FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES
Adapted from NC FALCON Website
Students will complete the first section of the anticipation guide prior
to reading/instruction. Students’ responses to the items are discussed
in class. Reading and/or instruction follows the discussion. Students
will complete the second part of the guide. Responses will be
discussed and compared to the previous answers. Changes in
responses will be done, if necessary. This strategy provides
information on the depth of students’ prior knowledge regarding a
The students will be asked to write down one real-world application of
the topic that has been taught. Prior knowledge can be determined
and can be shared to the class.
Students are paired to write to each other what they have learned.
The teacher can read through these writings and write back to
students any additional information or clarification.
Students will take side to an issue. They will defend their side based
on their knowledge about an issue. This usually used for subjects
where opinions based on facts are practiced. On the other hand, this
can also be used in mathematics. The teacher can present two
solutions to answer a question. The students will take sides and
defend their answer based on the concepts learned. By listening on
the debate, the teacher can gauge the depth of the students’
Clink-Clunk Response Cards/Sticks
This strategy works better with younger students. Students are given
two index cards attached to a stick. One index card says “CLICK” and
will be raised with the student understands the concept. The other
index card says “CLUNK” and will be raised when the student is
confused with the concept and needs further instruction. This gives an
immediate feedback to the teacher and can modify instruction as soon
Students will be asked to list down ideas or concepts about a lesson
that they already know (to determine prior knowledge), that they need Eukaryotic Cell &
more clarification on (to elaborate current learning), or that they have Functions
learned (to see what learning has occurred.
Students are arranged in group. Each group is assigned with a
particular topic that they need to learn. The teacher can circulate and
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provide additional information that will help the group understand the
topic more. After each group has mastered their content, the class will
be regrouped in which each new group will have a representative from
the original group. Each member of the new group will take turn in
facilitating the discussion of the topic learned from the original group.
In mathematics, a teacher can ask a student to solve a problem. But
instead of the usual way of writing down the solution, the students will
be asked to write their solution in paragraph form. The teacher will
know how the students understand the lesson and how they process
the solution in their own words. By reading through the students’
writings, the teacher can respond with some additional information or
clarification about any misconceptions or gaps in learning.
Learning Center – Stories on tape
Students will record on tape what their own version of what they
learned about a particular topic. Listening to the records, the teacher
will know who learns what information. The teacher will select the best
tape and can be used at a listening center for those students who have
not mastered that particular topic.
Students act as a journalist and interview a classmate regarding the
topics learned. The “journalist” will ask questions of varying difficulty
level. The interview can either be electronically recorded or in a form
of a transcript. By evaluating the document of the interview, the
teacher can identify the level of student learning regarding the
interview topic. Further instruction will be given to clarify or to give
This technique is done at the end of the lesson. Students are asked to Eukaryotic Cells &
write down the concepts that they understand the least. This will help Functions
the teacher to identify the concepts that needs further instruction.
Eukaryotic Cell &
Usually done at the end of the lesson, students are asked to write one
complete sentence summary of what they have learned for the day.
Podcasting is basically the same as the Learning Center mentioned
above, except that it is web-based. This means that the stories
recorded will be accessible to more users – teachers, peers and the
general public. In the same way, the teacher would be able to know
who learned what information. This way, the teacher will know which
objectives need further instruction.
Students will be asked to write a poem, in any form, using the terms
that are used in a lesson. The teacher will read the poem and point out
some misconceptions. This poem can be used by the class to master
concepts and retain vocabulary.
This is especially effective for younger students. Students will write a
script and present the puppet show to the class. By reading the script,
the teacher would know what things have been learned. Also, not only
will the students learn but also enjoy the show.
Students will write or illustrate ideas, concepts, thoughts or feelings on
information that has been learned. Using this impromptu activity, the
teacher can easily identify concepts that need to be re-taught.
The class will be divided into teams. One team will make develop their
questions according to the specified categories while the other team
answers. By looking at the type of questions and quality of answers
given, the teacher will know the depth of the students learning and
can therefore make additional instruction, if necessary.
Students will be the one to ask and answer their questions within the
group. The teacher will circulate around the classroom to listen to the
questions being asked to make sure that the objectives are well-
represented. The teacher will listen to answers to measure the depth
of the student’s knowledge of that particular topic. The teacher will
input additional information into the conversation for greater learning.
If the student can teach the concept correctly to a classmate, then the
student must have understood that concept. A student can take the
role of a teacher while the teacher observes how the student teaches
the concept. The teacher will listen to the students’ discussion and will
provide additional instruction, if needed.
For two minutes, students are asked to recall and list down concepts
from previous day according to its importance. For another two
minutes, students will write a 1-sentence summary of these important
points. Then, they will post a question that they want to be answered
or discuss further by the teacher. Lastly, they will identify two
components that will connect their list to the overall goal.
Students are given a list of objectives with the type of questions given.
They will check those objectives that they think they can perform with
Students will read a story or an article in a textbook. The students will
develop a diagram/drawings representing what they have learned. An
article about the water cycle, for example, can be represented with a
diagram. The teacher can view the diagram and see if the concepts
are correctly portrayed.
Student-Generated Venn Diagrams
The teacher will present a Venn diagram template or the students can
make their own. This is especially useful for topics that require
comparison. The Venn diagram can display similarities and differences
between concepts. The teacher will view the Venn diagram and see if
the characteristics being compared or contrast are displayed correctly.
Students will be presented with a challenging question. They will
individually answer the problems at first. Then, they will pair up to
discuss their individual answer. During the pair discussion, the teacher
will circulate in the classroom to listen to their discussions and give
additional instruction or clarification based upon the level of student
responses. The combined analysis of the problem, with the teacher’s
input if there is any, will then be presented and shared to the rest of
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This technique is usually done at the end of the period. Students are
asked to summarize what they have learned that day.