Thought Starter� by vuqhd9p

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 73

									            Thought Starter…
  What are the components of standards-based
  education?
• Discuss the components with a partner.
• Jot your thoughts down on post-it notes.
• Begin to share ideas with your table by 5:45pm.
Linking Standards to Education
       Facilitators’ Training
           Today’s Goals:

• To develop an understanding of standards-
  based education
• To provide tools and ideas for sharing
  standards-based education
 Overview of Facilitator’s
        Training

• Content
• Activities
• Tools
           Group Norms

• Participate throughout the evening.
• Limit sidebar conversations.
• Respect everyone’s expertise and
  opinions.
• Take care of yourself and your
  neighbor.
Standards-Based Education




       Academic
        Content
       Standards
    Standards-Based Education

• Has a fixed point of reference
• Has a system for communicating expectations
• Guides instruction at the classroom level
• Focuses instruction on student learning
• Delineates what matters
  Standards-Based Education
           Benefits
• Focus and clarity are brought to the
  curriculum.
• Rigorous academic content is taught at all
  grade levels.
• Standards provide a system for
  communicating expectations.

                               (Colorado)
 Standards-Based Education
       Means That...
• Standards guide instructional decisions at
  the classroom level.

• The focus of instruction is on student
  learning.

• Expectations for learning are the same for
  all students.

                  (Colorado – modified)
 Standards-Based Education
       Means That…
• Assessment and results are used to guide
  and modify instruction.

• The final qualifier of effectiveness of
  instruction is whether the instruction results
  in increased student learning.

                    (Colorado – modified)
   Standards-Based Education
          Components
• Instruction and assessment are adapted to
  accommodate students with special needs or
  alternative learning styles.
• Lesson plans focus on what is to be learned
  rather than what is to be taught.
• Many stakeholders share responsibility for
  standards based education.
  Standards-Based Education
         Components
• Curricular materials need to address
  standards.
• Instructional strategies must provide
  opportunities for students to learn
  expectations outlined in the standards.
• What students know and are able to do is
  clearly defined before an instructional unit
  begins.
Modified from Northern Colorado BOCEES SBE Design Team
       Standards-Based Education
             Self-Inventory
Think      1. Read the Self – Inventory handout.
           2. Compare the standards description.

Pair       3. Partner with a neighbor.

Share      4. Share some of the key differences
              between the non-standards-based
              and standards-based columns.
                  Reflection 1
Use the “Where am I?” Reflection Journal to rate
your understanding of the topic.
   1. Place an arrow on the line to represent your level of
       understanding along the continuum between
       “Unaware” and “Expert”.
   2. Record any thoughts you may have as to “Why?”
       you placed your arrow.
   3. Use a Post-It Note to record additional questions and
      attach those to the right side of the page.
Standards-Based Education
       Legislation

       • State

       • Federal
   Governor’s Commission For
     Student Success (2000)

• Made recommendations for improving Ohio’s
  educational system
“ Ohio should create clear, rigorous academic
  standards in key subjects and grades…”
• Supported by State Board of Education and
  the General Assembly
               Senate Bill 1

Senate Bill 1 signed June 12, 2001:
• Reflects the Commission’s recommendations.
• Mandates that the State Board of Education
  adopt academic content standards that:
 “specify the academic content and skills that
  students are expected to know and be able to
  do at each grade level.”
      No Child Left Behind Act
Reauthorized Elementary and Secondary
Education Act (ESEA) purpose:
... to ensure that all children have a fair, equal,
and significant opportunity to obtain a high-
quality education and reach, at a minimum,
proficiency on challenging State academic
achievement standards and state academic
assessments.
       Legislative Comparison

         Ohio                     ESEA
Achievement              Assessment

Local Report Card        Accountability systems

Professional Development Teacher Preparation &
                         Training
Curriculum Models        Curriculum & Instructional
                         Materials
Academic Standards       State Academic Standards
          No Child Left Behind Act
            State Achievement Assessment
                    Requirements
2002-2005
Annual assessment in one grade within three levels 3-5,
6-9 and 10-12 for reading and mathematics
School Year Beginning in 2005
Annual assessment in grades 3-8 in reading and mathematics
School Year Beginning in 2007
Annual assessment in one grade within three levels 3-5, 6-9
and 10-12 in science
Academic Content
   Standards
         View of Standards

• A minimum level; e.g., least amount
  necessary to survive

• What students deserve; e.g., needed for
  full, successful daily and work life and
  options open
        Collaborative System

• Educators K-16: teachers, administrators,
  nonpublic schools, colleges and universities,
  Regional Service Providers, teacher
  unions/associations
• Learned societies
• Business and industry
• Parents and community leaders
      Process for Developing
    Academic Content Standards
•   Identify advisory committee
•   Select writing team
•   Seek focused input & engage the public
•   Revise draft standards document
•   Adopt academic content standards …
    State Board of Education
    Senate Bill 1 Timelines for
           Development
• December 31, 2001: English Language Arts
  and Mathematics

• December 31, 2002: Science and Social Studies

• After December 31, 2002: Technology, the
  Arts, and Foreign Language
         What do
Academic Content Standards
        look like?
          Standards Framework
 Overarching   STANDARD
   goals &
     BENCHMARK BENCHMARK BENCHMARK
   themes

          Indicator   Indicator    Indicator

          Indicator   Indicator
What all students                 What all students
 should know &                    should know and
                      Indicator
  be able to do                     be able to do
  at each grade
       level          Indicator
 Academic Content Standards
The standard statement:
• Provides an overarching goal, theme or
  statement about the content area.
• Describes in broad terms what students
  should know and be able to do as a result of
  the K-12 program.
              Benchmarks
• Measure student progress toward meeting
  standards

• Serve as checkpoints of cumulative knowledge
  and skills over a grade band

• Vary depending on content area

• Are assessed on achievement tests
                              Indicators

• Are specific statements of knowledge and
  skills at each grade level

• Serve as checkpoints that monitor progress
  toward benchmarks

• Are assessed through diagnostic tests*


* May be used as the basis for achievement tests to comply with ESEA
Benchmark & Indicator Alignment
         Card Match
Materials: Benchmark grid, Indicator cards
• Work in small groups.
• Align the indicator cards beneath the appropriate
  benchmark.
• Compare your group’s card match with a neighboring
  group.
• Discuss differences and attempt to reach consensus.
                  Reflection 2
Use the “Where am I?” Reflection Journal to rate
your understanding of the topic.
   1. Place an arrow on the line to represent your level of
       understanding along the continuum between
       “Unaware” and “Expert”.
   2. Record any thoughts you may have as to “Why?”
       you placed your arrow.
   3. Use a Post-It Note to record additional questions and
      attach those to the right side of the page.
Modified from Northern Colorado BOCEES SBE Design Team
          Roles and Responsibilities

                      Business/Community
           Teachers

Parents




                      Administration
   Standards-Based Education
    Roles and Responsibilities
Materials: SBE Role descriptions, a specific role
 assignment.

• Read the role description for your assigned
  role.
• Summarize your role and discuss how your
  role impacts others.
• Describe the next steps for your role in the
  implementation process.
                  Reflection 3
Use the “Where am I?” Reflection Journal to rate
your understanding of the topic.
   1. Place an arrow on the line to represent your level of
       understanding along the continuum between
       “Unaware” and “Expert”.
   2. Record any thoughts you may have as to “Why?”
       you placed your arrow.
   3. Use a Post-It Note to record additional questions and
      attach those to the right side of the page.
Let’s take a BREAK!
  I think I can
  beat him to
   the dessert
     line if I
      hurry!
State Alignment System

  • High standards
  • Alignment of standards to:
    - curriculum and instruction
    - assessment
    - accountability system
           District Alignment

Different points of entry:

• Alignment to proficiency learning outcomes
• District courses of study
• Curriculum mapping
           Alignment Tools

• Comparison between academic content
  standards and proficiency learning outcomes
• Comparison between academic content
  standards and High School Graduation
  Qualifying Exam
• District alignment tools
• Curriculum mapping process
                Alignment Tools
  • Comparison between academic content
  standards and proficiency learning outcomes:
      – Grade 4 mathematics and English language arts
      – Grade 6 mathematics and English language arts
  • Comparison between academic content
  standards and High School Graduation
  Qualifying Exam (old OGT)


Available on ODE Website (http://www.ode.state.oh.us)
                          An Example for Grade 4 from
                         Patterns, Functions and Algebra
       OHIO ACADEMIC CONTENT STANDARDS                                   FOURTH-GRADE PROFICIENCY LEARNER
                GRADES 3-4 BENCHMARKS                                   OUTCOME AND DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH
                                                                                  FROM INFORMATION GUIDE

  Grades 3-4 Benchmarks: Patterns, Functions and Algebra             Strand I – Patterns, Relations, and Functions

  A. Analyze and extend patterns, and describe the rules in          2. Use patterns to make generalizations and predictions by
     words.                                                             a) Determining a rule and identifying missing numbers in a
                                                                           sequence;
  B. Use patterns to make predictions, identify relationships, and      b) Determine a rule and identifying missing numbers in a
     solve problems.                                                       table of number pairs;
                                                                        c) Identifying missing elements in a pattern and justifying
  F. Construct and use a table of values to solve problems                 their inclusion; and
     associated with mathematical relationships.                        d) Determining a rule and identifying missing numbers in a
                                                                           sequence of numbers or a table of number pairs related
  G. Describe how a change in one variable affects the value of a          by a combination of addition, subtraction, multiplication,
     related variable.                                                     or division.

                                                                         Students need to be able to recognize, describe and extend
                                                                         a variety of patterns and to use patterns to make
                                                                         generalizations and predictions. Test items require the
                                                                         student to continue a pattern by identifying or supplying a
                                                                         missing element(s) and/or describing a rule. Patterns are
                                                                         presented as a sequence of numbers or shapes, a table of
                                                                         number pairs, or an illustration of patterns found in nature.




Available on ODE Website
                            An Example for Grade 6 from
                           Patterns, Functions and Algebra
      OHIO ACADEMIC CONTENT STANDARDS                                 SIXTH-GRADE PROFICIENCY TEST LEARNING
              GRADES 5-7 BENCHMARKS                                     OUTCOME AND DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH
                                                                                 FROM INFORMATION GUIDE

Grades 5-7 Benchmarks: Patterns, Functions and Algebra               Strand V - Algebra

Includes aspects of:                                                 15. Use variables to describe arithmetic processes, to
                                                                         generalize arithmetic statements, and to generalize a
C. Use variables to create and solve equations and inequalities
   representing problem situations.
                                                                         problem situation.
D. Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical
   relationships.                                                       This outcome emphasizes recognizing and/or using
E. Use rules and variables to describe patterns, functions and          variables in problem-solving situations and
   other relationships.                                                 mathematical phrases and equations as statements.
F. Use representations, such as tables, graphs and equations,           Students may be given a mathematical sentence such
   to model situations and to solve problems, especially those          as “Six less than some number is equal to ten,” and
   that involve linear relationships.                                   may be asked to identify the phrase or equation
                                                                        represented by this sentence.
Grade 6 Indicators: Patterns, Functions and Algebra

4.   Solve simple linear equations and inequalities using physical
     models, paper and pencil, tables and graphs.
5.   Produce and interpret graphs that represent the relationship
     between two variables.
6.   E valuate simple expressions by replacing variables with
     given values, and use formulas in problem-solving
     situations.


Available on ODE Website
             An Example for Grade 10 from Patterns,
                    Functions and Algebra
      OHIO ACADEMIC CONTENT STANDARDS                            HSGQE COMPETENCIES AND DESCRIPTIVE
             GRADES 8-10 BENCHMARKS                               PARAGRAPH FROM INFORMATION GUIDE

Grades 8-10 Benchmarks: Patterns, Functions and               Algebra and Functions
Algebra
                                                              13. Represent a mathematical relationship using a table,
C. Translate information from one representation (words,          graph, symbols, and words, and describe how a
   table, graph or equation) to another representation of a       change in the value of one variable affects the value of
   relation or function.                                          a related variable.

D. Use algebraic representations, such as tables, graphs,        This competency assesses students’ ability to translate
   expressions, functions and inequalities, to model and         among mathematical relationships represented in
   solve problem situations.                                     various forms. For example, items for this competency
                                                                 may ask students to analyze or represent
Includes aspects of:                                             mathematical relationships, to provide an example of a
                                                                 situation that demonstrates a mathematical
H. Solve systems of linear equations involving two               relationship, to identify a missing number or point in a
   variables graphically and symbolically.                       tabular, symbolic, or graphical representation of a
                                                                 relationship, or to identify how a change in the value of
I.   Model and solve problem situations involving direct         one variable affects the value of another.
     and inverse variation.

J. Describe and interpret rates of change from graphical
   and numerical data.


     Available on ODE Website
                                    Alignment Tools
Standard:                       Align. To   Partial Alignment   No Alignment       District Resources
Reading Process:                  ACS       to                  to                       Aligned
Concepts of Print,                          Academic Content    Academic Content            To
Comprehension                               Standards           Standards          Academic Content
Strategies and Self-                                                                   Standards
Monitoring Strategies




Kindergarten

1.Demonstrate an
understanding that print
has meaning by explaining
that text provides
information or tells a story.

2. Hold books right side
up, know that people read
pages from front to back
and read words from left to
right.

3. Know the differences
between illustrations and
print.

4. Visualize the information
in texts, and demonstrate
this by drawing pictures,
discussing images in texts
or dictating simple
descriptions.

5. Predict what will happen
next, using pictures and
content as a guide.



Coming soon to the ODE Web site.
                 Alignment Tools
Curriculum Mapping Process
Phase I: Collecting the Data
Phase II: First Read-Through
Phase III: Small Mixed Group Review
Phase IV: Large Group Comparisons
Phase V: Determine Immediate Revision
  Points
Phase VI: Determine Points Requiring
  R&D
Phase VII: Plan for Next Cycle

(Heidi Hayes Jacob)
                 Alignment Tools
Mapping Categories:



                           Content



                      Skills   Assessments



(Heidi Hayes Jacob)
                      Alignment Tools

Mapping Categories:

• Concepts taught within the standards


                                        Content




(Heidi Hayes Jacob)
                      Alignment Tools
Mapping Categories:


• Grade-level indicators


                                   Skills


(Heidi Hayes Jacob)
                      Alignment Tools

Mapping Categories:

• Diagnostics based upon grade-level indicators
• Achievement tests based upon grade-band
  benchmarks

                                 Assessments


(Heidi Hayes Jacob)
                      Alignment Tools

Additional Considerations for Mapping:
• Essential questions (directly related to
  standards)
• Vocabulary
• Split skills - grade-level indicators and
  “other” skills
• Benchmark testing
(Heidi Hayes Jacob)
                            Mapping Template
                           September                 October   November


Essential Questions:


Content (concepts):


Standards/Benchmarks:


Skills and Knowledge:      Grade Level Indicators:


                           Additional Skills:


Vocabulary:


Classroom Assessments:


District Assessments:
(periodic or cumulative)

Resources:
                  Reflection 4
Use the “Where am I?” Reflection Journal to rate
your understanding of the topic.
   1. Place an arrow on the line to represent your level of
       understanding along the continuum between
       “Unaware” and “Expert”.
   2. Record any thoughts you may have as to “Why?”
       you placed your arrow.
   3. Use a Post-It Note to record additional questions and
      attach those to the right side of the page.
        Standards Framework
 Overarching
   goals &
   themes
                      STANDARD

      BENCHMARK BENCHMARK BENCHMARK

         Indicator      Indicator   Indicator

         Indicator      Indicator
What all students                   What all students
  should know &         Indicator   should know and
   be able to do                      be able to do
at each grade level     Indicator
                                             Patterns, Functions and Algebra Standard: Patterns, Relations and Functions

                              11-12



                                                                                                    A. Analyze functions
                                      C. Use recursive                                              by investigating rates
   Benchmark Maps                     functions to model and
                                      solve problems; e.g.,
                                      home mortgages,
                                                                                                    of change, intercepts,
                                                                                                    zeros, asymptotes,
                                                                                                    and local and global
                                      annuities.
                                                                                                    behavior.


• Show relationships
  among benchmarks            8-10
                                                  A. Generalize and
                                                  explain patterns and

• Facilitate understanding
                                                                                    B. Identify and                     E. Analyze and
                                                  sequences in order                classify functions as               compare functions
                                                  to find the next                  linear or nonlinear,                and their graphs using
                                                  term and the nth                  and contrast their                  attributes, such as
                                                  term.                             properties using                    rates of change,
  of the benchmarks                                                                 tables, graphs or
                                                                                    equations.
                                                                                                                        intercepts and zeros.




• May be used to plan
  instruction                  5-7

                                      A. Describe, extend and            B. Represent, analyze                                E. Use rules and

• Can quickly see what is             determine the rule for
                                      patterns and relationship
                                      occurring in numeric
                                                                         and generalize a
                                                                         variety of patterns and
                                                                         functions with tables,
                                                                                                                              variables to
                                                                                                                              describe patterns,
                                                                                                                              functions, and other
                                      patterns, computation,             graphs, words and                                    relationships.

  taught before and after             geometry, graphs and
                                      other applications.
                                                                         symbolic rules.




  grade bands


  Coming soon with the release of the Curriculum Models.
                 Correlation of Benchmarks and Grade-Level Indicators
    This is a page from the correlation between Ohio’s K-12 benchmarks and indicators and
    is available on the ODE Web site.
Patterns, Functions and Algebra
Grades 5-7


     Ohio Benchmarks                Grade-Level Indicators              Grade-Level Indicators               Grade-Level Indicators
        Grades 5-7                         Grade 5                             Grade 6                              Grade 7

A. Write, simplify and evaluate   3. Use variables as unknown         6. Evaluate simple expressions       1. Represent and analyze
   algebraic expressions.            quantities in general rules         by replacing variables with          patterns, rules and functions
                                     when describing patterns and        given values, and use formulas       with words, tables, graphs and
                                     other relationships.                in problem-solving situations.       simple variable expressions.

                                                                                                           7. Justify that two forms of an
                                                                                                              algebraic expression are
                                                                                                              equivalent, and recognize
                                                                                                              when an expression is
                                                                                                              simplified; e.g.,
                                                                                                              4m = m + m + m + m or
                                                                                                              a · 5 + 4 = 5a + 4.


B. Solve linear equations and                                         4. Solve simple linear equations     4. Create visual representations
   inequalities symbolically,                                            and inequalities using physical      of equation-solving processes
   graphically and numerically.                                          models, paper and pencil,            that model the use of inverse
                                                                         tables and graphs.                   operations.


C. Explain how inverse            8. Identify and use relationships                                        4. Create visual representations
   operations are used to solve      between operations to solve                                              of equation-solving processes
   linear equations.                 problems. Number, Number                                                 that model the use of inverse
                                     Sense and Operations                                                     operations.




  Available on ODE Website
        Correlation of Ohio’s K-12 Benchmarks and Grade-Level Indicators
         Expectations related to independent reading are delineated at all grades K-12 within the grade-level indicators. The last
 two indicators (i.e., “Use criteria to choose independent reading materials...” and “Independently read books for various
 purposes...”) are demonstrated by students on a daily basis as they select reading materials for varied purposes. Classroom
 teachers have many opportunities to observe students engaged in activities related to these skills.


 Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension
 Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
 Grades K-3
 Ohio Benchmarks                 Grade-Level              Grade-Level              Grade-Level             Grade-Level
 Grades K-3                      Indicators               Indicators               Indicators
                                 Kindergarten             Grade 1                                          Indicators
                                                                                   Grade 2                 Grade 3
 A.Establish a purpose for       1.Visualize the          1.Establish a            1.Establish a           1.Establish a
 reading and use a range of      information in texts,    purpose for reading      purpose for reading     purpose for reading
 reading comprehension           and demonstrate          (e.g., to be             (e.g., to be            (e.g., to be
 strategies to understand        this by drawing          informed, to follow      informed, to follow     informed, to follow
 literary passages and text.     pictures, discussing     directions or to be      directions or to be     directions or to be
                                 images in texts or       entertained).            entertained).           entertained).
                                 dictating simple         2.Visualize the          2.Create and use        2.Create and use
                                 descriptions.            information in texts     graphic organizers,     graphic organizers,
                                                          and demonstrate          such as Venn            such as Venn
                                                          this by drawing          diagrams or webs,       diagrams or webs,
                                                          pictures, discussing     to demonstrate          to demonstrate
                                                          images in texts or       comprehension.          comprehension.
                                                          writing simple
                                                          descriptions.



Available on ODE Website
      Developing Knowledge

Constructivist Mapping Activity:
                Planning
             For Instruction
What are the important questions that you
consider when planning instruction?
Activity Directions:
• Brainstorm individually (2 minutes).
• Discuss as whole group.
• Record ideas on chart paper.
• Identify most critical questions.
• Share out from tables (2 minutes).
                 Planning
Card Sort Activity:
Materials: Cards with instructional planning
  statements

• Work with a partner or in groups of three.
• Consider the important components when
  planning for instruction.
• Sequence the steps involved in instructional
  planning.
                   Planning
Five Essential Questions:
• What content needs to be taught?
• What is the best way(s) to assess student’s
  knowledge of content?
• How should data be analyzed?
• How should teaching and learning be
  designed?
• How should materials and resources be
  evaluated/selected?
                   Planning

What are the important components that you
consider when planning for instruction?
Activity Directions:

Reorder your cards based on the information just
shared about how planning should occur in a
standards-based system.
                  Reflection 5
Use the “Where am I?” Reflection Journal to rate
your understanding of the topic.
   1. Place an arrow on the line to represent your level of
       understanding along the continuum between
       “Unaware” and “Expert”.
   2. Record any thoughts you may have as to “Why?”
       you placed your arrow.
   3. Use a Post-It Note to record additional questions and
      attach those to the right side of the page.
     Benchmark and Indicator
            Analysis
Four Square Activity:
Materials:
   – Standard, Benchmark & Indicator Analysis Sheets
     (Forms A, B and C)
   – Correlation of Ohio’s Benchmarks and Grade-Level
     Indicators documents (ELA and mathematics)
   – Mathematical Processes Benchmarks
Objective:
  Analyze a benchmark and the associated grade-level
  indicators for a deeper understanding of what students
  should know and be able to do.
Benchmark and Indicator Analysis
           Four Square Analysis Sheet
                                             What content needs to be taught
  Standard, benchmark(s) and indicator(s):
                                             (knowledge and skills)?




  What must students be able to do           Why do students need this knowledge
  (performance)?                             and these skills (relevancy)?




  What is the best way(s) to assess
  student’s knowledge of content?
Benchmark and Indicator Analysis
           Four Square Analysis Sheet
                                             What content needs to be taught
  Standard, benchmark(s) and indicator(s):
                                             (knowledge and skills)?




  What must students be able to do           Why do students need this knowledge
  (performance)?                             and these skills (relevancy)?




  What is the best way(s) to assess
  student’s knowledge of content?
  Benchmark and Indicator Analysis

In Standards-Based Education, the standards:
• Delineate the content students should know.
• Specify the performance expectations (what
  students should be able to do).
  Benchmark and Indicator Analysis
English Language Arts
Research, Grade 6
Compare and contrast important findings and select sources to support
central ideas, concepts and themes.

Mathematics
Patterns, Functions and Algebra , Grade 4
Use Models and words to describe, extend, and make generalizations
of patterns and relationships occurring in computation, numerical
patterns, geometry, graphs and other applications.
Benchmark and Indicator Analysis
            Four Square Analysis Sheet
                                              What content needs to be taught
   Standard, benchmark(s) and indicator(s):
                                              (knowledge and skills)?




   What must students be able to do           Why do students need this knowledge
   (performance)?                             and these skills (relevancy)?




   What is the best way(s) to assess
   student’s knowledge of content?
Benchmark and Indicator Analysis


 What are the best way(s) to assess
  student’s knowledge of content?
Benchmark and Indicator Analysis
            Four Square Analysis Sheet
                                              What content needs to be taught
   Standard, benchmark(s) and indicator(s):
                                              (knowledge and skills)?




   What must students be able to do           Why do students need this knowledge
   (performance)?                             and these skills (relevancy)?




   What is the best way(s) to assess
   student’s knowledge of content?
          Closing

• Next steps
• Questions and answers
• Program evaluation

								
To top