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					Communication for whom?




Communication must match the characteristics of the intended
audience, need and interest of audience
Consider your audience
Hostility and unwillingness: feminist, radical, western


•Professional, precise, good and efficient
communication
•Values of tolerance, respect, dignity of other human
beings
•Peculiarities of languages: Hindi and Sanskrit, German



Changing contexts of communication: importance of
soft skills, training
Communication, team work and efficiency of
outcomes

                                     Culture Shock Curve
      Adjustment level




                         Honeymoon stage
                                                            Satisfaction and Enjoyment

                         Crisis & disenchantment
                                                           Recovery & re-adjustment



                           1     2     3     4     5   6       7     8     9    10
                                                   Years
Learning to communicate and Learning
about each other



Game: I Want You To Know
You are given five minutes to write down your
answers for the following question:


What we never want to see, hear or experience again as a
member of this group.
Which group did you learn the most about?

Did any of the statements surprise you?

Did you notice any similarities between the groups?
Talk more
Interact more
Share
Have more of formal and informal meetings
Appreciate and Understand
Know more about the other
Know that there are positive and negative
aspects in all people / cultures
Encourage – use incentives if necessary
       Exercise: Critical incidents


Narrate your experiences and what you learn
from them
Which of these do you feel is more
repugnant?
Which image gives you positive feelings
compared to the other?
Which of these is more repugnant / yucky?
Which image gives you positive feelings?




Earth worm (Farm helper)   Parrot (Pest)
In Communication guard against stereotypes.
Appearances don’t always match the content.


Communication in the workplace: outcomes more
important than appearances
Sharing, Learning and communication


Teaching and joint learning: need for innovative
strategies


  • Panchatantra
• Girls and women may have different
  learning styles, research styles, and
  interests in S&T than do boys and men




• Role of Socialization
Examples of diversity in communication and behaviour
  patterns

1. Rapport talk versus report talk

Public speaking versus private speaking.
    Women talk more than men in private conversations.

      In the public arena, men vie for ascendancy and speak much
       more than women.

       Men assume a lecture style to establish a “one-up” position,
       command attention, convey information, and insist on
       agreement.

       Men's monologue style is appropriate for report, but not for
       rapport.
2. Telling a story.

    Men tell more stories and jokes than do women.

    Telling jokes is a masculine way to negotiate
   status.

    Men are the heroes in their own stories.

    When women tell stories, they downplay
   themselves.
3. Listening.

    Women show attentiveness through verbal and
   nonverbal cues.

    Men may avoid these cues to keep from appearing
   “one-down.”

    A woman interrupts to show agreement, to give
   support, or to supply what she thinks the speaker will
   say (a cooperative overlap).

    Men regard any interruption as a power move.
4. Asking questions

 Men don't ask for help because it exposes their ignorance.

 Women ask questions to establish a connection with others.

 When women state their opinions, they often use tag questions
  to soften the sting of potential disagreement and to invite
  participation in open, friendly dialogue.

5. Conflict

 Men usually initiate and are more comfortable with conflict.
 To women, conflict is a threat to connection to be avoided at all
  costs.
 Men are extremely wary about being told what to do.
Communication styles differ according to
personality type and family background /
socialization
Role of numbers


Who you are and how you speak


Make the effort to learn and understand:
outcomes are important
Hostility, discrimination, and learning


Teaching and sharing in a diverse situation
     •    classroom
     •    laboratory
     •    workshops
     •    field trips
To teach and promote learning for equality we
must first recognize that

   • teaching habits differentially affect various
   populations in our classrooms.




Use appropriate methods for teaching and co-
learning, research communication (oral and written
/ printed)
Use of teaching / presentation aids
METHODS
Use a combination of qualitative and quantitative
methods in data gathering
Use methods from a variety of fields or
interdisciplinary approaches to problem-solving
Include diverse people as experimental subjects in
experiment designs
Use more interactive methods, thereby shortening
the distance between observer and the object being
studied
METHODS (Contd.)
Expand the kinds of observations beyond those
traditionally carried out in scientific research.
Incorporate and validate personal experiences
everyone is likely to have had as part of the class
discussion or laboratory exercise.
Undertake fewer experiments likely to have
applications of direct benefit for eg. to the military and
propose more experiments to explore problems of social
concern.
Consider problems that have not been considered
worthy of scientific investigation because of the field
with which the problem was traditionally associated.
1. Classroom Dynamics
 Differences in communication styles in the classroom
 Encourage class participation
 Whom do you call upon? (teacher)
 How do you respond when someone speaks up?
  (students)
 Establish class norms
 Allowing wait time
2. Personalize Large Classes
 Levels of formality and informality
 Encourage and familiarize with use of study groups:
 Create a better sense of community:
 Use more writing exercises:
 Rearrange the classroom setting:
 Start an e-mail list:
 Provide opportunities for the students to meet
  outside of the classroom:
3. Competitive and Cooperative Educational
  Models
 Address the weedout theory:
 Change the grading system:
 Encourage use of pass/fail option:
 Address grade anxieties:
 Utilize cooperative and collaborative work:
4. Consider a Variety of Examination Options
 Explain and if necessary modify grading system:
 Words of encouragement:
 Follow up on poor exam/lab performance:
 Consider untimed or take-home exams:
 Vary the exam structure and modality:
5. Encourage Active Participation in Labs
 Divide lab roles: avoid heirarchies in tasks and
  roles
 Emphasize lab/classroom connection:
 Show connection to current research topics:
 Have students design labs:
6. Language and communication
 Monitor language and materials
 Gender inclusive terms or non-gender specific
  terms
 Use of examples - all can empathise with
 Avoid generalizations and stereotypes
 Consensus versus debate: discussion, debate,
  collaborative learning, consensus building
Multicultural science curricula, resource materials
and teaching methods


Emphasizes dynamic inquiry and exploration,
   •not static memorized right and wrong answers


How best to enhance learning?


By presenting science as an ongoing, creative activity or
story
   •students should see their own experiences reflected in
   what they learn.
Technology, Development and Communication

How does sensitivity in communication help in
R & D?
CIFOR’s approach on gender and diversity

Use different methods and study different issues for diverse
groups / stakeholders
    IDRC’s Diversity in NRM (Natural Resource
    Management) Approach

“Diversity analysis in NRM contributes to ‘a more accurate
and complete picture of a complex social landscape’ “
“Research that better reflects experiences of diverse groups
is more likely to lead to NRM policies or programmes that
take into account those different experiences and have more
sustainable and equitable impacts.
More accurate and complete assessments lead to more
effective and efficient impacts of research, policy and
development programmes
Groundnut improvement in Maharashtra


Low Adoption of new technology
•    Failure to integrate gender issues
•Be aware


•Be professional


•Be human

				
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