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SHAKESPEARE

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					SHAKESPEARE
               TIMELINE
• 5th - 15th centuries = MIDDLE AGES
• 1085 - RECONQUEST begins in Spain
• 1095-1097 - FIRST CRUSADE
• 1330-1750 - RENAISSANCE spreads
• 1350 - BUBONIC PLAGUE hits
• 1450-1750 - ENGLISH RENAISSANCE      (Early
  Modern Period, Age of Discovery)
• 1478-1834(1968) - INQUISITION
• 1517 - REFORMATION begins
• 1588 - SPANISH ARMADA
      THE MIDDLE AGES
• FEUDAL society
• KING = most important person
• PEASANTS gave taxes to LORD - lord
  gave taxes to king
• Lords were the king’s VASSALS
• If the vassal was loyal, the king gave
  him wealth and mini-kingdoms called
  FIEFDOMS.
THE MIDDLE AGES
         THE MIDDLE AGES
• Towns grew around the castle
• Castle life = difficult
• Large central fireplace was the heating system
  - heat was used for the king and nobility
• TAPESTRIES were hung on the walls to help
  keep the room warm
• No running water, bathrooms, etc
• The castle community had to be            SELF-
  SUFFICIENT
• The castle was the only safe place
         THE MIDDLE AGES
• Peasants were not allowed to own property - they
  worked for the king and paid taxes. If the king needed
  more money, it came from the peasants.
• Peasants were uneducated.
• Peasants often considered their life a hell on earth so
  had a fatalistic view of death.
• Very high mortality rate
• Church was very important - a place of beauty in a
  very dreary life
• Stained glass windows told Bible stories to people
  who could not read
         THE MIDDLE AGES
• Church was very important - a place of beauty in a
  very dreary life
         THE MIDDLE AGES
• Stained glass windows told Bible stories to people
  who could not read
   TIMELINE OF TUDOR REIGN
   DURING THE RENAISSANCE
• KING HENRY VIII -reigned from 1509-
  1547 (C) (P)
 KATHERINE OF ARAGON-a- 6 children/Mary I
 ANNE BOLEYN-a/e- 3 children/Elizabeth I
 JANE SEYMOUR-d- 1 child/Edward VI
 ANNE OF CLEVES-a-
 CATHERINE HOWARD-a/e
 KATHERINE PARR-d-
    TIMELINE OF TUDOR REIGN
    DURING THE RENAISSANCE
• HENRY VIII
• EDWARD VI - reigned 1547-1553 (P)
• JANE GREY - reigned July 10-19, 1553 (e)
• MARY I - aka”BLOODY MARY” - reigned 1553-
  1558 (C)
• ELIZABETH I - reigned 1558-1603 (P)
  ENGLISH RENAISSANCE
• 1450-1750
• Rapid development of art, literature,
  science, politics
• Growth of trade guilds and skilled
  professions
• Very little chance for social mobility
• REBIRTH of classical Roman forms
      A very different view
• Many concepts in science and medicine
  were not yet understood.
• People were anxious for order in their
  lives.
• Society began to change from feudalism
  (community) to individuality.
  ORDER IN THE UNIVERSE
          COSMOLOGY



• PTOLEMY believed the earth was the center of
  the universe with 9 concentric rings around it.
• Uranus, Neptune, Pluto had not yet been
  discovered.
          COSMOLOGY




• COPERNICUS discovered that the sun was
  the center of the solar system. (1543)
• This was proved when GALILEO invented the
  telescope in 1610.
   People didn’t know who to
            believe
• SHAKESPEARE’S plays reflect their
  uncertainty.
• Look for references to the sun, moon,
  stars, universe, etc.
         THE UNIVERSE
• It was believed that 4 ELEMENTS composed
  everything in the universe: EARTH, AIR,
  WATER, FIRE
• The elements combined to create the
  qualities of being: hot, cold, moist, dry
• AIR = hot and moist
• WATER = cold and moist
• EARTH = cold and dry
• FIRE = hot and dry
    ORDER IN THE HUMAN
           BODY
• It was believed that the body also contained
  the 4 elements but in the body they were
  called the                          4
  HUMORS: BLOOD, PHLEGM, YELLOW
  BILE, BLACK BILE
• Each humor corresponded to an element.
• BLOOD = air = hot and moist
• PHLEGM = water = cold and moist
• YELLOW BILE = fire = hot and dry
• BLACK BILE = earth = cold and dry
       THE HUMAN BODY
• The 4 humors were believed to determine
  personality.
• Blood = dominant = light-hearted
• Phlegm = dominant = dull and kind
• Yellow bile = dominant = irritable
• Black bile = dominant = sad

• SHAKESPEARE uses the humors to explain
  emotional outbursts in his plays.
      THE HUMAN BODY -
            illness
• Illness was believed to be a result of the
  imbalance of the 4 humors.
• Remedies were an attempt to restore
  the balance of the humors. (too much
  blood = blood letting, leeches, cutting,
  etc)
                 ILLNESS
• Infant mortality rate was very high - 50% died
  before 1st birthday
• Life expectancy for men = about 45 years old
  (women a bit older)
• Didn’t realize need for antiseptics and sterile
  equipment
• Barbers often served as doctors
• Monks and nuns took care of the sick
       BUBONIC PLAGUE
• Began in China
• When shipping opened after the Reconquest
  = more rats in on boats = spread of plague
• 2 major outbreaks - 1592-1594. 1613
• Believed to be God’s punishment
• Directly affected Shakespeare’s career
  because theaters closed
   16th CENTURY LONDON

• 200,000 people
• No sewer = plague
• High crime rate - no lights, little law
  enforcement
• Cultural, political, social heart of
  England
     ORDER IN SOCIETY
    THE GREAT CHAIN OF
          BEING
• aka UNIVERSAL HIERARCHY
• Hierarchy of creation, human rights,
  place in society
• Explained why
THE GREAT CHAIN OF
      BEING
  THE GREAT CHAIN OF
        BEING
                 GOD
                 ANGELS
                 KINGS
                 NOBLES
                 SERFS
                 WOMEN
                 ANIMALS
                 PLANTS
                 ROCKS
Notice that there are different versions.
Queen Elizabeth was “out of order” as a woman.
                SOCIETY
• 2 social classes
• ARISTOCRATS who had everything
• EVERYONE ELSE who had very little (actors
  were definitely considered lower class)
• Nobility feared mobility so they created strict
  laws to control the lower classes.
• Some mobility began late in the Renaissance
  with the development of skilled professions.
   WAYS OF REGULATING
      LOWER CLASS
• SUMPTUARY law - regulated dress
• DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS - kings
  believed they were given the right to
  rule by God
                 MEN
• Society was a PATRIARCHY
• Men controlled family and society
• The husband was the “king” of the
  family - by DIVINE RIGHT
                 WOMEN
• Women had almost no rights in society
• PRIMOGENITURE - all inheritance went to
  the first-born MALE
• Any wealth a woman possessed went to her
  husband when she married - she also lost her
  rights to inherit, own property, sign contracts,
  etc.
• Queen Elizabeth would have lost everything
  to her husband had she married.
              WOMEN
• Seldom educated
• Couldn’t enter most professions
  (including acting)
• They could be housewives - their job
  was to keep the husband happy,
  manage the servants, entertain well,
  look good
         SERVANTS AND
          APPRENTICES
• Were considered part of the family
• Often closer to the children than the
  parents (notice the relationship between
  Juliet and her nurse, and between
  Romeo and his servant)
               THEATER
• Plays were not considered literature
• Written very quickly, performed 10-12 times
• Discarded
• Published in quartos = folded 4x, 17cm x
  21cm or folios = folded 1x, more prestigious,
  21cm x 34cm
• More widely read and preserved after
  Gutenburg invented printing press
             THEATER
• Plays often outside of town until
  Elizabeth and less threat of Plague
• Actors mistrusted - not respected
• Puritans considered drama immoral
• Aristocrats thought actors might use
  costumes to disguise social status on
  streets
                THEATER
• GROUNDLINGS paid lowest price                  (1
  penny =$ .60)- stood in the “pit”         (
  ground in front of stage) =open air = 70’
  diameter = very rowdy
• Aristocrats paid more - sat in seats above pit
  = 3 tiers around walls = under cover
• Best seats cost 1 schilling (&7) - highest tiers
• Nobility sat in box seats or on the stage
              THEATER
• Traditional theater could hold 800
  groundlings, 1500 in the galleries, 12
  exclusive seats on the stage
              THEATERS
• Originally outside city limits
• A. To avoid conflict with authorities
• B. Considered immoral
• C. Afraid of riots
• D. Afraid the Plague would spread in large
  groups
• Moved into playhouses in town at time of
  Shakespeare and Queen Elizabeth
               THEATER
• 2 hours long because of light
• No costumes (what if actors went out on the
  street dressed as someone they
  weren’t???:<:<:<) or scenery
• No female actors
• Announced from town square - flew flag if
  play was on for the day
• No breaks between scenes
• 3 trumpet blasts or 3 knocks signaled
  beginning of play
• No curtain - every entrance had
  corresponding exit
           PARTS OF THE
          THEATER/STAGE
•   Rectangular stage extended into “pit”
•   Stage raised 5’ above the “pit”
•   Covered part of stage = “heavens”
•   Trapdoor used for graves and ghosts
•   Equipment used to raise and lower
    actors
          MORE PARTS
• Above the stage = gallery - used for
  wealthy patrons or balcony scenes
• Tiring house = dressing rooms
  (costumes gradually became more
  lavish)
SHAKESPEARE’S LIFE
             THE BASICS
• Born April 23, 1564 in Stratford-on-Avon
  Gulielmus filius Johannes Shakespeare (no
  wonder he went by William!!)
• Died April 23, 1616 in Stratford-on-Avon
• Parents were John Shakespeare and Mary
  Arden Shakespeare
• Father was a tanner and held civic positions -
  became alderman in 1565 which was a
  position that came with free education for his
  children.
         CHILDHOOD AND
           EDUCATION
• Began education at age 6 or 7 - subjects
  taught were entirely dictated by the beliefs of
  the reigning king - but included the alphabet,
  the Lord’s Prayer, a catechism, Latin, some
  English some math
• Removed from school at age 13 because
  father lost alderman position
• May have worked for a butcher, a lawyer, or a
  glover, or as a schoolteacher - little is known
  for certain for about 10 years after left school.
           AND THEN…..
• Married Anne Hathaway when he was 18 and
  she was 26
• First child, Susanna, christened on May 26th
  1583
• Twins, Hamnet and Judith, christened
  February 2, 1585
• Shakespeare moved to London - established
  as actor by 1592
• Hamnet died of an unknown cause August
  11, 1595 - age 11
             ????????
• Two periods of life known as “lost
  years”:
• *1578-1582 = after left grammar school
  until marriage to Anne Hathaway
• *1585-1592 = when he must have been
  perfecting his dramatic skills
 ACTOR AND PLAYWRIGHT
• Writer/actor for Pembroke’s Men before 1592
• Theaters closed in 1592 due to Plague -
  Shakespeare probablyleft theater to work on
  non-dramatic poetry
• 1593 - Earl of Southampton became
  Shakespeare’s patron
   NOT ONLY THAT BUT…
• 1594 - became member of Lord
  Chamberlain’s Men - performed before
  Queen Ellizabeth - earned 10 pounds
  as actor
• While with LCM - wrote Romeo and
  Juliet, King John, Love’s Labour’s Lost
                 !!!!!!!!!!
• Only Elizabethan dramatist to write, act
  in, share profits, and own the theater
  building (Globe - 1598 and Blackfriars)
• After Hamnet’s death - Shakespeare
  retired and purchased the second
  largest house in Stratford for 60 pounds.
SO WHY IS HE SUCH A BIG
      DEAL????
• Largest vocabulary of any author before
  or since
• Used 17,677 words in his writings
• Created 1,700 words
• Themes, motifs, characters =
  prototypes for modern literature, drama,
  etc
• Unrivaled use of imagery
LANGUAGE - Can you guess
how the phrases we use today
         originated?


				
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