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AP Biology Ch 18 and 19 Concepts and Vocabulary


									Chapter 18 and 19 Key Words and Concepts                                                  AP Biology

Vocabulary Ch 18

Capsid, phages, lytic cycle, lysogenic cycle, restriction enzymes, retroviruses, HIV, AIDS, provirus,
vaccines, emerging viruses, viroids, prions, nucleoid, transformation, transduction, conjugation, plasmid,
bacterial cell, transposable elements, insertion sequence, transposons, operator, repressor, regulatory
gene, trp, lac, inducer, gene regulation

Objectives Ch 18

List and describe the structural components of viruses

Explain how a virus identifies its host

Distinguish between lytic and lysogenic

Describe the reproductive cycles of retroviruses

List some characteristics that viruses share with living organisms and explain why viruses do no fit our
usual definition of life

Describe the evidence that viruses probably evolved from fragments of cellular nucleic acids

Describe how AZT helps to fight HIV infections

Describe the mechanisms behind emerging viruses

Describe viroids and prions

Compare the processes of genetic variation in bacteria and humans

Compare the processes of transformation, transduction, and conjugation

Define episome. Explain why a plasmid can be an episome.

Explain the role of F plasmid in bacteria conjugation.

Describe the significance of R plasmids

Explain how transposable elements may cause recombination of bacterial DNA.

Distinguish between insertion sequence and a transposon.

Explain the adaptive advantage of genes grouped into an operon.

Using the trp operon as an example, explain the concept of an operon and the function of the operator,
repressor, and corepressor

Distinguish between structural and regulatory genes
Describe how the lac operon functions and explain the role of the inducer, allolactose

Distinguish between positive and negative control and give examples of each from the lac operon

Explain how cyclic AMP and catabolic activator protein are affected by glucose concentration

Vocabulary Ch 19

Chromatin, histone, nucleosome, cell differentiation, differential gene expression, genomic imprinting,
transcription factors, enhancers, activator, repressors, alternative RNA splicing, microRNAs, oncogenes,
proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, effects of mutations (figure 19.12), repetitive DNA,
retrotransposons, Barbara McClintock, transposable elements contribution to genome evolution

Objectives Ch 19

Compare the structure and organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes

Explain how histones influence folding in eukaryotic DNA

Explain the difference between differentiation and differential gene expression

Define epigenetic inheritance

Describe the processing of pre-mRNA in eukaryotes

Define control elements and explain how they influence transcription

Explain the role that promoters, enhancers, activators, and repressors may play in transcriptional control

Give some examples of coordinated gene expression in eukaryotes

Describe the process and significance of alternative RNA splicing

Compare the longevity of mRNA in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes

Explain how gene expression may be controlled at the translational and post-translational level

Distinguish between proto-oncogenes and oncogenes. Describe three genetic changes that can convert
proto-oncogenes into oncogenes

Explain how mutations in tumor-suppressing genes can contribute to cancer

Explain how excessive mutations in cell division can result from mutations in the ras proto-oncogenes

Describe the significance of the p53 gene (that’s not a page number)

Describe the set of genetic factors typically associated with the development of cancer

Explain why viruses can cause cancer…give a few examples

Explain how inherited cancer alleles can lead to a predisposition to certain cancers
Distinguish between transposons and retrotransposons

Describe the structure and location of Alu elements inn primate genomes

What is “simple sequence” DNA

Using the genes for rRNA as an example, explain how multigene families of identical genes can be
advantageous for a cell

Give a few examples from the book as to how genes may have evolved

Vocabulary Ch 20

Genetic engineering, restriction enzyme, genetically modified organism, restriction fragment,
biotechnology, genomic library, RFLP, clone, genomics, restriction site, Human Genome Project, cloning
vector, denaturation, linkage map, SNP, DNA fingerprint, nucleic acid hybridization, DNA ligase, sticky
end, Southern blotting, DNA microassay, PCR, gel electrophoresis, transgenic, recombinant DNA, gene
therapy, gene cloning

Vocabulary 21

Cell differentiation, totipotent, cloning, clone, reproductive cloning, stem cell, pluripotent, homeotic
genes, apoptosis, chimeras, homeobox,

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