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Disability and American Families 2000

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					Disability and American Families: 2000
Census 2000 Special Reports

Issued July 2005

CENSR-23

Census 2000 data showed that approximately 20.9 million American families had at least one member with a disability1 and that they differed in important ways from other families. Disability can be measured in a variety of ways, as described in the next section. The remainder of this report presents estimates of disability prevalence in American families using the measures available from Census 2000, discusses the general economic wellbeing of families with members with a disability, and examines differences across demographic groups and geographical regions. It is based on data from the Census 2000 long form, which includes all the questions on the short form plus additional detailed questions relating to the social, economic, and housing characteristics of each individual and household.2 Estimates in this report are limited to families and people in families; see text box “Definition of Family and Related Concepts.” It
1 See “Disability status” in the next section. 2 The long form was sent to a sample of approximately one in every six households. See the section on Accuracy of the Estimates for sampling procedures and sampling errors.

DEFINITION OF FAMILY AND RELATED CONCEPTS
Family Household: Census 2000 collected data on two types of households: family households and non-family households. This report focuses on the former, which, by the Census Bureau’s definition, consists of a householder living with one or more individuals related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all the people in the household related to him or her are defined as family members. People living by themselves or with others to whom they are not related are not included in this report. Family Structure: This report examines three types of families: married-couple families, families with a female householder, and families with a male householder. Married-couple families are defined as those in which the householder and spouse are listed as members of the same household. Families with a female householder are those with a female householder and no husband of the householder present. Similarly, families with a male householder are those with a male householder and no wife of the householder present. Family Householder: The householder refers to the person (or one of the people) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented (maintained) or, if there is no such person, any adult member, excluding roomers, borders, or paid employees. If the home is owned or rented jointly by a married couple, the householder may be either the husband or the wife. The person designated as the householder is the “reference person” to whom the relationship of all other household members, if any, is recorded. This report uses the characteristics of the family householder, such as race and Hispanic origin, to describe the family.

By Qi Wang

USCENSUSBUREAU
Helping You Make Informed Decisions

U.S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

complements a Census 2000 brief on the disability status of all noninstitutionalized individuals who were aged 5 and older by providing new details about the prevalence of families with members with a disability and their economic wellbeing in 2000.3

REPRODUCTION OF THE QUESTIONS ON DISABILITY FROM CENSUS 2000
16 Does this person have any of the following

long-lasting conditions: Yes a. Blindness, deafness, or a severe vision or hearing impairment? b. A condition that substantially limits one or more basic physical activities such as walking, climbing stairs, reaching, lifting, or carrying?
17 Because of a physical, mental, or emotional

No

DISABILITY MEASUREMENTS IN CENSUS 2000 AND THIS REPORT
Census disability questions: The Census 2000 long form had six questions on disability, as shown in the text box “Questions on Disability From Census 2000.” The following terms are used in this report for the six questions: “Sensory Disability” for Question 16 part a, “Physical Disability” for Question 16 part b, “Mental Disability” for Question 17 part a, “Self-care Disability” for Question 17 part b, “Going-outside-home Disability” for Question 17 part c, and “Employment Disability” for Question 17 part d. This report adopts the above terms to be consistent with those used in other Census 2000 data products such as Summary File 3, Demographic Profiles, and the Census 2000 brief on the disability status of U.S. noninstitutionalized individuals 5 years or older. Rather than relying on the technical labels, readers are encouraged to review the actual questions, which are shown in the text box. The six disability questions on the Census 2000 long form were the result of a collaborative effort of a federal interagency working group convened by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).4
3 See: Judith Waldrop and Sharon Stern, Disability Status: 2000, C2KBR-17, Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003. 4 Adler, Michele C., Robert F. Clark, Theresa J. DeMaio, Louisa F. Miller, and Arlene F. Saluter. 1999. “Collecting Information on Disability in 2000 Census: An Example of Interagency Cooperation.” Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62, No. 4, pp 21-30.

condition lasting 6 months or more, does this person have any difficulty in doing any of the following activities: Yes a. Learning, remembering, or concentrating? b. Dressing, bathing, or getting around inside the home? c. (Answer if this person is 16 YEARS OLD OR OVER.) Going outside the home alone to shop or visit a doctor’s office? d. (Answer if this person is 16 YEARS OLD OR OVER.) Working at a job or business?
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 questionnaire.

No

Due to the time constraints on questionnaire development, limitations on one portion of the questions were not identified in time to adjust it for Census 2000. Consequently, this paper concentrates on the responses to the other portion. Currently, another interagency effort, also under the auspices of OMB, is reviewing the census disability questions to identify improved ones for the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS).5

5 The American Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide survey collecting year-to-year information from households similar to what was collected on the Census 2000 long form. It is to replace the long form in the 2010 Census.

Disability status: At times, this report uses a summary measure of disability for its estimates and comparisons. The summary measure combines responses from the first five questions to identify family members with a disability if they are in one of the following categories: first, they were 5 through 15 years old and reported having any one or a combination of the four disabilities: sensory, physical, mental, or self-care; or second, they were aged 16 and over and reported having one or a combination of the five disabilities: sensory, physical, mental, self-care, or going-outside-home. A person so identified is referred to in this report as “a family member with a disability.” A

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U.S. Census Bureau

Table 1.

Disability Prevalence Among American Families: 20001
(Data based on a sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf3.pdf) Families with members with a disability Number Sensory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Going outside home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With a sensory or physical or both disabilities. . . With any of five disabilities, excluding employment disability2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X Not applicable. The total number of U.S. families was 72,261,780 in 2000. Households made up of unrelated individuals are not included in this report. This is a summary recode of the five disability measurements on the Census 2000 long form. A family was coded as having members with a disability if one or more of its members reported any of the five disabilities: sensory, physical, mental, self-care, or going-outsidehome. The current report uses this recode as its primary disability indicator in its estimates and comparisons. For more detailed explanations about this recode, see sections on Disability Status and Families with Members with a Disability of this report. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.
2 1

Disability category

Families with a householder with a disability Number 3,323,365 7,161,740 2,850,060 1,780,165 5,696,545 9,728,385 9,021,470 12,993,520 Percent 4.6 9.9 3.9 2.5 7.9 13.5 12.5 18.0

Families with children with a disability Number 482,630 500,470 2,031,865 411,975 382,295 (X) 874,540 2,840,735 Percent 0.7 0.7 2.8 0.6 0.6 (X) 1.2 3.9

Percent 8.0 16.6 10.2 5.7 13.3 17.0 20.2 28.9

5,759,550 12,004,065 7,360,965 4,090,905 9,613,760 12,319,470 14,557,890 20,874,130

family member with a disability is sometimes further identified, according to his or her family role, as “a householder with a disability” or “a child with a disability.” The summary measure is designed to capture specific functional limitations and long-term difficulty with functional or daily living activities.6 Since the concept of working at a job or business (Question 17 part d) is not tied to any particular limitation or function, people who only reported difficulty in working at a job or business are not included in this summary measure. As a result, this summary measure differs from the one used in Summary File 3, which includes data on work disability status.
6 The term “functional limitations” generally refers to people who have difficulty performing one or more functional activities, such as seeing, hearing, speaking, lifting, using stairs, or walking. Examples of daily living activities include getting around inside the home, dressing, and bathing.

Families with members with a disability: The unit of analysis in this report is the family. Households made up solely of unrelated individuals are not included in this report. The core comparisons are between families with members with a disability and families without members with a disability. The report classifies all families that had at least one member reporting a disability as “families with members with a disability,” or as “families with children with a disability” if the person reporting a disability was under 18 years old in 2000. In general, this report does not distinguish between families with only one member with a disability and those with multiple members with a disability. Rather, it groups them together as “families with at least one member with a disability” or “families with members with a disability.” Both terms refer to the same group and are used interchangeably in this report.

DISABILITY PREVALENCE AMONG AMERICAN FAMILIES7
Census 2000 counted a total of 72.3 million families and found that nearly 28.9 percent of them (about 2 in every 7 families) reported having at least one member with a disability. Table 1 shows that nearly 20.9 million families had members with a disability. Some of the families fell in more than one of the following categories: • 5.8 million families, or 8.0 percent, reported one or more
7 The estimates in this report (which may be shown in text, figures, and tables) are based on responses from a sample of the population and may differ from actual values because of sampling variability or other factors. As a result, apparent differences between the estimates for two or more groups may not be statistically significant. All comparative statements have undergone statistical testing and are significant at the 90-percent confidence level unless otherwise noted.

U.S. Census Bureau

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Table 2.

Presence of Disabilities in Families and Children: 2000
(Data based on a sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf3.pdf) Percent of families with members or children with a disability (X) (X) 100.0 68.6 25.7 5.7 86.4 8.1 5.5 100.0 87.1 10.9 2.0

Family member disabilities Number Total families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting no member with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting at least one member with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families reporting any members with a disability Reporting one member with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting two members with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting three or more members with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families reporing adults or children with a disability Reporting only adults with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting only children with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting both adults and children with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families reporting children with a disability1 Reporting one or more children with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting one child with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting two children with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting three or more children with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X = Not Applicable. This number includes all people 5 to 17 years old. Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.
1

Percent of total families 100.0 71.1 28.9 19.8 7.4 1.6 25.0 2.3 1.6 3.9 3.4 0.4 0.1

72,261,780 51,387,650 20,874,130 14,325,175 5,361,850 1,187,105 18,033,395 1,686,305 1,154,425 2,840,735 2,473,245 310,985 56,500

members with blindness, deafness, or a severe vision or hearing impairment. • 12.0 million families, or 16.6 percent, reported one or more members with a condition that substantially limited one or more basic physical activities such as walking, climbing stairs, reaching, lifting, or carrying. • 7.4 million families, or 10.2 percent, reported one or more members who had difficulty in learning, remembering, or concentrating. • 4.1 million families, or 5.7 percent, reported one or more members who had difficulty with dressing, bathing, or getting around inside the home. • 9.6 million families, or 13.3 percent, reported one or more members who had difficulty going outside the home alone to shop or visit a doctor’s office.

• 12.3 million families, or 17.0 percent, reported one or more members who had difficulty working at a job or business. In 13 million families, the householder had a disability (18.0 percent of all families), and in 2.8 million families (3.9 percent of all families), children had a disability (see Table 1).8 Often, more than one family member reported having a disability. Of the 20.9 million families reporting at least one member with a disability, 5.5 percent had both adults and children with a disability. Among the 20.9 million families, 25.7 percent had two people with a disability and 5.7 percent had three or more people with a disability (see Table 2).

Disability rates varied among single-race groups and Hispanics. Census 2000 asked respondents to report one or more races. With the exception of the Two or More Races population, all the race groups discussed in this report refer to householders who indicated only one racial identity among the six major categories: White, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race. The use of the single-race categories to present data in this report does not imply it is the preferred method. The prevalence of disability varied among families of different racial groups and Hispanic origin. In the groups examined in this report, disability occurrence was most common among families with American Indian and Alaska Native householders — 217,000, or

8 For the definition of a family householder, see text box “Definition of Family and Related Concepts” in this report.

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U.S. Census Bureau

Table 3.

Disability Prevalence by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Geographic Location: 2000
(Data based on a sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf3.pdf) Families reporting members with a disability Total All Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic Origin White alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White alone, not Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian and Alaska Native alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some other race alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two or more races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic (of any race) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Region Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rural/urban Rural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Urban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3. 16,679,230 55,582,550 5,024,380 15,849,750 30.1 28.5 13,633,405 16,769,420 26,428,370 15,430,585 3,830,505 4,450,450 8,146,465 4,446,710 28.1 26.5 30.8 28.8 56,470,095 52,769,535 8,209,430 563,650 2,350,400 79,255 3,206,530 1,382,420 7,483,040 15,548,770 14,322,150 2,931,270 217,195 623,255 25,075 1,032,330 496,235 2,486,495 27.5 27.1 35.7 38.5 26.5 31.6 32.2 35.9 33.2 72,261,780 Number 20,874,130 Percent 28.9

Family charcteristics

38.5 percent. Next were families with a Black householder, with a prevalence rate of 35.7 percent (or 2.9 million families). Disability prevalence rates for families with non-Hispanic White householders and Asian householders were below the national average at 27.1 percent and 26.5 percent, respectively. Hispanic families had a prevalence rate of 33.2 percent (or 2.5 million families reporting one or more members with a disability), as shown in Table 3.9

Disability was more prevalent among families in the South and in rural areas. Disability prevalence was not evenly distributed across the four U.S. regions or between urban and rural areas.10 With a 30.8 percent disability prevalence rate, the South had the highest concentration of families with members reporting disabilities, whereas the Midwest
The Northeast region includes the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The Midwest region includes the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The South region includes the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, a state equivalent. The West region includes the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
10

had the lowest prevalence rate at 26.5 percent. About 30.1 percent of rural families and 28.5 percent of urban families reported at least one member with a disability (see Table 3). One in every three families with a female householder with no husband present reported members with a disability. Families with a female householder with no husband present were more likely than other family types to report having members with a disability. Among the 12.5 million such families, 34.8 percent reported one or more members with a disability, compared with 27.3 percent among the 55.5 million married-couple families and 31.6 percent among the 4.3 million families with a male householder with no wife present (see Figure 1).

9 Because Hispanics may be any race, data in this report for Hispanics overlap with data for racial groups. Based on the Census 2000 sample data used for analysis of disability, the proportion of Hispanics was 8.0 percent for Whites, 1.9 percent for Blacks, 14.6 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1.0 percent for Asians, 9.5 percent for Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders, 97.1 percent for those reporting Some Other Race, and 31.1 percent for those reporting Two or More Races.

U.S. Census Bureau

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ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES VARIED WITH DISABILITY STATUS
Families with members with a disability had lower median income than other families. Families with members with a disability had a median income of $39,155, below the overall family median income of $50,046 and the $54,515 median income of families without members with a disability (see Table 4).11 Across disability types, families with members with a mental disability had a median income of $36,197, lower than the median incomes of $38,775 and $36,950 for families with members with a sensory disability or those with a physical disability, respectively. Families with members with a disability were less likely than other families to have earnings and more likely to receive income from Social Security and public assistance. About 3 in 4 families with members with a disability (73.1 percent) had earnings from wages or salaries in 1999, compared to 84.6 percent of all U.S. families and 89.3 percent of families without members with a disability. About 11.1 percent of families with members with a disability had earnings from self-employment, compared to 13.8 percent for all families and 14.8 percent for families with members without a disability (see Table 5). About 42.8 percent of families with members with a disability received income from Social Security, compared with 22.5 percent of all families and 14.2 percent of families

Figure 1.

Family Structure and Presence of Disabilities: 20001
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf)

72.7

68.4 65.2

No members with a disability

27.3

34.8

31.6

Members with a disability

Married-couple family

Family with a female householder, no husband present

Family with a male householder, no wife present

1 The total number of families was 72.3 million in 2000, including 55.5 million married-couple families, 12.5 million families with a female householder with no husband present, and 4.3 million families with a male householder with no wife present. Households of unrelated individuals are not included in this analysis. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

11 Income levels are for calendar year 1999.

without members with a disability. About 11.7 percent had incomes from Supplemental Security Income, compared with 4.0 percent of all U.S. families and 0.9 percent of families without members with a disability. About 6.5 percent had incomes from welfare payments from state or local governments. Families with children with a disability were also more likely to receive various types of assistance from state and local governments — 11.4 percent, compared with 3.8 percent of all U.S. families and 2.7 percent of families without members with a disability (see Table 5).

Family householders with disabilities were less likely to be employed and less likely to be in the labor force than other family householders. Family householders are often the breadwinners of their households (see text box on page 1 for definition of Family Householder used in this report). Of all family householders, those with a disability had a lower employment rate (53.5 percent compared with 80.7 percent for all family householders) and a larger proportion of people not in the labor force (42.3 percent compared with 16.4 percent for all family householders) (see Figure 2).

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U.S. Census Bureau

Table 4.

Median Income by Presence and Type of Disabilities in the Family: 1999
(Data based on a sample. Family characteristics as of 2000. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf3.pdf) Family characteristics All families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families without members with a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families with members with any disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With members with a sensory disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With members with a physical disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With members with a mental disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All families with a householder who worked year-round full-time in 19991 . . . . . Families with a householder without disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families with a householder with any disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With a householder with a sensory disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With a householder with a physical disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With a householder with a mental disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All families raising children2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families raising children without a disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families raising children with any disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raising children with a sensory disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raising children with a physical disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raising children with a mental disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2

Number of families 72,261,780 51,387,650 20,874,130 5,759,550 12,004,065 7,360,965 39,175,525 35,907,510 3,268,015 731,755 1,117,910 393,390 30,702,405 27,867,765 2,834,640 481,910 499,210 2,030,230

Median income (dollars) 50,046 54,515 39,155 38,775 36,950 36,197 61,537 62,301 51,914 56,854 52,870 46,248 48,936 50,098 38,332 34,603 32,265 39,353

This category includes family householders aged 16 to 64 in the noninstitionalized civilian population. Householders and their spouses aged 15-17 are not considered as children in this table. Note: In addition to the summary measure of families with members with a disability, this table includes estimates of three specific types of disability: sensory, physical, and mental, as they represent the central domains of disabilities. See Appendix for details on measuring disability in surveys. See the section on Family Disability Status for details on the summary measure of families with members with a disability. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

Table 5.

Family Income Sources by Presence of Disabilities: 1999
(Data based on a sample. Family characteristics as of 2000. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf3.pdf) Families without members with a disability1 Number Percent Families with members with a disability3 Number Percent 73.1 11.1 42.8 11.7 6.5 100.0 Families with children with a disability Number 2,508,265 359,475 304,090 258,340 323,695 2,840,730 Percent 88.3 12.7 10.7 9.1 11.4 100.0

All families 1999 Income Sources Number Earnings from wages or salaries from all jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61,134,715 Earnings from self-employment1 . . . . . 9,953,105 Social Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,249,895 Supplemental Security Income (SSI) 2,901,565 Any public assistance or welfare payments from the state or local welfare office. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,768,355 Total2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72,261,780
1 2

Percent

84.6 45,866,920 13.8 7,627,555 22.5 7,310,905 4.0 456,330 3.8 1,403,925 100.0 51,387,650

89.3 15,267,790 14.8 2,325,555 14.2 8,938,990 0.9 2,445,230 2.7 1,364,430 100.0 20,874,130

Self-employment income includes income from own nonfarm business or farm business, including proprietorships and partnerships. The types of income are not mutually exclusive as families can have more than one types of income in a given year. As a result, details will not sum to totals. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

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Figure 2.

Employment Status of Family Householders by Presence and Selected Type of Disabilities: 20001
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf)

16.4 2.9

12.2 2.7 42.3 37.6 56.8 3.7 4.3 85.1

60.8

Not in labor force

80.7

3.9 5.0 53.5 58.7 39.3 34.2 Employed Unemployed

All family householders

Family householders without a disability

Family householders with a disability

Family Family householders householders with a sensory with a physical disability disability

Family householders with a mental disability

1 The total number of family householders in the civilian population aged 16 to 64 years old was 59.7 million in 2000. A family householder was coded as having a disability if he or she reported any of the five disabilities: sensory, physical, mental, self-care, or going-outside-home.

Note 1: Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Note 2: In addition to the summary measure of families with members with a disability, Figures 2, 3, 4, and 6 in this report include estimates of three specific types of disability: sensory, physical, and mental, as they represent the central domains of disabilities. See Appendix for details on measuring disability in surveys. See the section on Family Disability Status for details on the summary measure of families with members with a disability. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

Among householders with disabilities, those with a mental disability had the lowest employment rate, 34.2 percent, and the largest proportion of people not in the labor force, 60.8 percent. Next were householders with a physical disability, with an employment rate of 39.3 percent; in 2000, 56.8 percent of them did not participate in the labor force.

The median income of families with a householder who worked full-time, yearround varied by whether the householder had a disability and by the type of disability. Among the approximately 3.3 million families with householders who reported a disability and worked full-time year-round in 1999, the median income was $51,914, lower than the median income of $61,537 for all U.S. families with householders working

full-time year-round and the median income of $62,301 for families with householders without a disability and working full-time yearround. Across disability types, families with householders with a mental disability and working fulltime year-round reported the lowest median income ($46,248), compared with families with householders with a physical disability ($52,870) or those with a sensory disability ($56,854) (see Table 4).

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Figure 3.

Homeownership by Selected Type of Disabilities of the Family Householder: 2000
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf)

25.8

25.2

28.7

21.6

26.1

34.4

Renter-occupied housing unit

74.2

74.8

71.3

78.4

73.9

65.6

Owner-occupied housing unit

All families

Families with householder without a disability

Families with householder with a disability

Families with householder with a sensory disability

Families with householder with a physical disability

Families with householder with a mental disability

Note 1: Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Note 2: In addition to the summary measure of families with members with a disability, Figures 2, 3, 4, and 6 in this report include estimates of three specific types of disability: sensory, physical, and mental, as they represent the central domains of disabilities. See Appendix for details on measuring disability in surveys. See the section on Family Disability Status for details on the summary measure of families with members with a disability. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

Families with householders with a disability were less likely to own their residence than other families. Among families with householders with a disability, a smaller proportion (71.3 percent) lived in owneroccupied housing units than all U.S. families (74.2 percent) or than families with householders without

any disability (74.8 percent) (see Figure 3).12
12 The Census 2000 long form collected information on housing tenure from respondents of all occupied housing units. Housing units are classified as either owner-occupied or renter-occupied. A housing unit is owneroccupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. Occupied housing units which are not owner-occupied, whether they are rented for cash rent or occupied without payment of cash rent, are classified as renter-occupied.

Homeownership also varied by types of disability in the family. Families with a householder with a mental disability had the smallest proportion (65.6 percent) living in owner-occupied housing units. Families with a householder with a sensory disability, meanwhile, had the largest proportion (78.4 percent).

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DEFINITION OF FAMILY POVERTY AND RELATED CONCEPTS
Total Family Income: Census 2000 asked about money income received during the 1999 calendar year. The incomes of all members in each family were then summed and treated as a single amount: total family income. Family Poverty: Following the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive 14, this report uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition (see the matrix below). To determine whether a family was in poverty in 1999, the total family income was compared with the appropriate poverty threshold. If the total family income was less than the threshold, then the family was considered to be in poverty.

Poverty Thresholds (Annual Dollar Amounts) by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years Old: 1999
Related children under 18 years Size of family unit None One person (unrelated individual) Under 65 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two people Householder under 65 years . . . . . . . Householder 65 years and over . . . . Three people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Six people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seven people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eight people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nine people or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source: U.S. Census Bureau. 8,667 7,990 11,156 10,070 13,032 17,184 20,723 23,835 27,425 30,673 36,897 11,483 11,440 13,410 17,465 21,024 23,930 27,596 30,944 37,076 One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight or more

13,423 16,895 20,380 23,436 27,006 30,387 36,583

16,954 19,882 22,964 26,595 29,899 36,169

19,578 22,261 25,828 29,206 35,489

21,845 24,934 28,327 34,554

23,953 27,412 33,708

27,180 33,499

32,208

DISABILITY AND FAMILY POVERTY13
Using poverty status as another indicator of economic well-being, this section discusses disability and poverty among American families and the extent to which they varied across different family structures and regional and racial groups.14 A description of the definition and measurement of family

poverty is contained in the text box “Definition of Family Poverty and Related Concepts.” In every state, families with members with a disability were more likely than other families to live in poverty. Among families with one or more members with a disability, the poverty rate was 12.8 percent — higher than the 9.2 percent for all families and the 7.7 percent for families without members with a disability. In every state and in the District of Columbia, the poverty rate was higher among families with members with a disability than among families without, as shown in Table 6. The magnitude of the

difference varied across states. In Hawaii, for instance, the poverty rate for families with members with a disability was 8.9 percent — a difference of 1.7 points from the 7.1 percent for those without members with a disability. The corresponding rates in Nevada were 6.9 percent compared with 9.1 percent and in Utah 5.8 percent compared with 8.4 percent, as shown in the last column of Table 6. Of the families with two or more members with a disability, 16.5 percent were in poverty. Poverty rates increased with the number of family members reporting a disability and varied

13 Poverty, like income, refers to calendar year 1999. 14 Estimates and comparisons in this section use the family as the unit of analysis. For poverty statistics of the entire U.S. population, see Alemayehu Bishaw and John Iceland, Poverty: 1999: Census 2000, C2KBR-19, Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

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Table 6.

Poverty Rate by Presence of Disabilities for States: 1999
(Data based on a sample. Family characteristics as of 2000. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf3.pdf)
Total Families Area Number (1) United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . California. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . District of Columbia. . . . . . . . . Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . . . . . . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North Carolina. . . . . . . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhode Island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . South Carolina . . . . . . . . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Families without members with a disability

Families with members with a disability

Percent in poverty (2) 9.2 12.5 6.7 9.9 12.0 10.6 6.2 5.6 6.5 16.7 9.0 9.9 7.6 8.3 7.8 6.7 6.0 6.7 12.7 15.8 7.8 6.1 6.7 7.4 5.1 16.0 8.6 10.5 6.7 7.5 4.3 6.3 14.5 11.5 9.0 8.3 7.8 11.2 7.9 7.8 8.9 10.7 9.3 10.3 12.0 6.5 6.3 7.0 7.3 13.9 5.6 8.1 44.6

Number of families (3) 51,387,650 809,780 116,135 918,660 484,330 5,582,810 825,895 663,135 148,765 77,540 2,877,525 1,503,745 203,800 246,605 2,289,615 1,162,630 586,605 524,995 729,775 782,590 244,370 1,004,175 1,172,100 1,854,455 981,780 486,700 1,063,985 175,045 341,005 355,575 243,130 1,586,670 324,755 3,252,020 1,522,720 127,010 2,180,070 632,500 635,790 2,332,680 190,185 735,795 147,140 1,057,975 3,749,740 402,300 118,610 1,353,560 1,098,330 324,695 1,059,690 98,195 556,375

Number in poverty (4) 3,950,480 84,530 6,895 80,220 49,165 519,790 43,275 30,540 8,175 11,415 229,560 124,195 14,555 18,615 147,260 64,745 30,605 30,885 69,885 107,240 15,185 49,920 61,535 113,020 41,565 64,985 76,760 16,485 20,615 24,515 8,105 83,395 42,125 303,035 114,920 9,485 143,365 62,300 43,755 148,680 14,315 65,480 12,045 88,245 387,200 23,430 6,210 77,365 68,945 35,865 49,115 6,960 228,215

Percent in poverty (5) 7.7 10.4 5.9 8.7 10.2 9.3 5.2 4.6 5.5 14.7 8.0 8.3 7.1 7.5 6.4 5.6 5.2 5.9 9.6 13.7 6.2 5.0 5.2 6.1 4.2 13.4 7.2 9.4 6.0 6.9 3.3 5.3 13.0 9.3 7.5 7.5 6.6 9.8 6.9 6.4 7.5 8.9 8.2 8.3 10.3 5.8 5.2 5.7 6.3 11.0 4.6 7.1 41.0

Number of families (6) 20,874,130 413,405 37,475 377,935 251,735 2,402,680 266,455 222,615 57,010 38,425 1,360,885 622,615 85,215 91,280 835,705 448,415 187,645 181,790 380,655 380,605 98,060 364,475 415,435 736,860 281,175 265,535 422,560 63,685 105,545 146,935 82,450 580,905 144,145 1,421,465 650,625 39,955 827,140 295,200 249,085 893,030 76,470 342,945 48,315 499,645 1,533,735 137,440 40,075 506,425 411,065 182,560 335,350 33,315 452,180

Number in poverty (7) 2,670,465 68,585 3,375 48,100 39,310 326,205 24,340 19,440 5,130 7,950 153,570 85,945 7,545 9,515 97,045 43,045 16,035 16,415 70,635 76,210 11,430 33,315 44,085 79,360 22,615 55,055 50,560 8,520 9,360 13,360 5,845 52,155 26,055 232,900 81,500 4,405 91,660 41,455 26,275 101,620 9,290 50,420 6,125 72,470 245,475 11,540 3,715 52,525 41,720 34,585 29,075 3,625 222,040

Percent in poverty (8) 12.8 16.6 9.0 12.7 15.6 13.6 9.1 8.7 9.0 20.7 11.3 13.8 8.9 10.4 11.6 9.6 8.5 9.0 18.6 20.0 11.7 9.1 10.6 10.8 8.0 20.7 12.0 13.4 8.9 9.1 7.1 9.0 18.1 16.4 12.5 11.0 11.1 14.0 10.6 11.4 12.1 14.7 12.7 14.5 16.0 8.4 9.3 10.4 10.1 18.9 8.7 10.9 49.1

Difference in percentage points1 Column Column (8) (8) minus minus column column (2) (5) 3.6 4.1 2.3 2.8 3.6 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.5 4.0 2.2 3.9 1.3 2.1 3.8 2.9 2.5 2.3 5.9 4.3 3.9 3.1 4.0 3.4 3.0 4.8 3.4 2.9 2.2 1.6 2.8 2.7 3.5 4.9 3.5 2.7 3.3 2.9 2.7 3.6 3.3 4.0 3.4 4.2 4.0 1.9 3.0 3.4 2.8 5.1 3.1 2.8 4.5 5.1 6.2 3.1 4.0 5.5 4.3 3.9 4.1 3.5 6.0 3.3 5.5 1.7 2.9 5.2 4.0 3.3 3.1 9.0 6.3 5.4 4.2 5.4 4.7 3.8 7.4 4.8 4.0 2.8 2.2 3.8 3.7 5.1 7.1 5.0 3.6 4.5 4.2 3.7 5.0 4.6 5.8 4.5 6.2 5.7 2.6 4.0 4.7 3.9 7.9 4.0 3.8 8.1

72,261,780 1,223,185 153,610 1,296,595 736,065 7,985,490 1,092,350 885,745 205,775 115,965 4,238,410 2,126,360 289,010 337,885 3,125,320 1,611,045 774,245 706,785 1,110,425 1,163,190 342,430 1,368,645 1,587,535 2,591,310 1,262,955 752,235 1,486,545 238,735 446,550 502,510 325,580 2,167,575 468,900 4,673,485 2,173,345 166,965 3,007,205 927,705 884,875 3,225,705 266,655 1,078,735 195,455 1,557,620 5,283,475 539,730 158,685 1,859,985 1,509,395 507,255 1,395,035 131,510 1,008,555

These differences are statistically significant at 90-percent confidence level. Note: Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

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Figure 4.

Poverty Rates by Number and Type of Members With a Disability: 1999
(In percent. Family characteristics as of 2000. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf)

All families

All families Families without members with a disability Families with members with a disability

9.2 7.7 12.8

By types of members with a disability

Families with adults with a disability only Families with children with a disability only Families with both adults and children with a disability

11.4 17.0 28.9

By number of members with a disability

Families with any one member with a disability Families with any two members with a disability Families with any three or more members with a disability

12.8 14.2 18.9

Families with at least one child with a disability Families with one child with a disability Families with two or more children with a disability

21.8 20.2 32.4

By disability types

Families with members with a sensory disability Families with members with a physical disability Families with members with a mental disability

11.0 12.6 16.2

Families raising children with a sensory disability Families raising children with a physical disability Families raising children with a mental disability 21.1

25.7 27.6

Note 1: Householders and their spouses aged 15-17 are not considered as children. Note 2: In addition to the summary measure of families with members with a disability, Figures 2, 3, 4, and 6 in this report include estimates of three specific types of disability: sensory, physical, and mental, as they represent the central domains of disabilities. See Appendix for details on measuring disability in surveys. See the section on Family Disability Status for details on the summary measure of families with members with a disability. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

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Table 7.

Poverty Rates by Presence of Disabilities and Selected Family Characteristics: 1999
(Data based on a sample. Family characteristics as of 2000. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf3.pdf) Families without members with a disability Families with members with a disability Difference in percentage points1 Column (8) minus column (2) Column (8) minus column (5)

All families Family characteristics Percent Number in poverty (1) (2) Race and Hispanic Origin1 White alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56,470,095 White alone, not Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52,769,535 Black alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,209,430 American Indian and Alaska Native alone . . . . . 563,650 Asian alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,350,400 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander alone. . . . 79,255 Some other race alone . . . 3,206,530 Two or more races . . . . . . . 1,382,420 Hispanic (of any race) . . . . 7,483,040 Region Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rural/Urban Status Rural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,679,230 Urban. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55,582,550 Family Type Married-couple family . . . . . 55,458,450 Family with female householder, no spouse present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,500,760 Family with male householder, no spouse present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,302,570
1

PerFamilies cent in Number in poverty poverty (3) (4) (5)

PerFamilies cent in Number in poverty poverty (6) (7) (8)

6.3 40,921,325 2,109,285 5.5 38,447,385 1,702,285 21.7 5,278,165 1,043,235 21.8 9.7 14.6 22.0 16.5 20.0 346,455 1,727,145 54,18 2,174,205 886,185 4,996,545 67,605 149,920 7,405 444,525 128,510 922,615

5.2 15,548,770 1,439,250 4.4 14,322,150 1,186,810 19.8 2,931,270 733,870 19.5 8.7 13.7 20.5 14.5 18.5 217,195 623,255 25,075 1,032,330 496,240 2,486,495 55,325 76,995 4,180 261,955 98,895 572,680

9.3 8.3 25.0 25.5 12.4 16.7 25.4 19.9 23.0

3.0 2.8 3.4 3.7 2.7 2.1 3.3 3.5 3.1

4.2 3.9 5.3 6.0 3.7 3.0 4.9 5.4 4.6

13,633,405 16,769,420 26,428,370 15,430,585

8.5 9,802,900 671,000 7.2 12,318,970 739,460 10.6 18,281,905 1,630,450 9.5 10,983,875 909,570

6.8 6.0 8.9 8.3

3,830,505 480,475 4,450,450 465,695 8,146,465 1,174,130 4,446,710 550,165

12.5 10.5 14.4 12.4

4.1 3.3 3.8 2.9

5.7 4.5 5.5 4.1

8.3 11,654,850 770,485 9.4 39,732,800 3,179,995

6.6 5,024,380 607,870 8.0 15,849,750 2,062,600

12.1 13.0

3.8 3.6

5.5 5.0

4.9 40,293,445 1,530,325 26.5 13.6 8,150,735 2,062,650 2,943,470 357,505

3.8 15,165,005 1,188,735 25.3 12.2 4,350,025 1,253,265 1,359,095 228,465

7.8 28.8 16.8

2.9 2.3 3.2

4.0 3.5 4.6

These difference are statistically significant at 90-percent confidence level. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

across disability type. Among the estimated 6.5 million families with two or more members with a disability, 16.5 percent were in poverty. The poverty rate for the 1.2 million families with both adults and children with a disability was 28.9 percent (see Figure 4).

Across disability types, families with members with a mental disability were more likely to live in poverty, 16.2 percent, than were families with members with a physical or a sensory disability at 12.6 percent and 11.3 percent, respectively (see Figure 4).

Poverty and disability tended to occur in similar proportions in Black families and American Indian and Alaska Native families. Of the single-race and Hispanic groups examined in this report, Black families and American Indian

U.S. Census Bureau

13

Figure 5.

Poverty Rates by Presence of Disabilities and Other Selected Family Characteristics: 1999
(In percent. Family characteristics as of 2000. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf)
Families without members with a disability Families with members with a disability All families

7.7 (51.4 million) 5.2 4.4 19.8 19.5 8.7 13.7 20.5 18.5

12.8 (20.9 million) 9.3 8.3 25.0 25.5 12.4 16.7 25.4 23.0

(Number)
Race and Hispanic origin

White alone White alone, not Hispanics Black alone American Indian alone Asian alone Pacific Islander alone Some other race alone Hispanics (of any race)

Family structure

3.8 25.3 12.1

Married-couple families Families with a female householder, no husband present Families with a male householder, no wife present

7.8 28.8 16.8

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

and Alaska Native families were most likely to be in poverty (each having a poverty rate of approximately 22 percent) and most likely to have family members with a disability (35.7 percent for Black families and 38.5 percent for American Indian and Alaska Native families). In contrast, non-Hispanic White families and Asian families had the lowest poverty rates (8.3 percent and 12.4 percent, respectively) and the lowest disability prevalence rates (27.1 percent and 26.5 percent, respectively). Hispanic

families had a poverty rate of 23.0 percent and a disability rate of 33.2 percent (see Table 3 and Table 7). Families in the South had higher prevalence rates of both disability and poverty. Among the four U.S. regions, families in the South had a higher poverty rate (10.6 percent) than their counterparts in the other three regions (see Table 7). The South was also the region where families had the highest disability

prevalence (30.8 percent). The Northeast had the largest difference in poverty rates: 12.5 percent poverty rate for families with members with a disability, compared with the 6.8 percent poverty rate for families without members with a disability. In both urban and rural areas, larger proportions of families with members with a disability than families without a disability lived in poverty (see Table 7). Families in rural areas had a higher disability rate

14

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Table 8.

Poverty Rates Among Families Raising Children and Other Selected Family Characteristics: 1999
(Data based on a sample. Family characteristics as of 2000. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf3.pdf) Families raising children without a disability Family characteristics Number (1) All families raising children1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic Origin White alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White alone, not Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian and Alaska Native alone . . . . . . . . . Asian alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone . . Some other race alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two or more races. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic (of any race). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Region Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rural/Urban Status Rural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Urban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Structure Married-couple family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family with a female householder with no husband present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family with a male householder with no wife present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Families raising children with a disability Percent in poverty (4) 21.8

Difference in percentage points1 Column (4) minus column (2) 9.2

Percent in poverty (2) 12.6

Number (3) 2,834,640

27,867,765

20,054,590 18,253,415 4,040,705 274,480 1,020,830 42,155 1,807,190 627,820 3,912,795 5,112,020 6,332,275 10,095,460 6,328,010 6,136,745 21,731,020 19,876,035 6,231,650 1,760,080

8.5 7.2 25.5 25.9 11.7 17.1 24.7 19.8 23.5 11.7 9.7 14.4 13.3 11.0 13.0 6.3 31.5 16.6

1,942,215 1,760,315 509,520 39,295 61,190 4,280 194,445 83,705 419,975 526,580 653,880 1,060,420 593,760 609,770 2,224,870 1,746,055 906,205 182,380

15.9 14.4 37.7 33.4 18.4 22.7 34.3 29.0 32.7 22.4 18.6 24.0 20.6 19.4 22.4 10.7 42.7 23.5

7.4 7.2 12.2 7.5 6.7 5.6 9.6 9.2 9.2 10.7 8.9 9.6 7.3 8.4 9.4 4.4 11.2 6.9

These differences are all statistically significant at 90-percent confidence level. Note: Householders and their spouses aged 15-17 are not considered as children. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

than those in urban areas (30.1 percent compared with 28.5 percent), but not a higher poverty rate (8.3 percent compared with 9.4 percent). The poverty rates for families with a member with a disability varied with the composition of the family and the race and Hispanic origin of the householder. The poverty rate among families with a female householder with no husband present and with members with a disability — 28.8 percent —

exceeded the national average of 12.8 percent. The corresponding rate for families with a male householder with no wife present and with members with a disability was 16.8 percent, as shown in Table 7 and Figure 5. Married-couple families with members with a disability had a poverty rate of 7.8 percent. With a poverty rate of 8.3 percent, families with a non-Hispanic White householder and members with a disability were less likely to be in poverty than other families with a member with a disability. While not

statistically different from each other, the poverty rates for families with a member with a disability and a householder who was Black, American Indian or Alaska Native, or Some Other Race (ranging from 25.0 percent to 25.5 percent), were higher than the rates for families with a member with a disability and an Asian householder (12.4 percent), a Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander householder (16.7 percent), or a Hispanic householder (23.0 percent).

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Figure 6.

Employment Status of Family Householders Raising Children With Disabilities: 20001
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf)

14.4 3.3

13.6 3.1

21.8 4.8

24.1

26.6

20.5 4.7

Not in labor force Unemployed

5.1

5.3

82.4

83.3 73.5 70.8 74.8 68.1 Employed

All householders Householders Householders Householders Householders Householders raising children raising children raising children raising children raising children raising children without any with a with a sensory with a physical with a mental disability disability disability disability disability
1 The total number of family householders in the civilian noninstitutionalized population aged 16 to 64 years old and raising children was 29.7 million in 2000.

Note 1: Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Note 2: In addition to the summary measure of families with members with a disability, Figures 2, 3, 4, and 6 in this report include estimates of three specific types of disability: sensory, physical, and mental, as they represent the central domains of disabilities. See Appendix for details on measuring disability in surveys. See the section on Family Disability Status for details on the summary measure of families with members with a disability. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

FAMILIES RAISING CHILDREN WITH A DISABILITY
This section describes levels of income, employment situations, and the prevalence of poverty among families raising children with a disability. One in every 26 American families reported raising children with a disability. An estimated 2.8 million families were raising at least one child aged

5 to 17 with a disability.15 This figure represents 3.9 percent of the 72.3 million American families and 9.2 percent of the 30.7 million families raising children in 2000 (see Table 8). Among the 2.8 million families, 367,000 families, or 1.3 percent, reported raising two or more children with a disability.

Employment situations varied among householders raising children with a disability. Among the 2.7 million workingage family householders raising children with a disability, 2 million, or 73.5 percent, worked part or all of 1999. The employment rate was 82.4 percent for all householders raising children and 83.3 percent for householders raising children without a disability (see Figure 6). Across disability

15 Householders and their spouses aged 15-17 are not considered as children.

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Figure 7.

Poverty Rates Among Families Raising Children by Selected Family Characteristics: 1999
(In percent. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf)
Families raising children without a disability Families raising children with a disability All families

12.6 (27.9 million) 8.5 7.2 25.5 25.9 11.7 17.1 24.7 19.8 23.5

21.8 (2.8 million) 15.9 14.4 37.7 33.4 18.4 22.7 34.3 29.0 32.7

(Number)
Race and HIspanic origin

White alone White alone, not Hispanics Black alone American Indian alone Asian alone Pacific Islander alone Some other race alone Two or more races Hispanics (of any race)

Family structure

6.3 31.5 16.6

Married-couple families Families with a female householder, no husband present Families with a male householder, no wife present

10.7 42.7 23.5

Note: Householders and their spouses aged 15 - 17 are not considered as children. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, Summary File 3.

types, householders raising children with a mental disability had an employment rate of 74.8 percent, compared with 70.8 percent of householders raising children with a sensory disability and 68.1 percent of those raising children with a physical disability.

Families raising children with a disability had a lower median income than other families. Families raising children with a disability had a median income of $38,332, compared with $39,515 for families with any members with a disability and $48,936 for

all families raising children. Across disability types, families raising children with a mental disability reported a median income of $39,353, compared to $34,603 and $32,265 for families raising children with a sensory disability or with a physical disability, respectively (see Table 4).

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Families raising children with a disability were more likely to live in poverty than other families raising children. Families raising children with a disability had a poverty rate of 21.8 percent, compared with 12.6 percent for families raising children without a disability. The poverty rate of families raising children with a physical disability was 27.6 percent, compared with 25.7 percent of those raising children with a sensory disability and 21.1 percent of those raising children with a mental disability, as shown in Figure 4. The poverty rate increased with the number of children in the family who had a disability. While about 1 in every 5 families raising one child with a disability lived in poverty, the rate was about 1 in 3 for families raising two or more children with a disability, as shown in Figure 4. Married-couple families raising children with a disability were better off economically than other families raising children with a disability. Among families raising children with a disability, 10.7 percent of married-couple families lived in poverty, compared with 42.7 percent of families with a female householder with no husband present and 23.5 percent of families with a male householder with no wife present (see Figure 7).

every 6 housing units was included in this sample. As a result, the sample estimates may differ somewhat from the 100-percent figures that would have been obtained if all housing units, people within those housing units, and people living in group quarters had been enumerated using the same questionnaires, instructions, enumerators, and so forth. The sample estimates also differ from the values that would have been obtained from different samples of housing units, and hence of people living in those housing units, and people living in group quarters. The deviation of a sample estimate from the average of all possible samples is called the sampling error. In addition to the variability that arises from the sampling procedures, both sample data and 100percent data are subject to nonsampling error. Nonsampling error may be introduced during any of the various complex operations used to collect and process data. Such errors may include: not enumerating every household or every person in the population, failing to obtain all required information from the respondents, obtaining incorrect or inconsistent information, and recording information incorrectly. In addition, errors can occur during the field review of the enumerators’ work, during clerical handling of the census questionnaires, or during the electronic processing of the questionnaires. While it is impossible to completely eliminate error from an operation as large and complex as the decennial census, the Census Bureau attempts to control the sources of such error during the data collection and processing operations.

The primary sources of error and the programs instituted to control error in Census 2000 are described in detail in Summary File 3 Technical Documentation under Chapter 8, “Accuracy of the Data,” located at www.census.gov/prod /cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf. Nonsampling error may affect the data in two ways: first, errors that are introduced randomly will increase the variability of the data and, therefore, should be reflected in the standard errors; and second, errors that tend to be consistent in one direction will bias both sample and 100-percent data in that direction. For example, if respondents consistently tend to underreport their incomes, then the resulting estimates of households or families by income category will tend to be understated for the higher income categories and overstated for the lower income categories. Such biases are not reflected in the standard errors. All statements in this report have undergone statistical testing and all comparisons are significant at the 90-percent confidence level unless otherwise noted. The estimates in tables, maps, and other figures may vary from actual values due to sampling and nonsampling errors. As a result, estimates in one category used to summarize statistics in the maps and figures may not be statistically different from estimates assigned to a different category. Further information on the accuracy of the data is located at www.census.gov/prod /cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf. For further information on the computation and use of standard errors, contact the Decennial Statistical Studies Division at 301-763-4242.

ACCURACY OF THE ESTIMATES
The data contained in this report are based on the sample of households who responded to the Census 2000 long form. Nationally, approximately 1 out of

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APPENDIX
Background on Disability and Its Measurement in Surveys For over 30 years, the accepted definitions of disability have been changing. In the 1970s, the concept of a disability was associated directly with an underlying physical or mental condition. Today, there is a growing acceptance that disability is a complex process that involves the interaction between a person and his or her environment. In other words, in 1970 a person with leg paralysis would have been considered to be disabled based solely on physical condition. In 2004, ascertainment of disability status could involve the nature of the physical impairment as well as the barriers in the environment which prevent full social participation. The development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) by the World Health Organization reflects this new perspective. The ICF is meant to codify a classification of functioning, disability, and health “to provide a unified standard language and framework for the description of health and health-related state.” The ICF views disability as an umbrella term and does not provide a single way to determine disability status. Thus, it is important to state clearly what aspect of the disablement process is being captured by a specific set of questions. As public perception of disability has changed over time, so have the goals of programs supporting people with disabilities. In the past, the emphasis was to provide support to people with disabilities primarily through benefits. Today, that has shifted to an emphasis on supporting independence and promoting involvement in all aspects of society. As the conceptualization of disability and as service programs for people with disabilities have changed, the Census Bureau and other statistical bodies have struggled with operationalizing the concept of disability for the purpose of measurement. The “definitions” devised by the disability theorists and researchers present challenges in two areas. First, the process of measuring a complex, multi-dimensional concept in a survey format with limited space is inherently difficult. Second, the constantly evolving concept of disability requires survey professionals to continuously develop new measurement approaches to adapt to the newest definitions of disability. The preparations for Census 2000 followed the same pattern established for previous decennial censuses. The Census Bureau worked with other federal agencies to determine which aspects of disability were relevant and necessary for the agencies to meet their specific legal or regulatory obligations for planning and/or evaluating programs and services. As in the previous census, two of the groups that Census 2000 tried to measure were people unable to care for themselves and people limited or unable to work due to health impairment. During the 1990s, along with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) guaranteeing civil rights to people with disabilities, agencies began requesting that statistical agencies collect and report disability statistics as a demographic characteristic of the population. The work group which developed the questions for Census 2000 faced three tasks: (1) measuring disability using a definition in keeping with the ADA, (2) meeting the needs of various agencies requiring specific information, and (3) having a maximum of six questions. The committee agreed that three domains (sensory, physical, and mental/emotional/cognitive) sufficiently represented the broad classification of impairments and health conditions that generally result in disability. In addition, the committee concluded that it could meet an array of other programmatic requirements with three questions on difficulty with specific types of functional activities. They were intended to address people with limitations in performing the following: Activities of Daily Living, which generally include self-care type activities such as bathing or dressing; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, which are activities often associated with independent living such as going out alone to shop or visit a doctor’s office; and, finally, working at a job or business.

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REFERENCES
Andresen, Elena, et al. 2002. “Reliability and Validity of Disability Questions for US Census 2000,” American Journal of Public Health 90(8): 297-1299. Burkhauser, R. et al. 2002. “SelfReported Work-Limitation Data: What They Can and Cannot Tell Us,” Demography 12(3): 541-555. Jette, A. and E. Badley. 2000. “Conceptual Issues in the Measurement of Work Disability,” in Survey Measurement of Work Disability: 4-27 edited by N. Mathiowetz and G. Wunderlich. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Hale, T. 2001. “The Lack of a Disability Measure in Today’s Current Population Survey,” Monthly Labor Review, June: 38-40. Stern, Sharon. 2003. “Counting People with Disabilities,” Proceedings from 2003 Joint Statistical Meetings, (May): 4064-4071.

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