China’s BEC Stratagem




                        25
Main characteristics for BEC in China
• Current situation
  – Relative lower than the level of developed countries
  – Large difference between buildings
  – Heating is the largest part
• Development
  – Growing rapidly with the development of economy
    and civilization
  – Energy efficiency work for China
     • Big challenge
     • Different way from developed countries
     • Economizing custom should be called for


                                                           26
       Prediction of BEC in China in 2020 (Considering
      improvement of urbanization and living condition)
                       Scene 1                  Scene 2                    Scene 3
                 100% primary bio-
                 energy                 50% primary bio-energy      10% primary bio-energy
  Rural area     consumption            consumption changing        consumption changing
                 changing into          into commercial energy      into commercial energy
                 commercial energy
                 To apply district                                  To decrease heating &
                                        To apply district heating
   Heating       heating as in north                                cooling energy to 12
                                        as in north China
                 China                                              kWh/m2.a
 Residential     Electricity                                        Not to change EC level
                 consumption level                                  of existed; to raise BEE
Ordinary Com.    raised to 150%         The same electricity        of new
                                        consumption level as in
                 The same electricity   2005                         To reduce energy
 Large Com.      consumption level
                                                                     consumption greatly
                 as in 2005
                   680 mi. tce/a,            420 mi. tce/a,              180 mi. tce/a,
  Total BEC
                   1520 bi. kWh/a            1130 bi. kWh/a              825 bi. kWh/a
BEC per ca.
                     2470kWh/a                1792kWh/a                   957kWh/a
/Urban BEC per
                     /3175kWh/a               /2664kWh/a                  /1394kWh/a
ca.                                                                                       27
      Prediction of BEC in China in 2020
              (Bi.kWh/yr)
          4000
                                                                 Elec.

                                                                 Coal(convert to elec.)
          3000




          2000




          1000




             0
                     Scene 1          Scene 2          Scene 3               Now


                                                                           US      Japan   Western Eu.
                               China (Urban BEC per ca.)
                                                                         (now)     (now)     (now)

 BEC per capita         Scene 1 Scene 2 Scene 3             now
                                                                         14000     6200       6000
(convert to elec.)          3200     2700       1400        2000

                        Energy source: <International Energy Outlook 2005>                               28
      Big challenge for China:
• Demand
  – Keeping Economic Growth
  – Improving living conditions
• Limitation
  – Energy Supply to meet the requirement
  – GHGs Emission and Climate Change
    Responsibility
• Different way from developed countries
  – Find a unique approach and contribute to the
    world
                                                   29
 Key Points of BEE Works in China
• Reduce EC for large-scaled commercial building
   – by new tech, strict evaluation and LC Commissioning to new
     buildings, and improving management, operation and control in
     existing buildings
• Improve living conditions for rural area
   – by developing a sustainable approach to improve the living
     standard
• Improve service quality for residential & ordinary Com.
   – by promoting high energy efficiency appliances and keeping
     energy-saving habits
• Reduce EC for heating
   – by adding additional insulation and improving system efficiency
• Satisfy the indoor environment demand in Yangtze River
  area with low EC
   – by developing new heating and cooling technologies and
     strategies

                                                                       30
                Conclusion
• Energy consumption is related with
  complicated matters including: building
  fabric, energy utilization efficiency, living
  and operation mode
• Commercial buildings
• Residential buildings
• Building energy development in a distinct
  way is a big challenge for China and the
  world

                                                  31
    Thank you
for your attention
      Borong LIN
linbr@tsinghua.edu.cn
  Tsinghua University


                        32

				
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