Communication for whom?
Communication must match the characteristics of the intended
audience, need and interest of audience
Consider your audience
Hostility and unwillingness: feminist, radical, western
•Professional, precise, good and efficient
•Values of tolerance, respect, dignity of other human
•Peculiarities of languages: Hindi and Sanskrit, German
Changing contexts of communication: importance of
soft skills, training
Communication, team work and efficiency of
Culture Shock Curve
Satisfaction and Enjoyment
Crisis & disenchantment
Recovery & re-adjustment
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Learning to communicate and Learning
about each other
Game: I Want You To Know
You are given five minutes to write down your
answers for the following question:
What we never want to see, hear or experience again as a
member of this group.
Which group did you learn the most about?
Did any of the statements surprise you?
Did you notice any similarities between the groups?
Have more of formal and informal meetings
Appreciate and Understand
Know more about the other
Know that there are positive and negative
aspects in all people / cultures
Encourage – use incentives if necessary
Exercise: Critical incidents
Narrate your experiences and what you learn
Which of these do you feel is more
Which image gives you positive feelings
compared to the other?
Which of these is more repugnant / yucky?
Which image gives you positive feelings?
Earth worm (Farm helper) Parrot (Pest)
In Communication guard against stereotypes.
Appearances don’t always match the content.
Communication in the workplace: outcomes more
important than appearances
Sharing, Learning and communication
Teaching and joint learning: need for innovative
• Girls and women may have different
learning styles, research styles, and
interests in S&T than do boys and men
• Role of Socialization
Examples of diversity in communication and behaviour
1. Rapport talk versus report talk
Public speaking versus private speaking.
Women talk more than men in private conversations.
In the public arena, men vie for ascendancy and speak much
more than women.
Men assume a lecture style to establish a “one-up” position,
command attention, convey information, and insist on
Men's monologue style is appropriate for report, but not for
2. Telling a story.
Men tell more stories and jokes than do women.
Telling jokes is a masculine way to negotiate
Men are the heroes in their own stories.
When women tell stories, they downplay
Women show attentiveness through verbal and
Men may avoid these cues to keep from appearing
A woman interrupts to show agreement, to give
support, or to supply what she thinks the speaker will
say (a cooperative overlap).
Men regard any interruption as a power move.
4. Asking questions
Men don't ask for help because it exposes their ignorance.
Women ask questions to establish a connection with others.
When women state their opinions, they often use tag questions
to soften the sting of potential disagreement and to invite
participation in open, friendly dialogue.
Men usually initiate and are more comfortable with conflict.
To women, conflict is a threat to connection to be avoided at all
Men are extremely wary about being told what to do.
Communication styles differ according to
personality type and family background /
Role of numbers
Who you are and how you speak
Make the effort to learn and understand:
outcomes are important
Hostility, discrimination, and learning
Teaching and sharing in a diverse situation
• field trips
To teach and promote learning for equality we
must first recognize that
• teaching habits differentially affect various
populations in our classrooms.
Use appropriate methods for teaching and co-
learning, research communication (oral and written
Use of teaching / presentation aids
Use a combination of qualitative and quantitative
methods in data gathering
Use methods from a variety of fields or
interdisciplinary approaches to problem-solving
Include diverse people as experimental subjects in
Use more interactive methods, thereby shortening
the distance between observer and the object being
Expand the kinds of observations beyond those
traditionally carried out in scientific research.
Incorporate and validate personal experiences
everyone is likely to have had as part of the class
discussion or laboratory exercise.
Undertake fewer experiments likely to have
applications of direct benefit for eg. to the military and
propose more experiments to explore problems of social
Consider problems that have not been considered
worthy of scientific investigation because of the field
with which the problem was traditionally associated.
1. Classroom Dynamics
Differences in communication styles in the classroom
Encourage class participation
Whom do you call upon? (teacher)
How do you respond when someone speaks up?
Establish class norms
Allowing wait time
2. Personalize Large Classes
Levels of formality and informality
Encourage and familiarize with use of study groups:
Create a better sense of community:
Use more writing exercises:
Rearrange the classroom setting:
Start an e-mail list:
Provide opportunities for the students to meet
outside of the classroom:
3. Competitive and Cooperative Educational
Address the weedout theory:
Change the grading system:
Encourage use of pass/fail option:
Address grade anxieties:
Utilize cooperative and collaborative work:
4. Consider a Variety of Examination Options
Explain and if necessary modify grading system:
Words of encouragement:
Follow up on poor exam/lab performance:
Consider untimed or take-home exams:
Vary the exam structure and modality:
5. Encourage Active Participation in Labs
Divide lab roles: avoid heirarchies in tasks and
Emphasize lab/classroom connection:
Show connection to current research topics:
Have students design labs:
6. Language and communication
Monitor language and materials
Gender inclusive terms or non-gender specific
Use of examples - all can empathise with
Avoid generalizations and stereotypes
Consensus versus debate: discussion, debate,
collaborative learning, consensus building
Multicultural science curricula, resource materials
and teaching methods
Emphasizes dynamic inquiry and exploration,
•not static memorized right and wrong answers
How best to enhance learning?
By presenting science as an ongoing, creative activity or
•students should see their own experiences reflected in
what they learn.
Technology, Development and Communication
How does sensitivity in communication help in
R & D?
CIFOR’s approach on gender and diversity
Use different methods and study different issues for diverse
groups / stakeholders
IDRC’s Diversity in NRM (Natural Resource
“Diversity analysis in NRM contributes to ‘a more accurate
and complete picture of a complex social landscape’ “
“Research that better reflects experiences of diverse groups
is more likely to lead to NRM policies or programmes that
take into account those different experiences and have more
sustainable and equitable impacts.
More accurate and complete assessments lead to more
effective and efficient impacts of research, policy and
Groundnut improvement in Maharashtra
Low Adoption of new technology
• Failure to integrate gender issues