ANATOMY AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE EYE
I. A. STUDENTS: Graduate students enrolled in “A”
certification program in special education.
B. INSTRUCTOR; Member of the UAB graduate school faculty with
appropriate preparation – either in visual
impairments or in Optometry or Ophthalmology.
C. PREREQUISITE ECY 100, ECY 500, ECY 661 or equivalent.
II. COURSE DESCRIPTION
A. COURSE OBJECTIVES: Students will demonstrate knowledge:
1. To provide instruction in basic structure of the eye and the visual system.
2. To provide information on tests and curricula materials which relate to
evaluation of the educational needs of specific visual disabilities. .34-1-a-
2:Student assessment instruments and techniques, including functional and
vocational knowledge and skills:
3. To provide instruction in interpreting ocular reports presented for specific
4. To provide research in technology relevant to reading and writing with low
vision devices and other prescriptive devices.
5. The implications of visual impairments for the social/emotional, vocational,
and educational development of students. AL Code .41-1-a-1
6. Curricular materials appropriate for students with visual impairment,
including Braille and assistive technology devices. AL Code .41-1-a-3
B. STUDENT SKILLS OBJECTIVES: Students will demonstrate ability:
1. To provide evidence of knowledge of anatomy of the eye, ocular diseases
causing visual disability, and the visual pathway.
2. To demonstrate how to assess a child’s visual acuity for near and distance.
3. To develop, select, administer, and interpret formal and informal
assessments using informal and formal methods of assessment appropriate
for the evaluation of students with visual impairment. AL Code .34-1-b-1:
4. To be able to differentiate between learning factors required for print and
Braille reading and the modifications such differences suggest for curricula
design and teaching strategies as related to the visual functioning of the
5. To adapt the regular curriculum to the specific needs of each student with
visual impairment. AL Code .41-1-b-5
6. To have the skills necessary to modify and adapt the educational
environment specific to the child and the functional residual vision for
students of all ages.
III. EVALUATION CRITERIA
A. The student will be required to demonstrate proficiency by evaluating a child or
adult for visual acuity, functional vision, and the educational implications for that
B. The student will successfully provide written and performance of knowledge of
the visual system and the eye diseases causing visual impairments and blindness.
C. The student will attend classes and laboratory sessions pertaining to the
assessment and educational modification for the visually impaired and blind child.
IV. LABORATORY EXPERIENCE
A. Laboratory experiences in sensory impairments are included in each core course.
The laboratory experiences are required for ages 0 to 21 years and must be
completed prior to practicum. The instructor will approve laboratory observations
and participation relevant to each course.
B. Students will observe a low vision examination and participate in prescription and
training of low vision devices for persons with sensory impairments. This
laboratory experience will be under the direction of the professor or another
C. Laboratory experiences are preparatory to the practicum and are the basis for the
selection of individual practicum sites. These site experiences include:
1. Public school sites in the State of Alabama.
2. Ophthalmology surgery is optional – either by video tape or in the surgical
suite. This must be scheduled through the course instructor.
3. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind campuses at the Helen Keller School,
Alabama School for the Blind, or Regional Center programs.
4. Other state residential schools for the sensory impaired as approved by the
5. The UAB Horizons Program, UAB Sparks Center, or other UAB educational
settings as approved by the instructor.
D. Laboratory experiences will be documented according to age level and setting.
The documentation will be a part of a final portfolio that is required as a part of
V. REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS:
Foundations of Education for Blind and Visually Handicapped Children and Your-
Theory and Practice, edited by: Scholl, American Foundation for the Blind, 1986.
Medical Aspects of Vision and Visual Disability, 1996.
By: Nowakowski, UAB School of Optometry.
Foundations of Clinical Low Vision, 1996.
By: Corn and Koenig (Eds), American Foundation for the Blind.
Policy Regarding Reasonable Accommodations:
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires that the University of
Alabama at Birmingham provide “ reasonable accommodations” to any individual
who advises us of a physical or mental disability. If you have a physical or mental
limitation that requires an accommodation or an academic adjustment, please
arrange a meeting us at your earliest convenience.
Policy Regarding Student Absence:
Due to the nature and structure of this course, daily attendance is required. The
content presented in each session is essential. Missing one session places the
student at risk for missing critical content. Absences are considered only in
extreme circumstances. Documentation of the emergency must be provided.
Unless the instructor has documentation, work is considered unexcused, and the
student will not be able to make up work for the day assignments were due.
Additionally, for each unexcused absence, student’s final grade will be dropped
one letter grade.
Writing Concerns and Issues:
Students are held to the highest standards of scholarship in term of written
products. Substandard written work will be returned for revision prior to
evaluation. All work must be completed in typewritten form unless otherwise
noted in course assignment discretion.
Policy Regarding Academic Misconduct:
The University of Alabama at Birmingham expects all students to function
according to the highest ethical and professional standards. A student who
commits an act of academic misconduct, such as plagiarism or offering or
receiving unauthorized aid in class assignments or test will be given the grade of F
in the course or in some instances, expelled. All act of academic misconduct will
be addressed as outlined in the UAB catalog.
Council for Exceptional Children – Knowledge and Skills
Students will demonstrate knowledge of the CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills through
class presentations, portfolio development, and student/teacher classroom participation.
The knowledge and skill areas for this course are as follows:
CC3, K1: Basic terminology used in assessment
CC3, K4: Typical procedures used for screening, prereferral, referral, and classification
CC3, K5: Appropriate application and interpretation of scores, including grade score versus
standard score, percentile ranks, age/grade equivalents and stanines.
CC3, K6: Appropriate use and limitations of each type of assessment instrument
CC3, S4: Use various types of assessment procedures appropriately
CC3,S9 Use assessment information in making instructional decisions and planning
individual programs that result in appropriate placement and intervention for all individuals with
exceptional learning needs, including those from culturally and/or linguistically
CC7, K5: Ethical practices for confidential communication to others about individuals with
exceptional learning needs.
CC7, S1: Demonstrate commitment to developing the highest educational and quality-of-
life potential of individuals with exceptional learning needs.
Students will demonstrate knowledge of the CEC Visual Impairments Knowledge and Skills
through class presentations, portfolio development, and student/teacher classroom participation.
The knowledge and skill areas for this course are as follows:
VV2, K1: Normal development of the human visual system.
VV2, K2: Basic terminology related to the structure and function of the human visual
VV2, K10: Effects of medications on the visual systems.
VV3, K8: Relationships among assessment, IEP development, and placement as they
affect vision-related services.
VV3, S1: Interpret eye reports and other vision-related diagnostic information.
VV4, K2: Methods to acquire disability-unique academic skills, including: (a) The use of an
abacus. (b)The use of a talking calculator.(c)Tactile graphics (including maps,
charts, tables, etc.). (d) Adapted science equipment.
VV5, S5: Transcribe, proofread, and interline grade II Braille and Nemeth code Braille
Revised March 1999