The Concept of Sustainable Consumption and Production by yaofenjin


									     The Concept of Sustainable Consumption and

                                Chuanrong Wang

                                 Managing Director
Regional Helpdesk on Sustainable Consumption and Production in Asia and the Pacific
                 Malaysia Green Growth Policy Tools Training Workshop
                             Kuala Lumpur, 19th May 2010

Objective: familiarizing with the concept of Sustainable
   Consumption and Production (SCP), introducing the
   Marrakech Process and SCP progress in Asia and the
 What is Sustainable Consumption and Production
 Global SCP progress : Marrakech Process
 SCP in Asia and the Pacific
 Develop the SCP in Asia and the Pacific

  2010/5/19                                 Slide 2
What is Sustainable Consumption and Production
      1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland
       Commission) of the United Nations (UN) articulated a widely accepted
       definition of sustainability:
       "[to meet] the needs of the present without compromising
       the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

      1992, Rio World Summit. The 21 Agenda stated “the major cause of the
       continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable
       pattern of consumption and production, particularly in
       industrialized countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty
       and imbalances“

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SCP: History
1992. Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. [the first time gained international prominence]
1994. Oslo symposium. [literal definition of SCP was given; debated in detail]
1999. UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection. [one more chapter on “Promotion of
     SCP” was added]
2002. Johannesburg Summit (WSSD). [a 10-year framework of programmes (10YFP)
     was addressed to accelerate the shift towards SCP regionally and nationally]

2003. Marrakech Meeting. [led by UNEP and the UNDESA, the first discussion on
     10YFP on SCP in Marrakech, Morocco. So we call this global process

                             “Marrakech      Process”

   2010/5/19                                  Slide 5
Consumption and production


 2010/5/19          Slide 6
Consumption + Production + ?

 Whenever a product or service is produced or consumed,
  natural resources are used and pollutants or emissions
  are dumped in the biosphere.
 + both, natural resources and the absorption capacity of
  the ecosystems are limited.
 Hence sustainability in consumption and production activities means:
     to use natural resources and the absorption capacity of
     the biosphere at a rate at which they can be replenished.

  2010/5/19                               Slide 7
2010/5/19   Slide 8
                                                                                                   Reduce GHG Emissions and
                                                                                                    Climate Change, air and
                                                                                                       water pollution, etc.

Sustainable Consumption and production
                                                                                  Life Cycle
                                       Sustainable Product Design                 matters
                                          (energy and resource                                      Increase
                                       efficient in production and                                 Repair and
                Renewable Energy
                                        use, save and healthy for                                  Reuse Rate
                                         consumers, repairable,            Provide Resource
                                      recyclable, biodegradable)                                                   Increase
                                                                          Efficient, Save and
                                                                           Healthy Products

                 Supply Chain                                       Corporate Social                     Green Public
                                         Cleaner Production
                 Management                                        Responsibility (CSR)                  Procurement           Proper Waste
                                          Technologies and
                                             Processes                                                                         Management
                                                                            Renewable Raw
       Reduce                                                                  Materials
Environmental Impact                               Energy Efficient
in Resource Extraction                               Production,                Eco Labeling, Product
                                                Energy/Environmental            Information Disclosure
                                                Management Systems
                                                                                                                Marketing for
                                                                                                            Sustainable Products
                                                                                                                and Lifestyles

                                                                Purchasing Decision for Green              Resource Efficient Use of
                           Sustainability Standards for          and Fair Products: Consumer              Products: Lifestyles, Cultural
 Reduce Resource            Production and Products,              Information, Cultural and              Values, User Information and
   Consumption                Standard Certification            Social Aspects, Price, Quality,            Training, Habits, Routines,
                                                                             LCC                         Institutions and Infrastructure

                                                          Reduce Land Use

   2010/5/19                                                          Slide 9
What is SCP?
      Aset of practical implementation strategies and
       practices that address one or more phases of the life cycle of a product or
       service to reduce environmental impact;
      A   political agenda         on how the production and use of goods and services
       can be better aligned with the goals of sustainable development;
      A   holistic perspective         that integrates economic, social and
       environmental aspects, as well as technological and behavioral innovation, along
       the whole life cycle;

    2010/5/19                                    Slide 10
SCP: Definitions

 Norwegian Ministry of Environment defines SCP as:
        “the production and use of goods and services that respond to basic
       needs and bring a better quality of life, while minimising the use of natural
       resources, toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the
       life cycle, so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations.”

Source: Norwegian Ministry of Environment, Oslo Symposium (1994)

    2010/5/19                                                  Slide 11
SCP: Goals
United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development
       defines SCP in order “to promote
        social and economic development
        within the carrying capacity of ecosystems
        by addressing and, where appropriate, de-linking economic growth and
         environmental degradation
        through improving efficiency and sustainability in the use of resources and
         production processes
        and reducing resource degradation, pollution and waste.”

Source: United Nations (2002), Chapter 3, 15

    2010/5/19                                  Slide 12
SCP: A holistic approach
 Cross-cutting: SCP includes many disciplines such as economics, social
  and cultural sciences, engineering as well as ecology and other natural
 Triple Bottom Line: SCP integrates economic, environmental and
  social aspects equally.
 All natural resources: SCP covers all natural resources like energy,
  water, air, soil and all pollutants and emissions dumped in the ecosystems
  (GHG, NOx, sulphur oxides and heavy metals, etc.)
                                          limited to any
 All sectors and consumption domains: SCP is not
     consumption domain or industry sector;

  2010/5/19                               Slide 13
Global SCP progress : Marrakech Process
The Marrakech Process has undertaken the
following tasks :
 Organising regional consultations to promote awareness and identify priorities
  and needs for SCP;
 Helping build regional programmes and implementation mechanisms with
  regional, subregional and national ownership, to be endorsed by the relevant
  regional institutions;
 Implementing concrete projects and programmes on the regional, national and
  local levels to develop and/or improve SCP tools and methodologies, with the
  seven Task Forces as the main mechanisms;
 Evaluating progress, exchanging information and encouraging international
  cooperation and coordination, through the international review meetings;
 Securing and incorporating multi-stakeholder inputs on the elaboration of a
  10YFP to be submitted as input to the CSD18/19.

   2010/5/19                               Slide 15
Mechanisms of the Marrakech Process on SCP

                                 Advisory Committee
            Members: government representatives from different regions (Africa,
            Asia Pacific, European Union, Latin America, and North America),
            representatives of the Marrakech Task forces, and of the Major Groups.
            Objectives: providing advices on the elaboration of the 10YFP, more
            political commitment and financial support.
            Secretariat: UNDESA and UNEP.

2010/5/19                                           Slide 16
10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP

 2010/5/19              Slide 17
Main objectives of the 10 YFP
     decouple economic growth from environmental degradation while preventing a rebound
      effect(e.g., increase resource and energy efficiency, dematerialize, move to a sustainable low-
      carbon economy)

     couple economic development with the creation of decent jobs and increase in welfare

     mainstream the sustainable use and management of natural resources in the decision-making
      process of governments, private sector and civil society organizations;

     stimulate demand for and supply of sustainable products and services in the market which
      would involve creation of new economic activities and decent jobs, within the carrying capacity of

     promote more sustainable and low-carbon lifestyles; and

     enhance social development through sustainable investment in people and communities as
      highlighted in

    2010/5/19                                           Slide 18
2010/5/19   Slide 19
Marrakech Process Outcomes
     seven Marrakech Task Forces have been created that support the development of SCP
      tools, capacity building and the implementation of SCP projects on the following
      specific SCP-related issues: cooperation with Africa, sustainable products, sustainable
      lifestyles, sustainable public procurement, sustainable tourism development, sustainable
      buildings and construction, and education for sustainable consumption.
     Regional Consultations (in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Arab region, Europe, Latin America and
      North America) have been setup to develop regional SCP programmes and implementation
      mechanisms, to raise awareness on SCP and identify regional SCP needs and priorities,
      and obtain feedback and inputs from regional experts.
     Activities have also taken place at the national level supporting the development of
      National SCP Programmes through capacity building and implementation of
      demonstration projects in various countries, including Mauritius, Senegal, Indonesia,
      Tanzania, Egypt, Mozambique, Colombia, Brazil and Ecuador. Progress has been made in
      engaging countries with emerging economies, including the convening of national
      roundtables on SCP in China, India, Brazil and South Africa.
     So far over 30 countries worldwide have developed or are in the process of developing
      their national SCP programmes
     45 NCPCs support development of projects on cleaner development; disseminate technical
      information; and provide policy support to governments

    2010/5/19                                      Slide 20
SCP in Asia and the Pacific
SCP in Asia and the Pacific region
 The Asia Pacific region has elected for a Green-Growth Strategy that is based on
  greening business and markets, sustainable infrastructure, green tax and
  budget reform, investment in natural capital, and eco-efficiency through
  cleaner production. Policies and strategies to support those are: economic
  instruments, eco-tax reform, green procurement, public information
  disclosure, and product stewardship tools.

 The Asia-Pacific roundtable on SCP was set up in 1998 and has convened 8
  times thus far. The latest roundtable held in Philippines in 2008 focused on the
  business sector with the topic ‘Sustainable Consumption and Climate change –
  Engaging the market’.

      In addition, national roundtables have been arranged in China and India, with
      the objectives to strengthen China’s and India’s active involvement in the
      Marrakech Process, identify their specific needs, priority areas and gaps as well
      as exchange expertise on SCP with other regions, particularly Europe.

    2010/5/19                                   Slide 22
Implementation of SCP
Real efforts of coordination of various line ministries and
bodies at both national level and local level.

Opportunities :
Reeducation of production cost
                                  Cross cutting issue
Addition of price premium to
                                  Multitude of ministries and
Creation of new market
                                  Various competencies, agendas
Generation of jobs               and priorities
Pollution prevention (reduce     Knowledge fragmented
environmental cost and health
                                  Complexity in holistic view
Leapfrog to modern
environmental-sound technology

   2010/5/19                        Slide 23
Policy instruments
 General policy instruments                  Changing production patterns
 - Taxes, subsidies                          - Regulation of emissions and effluents
                                             - Charges or incentives for cleaner production
 - Preferential tariffs and trade policies
                                             - Product standards (e.g. energy efficiency)
 - Economic instruments                      - Cleaner production programmes(R&D, training, technical assistance)
 - Tax reform                                - Pollutant reporting and registers
 - Consumer protection policies              - Strategic industrial and technology planning
 - Polluter-pays principle                   - Investment incentives
 - Integrated product policies               - Voluntary initiatives and codes of conduct
                                             - Corporate social/environmental responsibility
 Changing consumer behaviour                 - Improved management accounting
 - Education and public information          - Investment analysis
 - Consumer information                      Analytical tools
 - Labeling, eco-labels                      - Life-cycle analysis
 - Consumer organizations                    - Indicators of sustainability
                                             - Technology impact assessment
 - Public procurement policies
                                             - Policy impact assessment
                                             - Impacts of globalization and urbanization
                                             - Impacts of changes in international markets

     2010/5/19                                          Slide 24
Policy for SCP -National Action Plans

Country         NAP policy for SCP (year)                   Description/Focus
China           The Law on Circular Economy (2006)          Ecological efficiency in economic development; construction of eco-industrial
                                                                   parks; public participation; extending producer responsibility

Indonesia       Sustainable Consumption and Production      Support for Indonesia National Action Plan on climate change
                       Programme (under development)

Japan           Fundamental Plan for Establishing a Sound   Restrain the consumption of natural resources; reduction of material input and
                      Material-Cycle Society (2003)                 resource extraction; waste minimization (3Rs); reduced energy

Korea           SCP as "Implementation Task" in the         Eco-labeling; procurement of environmentally friendly products in public and
                      National Strategy for Sustainable            private sectors; dissemination of cleaner production technologies;
                      Development (2006-2010).                     establishment of eco-Industrial Parks

Thailand        SCP strategy is one of the four national    Provide for basic needs and quality of life;. balanced state of happiness, self
                       strategies of the 10th National             sufficiency, and social security; education and public awareness
                       Economic and Social Development             campaigns; reduce government subsidies for dirty production; taxes
                       Plan (2007)                                 on dirty industry sectors; promote government green procurement

    2010/5/19                                                         Slide 25
SCP in China

 Policy and Legislation: The Law on Circular Economy (2006);SCP
     strategy as part of the 11th 5-year-plan (2006-2010).
    Engaging Stakeholders: NDRC (National Development and Reform
     Commission), MOF (Ministry of Finance), MEP (Ministry of Environmental
     Protection), PBC (People’s Bank of China ---China Central Bank), CNIS
     (China National Institute of Standardization) etc.
    Financial Support: 14.5% of 585 Billion (US $) Chinese Stimulus
     Package in 2008-2009 for green industry; official document NDRC [2010]
     No.801, encouraging banks and financial companies providing higher
     priorities by loan and financial funding on SCP projects and industries.
    Raising Awareness: Various SCP Promotion Plans through public
     media, school, as well as big events such as Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
     and Shanghai Expo 2010.

 2010/5/19                               Slide 26
SCP in Thailand

      Policy and Legislation: SCP strategy is one of the four national strategies of the
       10th National Economic and Social Development Plan (2006–2011).
      Engaging Stakeholders: NESDB (National Economic and Social Development
       Board), SCPC (SCP Advisory Committee), TEI (Thailand Environmental Institute)
      Integration into the local context: gain Thailand’s vision of SCP by local
       research and SWOT analysis, “moderate level consumption and production for self
       sufficiency and better quality of life for present and subsequent
       generations by considering the reserves of natural resources and the
       capacity of ecological life supporting system”; making strategies and SCP indicators
       step by step; prioritize strategies; implementation and monitoring strategies;
       evaluation and interative design. Nice systematic approach!!!
      Create marketing conditions: taxes on dirty industry sectors; promote
       government GPP; create export market for environmentally friendly products.

    2010/5/19                                    Slide 27
SCP in Malaysia

Malaysia has already taken one of the leading roles to promote
   SCP in the region.

      Policy and Legislation: the government under the 8th Malaysia Plan
       (2001 to 2005) had changed the four-fuel policy to the five-fuel policy with
       the addition of renewable energy as the fifth source of fuel in 1999 [target:
       by 2005, 5% of the country’s electricity generated from renewable
       resource]; Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3: a ten-year plan 2001-2010) for
       sustainable development.
      Create awareness: National Education Blueprint (2006-2010),
       encouraging transformation in education that will create a sustainable
       future; Centre for Education and Training in Renewable Energy and
       Energy Efficiency (CETREE), promoting renewable energy by providing
       knowledge and training.
      Create marketing conditions: Eco-labelling schemes (by SIRIM, FAMA,
       MEC etc.); tax relief and waivers of import duties for renewable technology

    2010/5/19                                Slide 28
Develop SCP in Asia and the Pacific
Sustainable housing – new trends in Asia

     Buildings requiring little energy and generating no greenhouse gases (‘zero-emissions’)
      do not necessarily require innovative high-tech ideas and such houses are already
      being built in many Asian countries.

     For example, in China Dongtan Eco-city is being developed in the Yangtze River near
      Shanghai with low-energy housing for half a million people. In Thailand, architects
      are designing a model home re-using four shipping containers and prefabricated
      modules from natural materials. The prototype attempts to build a comfortable and
      sustainably-built home while meeting the practical needs of a Thai family, including a
      plot of land for kitchen gardening.

    2010/5/19                                      Slide 30
SCP for Jakarta’s transport system
 the city is developing a comprehensive strategy which includes mass transit,
  improved pedestrian facilities, and traffic restraining measures.
 An integrated network for pedestrians and non-motorised vehicles is being
  established, together with electronic road pricing systems, parking
  restraints, and car-free days.
 Traffic zones have been established which only let in vehicles with three or
  more passengers.
 The municipal administration wants all vehicles travelling on city roads to drive on
  natural gas by 2010.
 A Bus Rapid Transit system is most promising in the short term, with 10 lanes
  already open and an additional five planned.
 About 15% of bus passengers are previous car users and the system is already
  thought to be responsible for cutting 155 tonnes of nitrogen oxide emissions,
  23 tonnes of particulate emissions, and 20,000 tonnes of CO2 per year. A
  light monorail system is due to be built over the next few years which will give
  further emission reductions (Ministry of Transport and Environment Indonesia,

   2010/5/19                                  Slide 31
Organic food as adaptation and
mitigation strategy in southern India
     Rising temperatures and droughts pose a threat to agriculture and food security in many of
      the world’s regions, including Asian countries. Particularly small-scale farmers in the tropics
      and subtropics will be strongly affected. Organic agriculture can both reduce greenhouse
      gas emissions with fewer energy inputs and withstand climate change impacts like drought
      with greater efficacy.
      In India agriculture accounts for 28 percent of the country’s greenhouse gas
      emissions, mainly methane emission from paddy fields and cattle and nitrous oxides from
      In Andhra Pradesh, an arid interior part of southern India, a collective of 5,000 women
      spread across 75 villages is now offering a chemical-free, non-irrigated, organic
      agriculture as one method of combating and adapting to global warming.
     The women successfully grow as many as 19 types of indigenous crops to an acre, on arid,
      previously degraded lands, certified by the Participatory Guarantee Scheme (PGS)‘s
      Organic India Council. They also run a uniquely evolved system of ‚crop financing‘ and
      food-distribution that they have designed themselves.

    Organic Consumers Association at:
    2010/5/19                                         Slide 32
Wind turbine blades from bamboo
- a technological innovation and sustainable design
     Renewable energy technologies, particularly wind power, are fundamental for addressing climate
     change and energy issues. Wind technologies do not tend to generate much in the way of
     emissions as they produce electricity, but they do have an environmental footprint during the
     ‘manufacturing’ and ‘end-of-life’ stages of turbines and blades. These are conventionally made
     from energyintensive glass and carbon fibres in polymer matrices, which tends to offset some of
     the benefits of using wind as a clean energy source in the first place.
    Technical innovation is now focusing on finding alternative materials: researchers in India, China
     and Europe cooperate to study the feasibility of using bamboo as a blade material. Bamboo is
     fast-growing and renewable, and its use could cut the costs and energy consumption of
     Bamboo blades are easier to process than polymers and experiments with turbines of up to 1
     megawatt have shown good results. Using bamboo could make wind energy an even more
     attractive proposition for generating electricity and thus mitigating climate change.

Department of Engineering at University of Cambridge at:

    2010/5/19                                        Slide 33
Palm oil production going sustainable
with supply chain management
    Supply chains of most products involve smallholder suppliers and SMEs in Asia and those of
     palm oil, used widely in food products, are no exception. Palm oil is a basic source of income
     for many of the rural poor in South East Asia: about 1.5 million small farmers grow it in
     Indonesia, and about 500,000 people earn their living from it in Malaysia. Working directly
     with these smallholders can be a guarantee that palm oil is produced in a sustainable way. It also
     avoids the need for large plantations, which frequently cause the release of large amounts of
     carbon as they replace rainforest or wet peat lands. Many of the major companies producing or
     trading vegetable oil from South

    East Asia now participate in the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil which has started many
     joint initiatives to improve traceability of palm oil and to manage the supply chain. Individual
     companies are also taking action. For example, in 2008 Unilever committed itself to using only
     palm oil which is certified as sustainable. The company sources about 1 million tones a year
     (about 8% of global production), mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia, and now requires suppliers
     to convert to fully sustainable and traceable production by 2015.

Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil at:
Unilever at:
    2010/5/19                                           Slide 34
Corporate social responsibility and
sustainability reporting in Thailand
     The Siam Cement Group is a leading company in South East Asia operating in several sectors including
      chemicals, paper, building materials, and cement. The company has been recognised internationally for
      its efforts on sustainability reporting and corporate social responsibility.

     In 2008, it scored 76.8% from the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes and was ranked among the top
      three world class sustainability company members. It has adopted the GRI sustainability reporting

     The Siam Cement Group is also the first company in Thailand to implement agreen procurement policy
      to help reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by and from its operations.

SCG Sustainability Report 2008:

    2010/5/19                                         Slide 35
Japan’s green public procurement
policies and legislation
     Japan’s policy on green public procurement and “The Law Concerning the Promotion
      of Eco-Friendly Goods and Services by the State and Other Entities” is increasingly
      regarded as an example worth studying by other Asian and even European governments.

     The country’s sustainable public procurement policy as it relates to climate change includes
      not only requirements for electricity and energy-using office products, but also innovative
      practices such as greening rooftops. As a result, 90,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions are
      saved every year compared with the period before the legislation was introduced.

     More recently, green product purchasing is now also covering green contracts for electric
      power supply, automobiles, energy service company (ESCO) projects and building design.
      There is a lot of potential in these areas to reduce energy consumption and related
      greenhouse gas emissions.For example, the eco-friendly requirements building design
      contracts have the potential to reduce emissions by up to 30% over the lifetime of a
      building, which can be up to 50 years.

Ministry of the Environment Japan at:

    2010/5/19                                        Slide 36
Business and products for the poor –
rural solar energy in Laos
     Sustainable energy services can help to mitigate as well as adapt to climate change,
      especially for rural communities in developing countries. Such energy services include
      solar home products, LED lanterns, or highly efficient cooking stoves which reduce the
      need for firewood collection and are important for forest protection and improved health. At
      the same time, off-grid electricity is essential for communication with the outside world in
      cases of extreme weather events and natural disasters.
     Sunlabob is an alternative energy company operating in Laos using mostly solar and small-
      scale hydro power technologies, offering a clean, safe, and sustainable alternative to the
      consumption of kerosene or wood fuel in remote rural households. The company
      manages and installs energy systems and energy programmes, and works with
      hardware manufacturers, non-governmental organisations, and the government such
      as engineering company CominKhmere, the Laos Ministry of Energy and Mines,
      Electricité du Laos, and Engineers Without Borders.
     In recent years, the company has won a range of international awards, including the 2008
      UNEP Sasakawa Prize, the European Parliament‘s 2007 National Energy Globe Award,
      and the 2007 Ashden Award for their work with solar powered lighting.

Sunlabob at:
    2010/5/19                                        Slide 37
Barriers towards SCP
 Financial: investment on SCP is limited. (chicken and egg situation)
 Technical: new technologies development is difficult; making & developing
  standards needs time.
 Educational: old but solid consumer’s habits; people still lack knowledge on
  SCP in daily production & consumption behaviors.
 Market barriers: higher cost/price of green energy & products; import
  duties/license for some equipment.
 Policy barriers: “the gap between existing policies & strategies and the
  challenges implied by increasing consumption trends”.

                        Some other barriers…

   2010/5/19                               Slide 38
Develop the SCP in AP:
   Creating awareness
   Engaging stakeholders
   Support to on-going and new activities
   Creating market conditions
   Integration into the local context
   Policy and legislation

 2010/5/19                            Slide 39
1. Abdul Rahman Mohamed and Lee Keat Teong, 2004. Energy Policy for Sustainable Development in Malaysia. The Joint International
          Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE)”, Hua Hin, Thailand.
2. Formulation of Sustainable Consumption Strategies, Executive Summary. Thailand Environmental Institute.
3. Malaysia: Education for Sustainable Development (ESD).
4. Nick Robins, 1999. Making sustainability bite: transforming global consumption patterns. The Journal of Sustainable Product Design.
5. Nik Ramli Nik Abdul Rashid, 2009. Awareness of Eco-label in Malaysia’s Green Marketing Initiative. International Journal of Business and
6. Renewable Energy in Asia: The Malaysia Report. Australian Business Council for Sustainable Energy.
7. Sharifah A. Haron, Laily Paim and Nurizan Yahaya, 2005. Towards sustainable consumption: an examination of
         environmental knowledge among Malaysians. International Journal of Consumer Studies, pp426–436.
8. Wei Zhao and Patrick Schroeder, 2010. Trends, challenges and options for the Asia-Pacific region. Natural Resources Forum 34 (2010)

     2010/5/19                                                             Slide 40
            Thank you for your attention!

2010/5/19                  Slide 41

   Chuanrong Wang
   Regional Helpdesk on Sustainable Consumption and Production in Asia and the Pacific
   No.4 Zhichun Road, Haidian District
   Beijing 100088
   fon: +86 10 5881-1551

 2010/5/19                                     Slide 42

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