JCIDs Training Brief part 4 by RMhfl66


									                                    Full Spectrum Analysis

      What               Doctrine                          When                       Where                          How
                            Strategy                Programmatic               Place on the battlefield    Doctrine
                            Policy                     Milestones                 Mobility                   TTP
Capability gaps
                            Goals & Objectives         Time frames                Accessibility              OPLANS
                            Plans & Procedures         Deadlines                  Survivability              Military conditions
   Projected future
                         Organization                  Deliverable dates       Physical Environment          ROE
Technology application
                            Ownership of Assets        FOS Synchronization        Facilities               Leadership
                            Decision Authority         P3I                        Terrain                    Decision Support
   Specific core
   deficiencies,            Command relationships      Time phasing               Weather & climate          Information Mgmt
 problem areas, or       Material                      Spiral acquisition      Theater specific              Deployment
opportunities stated        Comm. interfaces           Spiral development      considerations              Material
  as single issues       Training                   Operational                   Supplies                   Network
                            Competencies               Phases of campaign         Transportation                Design
                            Knowledge                  IOC                        Deployment                    Implementation
                            Skills                     Deployment process         Installation               FOS Integration
                            Abilities                                             Network                    Performance
                            New schools                Time frames that will      Maintenance              Personnel
                            Process                     support acquisition       Civil considerations       Performance
                         Personnel, Facilities        approach. Milestones
                            Support Needs               and.or dates to be
                                                      delivered and fielded.                                 Employment operation.
                                                                                The system’s place on        How will the system be
                                                     Also consider phases of     the future battlefield.
                                                            campaign                                          used to attain present
                                                                                   Consider physical            and current future
                           Organization setting.                                     environment.
                           Which organizations                                                                 military objectives?
                             interface with the                                                                Consider conditions
                            system? Address                                                                  under which the system
                           interfaces with other                                                                   will be used.
                           Joint Systems. Who
                            will use the system
                           when it is developed
                                and fielded?
                         Full Spectrum Analysis

 Function             Mission      Operation        Task        Activity       Event

Operational?            CC           JTFC         Service         Unit      Individual

Job function?
                     System        System        System        System        System
Coalition/allies?     user?         user?         user?         user?         user?

                      Type of       Type of       Type of       Type of       Type of
PDAs?                Interface     Interface     Interface     Interface     Interface

Format?             Information   Information   Information   Information   Information

                      Data          Data          Data          Data          Data
Protected?          Elements      Elements      Elements      Elements      Elements

                      GIG           GIG           GIG           GIG           GIG
NCOW/KIP?           Enabled?      Enabled?      Enabled?      Enabled?      Enabled?

Leveraging DOTMLPF
        Using DOTMLPF as an
        Analytical Tool


        To properly diagnose an ailment, it would be unthinkable for a medical
        doctor to presuppose the source of an underlying medical problem or just
        check one anatomical system then prescribe a course of treatment.
        Similarly, it would be unthinkable for military organization to examine only
        one component of DOTMLPF and prescribe a course of treatment or

Consider any basic human activity. Walking involves the circulatory system, the
nervous system, the respiratory system, the skeletal system, and the muscular
system. Eating involves the digestive system AND the nervous system. Both
systems work together to deliver that “capability.” In the same way, putting a bomb
on target requires a lot more than a properly designed material system.


  To draw proper conclusions and take a necessary
  course of action to solve a problem or deal with a
  situation, you must have all the pertinent facts. The
  degree to which you have not collected all of the
  pertinent facts is directly proportional to how valid and
  correct (or invalid and incorrect) your conclusions are
  and your case or proposed solution will be.

  Solving operational issues and deficiencies in the
  Department of Defense is no exception.

  DOTMLPF can be an effective tool in investigating and
  gathering all the pertinent data you need to draw
  conclusions needed to formulate a complete, relevant,
  and correct set of requirements for solving operational
  issues and deficiencies. It can help you gain the proper
  aspect, perspective and gain the analytical vantage
  point needed to clearly see the true nature of a


• DOTMLPF is like a big filing cabinet.
• Look at issues, operations, or business
    - breaking apart into more discrete,
      manageable sets of tasks and deliverables.
• Each component of DOTMLPF is like one of
  seven drawers in which to place different
  kinds of products and services the DOD
  needs to conduct business.
    - Contents of each drawer are the problems,
      issues, and technological, management, &
      implementation opportunities associated
      with that category

        3180 & the TCP

         • If “M” = equipment (including hardware
           and software) physical materials, and
           other tangible products used in the delivery
           of a capability, and
         • “solutions” = the reliable and dependable
           delivery of capability to achieve
           operational objectives, and
         • Solutions > m…
         • Consider the following equation:

            D + O + T5 + M + L + P2 + F = solution

 This means that the FCBs should be looking for a DOTMLPF
Transformation Package for almost every program. (The exception
could be self-installing vehicles tires, peanut butter snacks, and buttons.)

                    DOTMLPF Analysis

• Is there existing doctrine that addresses the operational deficiency
  or relates to the operational deficiency? Joint? Service? Agency?
• Are there operating procedures in place that are NOT being
  followed which contribute to the operational deficiency? Which
  could, at least in part, correct the operational deficiency or lessen its
• If no doctrine or procedures are in place which pertain to the
  operational deficiency, does new doctrine or do new procedures
  need to be developed and implemented which provide either a
  complete or partial solution to the operational deficiency?

                   DOTMLPF Analysis

• Where is the problem occurring? What organizations is the
  problem occurring in?
• What is the mission/management focus of those organizations?
    - Primary and secondary missions
• What are the organizational values and priorities?
• Is the organization properly staffed and funded to deal with the
  operational deficiency and/or its underlying causes?
• Are commanding officers/senior management aware of the
  operational deficiency?
• Is the operational deficiency already in some type of organizational
  issue list (CC IPL)?
• If so, why isn’t the operational deficiency being resolved?
• Who exactly is aware of/impacted by the operational deficiency?
• Could the mission need or problem be solved or improved by
  reorganization or organizational restructuring?

                    DOTMLPF Analysis

• Is the operational deficiency caused, at least in part, by a complete
  lack of or inadequate training?
• Does training exist which addresses the operational deficiency?
• Is the training being delivered effectively?
• How are training results being measured and monitored?
• Is the operational deficiency caused by a lack of competency or
  proficiency on existing systems and equipment?
• Was the operational deficiency discovered in an exercise?
• Do personnel effected by the operational deficiency have access to
• Is command/management supporting and/or enforcing the training
• Is training properly staffed and funded?

                    DOTMLPF Analysis

• Is the operational deficiency caused, at least in part, by inadequate
  systems or equipment?
• What current systems are in the Family-of-Systems where the
  problem is occurring?
• What functionality would a new system provide that currently does
  not exist?
• What increases in operational performance are needed to resolve
  the operational deficiency?
• Is the operational deficiency caused by a lack of competency or
  proficiency on existing systems and equipment?
• Can increases in performance be achieved without development of
  a new system? If so define.
• Who would be the primary and secondary users of the proposed
  systems or equipment?

                       DOTMLPF Analysis

•   Is the operational deficiency caused, at least in part, by inability or
    decreased ability to cooperate/coordinate/ communicate with external
•   Do senior officers understand the scope of the problem?
•   Does command have resources at its disposal to correct the operational
•   Is leadership being trained on effective change management principles?
•   Has command properly assessed level of criticality, threat, urgency, risk,
    etc. of the operational results of the operational deficiency?
•   Is senior leadership aware of the drivers and barriers to resolving the
    operational deficiency within her/his own organization?
•   Has senior leadership identified interservice/agency cultural drivers and
    barriers which hinder operational deficiency resolution?
•   Does the operational deficiency effect CC or JTF’s conduct Joint

                    DOTMLPF Analysis

• Is the operational deficiency caused, at least in part, by inability or
  decreased ability to place qualified and trained personnel in
  occupational specialties?
• If materiel or equipment was involved, were personnel tested and
  certified on their aptitude for operating all equipment used in
  executing the mission?
• If solution requires new material, systems, or equipment - are
  different occupational specialty codes or sub codes needed to
  properly staff new systems?
    - Primary users
    - Maintenance personnel
    - Support personnel
• Do new training programs need to be developed for newly recruited

                           DOTMLPF Analysis

•   Is the operational deficiency caused, at least in part, by inadequate infrastructure?
•   If so, was the problem a result of
     -   Aging/wear?
     -   New engineering didn’t meet needs?
     -   Battle damage/threat?
•   Was operational deficiency caused by lack of proper environmental controls?
•   Was operational deficiency caused, at least in part, by inadequate
     -   Roads/trails?
     -   Main supply routes?
     -   Force beddown?
     -   Facilities operation and maintenance?
     -   Hardening?
     -   Field fortification support?
     -   Etc?

Operational Concepts
         Creating Use Cases to
         Visualize the Operational

The Dreaded Operational Concept

           What’s in An Ops Concept?

• What’s the warfighter pain?
• How will proposed solution alleviate warfighter the pain?
  Improve warfighter performance?
• Address major operational “use cases” in which
  proposed solution will be applied
• ID how solution will help achieve functional and Joint
  Operational Concepts
• Identify Families-of-Systems and/or System-of-Systems
  in which solution will be employed
• Explain high-level, implementation approach and
• Spiral acquisition approach

                                    The Benefit of Using An
                                   Operational Concept Matrix
                                                             5. ID test issues early in the
                                                                  4. Identify test issues
1. Clearly identify warfighter                                          process
                                                                     early in process
  issues (interoperability &                                                                                     6. ID risks factors
            others)                                                                                                  to program

                   2. Establish what level
                       tasks are in the
  WHO?             operational IER Matrix.

                                                                                      4. Establish criticality essential to
                                        3. Establish whether or not                          KPP development
WHERE?                                 operational IERs are needed
                                     early in the process & whether or
                                             not they are Joint.

              Another Approach? Why?

• Simplicity
• Back to basics
   - “When you’re up to your ass in alligators, it is sort of hard to remember
     that your main objective was to drain the swamp!”
   - A way to focus on what we really need to know NOW
• A way to leverage the architecture we already have
   - With JCIDS we transitioned from silent movies to “talkies”
   - The industry is still trying to understand how to leverage previously
     developed products (architecture, requirements documents, analytical
     methods) in a capabilities, mission-centric world
   - Not all the players are going to be able to make the transition
• Speed
   - Define today
   - Refine tomorrow
       • and the next day…
       • and the day after that…

                      Some Definitions

• Joint Mission Threads
   - “A functional grouping of mission specific synchronized activities
     (material and non-material), tasks, their associated attributes,
     directed toward a common purpose (a comprehensive capability)
     that facilitates the interoperability and integration of joint forces
     while providing a consistently executable management tool to
     address the development, synchronization, monitoring, assessing
     and refining of a mission area across the DOTMLPF spectrum.”
• Benchmarks (Reference Scenarios)
   - A simplified set of scenario-based, sequential, warfighter tasks
     and activities, protocols, standards, attributes and associated
     architecture products that facilitates and streamlines
       • Development & revision of operational concepts,
       • ID and assessment of FOSs/COIs/SOSs, and
       • Integration of multiple related architecture products, Joint Concepts,
         and Joint Mission threads


• Product
   - Simple
         • Too complex and it won’t be used
   - Short
         • 10 page max
• Contents
   - Joint Narrative
         • OV-1(s) and scenario(s)
   - FOS/SOS Matrix
         • An SV-5 on the side
   - Mission threading from SPG to attributes
• Customers
   -   OPS analysts
   -   JCIDS documents approval authorities
   -   JCIDS document writers
   -   Architecture development
   -   Modeling and simulation

Example OV-1
 Joint Vertical Heavy Lift

Define the Family of Systems
                    SV-5 turned on it’s side

                                   IER Sender/Receiver/Node

• Interoperability issues
     -   Connectivity
     -   Processing (network design)
     -   Protocols and standards
     -   Display
     -   DOTMLPF (for each command)
     -   Other in-theater drivers and barriers to interoperability

Strategy to Task Decomposition
    The Operational Thin Lines for the Benchmark

            The JICs and task decomposition shouldn’t conflict with
            each other if both are developed from a mission-centric
            perspective. The JI&I Requirements Branch has been
            thinking in the mission-centric, warfighter mode since we
            began our 3170 training, so we’re actually a bit ahead in
            our thinking.




               Beyond Strategy to Task Analysis
                       Getting to the Real Value Added - DOTMLPF Analysis

Single JMT                                                Benchmark
Operational      Function     Operation                                               UJTL Task                   Activity                        Event
“Thin Line”                                                 Mission

                Consumers       JTFC                                                   Service                     Unit                         Individual

                                D   Products & Services     D                           D                           D                             D

                                                                Products & Services

                                                                                            Products & Services

                                                                                                                          Products & Services

                                                                                                                                                       Products & Services
              • What are
              • What            O                           O                           O                           O                             O
                should they
                be?             T                           T                           T                           T                             T
              • Do the
                warfighters     M                           M                           M                          M                              M
                have them?
              • Are they        L                           L                           L                           L                             L
                for the         P                           P                           P                           P                             P
                                F                           F                           F                           F                             F

                            Ops Analyst Uses
• Identify capabilities and capability gaps against the most common
  (benchmark) scenarios in Joint operations
• Perform gap analysis (operational, system, technical)
• The simplified integrated architecture templates in the benchmark should be:
    -   Augmented,
    -   Toyed with,
    -   Added to,
    -   Challenged, and
    -   Used to compare and contrast other products.
• Flexible reference point…a conversation starter…a home base (point of
  departure) for:
    -   integrated architecture development
    -   requirements development
    -   concept interpretation, and
    -   “what if” discussions.
          • Benchmarks won’t contain every exception, variant, or deviation from the norm but
            could be used as a point of departure to identify and create more tailored products
            when needed.

             JCIDS Document Writers

• Will allow referencing of benchmarks instead of
  developing concept of operations from scratch
• Reduce conflicting operations concepts for the same
   - Every ops concept doesn’t need to be a stand-alone essay.
   - Sometimes multiple choice and matching are just fine to getting
     the point across.
   - Describing how your systems improve warfighter or FOS/SOS
     performance in specific benchmarks would be easier than writing
     everything from scratch.
      • Paint by number
• Our experience has shown that working through the
  benchmark process will help facilitate and streamline the
  document development process.
           Establish Performance Requirement

1                     2                        3        For each      4
    Re-format each           Match each              requirement/             For each
    Capability Gap          requirement            COS pair, ID all        COS/attribute
     derived from          with every COS          attributes which            pair, ID
    the core issue         which must be                must be            threshold and
    as a Condition        satisfied in order        addressed for             objective
      of Success             to meet the            the COS to be           performance
         (COS)              requirement                 satisfied              levels

8 Check PRs for       7                        6                      5
      Operational         Re-evaluate PRs          For each unique        Repeat process
     Requirements         throughout the               attribute,             for each
    for consistency             task               determine most          COS/Attribute
          with            decomposition                stringent          pair attached to
      Information             process               threshold and         the requirement
       Exchange                                    objective value

                            Cost of Failure

1                      2         ID what       3       Determine       4
      Determine                 products            which services            ID which
        whose                  cannot be               cannot be           resources are
    performance is             effectively             effectively          threatened if
      hindered if              developed               developed           requirement is
    requirement is         and/or delivered        and/or delivered           not met.
       not met.            if requirement is       if requirement is
                                not met.                not met.

     This process is especially helpful for identifying                5
                                                                                ID Joint
     KPPs and prioritizing requirements. This analysis                     components are
                                                                             effected if the
     should be performed for each capability gap and                        requirement is
                                                                                not met.
     associated requirements.

9                      8                       7                       6
                           Associate each          Determine level             ID service
                              COF with             of damage that           organizations/
    Prioritize COFs.         categories               could be             units effected if
                            establish for            sustained if          the requirement
                           current project.        requirement is             is not met.
                                                       not met.

                          Determine Risks

1                     2       For each       3                    4       For each
      Determine              technical             Determine           programmatic
    major technical       dependency, list           major            dependency, list
    dependencies            drivers and          programmatic           drivers and
       for each              barriers to         dependencies            barriers to
     requirement             satisfying             for each             satisfying
                             technical            requirement            technical
                            dependency                                  dependency

                      7                      6                    5
                                                                          List other
                                                    Assess               drivers and
                           Develop risk          probability of        barriers (policy,
                           management            eliminating or       interoperab-ility,
                             strategy              mitigating           cost, etc.) for
                                                    barriers            requirements

            Mission Assessment Process


Information Exchange Requirements
& the NR KPP
           The Groundwork for the GIG

                        What is an IER?

• The 3170 defines “Information Exchange Requirement” as the
  requirement for information to be passed between and among
  forces, organizations, or administrative structures concerning on-
  going activities
• Quality (i.e. frequency, timeliness, security) and quantity (i.e.
  volume, speed, and type of information such as data, voice, and
  video) are attributes of the information exchange included in the
• All you need to understand at this point is that an operational IER
  should tell you:
    -   Who is sending the information
    -   What information is being sent
    -   Why the information is being sent
    -   Who is receiving the information
    -   How the information must be passed for the warfighter mission,
        business process, or transaction to be completed successfully

                              What is an IER?

                 Capability Gap
                                                          (Key) Performance Parameter
Mission                                 Condition of
                    Based                                         Attribute
Context                                  Success

                                               Interoperability (IERs)

 When an information exchange is inherent in a requirement, the IER is a Condition of
  Success for that requirement. The IER is necessary, but not sufficient, for meeting that
 If the operational requirement is key or critical, the IERs associated with it are key or
 Inversely, if the operational requirement is not key or critical, the IERs associated with it
  are not key or critical.

               So…What Else Is an IER?

• IER is a Condition of Success for a requirement
• It is a requirement, but what is desired result of the requirement?
    - Transmission?
    - Reception?
• Cannot be generally understood with single threads
• IERs are detailed pictures of how a System-of-Systems or Family-
  of-Systems should work to support specific transactions within an
• IERs are statements of why information is needed and operational
  context in which to place the data elements
• The connection between system and operational architecture
    - If properly formulated, the IER makes system architecture relevant

                                                               1. Information exchange
                              For this           Event         necessary to support the
                               event                           event?

                                  Information                  Performance
                 WHAT                                         Requirements
                                                         (Attributes, Thresholds,         HOW
                                   Elements                     Objectives)
   2. Specifically - what                                                             4. Determine how the
   information? Format,                                                               information must be
  content, data elements,                                                             passed to support levels of
       classification, etc.                                                           performance for each set
                                                                    Receiver          of operational conditions
                                   Sender A                            A              or circumstances.

                                   Sender B        OPFAC               B
               WHO                                                                        WHO
  3. Go to OPLANS, recent          Sender C         Unit
ops, ID possible senders and
         receivers, and what
              conditions and                                        Receiver
                                   Sender D                            D
         circumstances they
  send/receive. Who are the
                                         Many possible transactions
                            For this           Event

                                Information                  Performance
                     WHAT                                   Requirements
                                                       (Attributes, Thresholds,   HOW
                                 Elements                     Objectives)
• Are multiple senders
  transmitting the same
  simultaneously?                                                 Receiver
                                 Sender A                            A
• Is redundancy a
                   WHO           Sender B                            B
• Are there designated                                            Receiver
  primary and backup             Sender C                            C
• What are system                                                 Receiver
  assets and abilities           Sender D                            D
  for each sender
                                       Many possible transactions

                           Information             Performance
      Event                                       Requirements
                              Data           (Attributes, Thresholds,
                            Elements                Objectives)

              Receiver A       Receiver B   Receiver C     Receiver D

Sender A           X                X           X               X

Sender B           X                            X

Sender C                            X           X               X

Sender D           X                X

 Many possible transactions

                           Information              Performance
      Event                                        Requirements
                              Data            (Attributes, Thresholds,
                            Elements                 Objectives)

              Receiver A        Receiver B   Receiver C     Receiver D

Sender A      System path      System path   System path    System path

Sender B      System path                    System path

Sender C                       System path   System path    System path

Sender D      System path      System path

               Representing IERs in this manner
            bridges requirements to support plans.
           This works for all transactions - not just
                        Attribute Characterization Model

MOP: Sensor              MOP: C4
data accurate              system                                                 MOE: Target
  within 10            navigation error     Network                Network        Position Data
   meters                < 1 meter                                                98% accurate
                                           Transmitter             Receiver
                                               C                      D

            Data                                Data                                         Data
          Collection                          Collection                                   Collection
            Point                               Point                                        Point

         Sensor                             Processor             Processor                Shooter
           A                                    B                     E                      F

       Target Position
            Data                          You must specify which portion of the
                                          model applies to the KPP thresholds
                                          and objectives.


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