MEAL

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					Water - вода                      An orange - апельсин
Tea – чай                         An apple - яблоко
Coffee - кофе                     A lemon - лимон
Juice - сок                       A banana - банан
Coke – кока-кола                  A peach -персик
Milk - молоко                     A melon - дыня
Lemonade -лимонад                 A watermelon - арбуз
Cream – сливки                    A pear - груша
Bread - хлеб                      A kiwi -киви
Meat - мясо                       A plum - слива
 Beef - говядина                  A berry -ягода
Pork – свинина                    A strawberry -клубника
Lamb - ягненок                    A raspberry - малина
Mutton – баранина                 A bilberry - черника
Veal - телятина                   A red currant красная смородина
Fish – рыба                       A black currant – черная смородина
cod – треска                      A cherry - вишня
herring – сельдь                  A carton – коробка (картонная)
kipper – копченая селедка         A cup - кружка
haddock - пикша                   A glass - стакан
Ham –ветчина                      A loaf - буханка
Sausage - колбаса                 A bottle - бутылка
 A rissole | chop - котлета       A can/tin – банка (консервная)
Cheese - сыр                      A jar - банка
An egg - яйцо                     A packet – пакет
Butter – сливочное масло          A piece – кусок
Oil – растительное масло          A slice – ломтик
A pizza - пицца                   A bar – плитка
Salad - салат                     A roll - булочка
Sugar -сахар                      A tea - spoon – чайная ложка
Salt -соль                        A table-spoon – столовая ложка
Pepper - перец                    A knife - нож
Mustard - горчица                 A fork – вилка
Seasoning / dressing - приправа   A plate – тарелка
Flour - мука                      A bowl – миска, тарелка
Rice - рис                        Pickles – маринады, соленья
Porridge - каша
Soup - суп
Chocolate -шоколад
Ice-cream -мороженое
Vegetable -овощ
A Potato - картофель
A Tomato - помидор
A Cucumber - огурец
A Carrot - морковь
An onion - лук
A garlic - чеснок
A marrow/ squash - кабачок
A cabbage - капуста
Peas - горох
A beet -свекла
A fruit -фрукт
                                                 MEAL.
                                                   ***
       The usual meals in England are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner; or breakfast, dinner, tea
and supper.
       Breakfast is generally a substantial meal, not just rolls and coffee. Many people like to
begin it with porridge. English people eat porridge with milk or cream and sugar, but no good
Scotsman – and Scotland is the home of porridge-would ever put sugar on his porridge. Then
comes bacon and eggs, marmalade (made of oranges or lemons) with buttered toast, tea or
coffee. If you prefer it you can have eggs boiled soft or hard or scrambled, and sometimes fish,
e.g. herring, haddock, or kipper is served.
       Lunch is served between half-past twelve and half past one. The businessman in London
has no time to get home for lunch and takes it in a café or restaurant. Those who are at home
generally take cold meat, e.g. beef, mutton, veal, ham, with boiled or fried potatoes, another
vegetable or salad, and pickles. With the lunch they prefer to drink water or light beer.
       Afternoon tea follows between four and five o’clock. This is not generally a formal meal.
Instead of sitting round the table you have tea brought to you, and you balance a cup on your
knee or in your hand as you take thin buttered bread, pastries, cake or biscuits.
       For dinner you may go to a hotel and have the real old English food – roast beef. In
London there are hotels to suit every taste and every purse.
                                                The English tea.
       Once a gentleman was having breakfast in an English hotel. He took a drink from his cup
and then said to the waiter, "Waiter, is this tea or coffee?"
       The waiter said, "Can't you tell the difference, sir, by the taste?"
       "No", the man said, "I can't".
       "Well", answered the waiter, "if you can't tell the difference, what does it matter which it
is?"
       This is a joke. But really the English know how to make tea and what it does for you.
Seven cups of it will wake you up in the morning; nine cups will put you to sleep at night. If you
are hot, tea will cool you off, and if you are cold, it will warm you up.
       If you take it in the middle of the morning, it will stimulate you for the further work; if you
drink it in the afternoon, it will relax you for the further thought. Then, of course, you should
drink lots of it in off hours.
       The test of good tea is simple. If a spoon stands up in it, it is strong enough; if the spoon
starts to wobble, it is weak.
                                             Table manners.
         Never stretch over the table for something you want, ask your neighbour to pass it.
         Take a slice of bread from the bread-plate by hand; don't harpoon your bread with a fork.
         Chicken requires special handling. First cut as much as you can, and when you can't use a
knife and fork any longer, use your fingers.
         Don't use a knife for fish, cutlets or omelettes.
         Never read while eating (at least in company).
         When you are being served, don't pick. One piece is as good as the next.
       When refusing a dish say, "No, thank you." Don't say, "I don't eat that stuff," don't make
faces or noises to show that you don't like it.
       Don't lick your spoon. If you really feel that way about it ask for a second helping.
       After stirring your tea remove the spoon, and place it on the saucer.
       Vegetables, potatoes, macaronies are placed on your folk with the help of your knife.
       Try to make as little noise as possible when eating. Don't sip your soup as though you
wanted the whole house to hear.
       Don't talk with your mouth full. First chew and then swallow.
       Don't put your elbows on he table.
       And, finally, don't forget to say "thank you" for every favour or kindness.
                                             At the restaurant.

        In all large English towns there are plenty of restaurants, cafes, tea rooms, or public
houses (pubs). All the large hotels have restaurants where you can have a snack or dinner.
        In London for the really cheap places it is very interesting to explore the little French or
Italian restaurants of Soho. Spanish visitors who are feeling homesick can, within a hundred
yards of Piccadilly, find the Spanish Restaurant and imagine they have gone back to Spain for
the decoration, the salads, the cooking, the wines, the waiters and most of the diners are Spanish.
        In the same way there are Indian, Chinese, Hungarian, or Jewish restaurants.
        If you want real old English food you must go to the Strand. Here roast beef- cooked at
open roasting fire – is wheeled to your table and carved before your eyes.
        Most visitors like to go to the "old Cheshire Cheese", of Fleet Street, an old chop-house
where famous writers used to go. The traditional dish here is rumpsteak, kidney, and oyster
pudding. A plate of this with a pint of bitter beer in a long glass, followed by the pancake or the
toasted cheese and special "punch" in a china bowl, is a meal you don't easy forget.
        At the restaurant you may either reserve a table beforehand by telephone or occupy any
table disengaged at the moment you come. There is a menu, which contains the names of all
dishes available for the first, second and third courses. It offers a choice of appetizers, drinks,
meat of fish dishes as well as various kinds of soup and broth. The most popular meat dishes are
beefsteak, rumpsteak, roast beef, chicken with mashed or fried potatoes, macaronies or noodles.
        For dessert you may order ice-cream, coffee, tea or juice. After you have chosen the
dishes the waiter or waitress takes your order and gives you a bill. Some minutes later the dinner
is served.
        A meal – еда, прием пищи; Meals are breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper, five-o`clock tea.
        Food – пища, еда, съестные припасы; Food is meat, vegetables fruit, bread, milk, etc.
         A dish - 1) блюдо, кушанье; 2) блюдо, тарелка dishes - посуда
        A fish dish is a dish cooked of fish.
        A course – блюдо (первое, второе, третье). The dinner consisted of three courses.
        1. The second …was veal with mashed potatoes.
        2. She put apples and oranges on the china … .
        3. The usual … in England are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner.
        4. What is your favourite …? – Mine is roast chicken.
        5. Beefsteak, chop, roast beef, rumpsteak are meat … .
        6. Many people like to have a hearty … in the morning.
        7. What is the … time for lunch in England?
        8. Who usually washes the … after dinner?
        9. In the evening a light … is recommended.
        10. A dish is a particular kind of …?
        11. What would you like for the first …?
                                                      ***
Well, my wife’s Chinese, so we eat quite a lot of Chinese food, usually at home. Other sort of
food? I quite like Italian food, so I occasionally try and cook some spaghetti and things like that.
I love Indian food, but I’m not very good at cooking it, so usually if we, we eat Indian food, we
go out to a restaurant.
       As to the type of food, I eat, I don’t eat a lot of meat. I do eat things like chicken and
turkey- white meats- but I don’t eat a lot of pork and beef, usually because, well beef especially,
is not supposed to be very good for you so I try to cut down on that. Fish, I love, but I don't eat
a lot of because it`s rather expensive to get good fresh fish anyway. Vegetables, I like a lot of,
broccoli especially – that’s one of my favourite ones- corrugates, peas, things like that, so
usually I have a good balance of vegetables with the, with quite a lot of salads when it`s
especially when it`s very hot but in the winter I usually find it`s a bit cold for salads. And usually
have some fruit, try to have some fruit each day.
                                 ***
Another fellow I knew went for a week's voyage round the coast, and, before they started, the
steward came to him to ask whether he would pay for each meal as he had it, or arrange
beforehand for the whole series.
        The steward recommended the latter course, as it would come so much cheaper. He said
they would do him for the whole week at two-pounds-five. He said for breakfast there would be
fish, followed by a grill. Lunch was at one, and consisted of four courses. Dinner at six - soup,
fish, entrée, joint, poultry, salad, sweets, cheese, and dessert. And a light meat supper at ten.
        My friend thought he would he would close on the two-pound-five job (he is a hearty
eater), and did so.
        Lunch came just as they were off Sheerness. He didn`t feel so hungry as he thought he
should, and so contented himself with a bit of boiled beef, and some strawberries and cream. He
pondered a good deal during the afternoon, and at one time seemed to him that he had been
eating nothing but boiled beef for weeks, and at other times it seemed that he must have been
living on strawberries and cream for years.
        Neither the beef nor the strawberries and cream seemed happy, either - seemed
discontented like.
        At six, they came and told him dinner was ready. The announcement aroused no
enthusiasm within him, but he felt that there was some of that two-pounds-five to be worked off,
and he held on to ropes and things and went down. A pleasant odour of onions and hot ham,
mingled with fried fish and greens, greeted him at the bottom of the ladder; and then the steward
came up with an oily smile, and said:
        "What can I get you, sir?"
        "Get me out of this," was the feeble reply.
        And they ran him up quick, and propped him up, over to leeward, and left him.
        For the next four days he lived a simple and blameless life on thin Captain's biscuits (I
mean that the biscuits were thin, not the captain) and soda-water; but, towards Saturday, he got
uppish, and went in for weak tea and dry toast, and on Monday he was gorging himself on
chicken broth. He left the ship on Tuesday, and as it steamed away from the landing-stage he
gazed after it regretfully.
        "There she goes," he said, "there she goes, with two pounds" worth of food on board that
belongs to me, and that I haven't had."
        He said that if they had given him another day he thought he could have put it straight.
                                                  ***
       For other breakfast things, George suggested eggs and bacon, which were easy to cook,
cold meat, tea, bread and butter, and jam. For lunch, he said, we could have biscuits, cold meat,
bread and butter, and jam – but no cheese. Cheese, like oil, makes too mach of itself. It wants the
whole boat to itself. It goes through the hamper, and gives a cheesy flavour to everything else
there. You can't tell whether you are eating apple pie, or German sausage, or strawberries and
cream. It all seems cheese. There is too much odour about cheese.
       Fond as I am of cheese, therefore, I hold that George was right in declining to take any.
       'We shan`t want any tea,' said George; 'but we'll have a good round, square, slap-up meal at
seven – dinner, tea, and supper combined.'
       Harris grew more cheerful. George suggested meat and fruit pies, cold meat, tomatoes,
fruit, and green stuff. For drink, we took some wonderful sticky concoction of Harris's, which
you mixed with water and cold lemonade, plenty of tea, and a bottle of whiskey, in case, as
George said, we got upset.




                                                    ***
       Harris proposed that we should have scrambled eggs for breakfast. He said he would cook
them. It seemed, from his account, that he was very good at doing scrambled eggs. He often did
them at picnics and when out on yachts. He was quite famous for them. People, who had once
tasted his scrambled eggs, so we gathered from his conversation, never cared for any other food
afterwards, but pined away and died when they could not get them.
       It made our mouths water to hear him talk about the things, and we handed him out the
stove and the frying-pan and all the eggs that had not smashed and gone over everything in the
hamper, and begged him to begin.
       He had some trouble in breaking them exactly as in getting them into the frying-pan when
broken, and keeping them off his trousers, and preventing them from running up his sleeve; but
he fixed some half a dozen into the pan at last, and then squatted down by the side of the stove
and chivvied them about with a fork.
       It seemed harassing work, so far as George and I could judge. Whenever he went near the
pan he burned himself, and then he would drop everything and dance round the stove, flicking
his fingers about and cursing the things. Indeed, every time George and I looked round at him he
was sure to be performing this feat. We thought at first that it was a necessary part of the
culinary arrangements.
       We didn`t know what scrambled eggs were, and we fancied that it must be some Red
Indian or Sandwich Islands` sort of dish that required dances and incantations for its proper
cooking. Montmorency went and put his nose over it once, and the fat spluttered up and scalded
him, and then he began dancing and cursing. Altogether it was one of the most interesting and
exiting operations I have ever witnessed. George and I were both quite sorry when it was over.
       The result was not altogether the success that Harris had anticipated. There seemed so little
to show for the business. Six eggs had gone into frying-pan, and all that came out was a
teaspoonful of burnt and unappetizing-looking mess.
       Harris said it was the fault of the frying-pan, and thought it would have gone better if we
had had a fish-kettle and a gas stove; and we decided not to attempt the dish again until we had
those aids to housekeeping by us.
                                                    ***
       He said he would show us what could be done up the river in the way of cooking, and
suggested that, with the vegetables and the remains of the cold beef and general odds and ends,
we should make an Irish stew.
       It seemed a fascinating idea. George gathered wood and made a fire, and Harris and I
started to peel the potatoes. I should never have thought that peeling potatoes was such an
undertaking. The job turned out to be the biggest thing of its kind that I had ever been in. we
began cheerfully, one might almost say skittishly, but our lightheartedness was gone by the time
the first potato was finished. The more we peeled, the more peel there seemed to be left on; by
the time we had got all the peel off and all the eyes out, there was no potato left – at least none
worth speaking of. George came and had a look at it – it was about the size of a pea-nut. He said:
       'Oh, that won't do! You're wasting them. You must scrape them.'
       So we scraped them, and that was harder work than peeling. They are such an
extraordinary shape, potatoes – all bumps and warts and hollows. We worked steadily for five-
and-twenty minutes, and did four potatoes. Then we stuck. We said we should require the rest of
the evening for scraping ourselves.
       I never saw such a thing as potato-scraping for making a fellow in a mess. It seemed
difficult to believe that the potato-scrapings in which Harris and I stood half-smothered, could
have come off four potatoes. It shows you what can be done with economy and care.
       George said it was absurd to have only four potatoes in an Irish stew, so we washed half a
dozen or so more, and put them in without peeling. We also put in a cabbage and about half a
peck of peas. George stirred it all up, and then he said that there seemed to be a lot of room to
spare, so we overhauled both the hampers, and picked out all the odds and ends and the
remnants, and added them to the stew. There were half a pork pie and a bit of cold boiled bacon
left, and we put them in. then George found half a tin of potted salmon, and we emptied that into
the pot.
       He said that was the advantage of the Irish stew; you got rid of such a lot of things. I
finished out a couple of eggs that had got cracked, and we put those in. George said they would
thicken the gravy.
       I forget the other ingredients, but I know nothing was wasted; and I remember that,
towards the end, Montmorency, who had evinced great interest in the proceedings throughout,
strolled away with an earnest and thoughtful air, reappearing, a few minutes afterwards, with a
dead water-rat in his mouth, which he evidently wished to present as his contribution to the
dinner; whether in a sarcastic spirit, or with a genuine desire to assist, I cannot say.
       We had a discussion as to whether the rat should go in or not. Harris said that he thought it
would be all right, mixed up with the other things, and that every little helped; but George stood
up for precedent. He said he had never heard of water-rats in Irish stew, and he would rather be
on the safe side, and not try experiments.
       It was a great success that Irish stew. I don't think I ever enjoyed a meal more. There was
something so fresh and piquant about it. One's palate gets so tired of the old hackneyed things;
here was a dish with a new flavour, with a taste like nothing else on earth.
       And it was nourishing, too. As George said, there was good stiff in it. The peas and
potatoes might have been a bit softer, but we all had good teeth, so that did not matter much; and
as for the gravy, it was a poem – a little too rich, perhaps, for a weak stomach, but nutritious.
       We finished up with tea and cherry tart.

Questions and Answers About Cooking
Food journalist and cookbook author Mark Bittman comes to the rescue of many would-be cooks in
this question-and-answer series on cooking. Among the perennial kitchen issues he tackles are these:
What’s the difference between baking soda and baking powder and can you substitute? What’s the
best cookware? How do you roast a turkey? Is organic food better, and is it true that searing retains
meat juices? Along the way, Bittman offers a variety of useful recipes.


Questions and Answers About Cooking

Q: What are the best apples for baking?
A: Cortland, or Ida Redor Paula Red. You want a large apple that will hold its texture (and its
flavor) during the long baking process. Apples that are good for applesauce, such as Macintosh,
are useless for baking because they'll turn to mush.
Q: Can you substitute baking soda and baking powder for one another?
A: Not directly. But baking soda—sodium bicarbonate—is a good leaven in pastries that contain
acid such as buttermilk, sour cream, or yogurt. If there is little or no acid in a recipe and you
want to use baking soda (or you've run out of baking powder), mix 1 teaspoon baking soda and 2
teaspoons cream of tartar. This works because cream of tartar is acidic and eliminates the need
for additional acid in the batter. You can use this as a replacement for commercial baking
powder—on a one-for-one basis—but you must work quickly once you combine wet and dry
ingredients.
Why? Because this homemade baking powder is a single-action baking powder and begins to do
its work the instant it is combined with liquid. Commercial baking powders are double-action;
they partly begin to work when exposed to liquid, but another part works only when exposed to
heat. You can see this: Little bubbles form between the time you combine ingredients and move
the batter to the pan, but the batter continues to rise in the oven.
Commercial baking powder, therefore, is more effective than the homemade kind. But it isn't
necessarily more desirable because it has a distinctive flavor. (This is especially true of those
containing aluminum.) It also becomes less effective over time. You should replace your baking
powder, even if it isn’t used up, at least once a year.
Q: What sort of training do I need to become a professional chef?
A: If you want to train to be a practical chef—the kind of person who runs a hotel restaurant, a
restaurant that's part of a chain, a large catering operation, or anything corporate—it's best to go
to an accredited cooking school. They exist in almost every major metropolitan center and at
many universities.
If you want to be a celebrity chef, however, all you need are ambition, personality, creativity,
talent, about 15 years of hard work, and a lot of luck. The best way to start is to apprentice under
an old-fashioned chef and stick with it.
Q: When I roast a whole chicken, what's the best way of testing whether it is fully cooked?
A: To be sure, you need two methods: The first is an instant-read thermometer inserted into the
meatiest part of the thigh; it should read at least 155 degrees (some people say 165 or more to
insure perfect safety). The second is to make sure the juices in the cavity and at the bone joints
run clear, not bloody (a touch of pink is probably okay). Usually, the thermometer is enough, and
the second method just a precaution; it depends on your level of paranoia. In time, you will know
when a chicken is done just by looking and touching.
Q: If a cake recipe requires three 8-by-2-inch cake pans, is it OK to use three 9-by-2-inch pans
instead?
A: Yes—as long as you keep an eye on things; the cooking time will be significantly shorter, but
as no cooking times are ironclad it should be fine.
Q: Does searing a large cut of meat such as tenderloin before roasting it really "seal in" all of the
juices and flavor?
A: Not at all. You can't seal the juices in a piece of meat any more than you can seal the blood in
your body (sorry, but it's the best analogy). If you poke a hole, some of those juices will come
out, and searing will do nothing to change that. (On the other hand, poking a hole is not the same
as popping a balloon but more like cutting yourself; some juices will come out, but on the whole
the damage will not be noticeable.)
However, searing—or browning, a more understandable word—adds flavor to foods, by creating
complex flavors. So there is still a good reason to do it, if time allows. If time does not allow, it's
a step that can usually be skipped.
Q: If a recipe calls for dark brown sugar, can I substitute light brown sugar? Is there any real
difference?
A: Absolutely you can substitute; the only difference is the amount of molasses they each
contain. The flavor of dark brown sugar is somewhat more complex (and bitter, in the way that
molasses is bitter), but not noticeably in most recipes. Remember that usually either is but one of
many ingredients in a given preparation.
Q: Is there any advantage to using a cast-iron skillet rather than a regular or nonstick skillet?
A: Cast iron is inexpensive and lasts forever; it's virtually indestructible. It has a couple of
disadvantages, however: One, it is heavy, and, especially when loaded with food, requires
strength to handle. Two, it is not nonstick until it develops the patina that comes with use. (You
can encourage this nonstick surface to develop by washing cast-iron pans with little or no soap
and wiping them dry; wiping them with a tiny bit of oil every now and then also helps.) But all in
all it remains an excellent material for skillets and sauté pans.
Q: What exactly is "deglazing," and how does one do it?
A: If you've made gravy after roasting a turkey, you've "deglazed."
When you cook meat, fish, or vegetables in fat—oil or butter, usually—some of the flavor (and,
if you're not using a nonstick pan, some of the meat, fish, or vegetable) stays behind in the pan.
This flavor can be recaptured and turned into a sauce by adding a bit of liquid—typically wine or
stock, but really any liquid, like juice, coffee, or even water—to the pan and stirring over high
heat until the liquid reduces in volume a bit. (Another term for deglazing is "making a
reduction.") The resulting sauce can be enriched by stirring in a little butter or olive oil, but it
isn't necessary. Here's a recipe, with plenty of options (from The Minimalist Cooks at Home):
Basic Reduction Sauce
Total time: 20 minutes
Makes about 2 cups
2 tablespoons minced shallot, onion, or scallion
3 cups stock or water
2 tablespoons softened butter or olive oil (optional)
Salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
1. Remove whatever meat, fish, or poultry you've cooked from the roasting pan or skillet and
pour off all but 1 or 2 tablespoons of the cooking fat (if there are non-fatty juices in the skillet or
roasting pan leave them in there). Place the pan over high heat (use two burners if the pan is
large). Add the shallot and cook, stirring, until it softens, about 1 minute.
2. Add the liquid and cook, stirring and scraping to loosen the brown bits at the bottom of the
pan. Allow the liquid to boil for about 5 minutes, or until about a third of it evaporates. (This is a
good time to carve the meat, if that's necessary, as the boiling liquid need not be stirred except
very occasionally.)
3. Turn the heat to medium-low and add the butter or oil, a little at a time, stirring well after each
addition to incorporate it. Taste and season if necessary with salt and pepper, then serve with the
meat.
There are several ways to add weight to a reduction:
Reduce 1/2 to 1 cup of wine, fortified wine, or fruit or vegetable juice to just a couple of
tablespoons before adding the stock or water.
Make the flavor even stronger by stirring in a teaspoon or more of prepared mustard,
horseradish, soy sauce, or other condiments.
Add minced fresh or dried herbs to the mixture along with the shallots: a few tablespoons of
parsley or small amounts of sage, tarragon, or thyme are all good. You can also add capers,
anchovies, chopped bell pepper, or minced garlic.
Q: What kind of consistency can I expect for gravy if I use flour and butter? Cornstarch?
Cornstarch is the easiest: A tablespoon or two of cornstarch, mixed with a tablespoon or two of
cold water, and stirred into a cup of simmering liquid, will thicken it instantly (the more
cornstarch you use, the thicker it will get) and without any lumps. Butter and flour is more
difficult, because flour does lump. There are ways around that, but they're much more
complicated than using cornstarch. Or skip the thickening entirely, as it is essentially cosmetic; if
it's flavor you're after, just stir in a little bit of butter.
Q: What are some tips for buying fish?
A: It can be simple: Good fish looks and smells good. If it smells bad, it can't taste good. Some
fishmongers at supermarket seafood counters may not allow you to smell fish before buying it. If
this is the case but the fish passes the appearance test, you might consider buying it, opening the
package on the spot, and—if the smell is at all off—handing it right back.
Steaks and fillets are best cut to order from whole fish. Whole fish keep better than precut steaks
and fillets. In addition, cutting to order allows you to dictate the size and thickness of the steak,
as well as to request fillets from the best-looking fish. Quality is probably a top priority for a
store that provides this service.
However, most fillets and even steaks are cut from fish before they reach the fish counter. So
here are a few general rules:
*Start with your eyes: The surface of the fish should glisten; it should be bright, clear, reflective,
and almost translucent. Generally, you don't want any fish whose surface appears brown, dull,
opaque, or muddy. Remember, fillets and steaks should be on—not in—ice, and there should be
no puddles of water.
*Use your fingers: Most fishmongers won't let you touch fish—it's usually against local health
standards, and reasonably so. But you can ask the counterperson to press his or her finger into
the fish's flesh; it should appear firm and elastic. If it looks mushy, or if the finger leaves a
lasting impression, move on.
*Finish with your nose: As stated above, if fish doesn't smell sweet, if it doesn't smell like the
sea, turn your nose up.
Q: What is the best way to cook pasta?
A: The most important thing is to start with good pasta, made from 100 percent durum wheat;
the country of origin is less important, but you're most likely to find good pasta at a good price
from Italy.
Cook the pasta in a gallon or even five quarts of well-salted water per pound. Boil the water, and
keep it boiling as the pasta cooks; stir the pasta so it does not stick (you do not need oil). Don't
overcook the pasta, but don't undercook it either. Drain it quickly, but leave some water on it;
sauce it well, but don't kill it with sauce; and put it in a hot bowl so it stays hot.
Q: What's the best way to cook a turkey?
A: The best way to cook a turkey is FAST, as in this recipe:
Roast Turkey (from The Minimalist Cooks at Home, by Mark Bittman)
Time: 2 hours 30 minutes
Makes at least 12 servings, with leftovers
12-pound turkey
Salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
Preheat the oven to 500 degrees F. Rinse the turkey and remove the giblets; save the liver for any
stuffing you choose to make. Loosely pack the turkey cavity with stuffing if you’d like, then tie
the legs together to enclose the vent.
Place the turkey on a rack in a large roasting pan. Add 1/2 cup water to the bottom of the pan,
along with the turkey neck, gizzard, and any other trimmings. Place in the oven, legs first.
Roast 20 to 30 minutes, or until the top begins to brown, then turn the heat down to 350 degrees.
Continue to roast, checking every 30 minutes or so; if the top threatens to brown too much, lay a
piece of aluminum foil directly onto it. If the bottom dries out, add water, about 1/2 cup at a
time. The turkey is done when an instant-read thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the
thigh measures 165 degrees. If, when the turkey is nearly done, the top has not browned enough,
turn the heat back up to 425 degrees for the last 20 to 30 minutes of cooking.
Remove the turkey from the oven. Take off the rack and make pan gravy or other sauce while the
bird rests (let it sit for about 20 minutes before carving).
Q: In good cooking is it more important to be creative or to be precise?
A: You must differentiate between cooking and baking. In cooking, anyone with a modicum of
skills and experience—and I would think cooking 50 meals over a six-month period would get
you into this category—would gain enough experience to begin improvising, with the help of
recipes. After five years of steady cooking, few people rely on cookbooks in the same way they
do when they are beginning.
Baking is another story: It’s chemistry. It takes a great deal of skill and experience to be able to
bake, especially desserts, without following a recipe.
Q: How do you cook an artichoke?
A: You can start by cutting the pointed tips from artichoke leaves before cooking, but you don't
have to. It's best to use a paring knife to peel around the base and cut off the bottom one-quarter
inch, then break off the roughest and darkest layers of exterior leaves.
Artichokes contain an enzyme that makes them discolor as soon as they're cut and cooked; this
doesn't affect the flavor. If you want to preserve their color, drop them into a mixture of 1
tablespoon of lemon juice or vinegar per cup of water as you prepare them, and add a splash of
vinegar or lemon juice to the cooking water. It's also best to use nonaluminum knives and
cooking utensils when working with artichokes.
Steaming is the easiest way to cook an artichoke—just make sure the pot doesn't boil dry. Here’s
a recipe:
Basic Steamed Artichokes
Time: 45 minutes
Makes 4 servings
4 large or 12 very small artichokes
Several sprigs fresh tarragon or thyme (optional)
Salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
With scissors or a large knife, trim the top 1/2 inch or so from the artichokes. Using a paring
knife, peel around the base and cut off the bottom 1/4 inch. Break off the roughest of the exterior
leaves.
Place artichokes bottom up in a steamer. Cover and cook 20 to 40 minutes. Sample an outer leaf;
when it pulls away easily and its meat is tender, the artichokes are done.
Drain the artichokes upside down for a minute or two longer before serving hot; store upside
down if you plan to serve them later. Serve hot with melted butter, at room temperature with
vinaigrette, or cold with mayonnaise. Or serve at any temperature with lemon or salt.
Q: When I make scones, they often crumble—but I'm hesitant to keep adding more fatty butter
into the mix. Can you recommend a low-fat scone recipe?
A: Scones are rich muffins, or ultra-rich biscuits: You can't make them without eggs, and they’re
best with cream or butter. You can substitute oil for the butter (although that doesn't reduce the
fat, just the cholesterol) and skim milk for the cream, but if you take things any further than that
it isn't a scone any more!
Here is a recipe for Cream Scones I particularly like (from How To Cook Everything; Hungry
Minds Publishing, 1998):
2 cups (about 9 ounces) all-purpose or cake flour, plus more as needed
1 scant teaspoon salt
4 teaspoons baking powder
2 tablespoons sugar
5 tablespoons cold butter
3 eggs
3/4 cup heavy cream
1/3 cup dried currants or raisins
1 tablespoon water
1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F.
2. Mix the dry ingredients together in a bowl or food processor, reserving 1 tablespoon of the
sugar. Cut the butter into bits and either pulse it in the food processor (this is the easiest method)
or pick up a bit of the dry ingredients, rub them with the butter between your fingers, and drop
them again. All the butter should be thoroughly blended before you move to the next step.
3. Beat 2 of the eggs with the cream; with a few swift strokes, combine them with the dry
ingredients. Use only a few strokes more to stir in the currants.
4. Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and knead it ten times, but no more. If it is
very sticky, add a little flour, but very little; don't worry if the dough sticks to your hands a bit.
5. Press the dough into a 3/4-inch-thick rectangle and cut into 2-inch rounds with a biscuit cutter
or a glass. Place the rounds on an ungreased baking sheet. Gently reshape the leftover dough and
cut again.
6. Beat the remaining egg with 1 tablespoon of water, and brush this mixture on the top of each
scone. Sprinkle each with a little of the remaining sugar.
7. Bake 7 to 9 minutes, or until the scones are a beautiful golden brown. These scones keep
better than biscuits, but they should still be eaten the same day you make them.
Makes 10 to 14 scones
Time: 20 minutes
Q: Do you have a recipe for a good macaroni and cheese?
A: I think so:
Baked Macaroni and Cheese (from How to Cook Everything by Mark Bittman, 1998).
This is macaroni and cheese for grown-ups; not that kids won't like it, but it's far from sweet and
gooey. Rather, it is fragrant and almost sharp, thanks to the bay leaves and Parmesan.
Time: about 45 minutes
Makes 4 to 6 servings
2 1/2 cups milk (low-fat is fine)
2 bay leaves
1 pound elbow, shell, ziti, or other cut pasta
4 tablespoons (1/2 stick) butter
3 tablespoons flour
1 1/2 cups grated cheese, such as sharp cheddar or Emmenthal
1/2 cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese
Salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
1/2 cup or more plain bread crumbs, preferably fresh
Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Bring a large pot of water to a boil.
Cook the milk with the bay leaves in a small saucepan over medium-low heat. When small
bubbles appear along the sides, about 5 minutes later, turn off the heat and let stand. Salt the
boiling water and cook the pasta to the point where it is almost done but still needs another
minute or two to become tender. Drain it, rinse it quickly to stop cooking, and place it in a large
bowl.
In a small saucepan over medium-low heat, melt 3 tablespoons of the butter; when it is foamy,
add the flour and cook, stirring, until the mixture browns (about 5 minutes). Remove the bay
leaves from the milk and add about 1/4 cup of the milk to the hot flour mixture, stirring all the
while with a wire whisk. As soon as the mixture becomes smooth, add a little more milk, and
continue to do so until all the milk is used up and the mixture is thick and smooth. Add the
cheddar or Emmenthal and stir.
Pour the sauce over the pasta, toss in the Parmesan, and season with salt and pepper. Use the
remaining 1 tablespoon of butter to grease a 9-by-13-inch size baking pan and turn the noodle
mixture into it. Top liberally with bread crumbs and bake until the crumbs turn brown (about 15
minutes). Serve piping hot.
Q: What is the difference between mixing and folding ingredients?
A: When a recipe says to mix, you can attack the ingredients and combine them however you
like, even using a blender. Folding is a technique that allows ingredients containing large
amounts of air—most often beaten cream or egg whites—to retain their volume when mixed
with thicker substances, such as batter. To fold, scoop the bottom of the batter over the top of the
beaten substance using a rubber spatula, a wooden spoon, or—the best tool—your cupped hand.
Generally, the mixture should be combined only enough to integrate, not until it is perfectly
smooth.
Q: Is it worth the higher price to use organic foods for cooking?
A: This is a personal choice more than anything else. Organic foods have become popular
enough that they are no longer much more expensive than "regular" foods. Do organic foods
taste better? In general, they don’t taste any better than high-quality nonorganic foods. Are they
healthier? I think so. Personally, I buy organic meats, vegetables, grains, and legumes when I
can, but I am not a fanatic about it.
Q: I have a young daughter, and I’m nervous about her consuming raw eggs because of the
health risks. Is there any substitute for raw egg whites in recipes for food like cake frosting?
A: Although I'm not a health expert, my understanding is that the risk of an individual egg
containing salmonella is about 1 in 10,000, so I would not be too concerned. The risk is
multiplied when large numbers of eggs are mixed together—as happens in commercial
kitchens—because a bad egg would contaminate the whole batch.
Nevertheless, the easiest thing to do is to avoid the issue entirely by making a frosting that does
not contain any eggs. Sweetened whipped cream is the easiest substitute for eggs. Here's another
alternative:
Vanilla Butter Cream Frosting (from How to Cook Everything by Mark Bittman).
Time: 10 minutes
Makes enough frosting and filling for one 9-inch layer cake, or two dozen cupcakes
8 tablespoons (1 stick) unsalted butter, softened
4 cups confectioners' sugar
6 tablespoons cream or milk, plus a little more if needed
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
1. Use a fork or electric mixer to cream the butter. Gradually work in the sugar, alternating with
the cream and beating well after each addition.
2. Stir in the vanilla. If the frosting is too thick to spread, add a little more cream, one teaspoon at
a time. If it is too thin (unlikely, but possible, especially after the addition of lemon or orange
juice as a variation), refrigerate; it will thicken as the butter hardens.
Q: Can you tell me how to make a simple salad dressing that only uses basic ingredients
commonly found at home?
A: It’s a breeze, and you have two options. One is to toss the salad with extra-virgin olive oil and
good vinegar (sherry vinegar, balsamic vinegar, or good wine vinegar), just to taste; take it easy
on the vinegar. Lemon juice, which is less acidic (strain out the seeds), is another alternative. Or
do something like this:
Basic Vinaigrette
Time: 5 minutes
Makes about 3/4 cup
1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil
3 tablespoons or more good wine vinegar
Salt to taste
Freshly ground black pepper to taste
1 heaping teaspoon Dijon mustard
1 large shallot (about 1 ounce), peeled and cut into chunks, optional
Combine all ingredients, except the shallot, in a blender. A creamy emulsion will form within 30
seconds. Taste, and add vinegar, a teaspoon or two at a time, until the balance tastes right to you.
Add the shallot and turn the machine on and off a few times until the shallot is minced within the
dressing. Taste, adjust seasoning, and serve. (This is best made fresh but will keep in the
refrigerator for a few days. Return to room temperature and whisk briefly before using.)
Q: Where can I purchase a handheld sausage-stuffer like my Dad used years ago? It was so
simple, but I can't find it anywhere.
A: You might find one in Cook's Catalogue, but your best bet is an old-fashioned store or
country market in Italy.
Q: I'm looking for a recipe for smoothies. Can you help?
A: The word ―smoothie‖ means different things to different people, but here are two recipes I
like very much. The two smoothies, both cold and sweet, are adapted from my book How to
Cook Everything.
Banana-Yogurt Shake
When your bananas become overripe, peel them and wrap them in plastic wrap, then freeze
them. Use them to make this great smoothie.
Time: 5 minutes
Makes 2 servings
1 frozen banana
1 cup orange juice, preferably freshly squeezed
1 cup plain or vanilla yogurt
Combine all ingredients in a blender and blend until smooth.
Banana-Vanilla Shake
Time: 5 minutes
Makes 2 servings
1 ripe banana (frozen is okay)
1 cup milk
1/2 cup crushed ice
Sugar or sugar syrup to taste
1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract, plus more if necessary
1. Combine all ingredients in a blender and blend until smooth.
2. Taste and adjust seasoning by adding more vanilla or sugar syrup if necessary.
Instead of vanilla, you can also use a grating of nutmeg and a little cinnamon.
Q: Do you have a tasty recipe for spaghetti that is easy for teenagers to make?
A: This is a good recipe that is a little different, and most kids like it. (Excerpted from How to
Cook Everything.)
Penne with Ricotta, Parmesan, and Peas
The butter is optional in this recipe, but it lends a nice richness and creaminess. Add a bit of
minced sautéed ham or mushrooms to this sauce if you like.
Makes about 4 servings
Time: 30 minutes
1 cup freshly shelled or frozen peas
1 pound penne, ziti, or other cut pasta
About 1 cup fresh ricotta, available in Italian and specialty food markets
1 tablespoon softened butter (optional)
1 cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese
Salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
1. Bring a large pot of water to a boil.
2. Cook the peas in boiling salted water to cover, just until tender, about 3 minutes. Drain and
rinse in cold water to stop the cooking; drain and set aside.
3. Salt the boiling water and cook the pasta. While it is cooking, mix together the ricotta, butter,
cooked peas, and half of the Parmesan in the bottom of a warm bowl. When the pasta is just
about done, remove about a cup of the pasta cooking water and use as much of it as you need to
smooth the ricotta mixture into a sauce.
4. Toss the pasta with the ricotta mixture, add additional pasta cooking water if necessary, and
serve, passing the remaining Parmesan at the table.
.
My Breakfast
        It is not a secret that our meals influence much on our health and our mood. That’s why I
consider breakfast to be the most important meal in the day as it is the first our meal and it can
put us in good spirits or it can’t. Now I shall tell you about my breakfast.
        In the morning I usually have porridge. I often start my breakfast with a cereal which is
not cooked, it is something dry, ready to be eaten or muesly – some grain or porridge which is
not cooked with dried fruit, nuts and so on.
        I also like eggs (cooked in different ways). I don’t practically eat butter, I prefer soft
margarine – made of vegetable fat, which is not heavy and creamy. I don’t eat jam at breakfast, I
eat marmalade which is not sweet, there is slight bitterness; it’s rather pleasant.
        I usually don’t have substantial breakfast on weekdays, I do it on weekends when I get up
late. Very often I have just tea or coffee with sandwiches. Tea is usually taken by me with milk. I
like very strong tea without sugar.
        Sometimes when I am in hurry I don’t have time to have proper breakfast and I go to the
university being hungry. In such case I usually buy something like ―Snickers‖ or ―Mars‖ on my
way to the Alma Mater.
Enjoy your Meal
         It is not a secret that our meals influence much on our mood. Also it is very important for our health.
Every singly person should eat proper kinds of food – dairy products, meats, fruit and vegetables, fats and
sugars, cereals and grains. Dairy products provide us with calcium, meat provide our bodies with protein,
iron, zinc. Eating fruit and vegetables helps to keep us healthy too because they give us fibre, vitamins and
minerals. We should eat fats and sugars in moderation, because too much fats and sugars can cause
different heart-diseases. Cereals and grains are important for us because they provide us with the energy we
need for physical activity.
         In this fast-moving world it is necessary to watch what we eat – it should be healthy food, not junk
one, which has become very popular. Eating too much junk food can cause overweight and as heart-disease.
For example, it is much better to eat an apple or a banana than to eat a double hamburger with ketchup and
mayonnaise. You will feel full in both cases, but a fruit or a vegetable is healthier.
         Today there are a lot of different restaurants and cafes where you can eat delicious and not really
expensive food. A service is usually excellent and friendly waiters help you to relax and enjoy your meal
fully. You can any types of food in restaurants – you can try homemade cakes, beefsteaks, pasta and
macaroni and others. For a main course you can order fish, meat or chicken with some rice or potatoes, also
you can ask for pasta and salad. You can eat a bowl of ice-cream, a pieces of apple pie, strawberries with
cream or something like that for dessert. For drink you can order a glass of water or juice, a cup of coffee or
tea or alcohol drink such as wine or beer.
         Eating habits are different in different countries. For example, Brazilians never eat with their hands
– they always use a knife and a fork, even when they eat hotdogs. Finns like to eat hot sausages and drink
beer in the streets; many Philipinos prefer to eat with their hands. Also they think that it is polite to leave a
little food on the plate at the end of a meal.
         Well, as for me I do respect their eating habits and like to eat different countries’ food such as
Italian Pasta, Japanese rice with sushi or Indian spicy meat. But most of all I like just ice-cream. It doesn’t
matter what kind – with raspberry favor, with marmalade, chocolate chips or pieces of fruit. I can eat it
anytime and anywhere. But anyways whatever you like you should remember words of wisdom which say
that we eat to live, but not live to eat.


Meals and Cooking
When we cook, we boil, roast, fry or stew our food. We boil eggs, meat, chicken, fish, milk, water and
vegetables. We fry eggs, fish and vegetables. We stew fish, meat, vegetables or fruit. We roast meat or
chicken. We put salt, sugar, pepper, vinegar and mustard into our food to make it salted, sweet, sour or
simply tasty. Our food may taste good or bad or it may be tasteless.
The usual meals in England are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner or, in simpler houses, breakfast, dinner, tea
and supper.
For breakfast English people mostly have porridge or corn-flakes with milk or cream and sugar, bacon and
eggs, marmalade with buttered toast and tea or coffee. For a change they can have a boiled egg, cold ham,
or fish.
English people generally have lunch about one o'clock. At lunch time in a London restaurant one usually
finds a mutton chop, or steak and chips, or cold meat or fish with potatoes and salad, then a pudding or fruit
to follow.
Afternoon tea can hardly be called a meal. It is a substantial meal only in well-to-do families. It is between
five and six o'clock. It is rather a sociable sort of thing, as friends often come in then for a chat while they
have their cup of tea, cake or biscuit.
In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. But in great many English homes, the midday meal is
the chief one of the day, and in the evening there is usually a much simpler supper — an omelet, or
sausages, sometimes bacon and eggs and sometimes just bread and cheese, a cup of coffee or cocoa and
fruit.
a.     British Cuisine
Some people criticize English food. They say it's unimaginable, boring, tasteless, it's chips with everything
and totally overcooked vegetables. The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that British
haven't had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste. What can compare with fresh pees or new
potatoes just boiled and served with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when
with just one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious?
If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will probably say "Fish and chips" then
stop. It is disappointing, but true that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because the
food doesn't lend itself to such preparation. English cooking is found at home. So it is difficult to find a
good English restaurant with a reasonable prices. In most cities in Britain you'll find Indian, Chinese,
French and Italian restaurants. In London you'll also find Indonesian, Mexican, Greek... Cynics will say that
this is because English have no "cuisine" themselves, but this is not quite the true.
b.      My Family's Meals
        My family isn't large. It consists of four members. But each member of our family has
his own tastes and interests. For example, my brother is fond of sports. So early in the
morning he goes jogging. That's why he has nothing to eat before it, because it would be bad
for him to eat before exercises.But when he comes back, he has a shower and is more than
ready for breakfast. He always needs a cup of coffee to really wake him up. His breakfast
usually consists of a bowl of cereal with milk and sugar. This he follows by toasts and juice.
My father eats the same as my brother. My mother has a lighter breakfast of just youghurt and
a grapefruit. As for me, a cup of tea is enough for breakfast. And my mother sometimes
scolds me for it, because it's important to have a really goods breakfast.
        We don't have our main meal at lunch time. My father takes sandwiches with him to
work. To be healthy, he also eats fruit. My mother is able to be more varied in her lunches,
because she is a housewife. It means that she can prepare what she likes. Her favourite dish is
roast meat. As she likes to bake, there is always something tasty at home. Our evening meal is
usually eaten at 7 o'clock. The main course is often meat with vegetables. Sometimes we eat
pizza or pasta with delicious sauce. We try to eat our main meal together. In our busy lives it
is the one time of day when we sit down and have a good talk.

Questions:
1. Is your family large?
2. What do your family have for breakfast?
3. Do you have your main meal together?
4. When do you have your main meal?
5. What do you have for supper?

Vocabulary:
jogging — бег трусцой
cereal — овсянка
to scold — ругать
roast meat — жареное мясо

c.        Table Manners
Good table manners avoid ugliness. All rules of table manners are made to avoid it. To let
anyone see what you have in your mouth is offensive. So is to make a noise. To make a
mess in the plate is disgusting. So there are some rules how to behave yourself at the table:
Do not attract undue attention to yourself in public. When eating take as much as you want,
but eat as much as you take. Never stretch over the table for something you want, ask
your neighbour to pass it. Take a slice of bread from the bread-plate by hand, don't harpoon
your bread with a fork. Never read while eating (at least in company).
When a dish is placed before you do not eye it suspiciously as though it were the first time
you had seen it, and do not give the impression that you are about to sniff it. Chicken requires
special handling. First cut as much as you can, and when you can't use knife or fork any
longer, use your fingers. The customary way to refuse a dish is by saying, "No, thank you" (or
to accept, "Yes, please"). Don't say "I don't eat that stuff", don't make faces or noises to show
that you don't like it. In between courses don't make bread-balls to while the time away and do
not play with the silver. Do not leave spoon in your cup when drinking tea or coffee. Do not
empty your glass too quickly — it will be promptly refilled. Don't put liquid into your mouth
if it is already full. Don't eat off the knife. Vegetables, potatoes, macaroni are placed on your
fork with the help of your knife. If your food is too hot don't blow on it as though you were
trying to start a campfire on a damp night. Try to make as little noise as possible when eating.
And, finally, don't forget to say "thank you" for every favour or kindness.

Questions:
1. All rules of table manners are made to avoid ugliness,
aren't they?
2. What is "good table manners"?
3. Why do our people need them?
4. What other table manners do you know?
5. Do you follow them?

Vocabulary:
ugliness — вульгарность
undue — чрезмерный
to avoid -- избегать
to empty — опустошать
promptly — быстро, незамедлительно
        d.      Meals in Britain (1)
        Since the 1970's eating habits in Britain have undergone a change. People have
been encouraged by doctors, health experts and government advertisements to eat less fat
and more fibre. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity and heart disease.
Forty per cent of adults in Britain are overweight and Britain has one of the highest death
rates due to cardiovascular disease in the world. Britons have also become more aware of
calories, the energy value of food. Some people count the number of calories they eat
every day, so that they can try to take in fewer calories and lose weight. Food anufactures
have started to help the general public to make more informed choices about what they
eat.
        So the traditional British breakfast is bacon, eggs or sausages, preceded by fruit
and followed by toasts. Britons may eat this breakfast at weekends or on special occasions
but prefer a smaller and healthier meal to start a day. Lunch is a light meal and is eaten at
school or work. Lunch takes 30—40 minutes. Dinner is usually the main meal of the day
and consists of two courses.
        In recent years, foreign foods have become a regular part of the British diet. Indian
and Chinese dishes are particularly popular for evening meals. Take-aways became
extremely popular in the 1980's. The traditional British take-away is fish and chips eaten
with salt and vinegar and served in an old newspaper.
        The British are famous for their love of sweet things and afternoon tea with
sandwiches; scones, jam and several kinds of cake, was once a traditional custom. Most
working people don't have tea as an afternoon "meal", but they do have a short break in
the middle of the afternoon for a cup of tea. Tea is often also drink with lunch and dinner.

       Questions:
       1. Eating habits in Britain have undergone a change, haven't
       they?
       2. Why do some of people count the number of calories
       they eat?
       3. What is the traditional British breakfast?
       4. What do the British have for the main meal of the day?
       5. What are Britons famous for?

        Vocabulary:
        fat — жир
        fibre — грубая пища
e.      Meals in Britain (2)
Traditionally English people have three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Breakfast is served in the morning. It used to be a large meal with cereal, eggs and bacon,
sausages, tomatoes. But such a large breakfast takes a long time to prepare and is not very
healthy. Nowadays, Britain's most popular breakfast consists of cereal, toast with
marmalade, juice and yogurt with a cup of tea or coffee. Lunch is a light meal. Most
people have no time to go back home for lunch so they eat at school, cafes, pubs or
restaurants. The main meal is dinner, which is usually between 6 and 7 p.m. A typical
evening meal is a meat dish with vegetables and dessert. The most important meal of the
week is the Sunday dinner, which is usually eaten at 1 p.m. The traditional Sunday dish
used to be roast beef, but nowadays pork, chicken or lamb are more common. On Sunday
evenings people have supper or high tea. The famous British afternoon tea is becoming
rare, except at weekends.
Questions:
1. How many meals a day do English people have?
2. What did they use to eat for breakfast?
3. What do they usually eat nowadays?
4. Is lunch a large meal?
5. Where do English people eat lunch?
6. What dishes are served for dinner?
7. What is the most important meal of the week?
8. Is British afternoon tea still popular?

Vocabulary:
meal — еда
cereal — овсянка, кукурузные хлопья
to prepare — готовить
to consist — состоять
light — легкий
lamb — баранина
f.       Traditional American Food
         Americans eat a lot. They have three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. Most of Americans
don't eat home but prefer to go to restaurants. They can choose from many kind of restaurants. There is a
great number of ethnic restaurants in the United States. Italian, Chinese and Mexican food is very popular.
An American institution is the fast food restaurant, which is very convenient but not very healthy.
         However there are some principles of American cuisine (if we may call it so). Americans drink a lot
of juices and soda, eat a lot of meat, fruits and vegetables, not much bread. In the morning Americans have
cereal or scrambled eggs, milk or orange juice. Chicken or fish, fried potatoes, vegetable salads, and desert:
this is the most common menu for lunch. Dinner is probably the most important meal of the day, some
people have family dinner, when all members of family have to be there. For dinner Americans usually
have meat, fried or baked potatoes with ketchup or sour cream, corn, peas, sometimes macaroni and cheese
or spaghetti; ice-cream, fruit or cake may be for dessert.
         Turkey, ham and apple pie are traditional for Christmas and Thanksgiving Day dinners.

Questions:
1. How many times a day do Americans eat?
2. Do Americans like to eat at home?
3. What kind of restaurants is popular in the US?
4. What do Americans eat for breakfast?
5. What is the most important meal of the day?
6. What is a family dinner?
7. What dishes are traditional for Christmas and Thanksgiving
Day dinners?

Vocabulary:
ethnic — этнический
healthy — здоровый, полезный
juice — сок
cereal — кукурузные хлопья
potatoes — картофель
salad — салат
ketchup — кетчуп
ice-cream — мороженое
apple pie — яблочный пирог
Christmas — Рождество

     National food.
     The English language has a number of 'national' expressions. Many of them are to do with food. A
     Scotch egg, for example, is a hard-boiled egg in sausage meat, eaten cold or hot. Scotch broth is a thick
     soup with beef and barley. Irish stew is made from meat, onions and potatoes. Welsh rarebit pronounced
     'rabbit' is melted cheese on hot toast. A Spanish omelette is an omelette containing tomatoes, onions
     and potatoes. Russian salad is a salad of cold, cooked vegetables made with Russian dressing which has
     a sharp taste. Russian tea is tea with lemon instead of milk.
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Russian cuisine.
      There have always been two types of Russian cuisine - on the one hand, the aristocratic,
rich style and on the other hand - a peasant, simple, every-day style. Russian people loved
chicken ( turkey emerged at the beginning of the 17 century). Veal was not eaten. Russian
kitchens only boiled, steamed or simmered food. Food was never heated in fat (butter).
      During the times of the Rus, many different kinds of bread, cakes and pirogs were baked
and filled with things which were in the house, farm, garden, field or forest: chicken, vegetables,
peas and beans, fruit, berries or mushrooms. The rivers were foil of fish, so pirogs filled with all
types of fish were very common. Chicken pirogs were eaten on public holidays. Meat was eaten
boiled and on special occasions at the end of the meal like blessed food. There was no shortage
of soup, especially vegetable soup: borsh, stchi - a soup made from marinated cabbage. Other
favourite was the famous Russian kasha. So there is a Russian saying: "Stchi and kasha is all we
ever get to eat".
      The cuisine of the aristocracy preferred the blinse cakes ( pancakes) or towers, which
were invented by Russian gourmands and comprised blinses of all manner of different fillings
piled up on top of each other. In the times of Catherine II it became fashionable to serve French
and Russian meals at receptions, followed by delicious desserts and exotic fruits. The evening
meal at the tzarist court comprised 80 courses for each person. There were hot broths,
marinated chicken, rabbit, tortoise, sausages, pirogues, salads, oysters, bitter oranges, pastry,
blinses, sweets.
      It is of utmost importance for the Russian hospitality to set a rich table. Blinses are still
very popular - both by themselves or filled with meat, fish, caviar, sour cream. Originally, they
symbolized the sun.
       These traditions still exist. They have survived - at family dinners, friendly parties at the
kitchen. To this very day, the greatest praise which can be said to a cook is that it " tastes as if it
were homemade". And foreigners can't believe their eyes: " What? You can do all that at
home?!"
A.        Let’ s look at the menu. What would you like to start with, soup?
B.        No, thank you. t m not very fond of soup. I d rather have fruit juice, orange or grapefruit.
A.        All right. And what about the main course? Which would you rather have, meat or chicken?
B.        Chicken, I think.
A.        Don t you like meat?
B.        Yes, I do, but in hot weather I prefer chicken.
A.        I see. And what would you like for dessert?
B.        Td rather have ice-cream if they've got it.
A.        Yes, it's on the menu. And shall we finish up with coffee? Or would you rather have tea?
B.        No, coffee for me, please. Black.
A.        Are you ready to order?
B.        Yes. I’ll have the fresh fruit cocktail.
A.        And what would you like after that?
B.        Id like the roast chicken, please.

Waiter. Good morning, sir. For one?
Paul. Yes, please.
W. Would you like this table by the window?
P. Thank you.
W. Here's the menu, sir.
P. Well, now, what do you recommend?
W. Well, the roast lamb’s; very good. Or if you prefer fish, there's nice fresh cod today.
P.    I think, I’ll have the roast lamb, please. W.
What vegetables would you like with it?
P.    Some baked potatoes. And what green vegetables have you got?
W.    Peas, spinach, French beans.
P.    I think, I'll have peas. They are nice with lamb.
W. Very well, sir. And what will you have first? Soup, hors d'oevr es or grapefruit?
P.   I’ll have grapefruit to start with.
W. Grapefruit.
P. Could I order my sweet now?
W. Yes, certainly. What would you like ?
P. I think I’d like an apple tart and coffee.


  ========================================================= ================
 W. Good evening, sir. Are you alone?
    1 ..........
   W. Would you like to seat there in the middle of the hall?
   W. Are you ready to order, sir?
    1. Not yet. Could you help me?
   W. Yes, sir. ...
    1. O.K. I’ll take...
    W. And what would you like to drink? Shall I bring a wine list?
    1. Yes, please.
   W ..........
    1. I’ll take ....

     1. Waiter! A bill,
     please.

     W. Here it is. It’
     s ...pounds.

     1. ...
                                 At the restaurant.

-   Good evening, sir. Are you alone?
-   Good evening. Yes. I’m alone.
-   Would you like to sit over there, sir? Near the window.
-   Yes, thank you. May I look at the menu?
-   Of course. Here it is.
-   Have you decided yet, sir? May I take your order?
-   Mmm… as a starter I’ll have a tomato juice… Oh, no. I’ll have the onion soup.
-   OK. How about the main course, sir?
-   I’m not sure… Perhaps you can help me?
-   Oh, if I were you, sir, I’d have a steak in wine sauce. I like it very much. Moreover,
    it’s the speciality of the day.
-   All right. I’ll have the steak.
-   What would you like with the steak, sir?
-   A salad and some mashed potatoes, please.
-   Would you like something to drink?
-   Yes. Some mineral water, please… and could I see the wine list?
-   Of course. Here it is, sir.
-   Mmm… I’ll have some French red wine.


-   Waiter!
-   Yes, sir. Do you want the bill?
-   Yes. How much is it?
-   Seven pounds twenty-five (pence), sir.

				
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