Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education
The Robert Gordon University
Version at 27 February 2007
Production of profile
1. This profile was drafted following discussions with the University, including the
annual discussion meetings held on 27 August 2004, 13 October 2005, 21
September 2006, preliminary ELIR discussions (including on 14 February 2007),
and electronic communication.
Introduction to the Institution
2. Robert Gordon’s Technical College became a Scottish Central Institution in 1903
having had its origins in 1750 as the educational arm of the Robert Gordon’s
Hospital. In the nineteenth century, it incorporated the Aberdeen Mechanics
Institute and the Aberdeen Pharmaceutical Society, and provided the site for
Gray’s School of Art. It changed its name to Robert Gordon’s Institute of
Technology in 1965, was accredited by the CNAA and became the Robert
Gordon University in 1992.
3. The University’s mission is ‘to inspire and enable the transformation of
individuals, economies and societies’ and its vision is ‘to be internationally
recognized for excellence in professional education and applied research’.
4. The academic activities of the University are divided into three faculties, each
with constituent schools or cognate departments: the Faculty of Design and
Technology; the Faculty of Health and Social Care; and the Aberdeen Business
5. The University is based on two sites: the Schoolhill campus, based in traditional
surroundings in Aberdeen’s city centre; and the Garthdee campus, a modern
estate some 4 miles south west of the city centre. The Schoolhill campus is the
location of several administration departments, library services, and the Students’
Association, as well as the schools of Engineering, Pharmacy, and Computing
Sciences. The Garthdee campus is the location of the Aberdeen Business
School, as well as a number of other schools (Applied Social Sciences; Health
Sciences; Nursing and Midwifery; the Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and
Built Environment; and Gray’s School of Art), and also contains library services,
non-academic support facilities, and social and open spaces.
6. The University recognizes the following forms of academic collaboration:
franchised courses; validated courses; and credit-rating of external provision.
The University has validated stage 3 of a BA in Hospitality Management with
Motherwell College, and this is currently in its first year of operation. On
occasion, the University may seek to enter into an agreement with one of more
partner institutions or organizations with degree-awarding powers for the
provision of joint awards; currently, no such agreements are in force. A recent
and anticipated growing area of activity involves the credit-rating of third party
short course provision for corporate clients. This was initiated in recent years
with NHS Grampian but, more recently, has been extended as part of a major
international agreement with Shell Exploration and Production through its training
centre in The Hague. In addition, the University participates in student exchange
7. From 2001-02, the University has offered, in partnership with local further
education colleges, its Degree Link Programme, which seeks to offer students a
‘seamless’ transition from Higher National Diploma (HN) programmes into
relevant degrees at the University. Appendix A provides data on student intakes
to this programme, from the three established partner colleges, for the sessions
2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06. Partnership agreements for the Degree Link
Programme have more recently been extended to include Dundee College and
the UHI Millennium Institute. (Please refer to case study 1 in the RA)
8. As at July 2006, the University’s staff population was constituted as follows: 443
academic staff; 87 academic research staff; 906 professional and support staff,
including 74 staff in senior management grades. A profile of student numbers at
the University is contained in Appendix B.
Previous institutional quality audit
9. In 2002, the University underwent QAA Quality Audit (‘continuation audit’). The
audit found evidence of ‘a strong and supportive institutional commitment to
quality assurance…’, and the report identified a number of points for
commendation in relation to the University’s quality assurance systems. The
report further noted that a ‘culture of enhancement’ had emerged from the audit
visit. The audit report noted that since an institutional audit in 1995, and the 1999
audit of collaborative provision arrangements in Malaysia, the University had
undertaken a ‘significant and extensive amount of work to refine and enhance its
quality assurance systems’. It was further noted that, drawing upon the matters
raised in the Malaysian overseas audit and the outcomes of the University’s own
considerations, the institution had taken a strategic decision to withdraw from
most of its collaborative provision.
10. The 2002 audit report identified that the University had put particular effort into
encouraging student feedback, and student representation on its committees and,
under ‘points for further consideration’ highlighted the advisability of exploring
ways in which the University might secure greater student participation in the
monitoring and enhancement of the it’s provision. The report also highlighted that
the University had embarked upon a major initiative to offer programmes through
a ‘virtual campus’, and the institution was asked to consider the advisability of
ensuring careful attention was given to the particular management and quality
assurance arrangements required to underpin this new learning environment.
Related to the above, the report also identified that particular attention was being
given to developing staff expertise and ensuring appropriate investment in new
information technologies; the report further advised of the need to ensure
‘sufficient, timely and targeted’ staff development to underpin the full range of the
University’s activities. The report also highlighted the vocational focus of the
University’s programmes, and the importance of its placement-system; in doing
so, the report advised of the opportunities for enhanced consistency in the
establishment and monitoring of such placements. Finally, the report identified a
small number of ‘desirable’ points for consideration in relation to: internal
academic quality review; student admissions arrangements; and arrangements
for publicity and recruitment material.
11. In January 2003, the University submitted a comprehensive ‘follow-up’ progress
report to the QAA. The progress report included: a statement on how
consideration of the Quality Audit Report and the subsequent actions had been
taken forward within the University; a commentary on the conclusions of the audit
report; a brief description of the actions taken in response to the points for
commendation and further consideration; and a brief description of other relevant
developments in the area of quality management, and an analysis of the
effectiveness to date of these developments. (A copy of this response is
enclosed in the ELIR team’s pack of advance materials).
External review at the subject level
12. The table below sets out the summary outcomes of the small number of QAA
academic (subject) reviews conducted during 2001. In all cases the reviewers
had ‘confidence’ in the academic standards of the programmes under review, and
found the quality of learning opportunities to be ‘commendable’ across the all
three aspects of provision. (Copies of these subject reviews are included in the
pack of advance materials to the ELIR team).
QAA Academic subject review 2000-2001
Academic Quality of Quality of Quality of
Standards learning learning learning
opportunities: opportunities: opportunities:
Teaching & Student Learning
Learning Progression Resources
Architecture, Confidence Commendable Commendable Commendable
Hospitality, Confidence Commendable Commendable Commendable
Leisure, Sport &
Librarianship & Confidence Commendable Commendable Commendable
Internal review at the subject level
13. Internal review is the process adopted by the University to formally review, on
a six yearly cycle, its major subject provision. Following the formal review,
there is a three year interim review, in order to monitor progress against
action/issues raised through the review process. The primary purpose of
internal review is to assure the University that there is effective management
of the quality and standards of its subject provision and that there is evidence
of a commitment to continuous development and enhancement. The internal
review process also enables the University to monitor the effectiveness of the
annual appraisal process. Internal review normally involves re-approval of
course portfolio associated with the subject (being reviewed). The internal
review is conducted by a review panel consisting of both internal and external
members. Since session 2005-06, a student representative has been included
on the review panel. The review panel is required to make a judgement of
confidence or no confidence in respect of the assurance of quality and
standards and evidence of commitment to continuous development and
enhancement for each of the subjects reviewed. On reaching a judgement of
‘confidence’, the panel will have the opportunity to make ‘commendations’ and
‘recommendations’. In reaching a judgement of ‘no confidence, the panel is
required to clearly indicate the basis whereby this judgement has been
reached and indicate to the University what steps could be taken to address
this outcome. In terms of the re-approval of courses, the panel can make a
judgement either to approve a course with conditions and/or
recommendations or to not approve a course.
14. Appendix C contains summary outcomes of those internal reviews undertaken
from 2003-04 to 2006-07, and a forward plan for internal reviews to 2011-2012.
Appendix D contains the University’s most recent annual return on the outcomes
of internal review to the Scottish Funding Council (for 2005-06).
15. The University is actively involved in the following Enhancement Themes
Steering Groups (the names indicate RGU staff membership of the groups):
Responding to student needs (led by John Harper)
Assessment (Win Hornby)
Flexible Learning (Judith Smith)
Employability (James Dunphy)
Research Teaching Linkages (Alan Davidson and Robert Newton)
First year experience (Ruth Taylor)
16. In addition, John Harper participated in the education tour to Canada organised
by the Scottish Higher Education Enhancement Committee (SHEEC). The
University further notes that there was ‘a high attendance of staff at Themes
events in the first year, but that this was less so in the second year, partly as the
type of activity was somewhat different’.
Other information from the University: Brief update on recent organisational
changes (information provided by the University)
17. Posts to support enhancement: The University has recently appointed a Vice-
Principal (Student Experience and External Affairs) and the former Manager
(Student Services) has been re-designated Dean of Students. These changes will
further strengthen the focus on, and coordination of, the development of Support
Services. In addition, the Department for the Enhancement of Learning, Teaching
and Assessment (DELTA) was formed in Autumn 2006 from a merger of the
former Centre for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching (CELT) and the
Department of eLearning (DeL). A new position of Dean has been established to
lead this department. The Dean will play a key role in taking forward the
University’s enhancement agenda.
18. Estates development: Since 2002, there has been major estates development,
particularly at the Garthdee Campus. This has included the construction of a
£28m Faculty of Health and Social Care building, a £23m sport centre, a medical
centre and a nursery. Planning approval has recently been obtained for £150m
estates development at Garthdee which would see the University locate to a
single site by 2015. The Estates Masterplan, approved by the Board of
Governors, aims to produce four academic precincts (Creative Arts, Business,
Health and Technology) which will be inter-linked by three support hubs (Learning
Resource, Student Welfare and Administration).
19. Changes to the Student Association: The Student Association has recently
employed a new management team appointing a new general manager at the
start of December 2006 and a Commercial Services Manager in January 2007.
To aid student participation and ownership, the Student Association has recently
had a revised constitution approved by the Board of Governors and the new
charities body, the Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator (OSCR). The new
constitution will make provision for a more appropriate level of executive decision
making whilst also ensuring wider input is achieved through a small number of
advisory groups. This was the first student association constitution to be
approved by OSCR in Scotland and will set a precedent for other Student
Associations who have to follow. The proposed constitution is to be taken to the
student body and will hopefully be approved at the Student Association’s AGM on
15 February 2007.
Appendix A: Intake to Degree Link courses from partner colleges: Aberdeen, Banff & Buchan and Angus further education colleges
Session 03-04 Session 04-05 Session 05-06
Aberdeen Business School Stage 2 3 Total 2 3 Total 2 3 Total
BA HONS ACCOUNTING & FINANCE 3 0 3 2 1 3 3 2 5
BA HONS BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 1 16 17 1 13 14 0 18 18
BA HONS BUSINESS STUDIES# 9 0 9 9 0 9
BA HONS LAW & MANAGEMENT 2 16 18 1 24 25 3 26 29
BA HONS MANAGEMENT* 3 0 3
BA HONS MANAGEMENT WITH ECONOMICS* 1 0 1
BA HONS MANAGEMENT WITH FINANCE* 0 0 0
BA HONS MANAGEMENT WITH HR MANAGEMENT* 2 0 2
BA HONS MANAGEMENT WITH MARKETING* 2 0 2
BA HONS CORPORATE COMMUNICATION 9 0 9 5 21 26 1 9 10
BA HONS PUBLISHING 0 1 1
BA HONS PUBLISHING WITH JOURNALISM 4 0 4 0 2 2 2 4 6
BA HONS RETAIL MANAGEMENT 2 4 6 6 4 10 1 1 2
BA HONS TOURISM & HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT* 3 16 19 3 9 12 2 10 12
BA HONS HOTEL & HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT* 1 4 5 2 3 5 1 4 5
34 56 90 29 77 106 21 75 96
Faculty of Design and Technology Stage 2 3 Total 2 3 Total 2 3 Total
BSc(ENG) HONS ELECTRONIC & ELECTRICAL ENG* 0 3 3 1 1 2
BEng (Hons) ELECTRONIC & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING* 1 0 1
BSc (ENG) HONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING* 2 1 3 0 2 2
BEng/BEng (Hons) MECHANICAL SYSTEMS# 5 3 8
BEng(Hons) MECHANICAL & OFFSHORE ENGINEERING 1 0 1
BEng (Hons)) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING* 2 0 2 4 1 5
BSc (Hons) ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS* 2 0 2
BSc (Hons) COMPUTER NETWORK MANAGEMENT & DESIGN 5 12 17 4 17 21 1 18 19
BSc HONS COMPUTING FOR INTERNET & MULTIMEDIA 0 27 27 0 14 14 0 8 8
BSc HONS INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY* 0 8 8 9 7 16
11 42 53 8 43 51 18 37 55
Faculty of Health & Social Care Stage 2 3 Total 2 3 Total 2 3 Total
BA (Hons) APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES 3 7 10 2 9 11 4 7 11
3 7 10 2 9 11 4 7 11
48 105 153 39 129 168 43 119 162
* New DL route (NB Intake to Aberdeen Business School dipped slightly in 2005-06 due to less interest in corporate comms,
which was also reflected at FE level. Students on hospitality & tourism courses have entered new named routes of BA (Hons)
International Tourism or International Hospitality)
# course discontinued or renamed from 04-05
Appendix B: Student Profile of the University, session 2005-06
Undergraduate PG Taught PG Research Overall
Faculty FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT Total
Aberdeen Business School 1,672 177 967 1,469 36 20 2,675 1,666 4,341
Design & Technology 1,993 520 473 245 69 37 2,535 802 3,337
Health & Social Care 3,186 1,516 212 628 41 31 3,439 2,175 5,614
PG Professional Studies 0 1 3 22 0 0 3 23 26
TOTAL 6,851 2,214 1,655 2,364 146 88 8,652 4,666 13,318
Students on Collaborative Programmes registered for University Awards - Session 2005/06
No collaborative programmes running in Session 2005/06
Student Characteristics (excluding collaborative programmes)
Undergraduate PG Taught PG Research Overall
Faculty Gender FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT Total
Aberdeen Male 677 77 544 719 13 9 1,234 805 2,039
Business Female 995 100 423 750 23 11 1,441 861 2,302
School Total 1,672 177 967 1,469 36 20 2,675 1,666 4,341
Design & Male 1,333 277 411 205 43 31 1,787 513 2,300
Technology Female 660 243 62 40 26 6 748 289 1,037
Total 1,993 520 473 245 69 37 2,535 802 3,337
Health & Male 512 199 72 156 15 8 599 363 962
Social Female 2,674 1,317 140 472 26 23 2,840 1,812 4,652
Care Total 3,186 1,516 212 628 41 31 3,439 2,175 5,614
PG Professional Studies Male 0 0 3 5 0 0 3 5 8
Female 0 1 0 17 0 0 0 18 18
Total 0 1 3 22 0 0 3 23 26
TOTAL Male 2,522 553 1,030 1,085 71 48 3,623 1,686 5,309
Female 4,329 1,661 625 1,279 75 40 5,029 2,980 8,009
Total 6,851 2,214 1,655 2,364 146 88 8,652 4,666 13,318
Proportion of full-time undergraduate population aged 21 or over on entry - 32%
Proportion of part-time undergraduate population aged 21 or over on entry - 96%
Undergraduate PG Taught PG Research Overall
Faculty Origin FT PT FT PT FT PT FT PT Total
Aberdeen UK 1,508 169 227 1,018 16 16 1,751 1,203 2,954
Business Other EU 113 2 36 91 6 0 155 93 248
School Overseas 51 6 704 360 14 4 769 370 1,139
Total 1,672 177 967 1,469 36 20 2,675 1,666 4,341
Design & UK 1,746 506 57 122 25 13 1,828 641 2,469
Technology Other EU 105 3 8 30 7 10 120 43 163
Overseas 142 11 408 93 37 14 587 118 705
Total 1,993 520 473 245 69 37 2,535 802 3,337
Health & UK 2,701 1,476 163 475 27 27 2,891 1,978 4,869
Social Other EU 423 18 32 38 6 2 461 58 519
Care Overseas 62 22 17 115 8 2 87 139 226
Total 3,186 1,516 212 628 41 31 3,439 2,175 5,614
PG Professional Studies UK 0 1 0 20 0 0 0 21 21
Other EU 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Overseas 0 0 3 1 0 0 3 1 4
Total 0 1 3 22 0 0 3 23 26
TOTAL UK 5,955 2,152 447 1,635 68 56 6,470 3,843 10,313
Other EU 641 23 76 160 19 12 736 195 931
Overseas 255 39 1,132 569 59 20 1,446 628 2,074
Total 6,851 2,214 1,655 2,364 146 88 8,652 4,666 13,318
Appendix C: Internal review cycle 2003-04 to 20006-07, and forward plan to 2012
Internal Reviews Conducted from Session 2003/04 to 2006/07
With regard to the undernoted Subject Reviews, the Panels confirmed their confidence in respect of the assurance of quality and standards, and of evidence of commitment to continuous
development and enhancement. The Panel also confirmed that the University’s annual monitoring process was operating satisfactorily. In reaching their conclusions, the Panels made a
number of commendations and recommendations as follows:- (Full details of outcomes will be available to the ELIR Team on intranet website
Pharmacy: 12 commendations and 9 recommendations.
17-20 February 2004
Engineering: 5 commendations and 10 recommendations.
24-26 March 2004
Chemistry; Biosciences; and Nutrition and Dietetics: 15 commendations and 12 recommendations.
28-30 April 2004
Nursing; and Midwifery: 16 commendations and 10 recommendations.
4-6 May 2004
Social Work; and Social Sciences: 19 commendations and 15 recommendations.
11-13 May 2004
Computing: 8 commendations and 6 recommendations.
11-13 April 2005
Diagnostic Radiography; Occupational Therapy; Physiotherapy; and Sports Science: 12 commendations and 13 recommendations.
17-19 May 2005
Communication, Media, Film and Cultural Studies; Librarianship and Information Management; and Hospitality, 22 commendations and 14 recommendations.
Leisure, Sport and Tourism:
3-5 May 2006
Accounting; Business and Management (General); and Law: 25 commendations and 16 recommendations.
28-30 November 2006
Forward Plan of Internal Reviews to 2012
Architecture; Architectural Technology and Landscape Architecture; and Building and Surveying November 2007
Creative Arts and Design; Fine Art; and Design Studies
Nursing; and Midwifery April 2009
Social Work; and Social Sciences May 2009
Pharmacy February 2010
Engineering March 2010
Chemistry; Biological Sciences; and Nutrition and Dietetics April 2010
Computing April 2011
Diagnostic Radiography; Occupational Therapy; Physiotherapy; and Sports Science May 2011
Communication, Media, Film and Cultural Studies; Librarianship and Information Management; and Hospitality, May 2012
Leisure, Sport and Tourism
Appendix D: University’s annual return to the Scottish Funding Council on the outcomes of internal review at the subject level
THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY
Annual Statement for the Scottish Funding Council
on Internal Review Activity
1. Internal Subject Review: 2005/06
The following subject areas, which are hosted by the Aberdeen Business School, were reviewed as part of one integrated Internal Review event during Session 2005/06:-
Communication Media, Film and Cultural Studies
Librarianship and Information Management
Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism
2. Other Review Processes
Other review processes undertaken during this year for the purposes of Professional and Regulatory Body Approval/Accreditation are summarised as follows:-
Institute of Civil Engineers - BSc (Hons) Construction Design and Management (Civil Engineering) (correspondence).
Architects Registration Board - BSc (Hons) Architecture; BSc (Hons) Interior Architecture; BSc (Hons) Architecture (European Practice); MArch; PgD/MSc Advanced
Architectural Studies (correspondence).
Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors - BSc (Hons) Surveying; MSc Construction and Property Management and MSc Project Management.
Royal Institute of British Architects.
Forensic Science Society - BSc (Hons) Forensic Science and BSc (Hons) Forensic Science with Chemistry.
Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain – PgD Overseas Pharmacy Assessment Programme.
Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development - MSc Human Resource Management.
Institution of Measurement and Control - MEng/BEng in Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Electronic and Communications Engineering; Electronic and Computer
Engineering; and Artificial Intelligence and Electronic Engineering.
|Institute of Biomedical Science - BSc (Hons) Applied Biomedical Science.
Accreditation Re-visit by Royal Institute of British Architects.
Association of MBAs - Master of Business Administration.
3. Outcome of Subject Review
For all subjects reviewed, the Panel confirmed its confidence in respect of the assurance of quality and standards, and of evidence of commitment to continuous development and
enhancement. The Panel also confirmed that the University’s annual monitoring process was operating satisfactorily.
The event, in addition to addressing subject review, also involved formal re-approval of the associated course portfolio. All courses were re-approved.
4. Good Practice and Development Needs
The outcomes of the Internal Subject Review event are outlined below (the outcomes from the course re-approval aspects have not been included):-
(a) All Subject Areas
(i) Extend the content of the Programme Specifications to include a mapping of Level Learning Outcomes to assessment and appropriate benchmarks.
(ii) Review the impact of the lack of social space within the Aberdeen Business School building on the noise in the library and the detrimental effect it has on the
(b) Communication, Media, Film and Cultural Studies
(i) Support for staff development in terms of sabbaticals and maintaining professional skills in practice.
(ii) The positive experience of past students and employers who were both extremely strong advocates for the course.
(iii) The enthusiasm, professionalism and cohesion of the subject team.
(iv) Links to the Public Relations industry and plans to set up a formal Public Relations Panel.
(v) Organisation of placements and tutor assessment in BA (Hons) Corporate Communication course.
(vi) Research achievements particularly in light of the staff/student ratios.
(vii) The investment plans for a TV and radio studio in demonstrating a real commitment to progress which would enhance the platform for both existing and future
(i) Make it a clear requirement that, as part of the preparation for placements, students are to research the placement organisation, its sector and include this within the
(ii) To conduct market research on employers’ perceptions on the proposed ‘Media Studies’ brand to explore any negative connotations and, as necessary, consider
(iii) Ensure corporate communication staff shortages are addressed.
(iv) Review the international strategy/mission and the extent to which it is embedded in the subject areas.
(c) Librarianship and Information Management
(i) The formation of the Information Management Professional Panel.
(ii) Continuous review/monitoring of courses, content of courses and modes of delivery.
(iii) The distance learning portfolio.
(iv) Mapping of modules to the five elements covered in the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals’ (CILIP) “Body of Professional Knowledge”.
(v) The support for distance learning students.
(vi) The work undertaken in conjunction with the Department of eLearning (DeL).
(vii) The exemplary employment record.
(viii) Plans to use Personal Development Plans by 2008.
(ix) Very high levels of satisfaction expressed by current, former and distance learning students.
(x) The resources allocated to staff to improve and enhance the research culture in the Department.
(xi) Plans to disseminate research outcomes to practitioners.
(xii) The Department’s positive approach to staff development in enhancing all Departmental activities.
(i) Clearly articulate new entry routes to Masters courses.
(ii) More effective marketing of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and research opportunities to employers and practitioners.
(iii) Consider a move towards increased use of blended learning where appropriate.
(iv) Continue to address problems with conversion rates.
(v) Provide greater clarity on the statistics relating to Student Achievement and Awards Profiles.
(vi) Make efforts to increase the number of PhD students.
(d) Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism
(i) Contextualisation and application of theory to practice.
(ii) Active engagement with industry.
(iii) Enthusiasm and engagement of staff.
(i) As a matter of urgency identify a Research Coordinator to help support and increase the research activity within the subject area, including increasing PhD
(ii) Embed “learning to learn” skills for first years, direct entrants and international students in an effort to help improve attrition rates.
5. Significant Issues Arising from Review
As can be seen from the previous, there were no major issues arising from the review of the subject. From the commendations, one common theme which did recur was the active
engagement with industry/practice.
6. The Role and Nature of Student Involvement
In the last Annual Statement for 2004/05, the University indicated that the Quality Assurance and Enhancement Committee would consider the University’s position regarding student
members on Internal Review Panels. As a result of this consideration, a decision was taken to include a student panel member and this occurred for the first time as part of the Subject
Review of Communication, Media, Film and Cultural Studies; Librarianship and Information Management; and Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism. This practice is now
embedded in our ongoing process.
7. Forward Plan 2006/07
The remaining subject areas in the Aberdeen Business School i.e. Accounting; Business Management (General); and Law, will be reviewed on 28, 29 and 30 November 2006.
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