Characteristics: eukaryotes, mainly microscopic, single celled or
BIOLOGY multicellular; some are autotrophic (algae) and many
EOC TEST REVIEW II Reproduction:
are heterotrophic (protozoans)
asexual or sexual
Beneficial: some are harmless
LINNAEAN SYSTEM Harmful: sleeping sickness, malaria
In the mid-1700’s, Carolus Linnaeus developed a new FUNGI
classification system that revolutionized taxonomy. He suggested that Examples: mushrooms, bread molds, slime molds, rusts and
organisms be classified with other organisms that had similar structures. smuts, yeast
Organisms are known by their common name, such as red maple. Characteristics: eukaryotes, mainly multicellular, parasitic, symbiotic,
Organisms have been given a scientific name, the genus followed by the heterotrophic,
species. The genus and species for the red maple tree is Acer rubrum. The Reproduction: asexual, sexual
genus begins with a capital letter and the second name is always lower case. Beneficial: yeast, penicillin, decompose organic material
All scientific names are written in Latin, and are italicized or underlined. Harmful: cereal rusts, ringworm, athlete’s foot,
A classification key can be used as an aid to identify organism. It PLANTS
uses an organisms general characteristics and special features to find its Examples: All multicellular plants - Mosses, liverworts,
appropriate placement. hornworts, ferns, gymnosperms (pine cone plants),
angiosperms (flower-bearing plants)
TAXONOMY Characteristics: eukaryotes, multicellular, can’t move, autotrophic
Growth: based on hormone action
Scientists these days study chromosome structure, reproductive Reproduction: asexual, sexual by spores, seeds, flowers, and cones
potential, biochemical similarities, and embryology to determine the
relationships among organisms. The classification levels are: ANIMALS
Examples: All multicellular animals - Invertebrates and
Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species vertebrates (fish; amphibians – frogs, salamanders;
(King Philip Came Over For Great Spaghetti) reptiles – snakes, lizards, turtles; birds; and
KINGDOMS Characteristics: eukaryotes, multicellular, heterotrophic,
Growth: based on hormone action and nutrition
MONERA Reproduction: asexual, sexual
Characteristics: prokaryote, microscopic, lives as a single cell
Reproduction: binary fission (splits in two)
Beneficial: decomposers of matter, in digestive system, nitrogen-
One of the major ways that land plants differ is the way they
Harmful: can cause diseases like strep throat, pneumonia
transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body. The majority of
land plants have an internal system of connected tubes and vessels called
vascular tissues. These plants, called vascular plants, are the plants that you
are the most familiar with –maple trees, grasses, roses, and house plants.
Examples: Most unicellular organisms - protozoa, amoeba,
Vascular plants have roots, stems, and leaves.
zooplankton, euglena, paramecium, and algae
The other group of plants is called bryophytes. They lack vascular
tissue. They transport water and nutrients by osmosis and diffusion.
NONVASCULAR PLANTS ANGIOSPERMS
Angiosperms are flowering plants. They produce seeds enclosed
Bryophytes need a lot of water to survive. Remember that they in fruits. (Gymnosperm seeds are uncovered in their cones.) Angiosperms
transport materials by osmosis and diffusion. This requires a lot of water. are deciduous plants. That means that they lose their leaves every fall.
Almost all bryophytes are small plants and they grow close to the ground. Angiosperms produce seeds with a cotyledon (seed leaf) inside. A
Gravity can restrict the processes of osmosis and diffusion. cotyledon provides food for the plant embryo in the seed when it begins to
VASCULAR PLANTS REPRODUCTION
Plants with vascular tissue are called tracheophytes. They have Reproduction in angiosperms is different. All angiosperms
true roots, stems, and leaves. They have an internal network of tubes that produce flowers. Some flowers have both male and female parts and some
carry water, nutrients and glucose made from photosynthesis throughout the have just one sex. The flower attracts insects for pollination and thus
plant. fertilization to make a seed. After fertilization, the flower petals die and the
The roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil and they anchor remaining flower structures form a fruit. The fruit protects the seed and
the plant. The roots also store food that was made in the leaves. The stem helps to disperse them in various ways. Then, an animal eats the fruit and
contains vascular tissue that transports substances between the roots and the leaves the seed in its feces elsewhere.
leaves. The stem also supports plant growth above the ground. It is the
backbone of the plant. There are two types of vascular tissue: xylem and SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
phloem. Xylem transports water and minerals absorbed by the roots up to In plants that produce them, the flower functions in sexual
those parts of the plant that are above the ground. The phloem carries sugar reproduction. Flowers consist of modified leaves. The essential flower
and other soluble organic materials produced by photosynthesis from the parts are the ones that produce gametes and carry out sexual reproduction.
leaves to the rest of the plant. These include male parts called stamens and female parts call pistils.
The leaves use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to carry out Most flowers have three, four, or five stamens. The thin stem-like
photosynthesis. They also transport the food they produce to the rest of the portion of a stamen is called the filament. Pollen is produced at the tip of
plant in a process called translocation. In addition leaves exchange gases the filament, generally in an oblong structure called the anther. Most
and water vapor with the atmosphere. The outside of the leave is covered flowers have a single pistil. The pistil contains three parts. The swollen
with a waxy layer that slows the evaporation of water from the leaf. The base of the pistil is called the ovary. Within the ovary, one or more ovules
waxy layer covers the epidermis, a single transparent layer of cells. The produce the egg cells. The slender middle part of the pistil is called the
epidermis has openings called stomata. Each stomata has a guard cell on style. At the tip of the style is the stigma. The stigma produces a sticky
each side. The guard cells change shape to control the exit and entry of substance to which pollen grains become attached.
water and gases. Most guard cells are located on the underside of the leaf Animals, wind, and water all transport pollen from flower to
where the surface is shaded. Ninety percent of the water that enters the flower. The nonessential flower parts are modified to aid the specific type
roots is lost through the leaves in a process called transpiration. of pollination a plant undergoes. In flowers that are pollinated by animals,
The middle portion of the cell is called mesophyll. The cells of the the stem and receptacle hold the flower out where its colors and scent are
mesophyll contain the chlorophyll and other pigments. Vascular bundles most obvious. Some flowers produce nectar, a sweet liquid.
extend into the tissue of the mesophyll. They are seen in the leaves as Fruits are formed when the egg is fertilized and the ovary begins to
veins. swell and ripen. It changes color and becomes fleshy or dry. Animals eat
the fruit and pass the seed out to new places through their waste.
Gymnosperms are one of two groups of vascular plants. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Gymnosperms produce their seeds in cones and generally keep their leaves Many plants can produce new plants without the aid of
throughout the year (evergreen). fertilization.. Asexual reproduction is common in strawberries, potatoes,
irises, spider plants, and grasses. Remember that any plant produced
asexually has the same genes as its parent plant.
Asexual reproduction can be accomplished naturally through organism lives in a specific environment and pursues a particular way of
vegetative propagation. This means that the plant sends out runners or long life. The surroundings in which a particular species can be found is called
modified stems (rhizomes) and grows new plants from these parts. its habitat. An organism can inhabit an entire ecosystem like a woodpecker
might occupy the whole oak forest. But the spider may only inhabit the
trunk of one of the oak trees.
ECOLOGY The way of life that a species pursues within its habitat is called its
ecological niche. An organism’s niche is composed of biotic and abiotic
ECOSYSTEMS factors. Some niches can be very broad (rats) while others can be very
Life on earth extends from the ocean depths to a few kilometers limited (panda).
above the earth’s surface. The area where life exists is called the biosphere.
The biosphere can be more easily understood by breaking it into smaller THE FLOW OF MATERIALS
components called ecosystems. Each ecosystem has its producers, consumers, and decomposers.
An ecosystem is a physically distinct, self-supporting unit of They make up a cycle called a food chain. Food passes from one organism
interacting organisms and their surrounding environment. It is made up of to another in the food chain. Energy is used up by each consumer in the
biotic and abiotic interactions. The biotic factors of an ecosystem are the food chain. Plants make food, animals eat plants, some animals eat other
living organisms in the area. The abiotic factors are the non-living, or animals, and some animals eat plants and other animals. Herbivores are
physical, components of the area like light, soil, water, temperature, wind, animals that eat only plants. Carnivores are animals that each only other
and nutrients. The essential factors that make an ecosystem successful are a animals. Omnivores are animals that eat both plants and animals. A
source of energy, a storage of water, and the ability to recycle water, Saprophyte is an organisms that feeds on dead organisms.
oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. There are many food chains in an ecosystem. The least amount of
Ecosystems must maintain an ecological balance. This can be energy consumed is the item highest in the food chain. In the preceding
helpful or harmful to the members that make up the community depending example that would be the human. All the food chains in an ecosystem
upon whether they are predators or prey. A predator is an animal that feeds make up the food web of the area. Most food chains overlap because many
on other living things. The animal it feeds upon is the prey. Lions organism can eat more than one type of food.
(predator) hunt down and kill antelope (prey). All organisms need certain chemicals in order to live. The most
Each of the biotic organisms in an ecosystem interrelate with the important ones are water, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. The continuous
others. A symbiotic relationship between two members of a community is movement of chemicals throughout an ecosystem is called recycling.
one in which one or both parties benefit. Commensalism is a relationship
in which one member is the host, but causes no harm to the other organism
(barnacles on whales). Mutualism is a relationship in which two living ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
organisms live together in dependency on each other (the protozoa in the An ecosystem goes through a series of changes known as
human intestine). Parasitism is a relationship that involves a host organism ecological succession. Succession occurs when one community slowly
which is harmed by the presence of the other organism (fleas on dogs and replaces another as the environment changes. As succession in a
cats). community continues, it finally reaches a climax community. A few
organisms establish themselves and become the dominant species in the
COMMUNITIES area. The complete process of succession may take anywhere from a
An ecosystem’s biotic factors interact with each other and hundred to thousands of years, depending upon the communities.
compose a community of living things that coexist. Each community is
composed of populations. A population is a group of small individuals of a
single species that occupy a common area and share common resources. POPULATIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS
The number of populations within a community varies. A tropical rain The population of an area is affected by the new offspring
forest community may have thousands of populations while a desert produced in the area. New plants and animals moving in from other places
community may have very few. increase the size of the population. The death of organisms and animals
Just like communities are made up of populations, each moving out of the area decrease the size of the population. There is a direct
populations is composed of interacting individuals. Each individual relationship between the number of plants and animals in an area which is
in ecological balance. If the number of one of them is increased or radioactive wastes, and household wastes. Pesticides like DDT become
decreased, it will affect the numbers of the other. During deer season, the absorbed by the animal and concentrated in their bodies. Acid rain forms
number of deer is reduced by man. The plants that the deer eats will from the exhausts of automobiles which emit sulfur and nitrogen oxides.
increase during this season. These combine with water in the air to form sulfuric and nitric acids.
A change in populations may be helpful or harmful to the The growing population and modern conveniences greatly
community. If insects are killed by insecticide, the animals that depend on contribute to the problems of pollution. Government regulations,
they for food must move elsewhere. Even the human population changes as community efforts, and changes in habits of industries and individuals are
he seasons change. In the summertime, the coastal area is more widely necessary to solve pollution problems.
populated by vacationing people. In the wintertime, the snowy,
mountainous areas are more populated by snow skiers.
Communities are members of a larger ecological unit called a
biome. A biome is an extensive area of similar climate and vegetation. A
biome’s abiotic (non-living) factors determine what plants and animals live
there. The major influences are temperature, light intensity, and patterns of
rainfall, which determine the availability of water. There are six basic
biomes on earth: tundra, taiga, grassland, deciduous forest, desert, tropical
Biomes that are closest to the poles experience the coldest weather
conditions for they are furthest away from the sun due to the tilting of the
Natural resources are necessary for human survival and the making
of necessary products. The natural resources are water, air, soil, wildlife,
and forests. Problems that are now being faced are related to erosion, soil
depletion, species extinction, deforestation, desertification, and water
shortages. Efforts to reverse these problems and their environmental
damages are found in the planned programs of reforestation, captive
breeding, and planned farming through efficient plowing and planting
Disruptive changes can easily upset the stability of an ecosystem.
Destructive acts of nature can occur. A forest fire can destroy all plant and
animal life in a forest, along a river, and around the shore of a pond. It can
also pollute a pond with ash.
Humans are unique in our ability to modify our ecosystem.
Pollution from human acts can also affect an ecosystem. A chemical spill
or pesticides sprayed overhead can kill all plant and animal life with which
it comes in contact with. A housing development along the bank of a river
or on the shore of a pond can bring both garbage and noise pollution, in
addition to direct physical destruction of these habitats.
Pollution is damaging to both the ecosystems and living organisms.
Air, soil, and food resources are being affected by pollution. Pollutants
include automobile exhaust, fertilizers, pesticides, industrial wastes,