Chapter 4 Heredity

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					  Chapter 4         Heredity



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Section 1 Mendel and His Peas

Section 2 Traits and Inheritance

Section 3 Meiosis




                     Concept Mapping
  Chapter 4        Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Bellringer

You have probably noticed that different people
have different characteristics, such as eye color,
hair color, or whether or not their ear lobes attach
directly to their head or hang down loosely. These
characteristics are called traits. Where do you think
people get these different traits? How do you think
they are passed from one generation to the next?

Write your answers in your science journal.
  Chapter 4        Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Objectives

• Explain the relationship between traits and heredity.

• Describe the experiments of Gregor Mendel.

• Explain the difference between dominant and
recessive traits.
  Chapter 4        Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Who Was Gregor Mendel?
• Gregor Mendel was born in 1822 in Heinzendorf,
Austria.

• At age 21, Mendel entered a monastery. He
performed many scientific experiments in the
monastery garden.

• Mendel discovered the principles of heredity, the
passing of traits from parents to offspring.
  Chapter 4         Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Unraveling the Mystery
• Mendel used garden pea plants for his
experiments.

• Self-Pollinating Peas have both male and female
reproductive structures. So, pollen from one flower
can fertilize the ovule of the same flower.

• When a true-breeding plant self pollinates, all of
the offspring will have the same trait as the parent.
  Chapter 4        Section 1 Mendel and His Peas


Unraveling the Mystery, continued
• Pea plants can also cross-pollinate. Pollen from one
plant fertilizes the ovule of a flower on a different
plant.
• The image below shows cross-pollination and self-
pollination.
  Chapter 4         Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Unraveling the Mystery,
continued
• Characteristics Mendel
studied only one pea
characteristic at a time. A
characteristic is a feature
that has different forms in a
population.

• Different forms of a
characteristic are called
traits.
  Chapter 4        Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Unraveling the Mystery, continued
• Mix and Match Mendel was careful to use plants
that were true breeding for each of the traits he was
studying. By doing so, he would know what to expect
if his plants were to self-pollinate.
  Chapter 4        Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Mendel’s First Experiments
• Mendel crossed pea plants to study seven different
characteristics.

• Mendel got similar results for each cross. One trait
was always present in the first generation, and the
other trait seemed to disappear.

• Mendel called the trait that appeared the dominant
trait. The trait that seemed to fade into the
background was called the recessive trait.
  Chapter 4        Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Mendel’s Second
Experiments
• To find out more about
recessive traits, Mendel
allowed the first-generation
plants to self-pollinate.

• In each case some of the
second-generation plats
had the recessive trait.
  Chapter 4         Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Mendel’s Second Experiments, continued
• Ratios in Mendel’s Experiments The recessive
trait did not show up as often as the dominant trait.

• Mendel decided to figure out the ratio of dominant
traits to recessive traits.
 Chapter 4    Section 1 Mendel and His Peas


Mendel’s Second Experiments, continued



                          In all cases the ratio
                          was about 3:1
                          dominant : recessive.
  Chapter 4        Section 1 Mendel and His Peas



Mendel’s Second Experiments, continued
• Gregor Mendel – Gone But Not Forgotten
Mendel realized that his results could be explained
only if each plant had two sets of instructions for
each characteristic.

• Mendel’s work opened the door to modern
genetics.
  Chapter 4         Section 2 Traits and Inheritance



Bellringer

If you flip a coin, what are the chances that it will land
on heads? tails? Suppose that you flipped the coin
and got heads. What are the chances that you will get
heads again?

Record your answers in your science journal.
  Chapter 4        Section 2 Traits and Inheritance



Objectives

• Explain how genes and alleles are related to
genotype and phenotype.

• Use the information in a Punnett square.

• Explain how probability can be used to predict
possible genotypes in offspring.

• Describe three exceptions to Mendel’s
observations.
  Chapter 4         Section 2 Traits and Inheritance



A Great Idea
• Mendel knew that there must be two sets of
instructions for each characteristic.

• The instructions for an inherited trait are called
genes.

• The different forms (often dominant and recessive)
of a gene are alleles.

• Phenotype An organism’s appearance is known as
its phenotype. Genes affect the phenotype.
  Chapter 4       Section 2 Traits and Inheritance



A Great Idea, continued
• Genotype The combination of inherited alleles
together form an organism’s genotype.

• Punnett Squares are used to organize all the
possible genotype combinations of offspring from
particular parents.
Chapter 4   Section 2 Traits and Inheritance
  Chapter 4         Section 2 Traits and Inheritance



What Are the Chances?
• Probability is the mathematical chance that
something will happen.

• Probability is most often written as a fraction of
percentage.
  Chapter 4       Section 2 Traits and Inheritance



What Are the Chances?, continued
• Genotype Probability To have white flowers, a pea
plant must receive a p allele from each parent. Each
offspring of a Pp Pp cross has a 50% chance of
receiving either allele from either parent. So, the
probability of inheriting two p alleles is 1/2  1/2,
which equals 1/4, or 25%.
  Chapter 4        Section 2 Traits and Inheritance



More About Traits
• Incomplete Dominance Researchers have found
that sometimes one trait is not completely dominant
over another.

• One Gene, Many Traits Sometimes one gene
influences more than one trait.

• Many Genes, One Trait Some traits, such as the
color of your skin, hair, and eyes, are the result of
several genes acting together.
  Chapter 4         Section 2 Traits and Inheritance



More About Traits, continued
• The Importance of Environment Genes aren’t
the only influences on traits. A combination of things
determine an individual’s characteristics.

• Your environment also influences how you grow.

• Lifestyle choices can also affect a person’s traits.
  Chapter 4        Section 3 Meiosis



Bellringer

Write a sentence to describe each of the following
terms: heredity, genotype, and phenotype. Note
how genotype and phenotype are related, and
how they are different. Is heredity necessarily a
factor in both genotype and phenotype? Why or
why not?

Record your answers in your science journal.
  Chapter 4        Section 3 Meiosis



Objectives

• Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis.

• Describe how chromosomes determine sex.

• Explain why sex-linked disorders occur in one sex
more often than in the other.

• Interpret a pedigree.
  Chapter 4         Section 3 Meiosis



Asexual Reproduction
• In asexual reproduction, only one parent cell is
needed. The structures inside the cell are copied, and
then the parent cell divides, making two exact copies.

• This type of cell reproduction is called mitosis. Most
of the cells in your body and most single-celled
organisms reproduce this way.
 Chapter 4   Section 3 Meiosis



Mitosis
  Chapter 4         Section 3 Meiosis



Sexual Reproduction
• In sexual reproduction, two parent cells (sex cells)
join together to form offspring that are different from
both parents.

• Chromosomes that carry the same sets of genes
are called homologous chromosomes.

• Each sex cell has only one of the chromosomes
from the homologous pair.
  Chapter 4       Section 3 Meiosis



Sexual Reproduction, continued
• Meiosis Sex cells are made during meiosis.

• Meiosis is a copying process that produces
cells with half the usual number of
chromosomes.
 Chapter 4         Section 3 Meiosis



Meiosis

  Click below to watch the Visual Concept.



                    Visual Concept
  Chapter 4       Section 3 Meiosis



Sexual Reproduction, continued
• Genes and Chromosomes Walter Sutton
studied meiosis in sperm cells in grasshoppers.

• Using his observations and his knowledge of
Mendel’s work, Sutton proposed that:

    Genes are located on chromosomes.
  Chapter 4        Section 3 Meiosis



The Steps of Meiosis
• During meiosis, chromosomes are copied once, and
then the nucleus divides twice.

• The resulting sex cells (sperm and eggs) have half
the number of chromosomes of a normal body cell.

• Female sex cells, eggs, are produced in the ovaries.

• Male sex cells, sperm, are produced in the testes.
Chapter 4   Section 3 Meiosis
Chapter 4   Section 3 Meiosis
  Chapter 4       Section 3 Meiosis



Meiosis and Mendel
• The steps of meiosis explain Mendel’s results.
The following slide shows what happens to a pair
of homologous chromosomes during meiosis and
fertilization.
Chapter 4   Section 3 Meiosis
 Chapter 4      Section 3 Meiosis



Meiosis and Mendel, continued
• Sex Chromosomes
carry genes that
determine sex.

• Human females have
two X chromosomes.

• Human males have
one X chromosome and
one Y chromosome.
  Chapter 4        Section 3 Meiosis



Meiosis and Mendel, continued
• Sex-Linked Disorders The genes for certain
disorders, such as colorblindness, are carried on the
X chromosome.

• Genetic Counseling Genetic counselors use
pedigrees to trace traits through generations of a
family. These diagrams can often predict if a person
is a carrier of a hereditary disease.

• Selective Breeding In selective breeding,
organisms with desirable characteristics are mated.
  Chapter 4      Heredity



Concept Mapping
Use the terms below to complete the concept map on
the next slide.

alleles            offspring
parents            genotype
phenotype          characteristics
genes              dominant
Chapter 4   Heredity
Chapter 4   Heredity

				
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