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THE METRIC SYSTEM

The metric system is the standard measurement system used in science and medicine.
The following are the units of measurement used in the metric system:

Unit                   Symbol                   What it Measures
meter                  m                       length
gram                   g                       weight
liter                  L                       volume
Celsius                C                       temperature

Metric Conversion
The metric system is favored in science and through much of the world because of the
ease in which measurements can be converted. In the metric system, conversions
between different orders of magnitude are based on powers of ten, so to convert you just
need to move the decimal point (look at the metric ladder on the next page to see how this
works).

Metric Conversions: A Visual Aid

Note:
millimeters are
Equals               smaller than
centimeters, but
there are a larger
number of millimeters in a given
length.

When you convert from a larger size unit to a smaller size unit (say from cm to mm), the
actual number you end up with is larger.
(2 cm converts to 20 mm)
When you convert from a smaller size unit to a larger size unit (from mm to cm), the
actual number you end up with is smaller.
(30 mm converts to 3 cm)

You need to remember this relationship (it's logical, but you may find you need to remind
yourself of this often to avoid confusion!) as you convert between units.

There are two things you need to determine when converting:

1. The relationship between the units (which is a smaller unit, which is a larger unit)
2. The order of magnitude of the difference between the units (factor of 10, 100,
1000 etc)

The mechanics of conversion:

when converting from a larger size unit to a smaller size unit, move the decimal
place to the right
when converting from a smaller size unit to a larger size unit move the decimal
place to the left
for each factor of 10, the decimal moves one place

Some examples:

a decimeter is larger than a centimeter by a factor of 10
So, to convert from decimeters to centimeters, you would move the decimal place
to the right one place
Example: 5.4 dm = 54 cm
a millimeter is smaller than a meter by a factor of 1000 (103)
So, to convert from millimeters to meters, you would move the decimal place to
the left three places
Example: 3400 mm = 3.4 m
a microliter is smaller than a liter by a factor of one million (106)
So, to convert from microliters to liters, you would move the decimal place to the
left 6 places

Tetra                         To convert to a larger unit
(T)                        move decimal point to the left
1012
Giga
(G)
109
Mega
(M)
106
Kilo
(k)
103       Hecto
(h)
102
Deca
(da)
To convert to a smaller unit
10
Base                      move decimal point to the right.
Unit
meter (m),
Pay attention to how many places                  gram (g), liter   Deci
(L)
that you need to move your decimal                                    (d)
for these!!                                             10-1   Centi
(c)
10-2
Milli (m)
10-3
Micro ( )
10-6
Nano (n)
10-9
This is called the
multiplication factor                                                              Pico (p)
10-12
PAGE (PAGE 2 OF THEPACKET)

Use the metric system information on the previous pages to answer these

1. A deciliter is smaller/larger (circle one) than a milliliter by a factor of

2. A micrometer is smaller/larger (circle one) than a meter by a factor of

3. A nanometer is smaller/larger (circle one) than a millimeter by a factor of

4. A decigram is smaller/larger (circle one) than a microgram by a factor of

5. Convert 6.0 deciliters into liters =          L
6. Convert 0.8 kilograms into grams =                g
7. Convert 42.0 microliters into liters =            L
8. Convert 897.0 centimeters into meters =                m
9. Convert 5,684.0 millimeters into meters =                  m
10. Convert 4 milliliters into microliters =             um
11. Convert 87 micrometers into centimeters =                 _cm
12. Convert 206 nanograms into picograms =                    p
13. Convert 4.5 centiliters into microliters =                L
14. Convert 34,567 millimeters into nanometers =                    n
15. Convert 3.09 micrograms into milligrams =                     mg
16. Convert 18.235 centimeters into millimeters =                   mm
17. Convert 232 millimeters into centimeters =                _cm
18. Convert 34692 grams into kilograms =                 kg
19. Convert 34.662 decameters into hectometers =                    hm
20. Convert 7825.22 meters into kilometers =                  km
HOW TO USE A RULER

Metric Rulers
Metric rulers are fairly easy to read. They deal with centimeters and millimeters only. You won’t have to

Take a look at the following Metric Ruler (not drawn to scale).

The larger lines with numbers are centimeters, and the smallest lines are millimeters. Since millimeters are
1/10th of a centimeter, if you measure 7 marks after a centimeter, it is 1.7 centimeters long.

English Rulers
English rulers, are much more difficult to read. This is mostly because they deal with fractions, which are a
bit more difficult to learn.

Take a look at the following English Rulers.

A ruler marked in 8ths. Every mark is 1/8th of an inch.

A ruler marked in 16ths. Every mark is 1/16th of an inch.

*WE WILL ALWAYS MEASURE IN METRIC UNITS! ALWAYS MAKE
SURE THAT WHEN YOU USE A RULER YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE
METRIC SIDE (SOME RULERS CONTAIN ONE SIDE THAT IS METRIC
AND ONE THAT IS ENGLISH).
Measure the following objects below in the unit asked for using a     metric
ruler:
**If you do not have a metric ruler at home you may print one and cut it out to use.
Go to:

http://www.vendian.org/mncharity/dir3/paper_rulers/

Print the first one foot ruler. Cut out the ruler and be sure to measure with the cm
side. Remember that there are 10mm in each cm (the small lines in between the cm
are mm).

21. What is the length of A in mm?
22. What is the length of B in cm?
** WRITE YOUR
23. What is the length of C in mm?
24. What is the length of D in mm?                     THE ANSWER
25. What is the length of E in cm?                    PAGE 2 OF THIS
26. What is the length of F in mm?                   PACKET PLEASE!
27. What is the length of G in cm?
28. What is the length of H in mm?

A

B

H   F                          D C
E
G
Using the list below, choose the unit of measurement that would be most appropriate to
measure each item. Write the unit on the line provided. Units may be used more than
once, or not at all.
angstrom                      kilometer             milligram
centimeter                     light-year            milliliter
cubic centimeter              liter                  millimeter
gram                          meter                 newton
kilogram                      micrometer

29. length of the Mississippi River

30. mass of a paper clip

31. weight of a cat

32. mass of an elephant

33. width of a fingernail

34. person’s weight on the moon

35. distance from Earth to another galaxy

36. width of an average TV screen

37. volume of juice in a small paper cup

38. volume of an ice cube

39. mass of a bowlful of cereal

40. diameter of a pizza

41. amount of salt in an order of french fries

42. amount of soda in a large plastic bottle

43. diameter of a chlorine atom

44. length of a bacterium

45. diameter of an electrical wire

This was modified from the following site:

http://websites.kahoks.org/CHS/AP_COURSES/2009-2010/Pre-AP%20Biology%20Summer%20Packet.pdf
Can You Spot the Scientific Method?
Directions: Each sentence below describes a step of the scientific method. Match
each sentence with a step of the scientific method listed below.
A. Recognize a Problem            B. Form a Hypothesis
C. Test with an Experiment        D. Draw Conclusions
_______ 1. Steve predicted that seeds would start to grow faster if an electric
current traveled through the soil in which they were planted.

_______ 2. Susan said, “If I fertilize my daisies, they will blossom.”

_______ 3. Jim’s data showed cockroaches moved away from cucumbers.

_______ 4. Rene grew bacteria from the mouth on Petri dishes in the lab. She
placed drops of different mouthwashes on bacteria on each plate.

_______ 5. Kathy used a survey to determine how many of her classmates were
left-handed and how many were right-handed.

_______ 6. Dana wanted to know how synthetic and natural fibers differ.

_______ 7. George saw bats catching insects & wondered “How?”

_______ 8. Justin wondered if dyes could be removed from leaves and flowers.

_______ 9. Amy soaked six different kinds of seeds in water for 24 hours.
Then she planted the seeds in soil at a depth of 1 cm. She used the same amount
of water, light, and heat for each kind of seed.

_______ 10. Bob read about growing plants in water. He wanted to know how
plants could grow without soil.

_______ 11. Kevin said, “If I grow five seedlings in red light, I think the plants
will grow faster than the five grown in white light.

_______ 12. Angela’s experiment proved that earthworms move away from
light and toward dark, damp areas.

_______ 13. Scott asked, “If acid rain affects plants in a lake, would it also
affect the crayfish?”

_______ 14. Michael’s data showed that guinea pigs need vitamin C and
protein in their diets.

_______ 15. Kim’s experiment showed that chicken egg shells were stronger
when she gave the hen feed to which extra calcium had been added.
1) A graduated cylinder can have numerous scales. Determine the value for the
minor grids, each graduation or line on the cylinder.

a) ______              b) _______               c) _______             d) _______

a) __________         b) _________          c) _______            d) _________

3) Draw in the meniscus for the following readings:

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