The Concept of Sustainable Consumption and
Regional Helpdesk on Sustainable Consumption and Production in Asia and the Pacific
Malaysia Green Growth Policy Tools Training Workshop
Kuala Lumpur, 19th May 2010
Objective: familiarizing with the concept of Sustainable
Consumption and Production (SCP), introducing the
Marrakech Process and SCP progress in Asia and the
What is Sustainable Consumption and Production
Global SCP progress : Marrakech Process
SCP in Asia and the Pacific
Develop the SCP in Asia and the Pacific
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What is Sustainable Consumption and Production
1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland
Commission) of the United Nations (UN) articulated a widely accepted
definition of sustainability:
"[to meet] the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
1992, Rio World Summit. The 21 Agenda stated “the major cause of the
continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable
pattern of consumption and production, particularly in
industrialized countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty
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1992. Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. [the first time gained international prominence]
1994. Oslo symposium. [literal definition of SCP was given; debated in detail]
1999. UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection. [one more chapter on “Promotion of
SCP” was added]
2002. Johannesburg Summit (WSSD). [a 10-year framework of programmes (10YFP)
was addressed to accelerate the shift towards SCP regionally and nationally]
2003. Marrakech Meeting. [led by UNEP and the UNDESA, the first discussion on
10YFP on SCP in Marrakech, Morocco. So we call this global process
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Consumption and production
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Consumption + Production + ?
Whenever a product or service is produced or consumed,
natural resources are used and pollutants or emissions
are dumped in the biosphere.
+ both, natural resources and the absorption capacity of
the ecosystems are limited.
Hence sustainability in consumption and production activities means:
to use natural resources and the absorption capacity of
the biosphere at a rate at which they can be replenished.
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Reduce GHG Emissions and
Climate Change, air and
water pollution, etc.
Sustainable Consumption and production
Sustainable Product Design matters
(energy and resource Increase
efficient in production and Repair and
use, save and healthy for Reuse Rate
consumers, repairable, Provide Resource
recyclable, biodegradable) Increase
Efficient, Save and
Supply Chain Corporate Social Green Public
Management Responsibility (CSR) Procurement Proper Waste
Environmental Impact Energy Efficient
in Resource Extraction Production, Eco Labeling, Product
Energy/Environmental Information Disclosure
Purchasing Decision for Green Resource Efficient Use of
Sustainability Standards for and Fair Products: Consumer Products: Lifestyles, Cultural
Reduce Resource Production and Products, Information, Cultural and Values, User Information and
Consumption Standard Certification Social Aspects, Price, Quality, Training, Habits, Routines,
LCC Institutions and Infrastructure
Reduce Land Use
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What is SCP?
Aset of practical implementation strategies and
practices that address one or more phases of the life cycle of a product or
service to reduce environmental impact;
A political agenda on how the production and use of goods and services
can be better aligned with the goals of sustainable development;
A holistic perspective that integrates economic, social and
environmental aspects, as well as technological and behavioral innovation, along
the whole life cycle;
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Norwegian Ministry of Environment defines SCP as:
“the production and use of goods and services that respond to basic
needs and bring a better quality of life, while minimising the use of natural
resources, toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the
life cycle, so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations.”
Source: Norwegian Ministry of Environment, Oslo Symposium (1994)
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United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development
defines SCP in order “to promote
social and economic development
within the carrying capacity of ecosystems
by addressing and, where appropriate, de-linking economic growth and
through improving efficiency and sustainability in the use of resources and
and reducing resource degradation, pollution and waste.”
Source: United Nations (2002), Chapter 3, 15
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SCP: A holistic approach
Cross-cutting: SCP includes many disciplines such as economics, social
and cultural sciences, engineering as well as ecology and other natural
Triple Bottom Line: SCP integrates economic, environmental and
social aspects equally.
All natural resources: SCP covers all natural resources like energy,
water, air, soil and all pollutants and emissions dumped in the ecosystems
(GHG, NOx, sulphur oxides and heavy metals, etc.)
limited to any
All sectors and consumption domains: SCP is not
consumption domain or industry sector;
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Global SCP progress : Marrakech Process
The Marrakech Process has undertaken the
following tasks :
Organising regional consultations to promote awareness and identify priorities
and needs for SCP;
Helping build regional programmes and implementation mechanisms with
regional, subregional and national ownership, to be endorsed by the relevant
Implementing concrete projects and programmes on the regional, national and
local levels to develop and/or improve SCP tools and methodologies, with the
seven Task Forces as the main mechanisms;
Evaluating progress, exchanging information and encouraging international
cooperation and coordination, through the international review meetings;
Securing and incorporating multi-stakeholder inputs on the elaboration of a
10YFP to be submitted as input to the CSD18/19.
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Mechanisms of the Marrakech Process on SCP
Members: government representatives from different regions (Africa,
Asia Pacific, European Union, Latin America, and North America),
representatives of the Marrakech Task forces, and of the Major Groups.
Objectives: providing advices on the elaboration of the 10YFP, more
political commitment and financial support.
Secretariat: UNDESA and UNEP.
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10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP
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Main objectives of the 10 YFP
decouple economic growth from environmental degradation while preventing a rebound
effect(e.g., increase resource and energy efficiency, dematerialize, move to a sustainable low-
couple economic development with the creation of decent jobs and increase in welfare
mainstream the sustainable use and management of natural resources in the decision-making
process of governments, private sector and civil society organizations;
stimulate demand for and supply of sustainable products and services in the market which
would involve creation of new economic activities and decent jobs, within the carrying capacity of
promote more sustainable and low-carbon lifestyles; and
enhance social development through sustainable investment in people and communities as
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Marrakech Process Outcomes
seven Marrakech Task Forces have been created that support the development of SCP
tools, capacity building and the implementation of SCP projects on the following
specific SCP-related issues: cooperation with Africa, sustainable products, sustainable
lifestyles, sustainable public procurement, sustainable tourism development, sustainable
buildings and construction, and education for sustainable consumption.
Regional Consultations (in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Arab region, Europe, Latin America and
North America) have been setup to develop regional SCP programmes and implementation
mechanisms, to raise awareness on SCP and identify regional SCP needs and priorities,
and obtain feedback and inputs from regional experts.
Activities have also taken place at the national level supporting the development of
National SCP Programmes through capacity building and implementation of
demonstration projects in various countries, including Mauritius, Senegal, Indonesia,
Tanzania, Egypt, Mozambique, Colombia, Brazil and Ecuador. Progress has been made in
engaging countries with emerging economies, including the convening of national
roundtables on SCP in China, India, Brazil and South Africa.
So far over 30 countries worldwide have developed or are in the process of developing
their national SCP programmes
45 NCPCs support development of projects on cleaner development; disseminate technical
information; and provide policy support to governments
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SCP in Asia and the Pacific
SCP in Asia and the Pacific region
The Asia Pacific region has elected for a Green-Growth Strategy that is based on
greening business and markets, sustainable infrastructure, green tax and
budget reform, investment in natural capital, and eco-efficiency through
cleaner production. Policies and strategies to support those are: economic
instruments, eco-tax reform, green procurement, public information
disclosure, and product stewardship tools.
The Asia-Pacific roundtable on SCP was set up in 1998 and has convened 8
times thus far. The latest roundtable held in Philippines in 2008 focused on the
business sector with the topic ‘Sustainable Consumption and Climate change –
Engaging the market’.
In addition, national roundtables have been arranged in China and India, with
the objectives to strengthen China’s and India’s active involvement in the
Marrakech Process, identify their specific needs, priority areas and gaps as well
as exchange expertise on SCP with other regions, particularly Europe.
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Implementation of SCP
Real efforts of coordination of various line ministries and
bodies at both national level and local level.
Reeducation of production cost
Cross cutting issue
Addition of price premium to
Multitude of ministries and
Creation of new market
Various competencies, agendas
Generation of jobs and priorities
Pollution prevention (reduce Knowledge fragmented
environmental cost and health
Complexity in holistic view
Leapfrog to modern
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General policy instruments Changing production patterns
- Taxes, subsidies - Regulation of emissions and effluents
- Charges or incentives for cleaner production
- Preferential tariffs and trade policies
- Product standards (e.g. energy efficiency)
- Economic instruments - Cleaner production programmes(R&D, training, technical assistance)
- Tax reform - Pollutant reporting and registers
- Consumer protection policies - Strategic industrial and technology planning
- Polluter-pays principle - Investment incentives
- Integrated product policies - Voluntary initiatives and codes of conduct
- Corporate social/environmental responsibility
Changing consumer behaviour - Improved management accounting
- Education and public information - Investment analysis
- Consumer information Analytical tools
- Labeling, eco-labels - Life-cycle analysis
- Consumer organizations - Indicators of sustainability
- Technology impact assessment
- Public procurement policies
- Policy impact assessment
- Impacts of globalization and urbanization
- Impacts of changes in international markets
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Policy for SCP -National Action Plans
Country NAP policy for SCP (year) Description/Focus
China The Law on Circular Economy (2006) Ecological efficiency in economic development; construction of eco-industrial
parks; public participation; extending producer responsibility
Indonesia Sustainable Consumption and Production Support for Indonesia National Action Plan on climate change
Programme (under development)
Japan Fundamental Plan for Establishing a Sound Restrain the consumption of natural resources; reduction of material input and
Material-Cycle Society (2003) resource extraction; waste minimization (3Rs); reduced energy
Korea SCP as "Implementation Task" in the Eco-labeling; procurement of environmentally friendly products in public and
National Strategy for Sustainable private sectors; dissemination of cleaner production technologies;
Development (2006-2010). establishment of eco-Industrial Parks
Thailand SCP strategy is one of the four national Provide for basic needs and quality of life;. balanced state of happiness, self
strategies of the 10th National sufficiency, and social security; education and public awareness
Economic and Social Development campaigns; reduce government subsidies for dirty production; taxes
Plan (2007) on dirty industry sectors; promote government green procurement
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SCP in China
Policy and Legislation: The Law on Circular Economy (2006);SCP
strategy as part of the 11th 5-year-plan (2006-2010).
Engaging Stakeholders: NDRC (National Development and Reform
Commission), MOF (Ministry of Finance), MEP (Ministry of Environmental
Protection), PBC (People’s Bank of China ---China Central Bank), CNIS
(China National Institute of Standardization) etc.
Financial Support: 14.5% of 585 Billion (US $) Chinese Stimulus
Package in 2008-2009 for green industry; official document NDRC 
No.801, encouraging banks and financial companies providing higher
priorities by loan and financial funding on SCP projects and industries.
Raising Awareness: Various SCP Promotion Plans through public
media, school, as well as big events such as Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
and Shanghai Expo 2010.
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SCP in Thailand
Policy and Legislation: SCP strategy is one of the four national strategies of the
10th National Economic and Social Development Plan (2006–2011).
Engaging Stakeholders: NESDB (National Economic and Social Development
Board), SCPC (SCP Advisory Committee), TEI (Thailand Environmental Institute)
Integration into the local context: gain Thailand’s vision of SCP by local
research and SWOT analysis, “moderate level consumption and production for self
sufficiency and better quality of life for present and subsequent
generations by considering the reserves of natural resources and the
capacity of ecological life supporting system”; making strategies and SCP indicators
step by step; prioritize strategies; implementation and monitoring strategies;
evaluation and interative design. Nice systematic approach!!!
Create marketing conditions: taxes on dirty industry sectors; promote
government GPP; create export market for environmentally friendly products.
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SCP in Malaysia
Malaysia has already taken one of the leading roles to promote
SCP in the region.
Policy and Legislation: the government under the 8th Malaysia Plan
(2001 to 2005) had changed the four-fuel policy to the five-fuel policy with
the addition of renewable energy as the fifth source of fuel in 1999 [target:
by 2005, 5% of the country’s electricity generated from renewable
resource]; Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3: a ten-year plan 2001-2010) for
Create awareness: National Education Blueprint (2006-2010),
encouraging transformation in education that will create a sustainable
future; Centre for Education and Training in Renewable Energy and
Energy Efficiency (CETREE), promoting renewable energy by providing
knowledge and training.
Create marketing conditions: Eco-labelling schemes (by SIRIM, FAMA,
MEC etc.); tax relief and waivers of import duties for renewable technology
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Develop SCP in Asia and the Pacific
Sustainable housing – new trends in Asia
Buildings requiring little energy and generating no greenhouse gases (‘zero-emissions’)
do not necessarily require innovative high-tech ideas and such houses are already
being built in many Asian countries.
For example, in China Dongtan Eco-city is being developed in the Yangtze River near
Shanghai with low-energy housing for half a million people. In Thailand, architects
are designing a model home re-using four shipping containers and prefabricated
modules from natural materials. The prototype attempts to build a comfortable and
sustainably-built home while meeting the practical needs of a Thai family, including a
plot of land for kitchen gardening.
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SCP for Jakarta’s transport system
the city is developing a comprehensive strategy which includes mass transit,
improved pedestrian facilities, and traffic restraining measures.
An integrated network for pedestrians and non-motorised vehicles is being
established, together with electronic road pricing systems, parking
restraints, and car-free days.
Traffic zones have been established which only let in vehicles with three or
The municipal administration wants all vehicles travelling on city roads to drive on
natural gas by 2010.
A Bus Rapid Transit system is most promising in the short term, with 10 lanes
already open and an additional five planned.
About 15% of bus passengers are previous car users and the system is already
thought to be responsible for cutting 155 tonnes of nitrogen oxide emissions,
23 tonnes of particulate emissions, and 20,000 tonnes of CO2 per year. A
light monorail system is due to be built over the next few years which will give
further emission reductions (Ministry of Transport and Environment Indonesia,
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Organic food as adaptation and
mitigation strategy in southern India
Rising temperatures and droughts pose a threat to agriculture and food security in many of
the world’s regions, including Asian countries. Particularly small-scale farmers in the tropics
and subtropics will be strongly affected. Organic agriculture can both reduce greenhouse
gas emissions with fewer energy inputs and withstand climate change impacts like drought
with greater efficacy.
In India agriculture accounts for 28 percent of the country’s greenhouse gas
emissions, mainly methane emission from paddy fields and cattle and nitrous oxides from
In Andhra Pradesh, an arid interior part of southern India, a collective of 5,000 women
spread across 75 villages is now offering a chemical-free, non-irrigated, organic
agriculture as one method of combating and adapting to global warming.
The women successfully grow as many as 19 types of indigenous crops to an acre, on arid,
previously degraded lands, certified by the Participatory Guarantee Scheme (PGS)‘s
Organic India Council. They also run a uniquely evolved system of ‚crop financing‘ and
food-distribution that they have designed themselves.
Organic Consumers Association at:
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Wind turbine blades from bamboo
- a technological innovation and sustainable design
Renewable energy technologies, particularly wind power, are fundamental for addressing climate
change and energy issues. Wind technologies do not tend to generate much in the way of
emissions as they produce electricity, but they do have an environmental footprint during the
‘manufacturing’ and ‘end-of-life’ stages of turbines and blades. These are conventionally made
from energyintensive glass and carbon fibres in polymer matrices, which tends to offset some of
the benefits of using wind as a clean energy source in the first place.
Technical innovation is now focusing on finding alternative materials: researchers in India, China
and Europe cooperate to study the feasibility of using bamboo as a blade material. Bamboo is
fast-growing and renewable, and its use could cut the costs and energy consumption of
Bamboo blades are easier to process than polymers and experiments with turbines of up to 1
megawatt have shown good results. Using bamboo could make wind energy an even more
attractive proposition for generating electricity and thus mitigating climate change.
Department of Engineering at University of Cambridge at:
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Palm oil production going sustainable
with supply chain management
Supply chains of most products involve smallholder suppliers and SMEs in Asia and those of
palm oil, used widely in food products, are no exception. Palm oil is a basic source of income
for many of the rural poor in South East Asia: about 1.5 million small farmers grow it in
Indonesia, and about 500,000 people earn their living from it in Malaysia. Working directly
with these smallholders can be a guarantee that palm oil is produced in a sustainable way. It also
avoids the need for large plantations, which frequently cause the release of large amounts of
carbon as they replace rainforest or wet peat lands. Many of the major companies producing or
trading vegetable oil from South
East Asia now participate in the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil which has started many
joint initiatives to improve traceability of palm oil and to manage the supply chain. Individual
companies are also taking action. For example, in 2008 Unilever committed itself to using only
palm oil which is certified as sustainable. The company sources about 1 million tones a year
(about 8% of global production), mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia, and now requires suppliers
to convert to fully sustainable and traceable production by 2015.
Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil at: http://www.rspo.org/Supply_Chain_Project.aspx
Unilever at: http://www.unilever.com/Images/Palm%20Oil%20-
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Corporate social responsibility and
sustainability reporting in Thailand
The Siam Cement Group is a leading company in South East Asia operating in several sectors including
chemicals, paper, building materials, and cement. The company has been recognised internationally for
its efforts on sustainability reporting and corporate social responsibility.
In 2008, it scored 76.8% from the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes and was ranked among the top
three world class sustainability company members. It has adopted the GRI sustainability reporting
The Siam Cement Group is also the first company in Thailand to implement agreen procurement policy
to help reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by and from its operations.
SCG Sustainability Report 2008:
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Japan’s green public procurement
policies and legislation
Japan’s policy on green public procurement and “The Law Concerning the Promotion
of Eco-Friendly Goods and Services by the State and Other Entities” is increasingly
regarded as an example worth studying by other Asian and even European governments.
The country’s sustainable public procurement policy as it relates to climate change includes
not only requirements for electricity and energy-using office products, but also innovative
practices such as greening rooftops. As a result, 90,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions are
saved every year compared with the period before the legislation was introduced.
More recently, green product purchasing is now also covering green contracts for electric
power supply, automobiles, energy service company (ESCO) projects and building design.
There is a lot of potential in these areas to reduce energy consumption and related
greenhouse gas emissions.For example, the eco-friendly requirements building design
contracts have the potential to reduce emissions by up to 30% over the lifetime of a
building, which can be up to 50 years.
Ministry of the Environment Japan at: www.env.go.jp/en/policy/economy/dpefp.html
2010/5/19 Slide 36
Business and products for the poor –
rural solar energy in Laos
Sustainable energy services can help to mitigate as well as adapt to climate change,
especially for rural communities in developing countries. Such energy services include
solar home products, LED lanterns, or highly efficient cooking stoves which reduce the
need for firewood collection and are important for forest protection and improved health. At
the same time, off-grid electricity is essential for communication with the outside world in
cases of extreme weather events and natural disasters.
Sunlabob is an alternative energy company operating in Laos using mostly solar and small-
scale hydro power technologies, offering a clean, safe, and sustainable alternative to the
consumption of kerosene or wood fuel in remote rural households. The company
manages and installs energy systems and energy programmes, and works with
hardware manufacturers, non-governmental organisations, and the government such
as engineering company CominKhmere, the Laos Ministry of Energy and Mines,
Electricité du Laos, and Engineers Without Borders.
In recent years, the company has won a range of international awards, including the 2008
UNEP Sasakawa Prize, the European Parliament‘s 2007 National Energy Globe Award,
and the 2007 Ashden Award for their work with solar powered lighting.
Sunlabob at: http://www.sunlabob.com/
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Barriers towards SCP
Financial: investment on SCP is limited. (chicken and egg situation)
Technical: new technologies development is difficult; making & developing
standards needs time.
Educational: old but solid consumer’s habits; people still lack knowledge on
SCP in daily production & consumption behaviors.
Market barriers: higher cost/price of green energy & products; import
duties/license for some equipment.
Policy barriers: “the gap between existing policies & strategies and the
challenges implied by increasing consumption trends”.
Some other barriers…
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Develop the SCP in AP:
Support to on-going and new activities
Creating market conditions
Integration into the local context
Policy and legislation
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1. Abdul Rahman Mohamed and Lee Keat Teong, 2004. Energy Policy for Sustainable Development in Malaysia. The Joint International
Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE)”, Hua Hin, Thailand.
2. Formulation of Sustainable Consumption Strategies, Executive Summary. Thailand Environmental Institute.
3. Malaysia: Education for Sustainable Development (ESD).
4. Nick Robins, 1999. Making sustainability bite: transforming global consumption patterns. The Journal of Sustainable Product Design.
5. Nik Ramli Nik Abdul Rashid, 2009. Awareness of Eco-label in Malaysia’s Green Marketing Initiative. International Journal of Business and
6. Renewable Energy in Asia: The Malaysia Report. Australian Business Council for Sustainable Energy.
7. Sharifah A. Haron, Laily Paim and Nurizan Yahaya, 2005. Towards sustainable consumption: an examination of
environmental knowledge among Malaysians. International Journal of Consumer Studies, pp426–436.
8. Wei Zhao and Patrick Schroeder, 2010. Trends, challenges and options for the Asia-Pacific region. Natural Resources Forum 34 (2010)
2010/5/19 Slide 40
Thank you for your attention!
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Regional Helpdesk on Sustainable Consumption and Production in Asia and the Pacific
No.4 Zhichun Road, Haidian District
fon: +86 10 5881-1551
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