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					Bulletin Board
October 14, 2011

Contact us:
tel +61 3 9572 4700
fax +61 3 9572 4777
1227 Glen Huntly Rd Glen Huntly
Victoria 3163 Australia

*While Chemwatch has taken all efforts to ensure the accuracy of information in this pub-
lication, it is not intended to be comprehensive or to render advice. Websites rendered are
subject to change.

Consolidated List
ASHRAE List of Refrigerants
ASHRAE Numbers
Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental stand-
ards (STOCK - inorganic chemicals)
Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pollutants entering waterways
taken to cause environmental harm (STOCK)
Australia - Western Australia Carcinogenic substances - asbestos
Australia Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVM) Restricted Chemical Products
Australia Chemical Weapons (Prohibition) Act 1994 - Schedule 1
Australia Chemicals Subject to the Stockholm and Rotterdam Conventions
Australia Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Chemicals of Security Concern
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
1 Chlorofluorocarbons
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
10 PFCs
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
2 Halons
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
3 Carbon tetrachloride
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
4 Methyl chloroform
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
5 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
6 Hydrobromofluorocarbons
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
7 Methyl bromide
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
8 Bromochloromethane
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 15 Ozone depleting substances - Part
9 HFCs
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 7: Goods the exportation of which is
prohibited without the permission of the Minister for Industry, Tourism and Resources or an authorised
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 7A : High activity radioactive sources
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 8: Drugs the exportation of which is
prohibited if specified conditions, restrictions or requirements are not complied with - Part 1
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 8: Drugs the exportation of which is
prohibited if specified conditions, restrictions or requirements are not complied with - Part 2
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 8: Drugs the exportation of which is
prohibited if specified conditions, restrictions or requirements are not complied with - Part 3
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 8: Drugs the exportation of which is
prohibited if specified conditions, restrictions or requirements are not complied with - Part 4
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 9 Precursor substances - Part 1
Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 9 Precursor substances - Part 2
Australia Hazardous Substances
Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)
Australia Mercury compounds controlled under the Rotterdam Convention
Australia National Pollutant Inventory
Australia Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Act - Scheduled Substances
Australia Quarantine and Inspection Service List of chemical compounds that are accepted solely for use at
establishments registered to prepare meat and meat products for the purpose of the Export Control Act
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix A
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix B (Part 3)
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix C
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix D
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix F (Part 3)
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix G
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix H
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix I
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix J (Part 2)
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix K
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix L (Part 2)
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 2
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 3
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 4
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 5
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 6
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 7
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 8
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 9
Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality - Trigger values for toxicants at
alternative levels of protection
Brazil Occupational Exposure Limits - Asphyxiant (Portuguese)
Brazil Occupational Exposure Limits - Skin (Portuguese)
Bulgaria Occupational Exposure Limits - Skin (Bulgarian)
Bulgarian Synonyms
Canada - Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objectives
Canada - Alberta Ozone Depleting Substances and Halocarbons - Schedule 1
Canada - Alberta Ozone Depleting Substances and Halocarbons - Schedule 4
Canada - British Columbia Occupational Exposure Limits
Canada - British Columbia Occupational Exposure Limits - Asphyxiant
Canada - British Columbia Occupational Exposure Limits - Reprotoxins
Canada - British Columbia Occupational Exposure Limits - Skin
Canada - New Brunswick Ozone Depleting Substances
Canada - New Brunswick Ozone Depleting Substances (French)
Canada - Prince Edward Island Occupational Exposure Limits
Canada - Quebec Permissible Exposure Values for Airborne Contaminants - Asphyxiants (English)
Canada - Quebec Permissible Exposure Values for Airborne Contaminants - Carcinogens (English)
Canada - Quebec Permissible Exposure Values for Airborne Contaminants - Sensitisers (English)
Canada - Quebec Permissible Exposure Values for Airborne Contaminants - Skin (English)
Canada - Quebec Permissible Exposure Values for Airborne Contaminants (English)
Canada Substances In Products Regulated Under the Food and Drugs Act (F&DA) That Were In Com-
merce In Canada Between January 1, 1984 and December 31, 1986 (English)
Canada “Challenge” for chemical substances that are a high priority for action - List of all Challenge sub-
stances (English)
Canada “Challenge” for chemical substances that are a high priority for action - List of all Challenge sub-
stances (French)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - List of substances on the DSL that are
Bioaccumulative and Inherently Toxic to the Environment (BiT) (English)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - List of substances on the DSL that are
Bioaccumulative and Inherently Toxic to the Environment (BiT) (French)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - List of substances on the DSL that are Persistent,
Bioaccumulative, and Inherently Toxic to the Environment (French)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - List of substances on the DSL that are Persistent,
Bioaccumulative, and Inherently Toxic to the Environment (PBiT) (English)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - List of substances on the DSL that meet the eco-
logical criteria for categorization (English)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - List of substances on the DSL that meet the hu-
man health criteria for categorization (English)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - List of substances on the DSL that meet the hu-
man health criteria for categorization (French)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - Other DSL substances that are priorities for hu-
man health (English)
Canada CEPA Environmental Registry Substance Lists - Other DSL substances that are priorities for hu-
man health (French)
Canada Controlled Drugs and Substances Act - Schedule VIII
Canada Controlled Drugs and Substances Act Schedule I
Canada Controlled Drugs and Substances Act Schedule II
Canada Controlled Drugs and Substances Act Schedule III
Canada Controlled Drugs and Substances Act Schedule IV
Canada Controlled Drugs and Substances Act Schedule V
Canada Controlled Drugs and Substances Act Schedule VI
Canada Controlled Drugs and Substances Act Schedule VII
Canada Domestic Substances List (DSL)
Canada Ingredient Disclosure List (SOR/88-64)
Canada List of Pest Control Product Formulants and Contaminants - Part 1: Formulants of Health of Envi-
ronmental Concern (French)
Canada List of Pest Control Product Formulants and Contaminants - Part 2: Formulants of health or envi-
ronmental concern that are allergens known to cause anaphylactic-type reactions (French)
Canada List of Pest Control Product Formulants and Contaminants - Part 3: Contaminants of Health or
Environmental concern (French)
Canada Non-Domestic Substances List (NDSL)
Canada Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers whose Manufacture, Use, Sale, Offer for Sale or Importation is
Canada Toxicological Index Service - Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System - WHMIS (Eng-
Canada Transport Dangerous Goods - Schedule 1
Canada Transport Dangerous Goods - Schedule 3
China (Hong Kong) Preservatives in Food Regulations - Food which may contain food additive and the
description and proportion of food additive in each case
China (Hong Kong) Ozone Layer Protection Ordinance
China (Hong Kong) Pharmacy and Poisons Regulations - Substances to which Certain Restrictions with
respect to the Sale, Supply, Labelling and Storage Apply
China (Hong Kong) Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulation
China List of Toxic Chemicals Severely Restricted for Import and Export (Chinese)
CODEX General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) - Additives Permitted for Use in Food in General,
Unless Otherwise Specified, in Accordance with GMP
Colombia Occupational Exposure Limits
Colombia Occupational Exposure Limits - Sensitisers
Colombia Occupational Exposure Limits - Skin
Czech Synonyms
Danish Synonyms
Denmark Emission of Volatile Oganic Compounds from Wood and Wood-Based Materials - All Chemicals
Denmark List of Undesirable Substances
Dubai List of Prohibited & Restricted Dangerous Goods - List of Ozone Depleting Substances Controlled
Substances Covered by Federal Environmental Agency with reference to the phase out date (2010)
Dubai List of Prohibited & Restricted Dangerous Goods - List of Prohibited Imports by the Ministry of Envi-
ronment and Water
Dubai List of Prohibited & Restricted Dangerous Goods - List of Restricted Imports by the Ministry of Envi-
ronment and Water
Dubai List of Prohibited & Restricted Dangerous Goods - Scheduled Chemicals covered by Federal Envi-
ronmental Agency
Dubai List of Prohibited & Restricted Dangerous Goods - Scheduled Substances covered by Ministry of
Estonia Limit values for chemical hazards in the working environment - Carcinogenic Substances (Estoni-
Estonian Synonyms
EU Commission Regulation (EC) No 1451/2007 concerning the placing of biocidal products
on the market - Annex I: Active Substance Identified as Existing
EU Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC Annex III Part 2: List of Substances Provisionally Allowed (English)
EU Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC Annex IV Part 1: List of Colouring Agents Allowed for Use in Cosmetic
Products (English)
EU Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC Annex V List of Substances Excluded from the Scope of the Directive
EU Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC Annex VI Part 1 List of Preservatives Allowed (English)
EU Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC Annex VII Part 1 List of permitted UV filters which cosmetic products
may contain (English)
EU Directive 2002/46/EC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to food supple-
ments - Annex I: Vitamins and minerals which may be used in the manufacture of food supplements
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Czech)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Danish)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Dutch)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (English)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Estonian)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (French)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Greek)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Hungarian)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Latvian)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Lithuanian)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Maltese)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Polish)
EU Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons in ambient air - Annex I: Target Values (Spanish)
EU List of 49 hair dye substances proposed for ban
EU List of hair dye substances with an updated safety file
EU REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 - Annex IV - Exemptions from the Obligation to Register in Ac-
cordance with Article 2(7)(a) (English)
EU REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 - Proposals to identify Substances of Very High Concern: An-
nex XV reports for commenting by Interested Parties
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (Czech)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (Danish)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (Estonian)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (French)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (German)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (Greek)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (Italian)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (Latvian)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (Lithuanian)
Europe Commission proposal COM(2006) 397 final: Proposed Priority Substances Directive - Annex I
PART A: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Priority Substances in surface water (Spanish)
Europe Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the safety of toys - Aller-
genic Fragrances Toys shall not contain
Europe Provisional List of Additives Used in Plastics
European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road - ADR 2011
European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR 2011,
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern for Authorisation
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) List of substances identified for registration in 2010
European Union (EU) Annex I to Directive 67/548/EEC on Classification and Labelling of Dangerous Sub-
stances (updated by ATP: 31) - Mutagenic Substances
European Union (EU) Annex I to Directive 67/548/EEC on Classification and Labelling of Dangerous Sub-
stances (updated by ATP: 31) - Reprotoxic Substances
European Union (EU) End-of Life Vehicles (ELV) - Restricted Chemicals
European Union (EU) First List of Indicative Occupational Exposure Limit Values (IOELVs) (Bulgarian)
European Union (EU) Pollution Caused by Certain Dangerous Substances Discharged into the Aquatic En-
vironment (2006/11/EC) - Annex I / List I (Black List)
European Union (EU) Pollution Caused by Certain Dangerous Substances Discharged into the Aquatic En-
vironment (2006/11/EC) - Annex I / List II (Grey List)
European Union (EU) Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives - Annex V
European Union (EU) Strategy for Endocrine Disruptors - SEC (2004) 1372 - Substances which are
deemed not to be endocrine disrupters, on the basis of available information
European Union (EU) Strategy for Endocrine Disruptors - SEC (2004) 1372 - Substances with evidence on
ED already regulated or being addressed under existing legislation
European Union (EU) Strategy for Endocrine Disruptors - SEC (2004) 1372 - Substances with evidence or
evidence of potential endocrine disruption which are neither restricted nor currently being addressed under
existing Community legislation
European Union (EU) Strategy for Endocrine Disruptors - SEC (2004) 1372 - Substances with potential ev-
idence on ED already regulated or being addressed under existing legislation
European Union (EU) Strategy for Endocrine Disruptors - SEC (2007) 1635 - Substances with no or insuffi-
cient data on ED effects gathered, for which there is currently no support for their inclusion in the priority list
European Union (EU) Strategy for Endocrine Disruptors - SEC (2007) 1635 - Substances with potential ev-
idence of ED effects, which are already regulated or being addressed under existing legislation
European Union (EU) Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road - Dangerous Goods List (English)
FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius - Veterinary Drug Residues in Food - Maximum Residue Limits (English)
FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius - Veterinary Drug Residues in Food - Maximum Residue Limits (French)
FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius - Veterinary Drug Residues in Food - Maximum Residue Limits (Spanish)
FEMA Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) Flavoring Substances 23 - Average Usual Use Lev-
els/Average Maximum Use Levels
FEMA Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) Flavoring Substances 24 - Updated average use levels for
flavoring substances previously recognized as FEMA GRAS
Finland Goverment Decision on Lead Work (Swedish) - Binding Limit Values
Finland Occupational Exposure Levels - Biological Limit Values (Swedish)
French Synonyms
German Synonyms
Germany Recommended Exposure Limits - Biological Workplace Tolerance Values (BAT)
Germany TRGS 900 - Limit Values for the Workplace Atmosphere - Skin (German)
Germany TRGS 900 - Limit Values for the Workplace Atmosphere (German)
Gibraltar Antioxidants in Food Regulations - Schedule 3: Antioxidants permitted only in certain foods
Greek Synonyms
Hungarian Synonyms
Hungary Occupational Exposure Limits - Carcinogens (Hungarian)
Iceland Occupational Exposure Limits (Icelandic)
Icelandic Synonyms
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - Indirect Global Warming Potentials (GPWs)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - Lifetimes, radiative efficiencies and direct (except for
CH4) Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) relative to CO2
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC Monographs
International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations
International Chemical Secretariat (ChemSec) SIN List (*Substitute It Now!)
Iraq Goods Review List (GRL) Section A: Chemical Section - List A: Dual-Use Chemicals Requiring Re-
Iraq Goods Review List (GRL) Section A: Chemical Section - List B: Normally Prohibited Chemicals
Italian Synonyms
Italy Occupational Exposure Limits
Japan Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law - Agricultural Chemicals Prohibited from Sale (Japanese)
Japan Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law - Agricultural Chemicals with Expired Registration (Japanese)
Japan Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law - Registered Agricultural Chemicals (Japanese)
Japan Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law - Standards for Use (Japanese)
Japan Air Pollution Control Law - Designated Substances
Japan Green Procurement Survey Standardization Initiative (JGPSSI) Survey Substance List - Level A
Japan Offensive Odor Control Law - Specified Offensive Odor Substances and Maximum Permissible
Concentrations (English)
Japan Offensive Odor Control Law - Specified Offensive Odor Substances and Maximum Permissible
Concentrations (Japanese)
Japan Specifications and Standards for Food Additives - Standards for Use - Applying Generally to Food
Japanese Synonyms
Korea (South) Toxic Chemicals Control Act - GHS Classification & Labelling of Toxic Chemicals (Korean)
Korea (South) Toxic Chemicals Control Act - Observational Chemicals (Korean)
Korea (South) Toxic Chemicals Control Act - Restricted Chemicals (Korean)
Korea (South) Toxic Chemicals Control Act - Toxic Chemicals (Korean)
Korean Synonyms
Latvia Occupational Exposure Limit Values (OELV) for Chemical Substances in the Work Environment At-
mosphere - Skin (Latvian)
Latvian Synonyms
Lithuania Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Chemicals (Pollutants) in Air in Living Environment
Lithuanian Synonyms
Malaysian Synonyms
Maltese Synonyms
New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard - Schedule 4: Additional Components Cosmetic Products
Must Not Contain - Table 2
New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard - Schedule 5: Components Cosmetic Products May
Contain With Restrictions
New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard - Schedule 6 Colouring Agents Cosmetic Products May
Contain With Restrictions - Table 2: Additional List of Colouring Agents Allowed for Use in Cosmetic Prod-
New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard - Schedule 6 Colouring Agents Cosmetic Products May
Contain With Restrictions- Table 1: List fo Colouring Agents Allowed for use in Cosmetic Products
New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard - Schedule 7: Preservatives Cosmetic Products May
Contain With Restrictions - Table 2: List of Additional Preservatives Allowed
New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard - Schedule 7: Preservatives Cosmetic Products May
Contain With Restrictions - Table 1: List of Preservatives Allowed
New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard - Schedule 8: UV Filters Cosmetic Products May Contain
With Restrictions - Table 2: Additional List of Permitted UV Filters whick Cosmetic Products May contain
New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard - Schedule 8: UV Filters Cosmetic Products May Contain
With Restrictions - Table 1: List of Permitted UV Filters which Cosmetic Products may contain
New Zealand Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act - Miscellaneous Transferred Sub-
New Zealand Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act - Pesticides
New Zealand Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act - Veterinary Medicines
New Zealand Land Transport Rule: Dangerous Goods 2005 - Schedule 3 Segregation requirements for
dangerous goods
New Zealand Land Transport Rule: Dangerous Goods 2005 - Small Packages of explosives
New Zealand Land Transport Rule; Dangerous Goods 2005 - Schedule 2 Dangerous Goods in Limited
Quantities and Consumer Commodities
New Zealand Workplace Exposure Standards (WES)
New Zealand Workplace Exposure Standards (WES) - Asphyxiants
New Zealand Workplace Exposure Standards (WES) - Carcinogens
New Zealand Workplace Exposure Standards (WES) - Sensitisers
New Zealand Workplace Exposure Standards (WES) - Skin
Nicaragua Occupational Exposure Limits
Nicaragua Occupational Exposure Limits - Skin
Norway Administrative norms for air contamination in the workplace - Allergenic substances
Norway Administrative norms for air contamination in the workplace - Carcinogens (Norwegian)
Norway Administrative norms for air contamination in the workplace - Mutagens
Norway Administrative norms for air contamination in the workplace - Reprotoxins
Norway Administrative norms for air contamination in the workplace - Skin (Norwegian)
Norway Administrative Norms for Air Contamination in the Workplace (Norwegian)
Norwegian Synonyms
OECD Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Related Compounds
OECD Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonate (PFAS) and Related Compounds
OECD Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Related Compounds
OSPAR National List of Candidates for Substitution – Norway
OSPAR List of Chemicals for Priority Action
Peru Occupational Exposure Limits - Airway Sensitisers (Spanish)
Peru Occupational Exposure Limits - Asphyxiants
Peru Occupational Exposure Limits - Carcinogens (Spanish)
Peru Occupational Exposure Limits - Reprotoxins (Spanish)
Peru Occupational Exposure Limits - Skin
Pesticides included in international conventions and the PAN Dirty Dozen
Poland Workplace Maximum Allowable Concentration (Polish)
Polish Synonyms
Portuguese Synonyms
Saudi Arabia Ambient Air Quality Guideline Values - Additional Compounds with Heath Impact and Odor
Saudi Arabia Ambient Air Quality Standards
Saudi Arabia Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP)
Saudi Arabia Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industries (SOCMI) Distillation Processes Subject
to Point Source Emission Standards
Saudi Arabia Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industries (SOCMI) Oxidation Processes Subject
to Point Source Emission Standards
Saudi Arabia Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industries (SOCMI) Reactor Processes Subject to
Point Source Emission Standards
Spain Biological Limit Values Under Review (Spanish)
Spanish Synonyms
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants - Annex A - Elimination (English)
Sweden Approved chemicals in products labelled Bra Miljöval (Good Environmental Choice) - Acids (Swe-
Sweden Approved chemicals in products labelled Bra Miljöval (Good Environmental Choice) - Biological
Sweden Approved chemicals in products labelled Bra Miljöval (Good Environmental Choice) - Other Addi-
Sweden Approved chemicals in products labelled Bra Miljöval (Good Environmental Choice) - Preserva-
Sweden Occupational Exposure Limit Values and Measures against Air Contaminants (Swedish) - Group B
- Reprotoxins
Sweden Occupational Exposure Limit Values and Measures against Air Contaminants (Swedish) - Group B
- Sensitizing Substances
Sweden Occupational Exposure Limit Values and Measures against Air Contaminants (Swedish) - Group D
- Sensitizing Substances
Swedish Synonyms
Switzerland Occupational Exposure Limits - Mutagen (German)
Switzerland Occupational Exposure Limits - Reproductive toxicity (German)
Switzerland Occupational Exposure Limits - Sensitiser (German)
Switzerland Occupational Exposure Limits - Skin (German)
Switzerland Ordinance of the Federal Department of Home Affairs (FDHA) on articles and materials - An-
nex 6, List of binders (monomers), Part A : evaluated substances
Taiwan Scope and Application Standards of Food Additives - Colors
Taiwan Scope and Application Standards of Food Additives - Flavoring Agents
Taiwan Scope and Application Standards of Food Additives - Food quality improvement, fermentation and
food processing agents
Taiwan Scope and Application Standards of Food Additives - Seasoning Agents
Tanzania Precursor Chemicals
Thailand Notification No.281 (B.E. 2547) Food Additives - Prescription of quality or standards of single food
The Australia Group Export Control List: Chemical Weapons Precursors
UK Dangerous Goods Emergency Action Code List 2011
UK The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991 - Release into
Air Prescribed Substances
UK The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991 - Release into
Land Prescribed Substances
United Nations List of Narcotic Drugs Under International Control - Section 1
United Nations List of Prior Informed Consent Chemicals
US - Arkansas Surface Water Quality Standards Dissolved Metals
US - Arkansas Surface Water Quality Standards Human Health Criteria
US - California Proposition 65 - Carcinogens
US - California Proposition 65 - Reproductive Toxicity
US - California Schedule I Controlled Substances
US - California Schedule II Controlled Substances
US - California Schedule IV Controlled Substances
US - Connecticut - Schedules of Controlled Substances - Schedule III
US - Delaware Pollutant Discharge Requirements - Reportable Quantities
US - Illinois Poison Center Antidote List - Adjunctive Agents
US - Illinois Poison Center Antidote List - Agents Used for Radiological Exposures
US - Massachusetts Drinking Water - Detection Limits for Inorganic Contaminants
US - New York Part 326 - Restricted Pesticides
US - Oregon Hazardous Materials
US - Washington Toxic air pollutants and their ASIL, SQER and de minimis emission values
US - West Virginia Uniform Controlled Substances Act - Schedule II
US - Wisconsin Control of Hazardous Pollutants - Emission Thresholds and Control Requirements (Phar-
US - Wisconsin Control of Hazardous Pollutants - Emission Thresholds, Standards and Control Require-
ments (Hazardous Air Contaminants)
US - Wisconsin Control of Hazardous Pollutants - Substances of Concern for Sources of Incidental Emis-
sions of Hazardous Air Contaminants
US ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
US ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLV) - Carcinogens
US ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLV) - Notice of Intended Changes
US ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLV) - Sensitisers
US ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLV) - Skin
US ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLV) Notice of Intended Changes - Sensitisers
US ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLV) Notice of Intended Changes - Skin
US AIHA Workplace Environmental Exposure Levels (WEELs)
US American Apparel & Footwear Association (AAFA) Restricted Substance List (RSL)
US ATSDR Minimal Risk Levels for Hazardous Substances (MRLs)
US Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Cosmetic ingredients found safe, with qualifications
US EPA Physicochemical Properties for TRI Chemicals and Chemical Categories - Table B-6
US EPA-registered Disinfectants - List F: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective Against Hepa-
titis C Virus
US EPA-registered Disinfectants - List G: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective Against
Norovirus (Norwalk-like virus)
US EPA-registered Disinfectants - List J: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products for Medical Waste
US FDA CFSAN Color Additive Status List 3
US FDA Controlled Substances Schedule I
US FDA Controlled Substances Schedule II
US FDA Controlled Substances Schedule III
US FDA Controlled Substances Schedule IV
US FDA Controlled Substances Schedule V
US FDA Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings - Substances for Use Only as
Components of Adhesives - Pressure-sensitive adhesives
US FDA Listing of Color Additives Exempt from Certification - Cosmetics
US FDA Listing of Color Additives Exempt from Certification - Drugs
US FDA Listing of Color Additives Exempt from Certification - Foods
US FDA Listing of Color Additives Exempt from Certification - Medical Devices
US FMA Air Freshener Fragrance Ingredient Survey Results
US List of Chemicals Under Consideration for ESL Development for 2010
US List of Lists - Consolidated List of Chemicals Subject to EPCRA, CERCLA and Section 112(r) of the
Clean Air Act
US NIOSH Carcinogen List
US NIOSH New FDA Drugs and Warnings Fitting NIOSH Criteria for Hazardous Drugs 2006 (Draft)
US NIOSH New FDA Drugs and Warnings Not Fitting NIOSH Criteria for Hazardous Drugs 2006 (Draft)
US NIOSH Preventing Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care
Settings - Appendix A: Sample list of drugs that should be handled as hazardous
US OSHA Carcinogens Listing
US Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) Outdoor Worker Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs)
for Soil
US Tolerances and Exemptions for Pesticide Chemical Residues in Food - Exemptions From Tolerances -
Inert ingredients applied to animals; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance
US TSCA Section 4/12 (b) - Sunset Date/Status
US USDA National Organic Program - Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or
on processed products labeled as “organic” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))”
US USDA National Organic Program - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop produc-
WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - Chemicals for which guideline values have not been estab-
WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - Guideline values for chemicals that are of health significance
in drinking-water

Work Health and Safety Codes of Practice - Have your say
Mr Tom Phillips AM, Safe Work Australia Chair, recently announced the start of the public
comment period for 15 draft model Codes of Practice which support the new model work
health and safety legislation. The draft model Codes of Practice released for public
comment today are:
First Aid in the Workplace
Managing Risks in Construction Work
Preventing Falls in Housing Construction
Managing Electrical Risks at the Workplace
Managing Risks of Hazardous Chemicals
Managing Risks of Plant in the Workplace
Safe Design of Building and Structures
Excavation Work
Demolition Work
Spray Painting and Powder Coating
Abrasive Blasting
Welding and Allied Processes
Safe Access in Tree Trimming and Arboriculture
Preventing and Managing Fatigue in the Workplace
Preventing and Responding to Workplace Bullying
“There are a range of draft Codes of Practice available for comment. These include broad
topics including first aid and preventing and responding to workplace bullying. Specific
industries like construction, excavation and demolition work are also covered in these draft
Codes of Practice,” said Mr Phillips. “The new model work health and safety laws ensure
organisations can comply with one set of laws regardless of the number of states or
territories in which they operate. This will ease the burden on business owners operating
across the country. “The public comment period is a good opportunity for businesses,
industry, workers and the wider community to have their say about work health and safety
in Australia,” said Mr Phillips. Public comment will be received until 18 November 2011 for
six of the draft Codes of Practice. Comments on the remainder of the draft Codes of
Practice will close 16 December 2011. The public comment period for model work health
and safety legislation on mining has been extended and closes on 7 October 2011. Further
information on the model work health and safety laws is available visit
Safe Work Australia, 26 September 2011

Submissions for the APVMA review of diuron have now closed
The Australian Pesticide and Veterinary Medicine Authority (APVMA) have received a
large number of submissions in response to the publication of the diuron environment and
human health assessment reports. Submissions have come from individuals, user groups,
environmental groups, research organisations, state government departments and product
registrants. The information contained in these submissions in some cases is very
extensive and not previously considered by the APVMA. Now, APVMA will assess in detail
this new information and make final conclusions on the future use of diuron in Australia.
Given the substantial nature of some submissions, this assessment is expected to take a
significant period of time. Therefore the APVMA intends to take interim action through a
proposed suspension of product registrations, while further information is assessed in
conjunction with DSWEPaC. The APVMA, in consultation with the state and territory
agencies, will now consider what instructions for the use need to apply to diuron during the
proposed suspension period. Some diuron product registrants have proposed new use
instructions for their products and these will also be taken into consideration. Any new
instructions would be intended to reduce the risks in the short-term whilst the new
information is being considered and a final long-term outcome for diuron use is determined.
An announcement regarding the proposed suspension and associated instructions for use
is anticipated mid November 2011. Further information regarding the diuron review is
available on the APVMA website.
APVMA, 4 October 2011

Amendments to the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989
and their implementation
The National Industrial Chemicals and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) has released a
notice to inform all introducers of industrial chemicals of significant changes to the
Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 (the Act) and the Schedule to
the Act that commenced on 27 September 2011, the reasons for the changes, and how
and when NICNAS is implementing those changes. NICNAS will be changing its
processes to implement the changes to the Act as described below.
In summary, the changes to the Act:
provide legislative underpinning for completion of the cosmetic regulatory reforms largely
implemented through amendment of the Act in 2007 (part of the Low Regulatory Concern
Chemicals (LRCC) reform initiative) by providing the Director, NICNAS with the discretion
to add to the Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances (the AICS) chemicals that are
transferred to the industrial chemicals framework, under certain circumstances, e.g.
cosmetic ingredients in products previously regulated by the Therapeutic Goods
Administration (TGA);
formalise notification and assessment data requirements for ultra-violet (UV) filters in
secondary sunscreen products which have been in place since 7 October 2008;
remove the need to prepare and publish summary assessment reports; and
amend some data requirements in the Schedule to the Act in accordance with international
best practice

Cosmetics regulatory reforms
Amendment of the Act provides for a mechanism to enable chemicals (or chemicals in
products) now regulated by any other Commonwealth regulatory authority to be
recognised as existing industrial chemicals by placing the chemicals directly onto the AICS,
along with any existing controls, should there be Government agreement to do so. Under
this mechanism, the Director, NICNAS, publishes a proposal to transfer chemicals onto the
AICS, but these chemicals should not pose an unreasonable risk to human heath, safety
and the environment as used, they can only be placed on the public section of the AICS,
and the process will be open to public scrutiny and appeal. Without this mechanism, a
chemical transferred into the industrial chemicals regulatory framework from another
Commonwealth regulator becomes a new chemical if it is not already on the AICS. As a
result, notification fees and/or annual reporting obligations would apply for each introducer
of the chemical, which may not be consistent with how the chemical was originally treated
under the other regulatory system. Moreover, by recognising the chemical as an existing
industrial chemical, the chemical is available for all introducers to use. Initially this
mechanism will be used to complete the cosmetic reforms that came into effect in 2007
whereby, certain ingredients in cosmetic products previously regulated by TGA will be
added to the Inventory without need for further assessment. A key requirement of the
reforms is that regulatory standards be maintained without unnecessary increase in
regulatory burden. The new mechanism fulfils this requirement by placing the chemicals
onto the AICS for cosmetic use only, whilst also transferring onto the AICS the regulatory
controls that the TGA had in place when the products were regulated by the TGA, e.g.
restrictions on ingredient concentration. Separate from this mechanism, the level of
assessment for certain cosmetic ingredients required by the TGA is maintained under
NICNAS through the other amendments to the Act. In particular, data required by the TGA
for the assessment of UV filters applied to the skin (in secondary sunscreens) must be
provided to NICNAS for assessment when introduced as new chemicals in Australia. The
data requirements for UV filters applied to the skin are listed in a new Part E to the
Schedule to the Act.

Removal of need to prepare and publish summary reports
The amendment removes a duplicative and outdated process and recognises changes in
technology. The Act imposed various obligations on the Director of NICNAS to prepare a
summary report as part of the assessment report about a chemical (be it a new or existing
chemical). This is because assessment reports originally had to be purchased, so a freely
available summary report was published. Over time, NICNAS has changed its publication
procedures and full public assessment reports are now available freely on the NICNAS
website. As the full report is available to all, the need for a summary report is obviated. All
sections of the Act that currently reference the preparation and publication of a summary
report (including provisions in relation to assessment of new chemicals, existing chemicals
and secondary notification of chemicals) are amended. As a result of the changes, a notice
will be published in the Chemical Gazette to advise when a public report is available on the
NICNAS website. The notice will include key particulars about the chemical, including
chemical name, use and volume, and there will be a link to the full public report.

Amendments to the Schedule to the Act
The amendments to the Schedule will provide for the following assessment-related matters
for new chemical notifications:
more appropriate information on the quantity of the chemical to be introduced into
more specific requirements on how the public at large is exposed to the chemical
internationally aligned testing requirements for physical properties and toxicity.
The amendments align Australia’s data requirements with international best practice and
provide greater certainty to applicants of new chemicals.
Changes to the Regulations
Following commencement of these changes to the Act, a number of consequential
amendments to the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Regulations 1990
(the Regulations) are required. NICNAS is currently preparing amendments to the
Regulations, and expects that they will come into effect before the end of 2011. NICNAS
will keep all stakeholders informed of when these amendments are completed.
Amendments to the regulations are proposed for the following:
administrative amendments to notification categories for UV filters in cosmetics applied to
the skin;
amendments due to removal of the need to prepare and publish summary assessment
reports; and
amendment of definition of ‘basic information’ due to amendments to the Schedule to the
Other, non-consequential administrative changes are planned to be made at the same
time, i.e. update of NICNAS address and name of Commonwealth Environment
Department, and of references to overseas legislation.

Changes to NICNAS processes
Transfer of certain cosmetic chemicals onto the AICS
NICNAS will shortly publish further advice on the proposals for the transfer of certain
chemicals in cosmetic products onto the AICS. The legislated process for the transfer
process is open and transparent - the transfer procedure provides for public comments on
a proposal by the Director, NICNAS, for transfer of chemicals onto the AICS. The
Director’s decision in relation to the proposed transferred is also reviewable by the
Administrative Appeals Tribunal. The Director may make a proposal to include such a
chemical on the Inventory if the chemical was previously regulated, there is no
assessment certificate in force for the chemical, and the chemical is currently in use in
Australia. In making a proposal, the Director must consider whether the use of the
chemical poses an unreasonable risk to occupational health and safety, public health or
the environment. Details of the legislated process will be contained within that notice, and
affected parties will be invited to respond to the proposals at that time.

Amendments to Assessment Reports
Following the amendments to the Act, Summary Reports will no longer be prepared. For
new chemical notifications, a summary table will be published in the Chemical Gazette and
also incorporated into each public assessment report. The table below shows the
information that will be included in the summary. The amendments related to the
publishing of a Summary Report for each assessment will take effect from the November,
2011 Chemical Gazette.
T         S)                     TRADE NAME S         ON VOLUME
REFERENCE                                    SUBSTANC

Amendments to the Schedule
Changes to general data requirements for new chemicals
The Schedule stipulates the data that must be provided for new chemical notifications. The
amendments, along with comments regarding the impact of each amendment for notifiers
are outlined in the table below.
Relevant         Previous         Amended       Comment
Schedule         Schedule         Schedule Item
Part             Item
Part B           The              The physical       This amendment reflects the current
Clause 4         appearance,      state and          practice that the majority of notifiers
                 being the        appearance         provide this information, and that the
                 colour and       (being the         physical state is helpful in estimating
                 form, of the     colour and         exposure and therefore the risk to
                 chemical at      form) of the       health, safety and the environment.
                 20° Celsius      chemical at 20°
                 and 101.3        Celsius and
                 kPa              101.3 kPa
Part B           The quantity,    The estimated      This amendment allows for a more
Clause 5         in a range of    quantity, in       accurate measure of the introduction
                 tonnes per       tonnes per         volume to be provided, which will assist
                 year             year, or, in a     in the risk assessment. The ability to
                                  range of tonnes    provide the estimated volume as a
                                  per year           range has been retained where an
                                                     accurate measure is not possible.
Part B           The number       The category of    This amendment reflects current
Clause 6(a)(i)   and category     workers to be      practice where it is often difficult for a
                 of workers to    involved in        notifier to estimate numbers of exposed
                 be involved in   working with       workers for a chemical yet to be
                 working with     the chemical       introduced.
                 the chemical
Part B           A brief          A description of   This amendment, in essence, reflects
Clause 8         description of   the ways in        the information that is currently
                 any way in       which the          provided by notifiers and for the
                 which the        public might be    majority of notifiers (particularly those
                 chemical         exposed to the     that complete template notification
                 could be         chemical based     forms), and will result in no changes to
                 harmful or       on its proposed    the current practices.1
                 hazardous to     uses and its
                 the health of    potential
                 the public at    release in the
                 large            environment
Part B         The degree of      The degree of      This amendment clarifies the data
Clause 9(m)(i) the chemical’s     the chemical’s     requirements with respect to the
               flammability,      flammability,      physical state of chemicals, and is
               including:         including:         designed to make NICNAS
               (i) the upper      (i) for gases      requirements more consistent with
               and lower          and vapours        hazard classification requirements and
               limits of          the upper and      international test protocols
               flammability in    lower limits of
                 air               flammability in
                                   (ia) for solids
                                   -the ability to
Part B           Information       The chemical’s       This amendment clarifies this data item
Clause 9(p)      about the         explosive            and is designed to make NICNAS
                 chemical’s        properties,          requirements more consistent with
                 potential (if     including the        hazard classification requirements and
                 any) to           chemical’s           international test protocols
                 detonate as       potential (if
                 the result of     any) to
                 heat, shock or    detonate as the
                 friction          result of heat,
                                   shock or friction
Part B           information       information          This amendment is designed to make
Clause 9(q)(i)   about the         about the            NICNAS requirements more consistent
                 stability and     stability and        with hazard classification requirements
                 reactivity of     reactivity of the    and international test protocols
                 the chemical      chemical
                 including:        including:
                 (i) particulars   (i) particulars of
                 of conditions     conditions
                 constituting      constituting the
                 the chemical’s    chemical’s
                 instability       instability; and
                                   (ia) the
Part C           the toxic         the toxic effects    This amendment reflects the current
Para. g          effects of the    of the chemical      global practice that short-term repeat
                 chemical on       on                   dose toxicity studies tend to be
                 administration    administration       conducted over 28 days rather than
                 for a period of   for a period of      10-14 days
                 10 to 14 days     28 days
Part C           any induction     any production       This change reflects the current
Para. j          by the            by the chemical      practice where an in vivo study on the
                 chemical of       of genotoxic         induction of germ cell damage is rarely
                 germ cell         damage in a          available to notifiers. The requirement
                 damage            suitable in vivo     now allows for any suitable in vivo
                                   test                 genotoxicity study to be submitted, and
                                                        therefore allows for the more common
                                                        in vivo micronucleus test (for example)
                                                        to be used to fulfil this requirement.
                                                        Note that, as previously, this data
                                                        requirement may be varied or omitted if
                                                        there are suitable scientific grounds for
                                                     doing so (such as negative outcomes in
                                                     appropriately conducted in vitro
Part D           The maximum       The maximum       This amendment reflects the current
Clause 4         weight            weight            practice where both proportions are
                 percentage of     percentage of     available from an analysis of the
                 low molecular     low molecular     polymer, and also the fact that the
                 weight            weight species    proportion below 500 daltons is an
                 species of the    of the polymer    important consideration for the risk
                 polymer           below 500         assessment
                 below 1,000       daltons and
                                   below 1,000

For guidance on completing this Schedule requirement, notifiers are encouraged to consult
the Public Exposure Section within the following document: Guidance Document 1: STD
and LTD Template

Notifiers are reminded that while new data requirements have been incorporated into the
Schedule, it is possible to apply for a Variation to the Schedule Data Requirements under
Section 24 of the Act. NICNAS has updated new chemical notification forms and guidance
documents to reflect the above changes. Therefore, to ensure that you are using the
correct notification form, we recommend that you download the appropriate form each time
you notify (i.e. do not complete/submit forms that have been previously downloaded and
saved to your computer). The current (revised) notification forms can be obtained from the
NICNAS website:
The NICNAS Handbook for Notifiers is currently being revised. The above amendments
will be reflected in the revised handbook.

Addition of Schedule Part E for new UV filters applied to the skin
Under the cosmetics reforms in 2007, it was agreed that the data requirements for new UV
filters which applied under the TGA be maintained when these chemicals are assessed by
NICNAS. As some of the data required by TGA were not listed in the NICNAS Schedule to
the Act, NICNAS needed to use its existing power to call for extra data whenever such
chemicals were notified, resulting in uncertainty for business as to what data NICNAS
requires to complete its assessment process. Under the changes to the Schedule to the
Act, a new Part E to the Schedule has been inserted to cater for these requirements. The
new Part E requires data on the following for UV filters applied to the skin:
(a) the chemical’s photostability;
(b) the chemical’s phototoxicity;
(c) the chemical’s photosensitisation;
(d) the chemical’s bioavailability via the oral and dermal routes;
(e) the chemical’s toxic effects on administration for a period of 3 to 6 months, by the oral
and dermal routes;
(f) the chemical’s photomutagenicity;
(g) the chemical’s toxic effects on reproduction, including toxicity to male fertility;
(h) the carcinogenic potential of the chemical, including photocarcinogenicity;
(i) the potential of the chemical to interact with another chemical used as an ultraviolet filter
in a cosmetic to be applied to the skin;
(j) being data obtained by specified methods; and
(k) from specified raw data.
As with all notification statements, an application to vary the data requirements listed in the
Schedule for UV filters can be made by application to the Director.

NICNAS has updated the new chemicals notification forms with these data requirement,
and a guidance document relating to the data requirements for new UV filters is currently
being prepared for incorporation into the revised Handbook for Notifiers. In addition,
NICNAS will regard these data as being basic information, that is, they cannot be
exempted from publication in assessment reports, and this requirement will be reflected in
the changes to the Regulations. In the meantime, should you require further information,
please contact the New Chemicals Program at NICNAS. Note that administrative changes
need to be made to the Regulations in relation to UV filters in cosmetics applied to the skin,
however theses regulation changes will not affect the data requirements detailed above.
NICNAS Chemical Gazette, 04 October 2011

House Takes Aim At Clean Air Act
Wide-ranging legislation designed to curb the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA)
ability to more strictly regulate toxic air pollution under the Clean Air Act has passed the
Republican-controlled House of Representatives. The bill (H.R. 2401) would set up a
Cabinet-level committee to study the cumulative costs of more than a dozen major new or
proposed EPA rules and analyse their impact on energy prices, employment, and the
global competitiveness of U.S. industry. The chemical industry supports the legislation,
saying it will shed light on the regulatory burdens that are harming U.S. job growth and
recovery. “The ability of America’s chemical manufacturers and all the industries that rely
on chemistry to compete globally and create well-paying jobs here at home requires that
regulations reflect a real-world understanding of the costs to business,” says Calvin M.
Dooley, president and CEO of the American Chemistry Council, an industry trade
association. Congress and the Obama Administration “must fix deficiencies in the way
agencies develop regulations so proposed rules are rational and balanced,” Dooley adds.
In addition, a provision added to the bill would block EPA from moving forward with a rule
slated to take effect in January 2012 that requires 27 states to reduce power plant
emissions that contribute to smog and soot pollution transported across state boundaries.
The regulation applies to sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, which mostly
come from coal-fired plants. Another amendment directs EPA to take into account
feasibility and cost when setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards, effectively
overturning a 2001 Supreme Court decision that upheld EPA’s practice of considering only
public health impacts when developing the standards. Critics charge the measures would
undermine EPA’s ability to reduce air pollution and protect public health. “Everyone should
be able to breathe clean air, but this bill puts tens of thousands of lives at risk by blocking
the cleanup of deadly air pollution,” says Lauren Randall, of Environment America, an
environmental advocacy organisation. “Americans deserve better.” The bill will now go to
the Democrat-controlled Senate, which is unlikely to pass it. But if it does clear the Senate,
the White House has threatened a veto.
Chemical & Engineering News, 3 October 2011

EPA Releases Final Health Assessment for TCE
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently released the final health
assessment for trichloroethylene (TCE) to the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
database. IRIS is a human health assessment programme that evaluates the latest
science on chemicals in our environment. The final assessment characterises the
chemical as carcinogenic to humans and as a human non-cancer health hazard. This
assessment will also allow for a better understanding of the risks posed to communities
from exposure to TCE in soil, water and air. It will provide federal, state, local and other
policy makers with the latest scientific information to make decisions about cleanup and
other actions to protect people’s health. .”This assessment is an important first step,
providing valuable information to the state, local and federal agencies responsible for
protecting the health of the American people,” said Paul Anastas, assistant administrator
for the EPA’s Office of Research and Development. “It underscores the importance of
EPA’s science and, in particular, the critical value of the IRIS database for ensuring that
government officials and the American people have the information they need to protect
their health and the health of their children.” TCE is one of the most common man-made
chemicals found in the environment. It is a volatile chemical and a widely used chlorinated
solvent. Frequently found at Superfund sites across the country, TCE’s movement from
contaminated ground water and soil, into the indoor air of overlying buildings, is of serious
concern. EPA already has drinking water standards for TCE and standards for cleaning up
TCE at Superfund sites throughout the country. TCE toxicity values as reported in the
assessment will be considered in:
Establishing cleanup methods at the 761 Superfund sites where TCE has been identified
as a contaminant
Understanding the risk from vapour intrusion as TCE vapours move from contaminated
groundwater and soil into the indoor air of overlying buildings
Revising EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level for TCE as part of the carcinogenic volatile
organic compounds group in drinking water, as described in the agency’s drinking water
Developing appropriate regulatory standards limiting the atmospheric emissions of TCE –
a hazardous air pollutant under the Clean Air Act
This assessment has undergone several levels of peer review including, agency review,
interagency review, public comment, external peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory
Board in January 2011, and a scientific consultation review in 2006 by the National
Academy of Sciences. Comments from all reviewers are addressed in the final
assessment. EPA continues to strengthen IRIS as part of an ongoing effort to ensure
concrete research and science are used to protect human health and the environment. In
May 2009, EPA restructured the IRIS program to reinforce independent review and ensure
the timely publication of assessments. In July 2011, EPA announced further changes to
strengthen the IRIS program in response to recommendations from the National Academy
of Sciences. EPA’s peer review process is designed to elicit the strongest possible critique
to ensure that each final IRIS assessment reflects sound, rigorous science.
U.S EPA, 28 September 2011

OSHA Reopens Reporting Rule for More Comments
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) will accept comments until 28
October on its proposed requirement that covered employers report any work-related
fatality or in-patient hospitalisation within eight hours, and all work-related amputations
within 24 hours, to the agency. OSHA’s notice said one entity, the National Automobile
Dealers Association, asked for an extension to evaluate the BLS data on which OSHA’s
industry exemption analysis was based. Comments originally were due by 20 September.
The changes would revise 29 CRP 1904.2, which partially exempts certain lower-hazard
industries classified in SIC codes 52 through 89 from injury and illness recordkeeping
requirements. Lower-hazard industries are those industries with an average Days Away,
Restricted, or Transferred (DART) rate at or below 75 percent of the national average
DART rate. The current list of partially exempt industries is based on injury and illness data
compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1997, 1998, and 1999, and OSHA wants to
revise the list using the North American Industry Classification System and basing it on
DART rates compiled by BLS for 2007, 2008, and 2009. Listed industries still have to keep
records if requested to do so by BLS in connection with its Annual Survey or by OSHA in
connection with its Data Initiative (29 CFR 1904.41). The other change OSHA is proposing
would revise 1904.39, which currently requires an employer to report to OSHA, within eight
hours, all work-related fatalities and in-patient hospitalisations of three or more employees.
The proposed rule would require an employer to report to OSHA, within eight hours, all
work-related fatalities and all work-related in-patient hospitalisations and, within 24 hours,
all work- related amputations. OSHA has estimated the regulation will cost approximately
$8.5 million annually and produce benefits worth significantly more.
Occupational Health and Safety News, 30 September 2011

MEPs insist on stricter biocides approval rules
According to compromise amendments agreed ahead of a vote in Brussels recently, the
European Parliament’s environment committee is seeking to significantly strengthen
Christa Klass’ second-reading recommendations on new biocides approval rules.
Committee members tabled hundreds of individual changes in addition to the compromise
amendments that are expected to soon be finalised. Many of them aim to reinstate the
parliament’s first-reading position. During a debate in September, MEPs complaint that
Klass’ recommendations were too distant from what the parliament had agreed last year.
For example, the German MEP was willing to allow derogations to biocide bans if these
resulted in “negative impacts for society”, something the member states had specifically
requested. However, according to the compromise amendments the parliament’s main
political groups refuse to weaken their first-reading position on derogations, which only
allowed them under very strict conditions. In addition, they insist on banning biocides
containing endocrine disrupters, a parliament demand that Ms Klass was prepared to give
up. Another key amendment to be put to the vote is a call to give member states the right
to refuse biocide authorisations approved at EU level. Green groups fear that EU market
approval rules will be less stringent than those in place in member states. Furthermore,
MEPs want to stick to the parliament’s first-reading position on products eligible for EU
authorisations from 2013. Ms Klass wanted to include a different list of product categories,
which committee members believe would make even more biocides eligible. The socialist
group also tabled an amendment saying nanomaterials should not qualify for the simplified
authorisation procedure proposed by the European Commission. In a letter to the
committee last month, a group of NGOs said nanomaterials should be subject to a
separate assessment and labelling requirements. They also called for a database of
authorised biocidal products, as proposed by three Italian MEPs.
ENDS Europe Daily, 3 October 2011

Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active
substance blood meal
Blood meal is one of the 295 substances of the fourth stage of the review programme
covered by Commission Regulation (EC) No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission
Regulation (EC) No 1095/2007. Blood meal was included in Annex I to Directive
91/414/EEC on 1 September 2009 pursuant to Article 24b of the Regulation (EC) No
2229/2004 (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Regulation’), and has subsequently been
deemed to be approved under Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009, in accordance with
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 540/2011, as amended by Commission
Implementing Regulation (EU) No 541/2011. In accordance with Article 25a of the
Regulation, as amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No 114/2010, the European
Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is required to deliver by 31 December 2012 its view on the
draft review report submitted by the European Commission in accordance with Article 25(1)
of the Regulation. This review report was established as a result of the initial evaluation
provided by the designated rapporteur Member State in the Draft Assessment Report
(DAR). The EFSA therefore organised a peer review of the DAR. The conclusions of the
peer review were set out in the report. Belgium being the designated rapporteur Member
State submitted the DAR on blood meal in accordance with the provisions of Article 22(1)
of the Regulation, which was received by the EFSA on 3 November 2006. The peer review
was initiated on 12 June 2008 by dispatching the DAR to the notifier Gyllebo Gödning AB
and on 16 December 2010 to the Member States for consultation. Following consideration
of the comments received on the DAR, it was concluded that there was no need to
conduct an expert consultation and EFSA should deliver its conclusions on blood meal.
The conclusions reached in this report were based on the evaluation of the representative
uses of blood meal as a repellent on deciduous and coniferous trees in forestry, orchard
trees and ornamental plants, as proposed by the notifier. In the section for identity,
physical, chemical and technical properties and methods of analysis data gaps were
identified for a specification with supporting data, solubility in water, shelf-life, evidence
that the formulation can form a useable solution and a method of analysis for the
formulation. No data gaps or critical areas of concern were identified in the mammalian
toxicology section. No data gaps or critical areas of concern were identified in the residue
section. The fate and behaviour in the environment of blood meal residues is expected to
follow the normal pathways of dissipation and degradation common to naturally occurring
residues of biological origin. Considering the nature of the substance and most methods of
application leading to negligible levels of environmental exposure, further consideration of
its fate and behaviour in the environment was concluded to be unnecessary, with the
exception of when application is made by less targeted spray application methods such as
air-assisted broadcast spraying. In this situation the environmental exposure assessment
to aquatic systems was not finalised. A data gap was identified in the ecotoxicology
section for the mandatory toxicity studies with aquatic organisms (acute toxicity test for fish,
acute toxicity test for aquatic invertebrates and chronic study for algae) to fulfil the Annex II
data requirements. In addition, due to a missing aquatic exposure assessment when less
targeted spray application methods are employed, the risk assessment for aquatic
organisms was not finalised. Further information is available on the EFSA website.
EFSA, 3 October 2011

Environment committee to vote on WEEE and Seveso
The European Parliament’s environment committee voting on new biocides approval rules
will also adopt its second-reading position on crucial legislative proposal: a draft revised
directive on electronic waste (WEEE). The committee is planning to make several changes
to Christa Klass’ recommendations regarding the biocides proposal. Vote on Karl-Heinz
Florenz’s second-reading recommendations is likely to be less divisive, with MEPs
expected to broadly stick to the MEP’s position. A first-reading vote will also be held on
János Áder’s proposed changes to the European Commission’s draft revised Seveso II
directive on major accident hazards. More than 300 amendments have been tabled by
various MEPs as well as compromised and consolidated amendments agreed by the main
political groups. In the afternoon, the committee will discuss a working document on the
EU’s low carbon roadmap drawn up by UK MEP Chris Davies. There will also be
discussions on a recent parliament report on the pros and cons of shale gas exploration,
followed by a commission presentation on solvents in products such as paints and
varnishes. In addition, commission officials and committee members will exchange views
on the import of feed and food from Japan following the Fukushima accident. The EU
executive has said it would maintain stricter controls on these imports until the end of the
year. The socio-economic impacts of GM crops will also be discussed that day.
ENDS Europe Daily, 3 October 2011

REACH Update
ECHA Management Board adopts Work Programme for 2012 and policy on avoiding
potential conflicts of interest
On 29 and 30 September, the European Chemical Agency’s (ECHA) Management Board
held its 23rd plenary meeting and took a number of important strategic decisions. The
Management Board adopted the ECHA Work Programme for 2012. It describes ECHA’s
activities in the year before the 2013 REACH registration deadline. Apart from ensuring the
readiness for the 2013 deadline, the priorities for ECHA in 2012 will be to live up to the
expectations on evaluation, authorisation applications as well as preparation for the new
Biocides and PIC regulations. Providing information for the public will also be a focus of
the Agency’s attention in 2012. The Programme is based on the assumption that ECHA
will receive approval from the EU Budgetary Authority for ten new posts. If this is not
approved, the Programme will be reviewed by the Management Board in December 2011.
In addition, the Board adopted a Policy for avoiding and managing potential conflicts of
interest. The new policy will be available shortly on the ECHA website. It demonstrates the
importance of transparency and independence of decision-making: two of ECHA’s core
values. Concerning international relations, the Management Board decided to invite
Croatia as an observer to ECHA’s Committees and Forum. In addition, Serbia was invited
as guest to the next HelpNet Steering Group meeting. The Board will decide on the
inclusion of Serbia as an observer in the work of the HelpNet at its next meeting, by when
the further developments regarding Serbia’s candidate status for EU accession are
expected to become clearer. As an appointing authority of the Executive Director, the
Management Board also agreed at the meeting to initiate a procedure to prolong the
Executive Director’s mandate. The Commission was informed that a new selection
procedure is thus not required. The Chairman of the Management Board, Dr. Thomas Jakl
commented: “After the first REACH registration deadline was impressively managed by
ECHA in 2010, there is no time to rest on our laurels. Challenging further steps of the
REACH and CLP implementation lie ahead and the legislator is in the process of
entrusting important new regulatory tasks to the Agency. The continuation decision with
regard to a selection process for the Executive Director reflects the high satisfaction of the
Board with his achievements since 2007.” The meeting was hosted by the Maltese
Government. The Management Board Members were welcomed by Dr Chris Said, the
Parliamentary Secretary for Consumers, Fair Competion and Public Dialogue and held an
exchange of views with representatives of the national competent authority for REACH
and CLP. The minutes of the meeting will be published on the ECHA website after their
adoption at the next Management Board meeting which will be held in Helsinki from 15-16
December 2011
ECHA, 4 October 2011

IUCLID 5 stand-alone installation video tutorials are now available
The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has announced that IUCLID 5 installation video
tutorials are now available for all users wishing to successfully download and install
IUCLID 5 in a stand-alone environment. IUCLID 5 is the software, made available by
ECHA, used for preparing registrations and notifications for the purposes of the REACH
and CLP Regulations. In order to install IUCLID 5 successfully in a single user
environment (stand-alone version), video tutorials for the installation of the three main
required software components are available:
Downloading and installing Java
Downloading and installing PostgreSQL
Downloading and installing IUCLID
For IUCLID 5 users with REACH obligations, an additional video, “Downloading and
installing the Technical Completeness Check (TCC) plug-in” has also been released.
Further information is available on the ECHA website under the webinar section.
ECHA, 4 October 2011

ECHA launches a new procedure for submitting Alternative Chemical Name
The European Chemicals Agency has announced that a new online form allows
manufacturers, importers and downstream users to request the use of alternative chemical
names. They may choose to do this, if they believe that the disclosure of a substance
name on the label of their mixtures or in the safety data sheets reveals business secrets.
This is in accordance with Article 24 of the CLP Regulation. Producers of mixtures are
obliged to inform the users of any relevant hazardous ingredient in the mixture by
disclosing its chemical identity. Typical mixtures are for example; paints, cleaning agents
or dish washer detergents. Under certain conditions ECHA or EU Member States
authorities may grant exemptions from this obligation. Article 24 of the EC Regulation
(1272/2008) on Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) allows the submission of
requests for the use of an alternative name for the substance not to be revealed. Before
such exemptions are granted, ECHA examines whether the safe use of the mixture may
be compromised. Manufacturers, Importers and Downstream Users can submit their
application for using an alternative name to ECHA only if the mixture(s), which contains
the substance for which the alternative name will be used, is classified and labelled
according to the CLP Regulation. If the mixture is classified and labelled according to the
Dangerous Preparations Directive (DPD), the alternative name request has to be
submitted to a Competent Authority in one of the EU Member States where the substance
is placed on the market. According to the CLP Fee Regulation, a fee will be charged for all
requests submitted to ECHA. A Data Submission Manual, now available on ECHA’s
website, provides step-by-step instructions for how to prepare an Alternative Name
Request dossier in IUCLID 5 and submit it via a web form to ECHA. Additionally, to assist
companies in the preparation of an alternative name request dossier, the latest version of
the TCC plug-in (version 5.3.1) simulates several of the business rules checks performed
at ECHA for this dossier type. A copy of the new form can be found on the ECHA website
at: and a copy of the data
submission manual on how to prepare and submit a request is avasilable at:
ECHA, 30 September 2011

ECHA consults on HCL for 1,1’,1’’-nitrilotripropan-2-ol
The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has launched a consultation on a harmonised
classification and labelling (HCL) for 1,1’,1’’-nitrilotripropan-2-ol, which has been submitted
by Germany. The consultation on the proposal, which foresees the removal of the
classification hazardous to the aquatic environment, runs until 17 November 2011.
According to the proposal, based on the available data the classification and labelling of
the substance as aquatic chronic 3, R 52/53, is deemed unjustified. The proposed HCL is
therefore eye irritant 2, H 319, under CLP and Xi, R36 under the dangerous substances
directive. The full consultation is available at:
Chemical Watch, 4 October 2011

Janet’s Corner – Not too seriously!
Internet highway blues
The Information Highway Blues.
My baby’s got my 486.
My cellular phone’s on the blink.
My fax’s gone off to fax heaven,
And Pay For View stinks.
I got the blues, I got the Information Highway bluuuuues.
I got the bluuuuues, I got the Information Highway blues.
I lost my account on the Internet.
My email’s been revoked.
My modem’s stuck at 300 baud,
And my terminal just blinks.
I got the blues, I got the Information Highway bluuuuues .
I got the bluuuuues, I got the Information Highway blues.
My head spins from Virtual Reality.
I don’t have Video on demand.
I can’t read my Personal Newspaper,
And Shop At Home has kinks.
I missed the on-ramp, to the Information Highway bluuuues.
I missed the onnnn-ramp, to the Information Highway blues.
Please note: articles for Janet’s Corner are not original, and come from various sources.
Author’s credits are supplied when available.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is a synthetic chemical that does not occur naturally in the
environment. It also is known as methylchloroform, methyltrichloromethane,
trichloromethylmethane, and a-trichloromethane. 1,1,1-trichloroethane is not supposed to
be manufactured for domestic use in the United States after 1 January 2002 because it
affects the ozone layer. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane had many industrial and household uses,
including use as a solvent to dissolve other substances, such as glues and paints; to
remove oil or grease from manufactured metal parts; and as an ingredient of household
products such as spot cleaners, glues, and aerosol sprays.[1]

Environment Effects

Most of the 1,1,1-trichloroethane released into the environment enters the air, where it
lasts for about 6 years.
Once in the air, it can travel to the ozone layer where sunlight can break it down into
chemicals that may reduce the ozone layer.
Contaminated water from landfills and hazardous waste sites can contaminate surrounding
soil and nearby surface water or groundwater.
From lakes and rivers, most of the 1,1,1-trichloroethane evaporates quickly into the air.
Water can carry 1,1,1-trichloroethane through the soil and into the groundwater where it
can evaporate and pass through the soil as a gas, then be released to the air.
Organisms living in soil or water may also break down 1,1,1- trichloroethane.
It will not build up in plants or animals.[1]

Exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane

Breathing 1,1,1-trichloroethane in contaminated outdoor and indoor air. Because 1,1,1
trichloroethane was used so frequently in home and office products, you are likely to be
exposed to higher levels indoors than outdoors or near hazardous waste sites. However,
since 2002, 1,1,1-trichloroethane is not expected to be commonly used, and therefore, the
likelihood of being exposed to it is remote.
In the workplace, you could have been exposed to 1,1,1-trichloroethane while using some
metal degreasing agents, paints, glues, and cleaning products.
Ingesting contaminated drinking water and food.[1]

Health Effects

If you breathe air containing high levels of 1,1,1-trichloroethane for a short time, you may
become dizzy and light headed and possibly lose your coordination. These effects rapidly
disappear after you stop breathing contaminated air. If you breathe in much higher levels,
you may become unconscious, your blood pressure may decrease, and your heart may
stop beating. Whether breathing low levels of 1,1,1-trichloroethane for a long time causes
harmful effects is not known. Studies in animals show that breathing air that contains very
high levels of 1,1,1- trichloroethane damages the breathing passages and causes mild
effects in the liver, in addition to affecting the nervous system. There are no studies in
humans that determine whether eating food or drinking water contaminated with
1,1,1-trichloroethane could harm health. Placing large amounts of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in
the stomachs of animals has caused effects on the nervous system, mild liver damage,
unconsciousness, and even death. If your skin contacts 1,1,1-trichloroethane, you might
feel some irritation. Studies in animals suggest that repeated exposure of the skin might
affect the liver and that very large amounts may cause death. These effects occurred only
when evaporation was prevented.

Reduce risk of exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane

Children can be exposed to 1,1,1-trichloroethane in household products, such as
adhesives and cleaners. Parents should store household chemicals out of reach of young
children to prevent accidental poisonings or skin irritation. Always store household
chemicals in their original labelled containers. Never store household chemicals in
containers that children would find attractive to eat or drink from, such as old soda bottles.
Keep your Poison Control Centres number near the phone. [1]

Government Recommendations

EPA regulates the levels of 1,1,1-trichloroethane that are allowable in drinking water. The
highest level of 1,1,1-trichloroethane allowed in drinking water is 0.2 parts
1,1,1,-trichloroethane per 1 million parts of water (0.2 ppm).

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a limit of 350 parts
1,1,1-trichloroethane per 1 million parts of air (350 ppm) in the workplace. [1]
Personal Protection

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability
hazard (i.e., for liquids with a flash point <100°F).

Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers
could be exposed to the substances; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving
the wearing of eye protection.

Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work
area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that
these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the
substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what
constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In
certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the
availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate. [2]

Respirator Recommendations
Up to 125 ppm:
(APF = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode£
(APF = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s)

Up to 50 ppm:
(APF = 50) Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor
(APF = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or
back-mounted organic vapor canister
(APF = 50) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and organic
vapor cartridge(s)£
(APF = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece
(APF = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece

Up to 1000 ppm:
(APF = 2000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a
pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode
Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions:
(APF = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is
operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode
(APF = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a
pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary
self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus

(APF = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or
back-mounted organic vapour canister
Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus [2]

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2006. Toxicological Profile
for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Public Health Service
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Pyridine retrieved from on 30-3-2010

Mums’ plasticiser exposure troubling for baby boys
A new study by researchers in Korea has found that a woman’s exposure to commonly
used plasticisers – called phthalates – during pregnancy may be associated with
suboptimal development in babies. Increasing exposure to plastic-softening chemicals in
pregnant women was associated with poorer development in their baby boys, finds a study
that examined mental and motor skills in 6-month-old infants. The results demonstrated
that the higher the exposure to phthalates in the mums, the lower the scores of infant
development, including both cognitive and motor behaviour. However, the association was
only identified in sons, not in daughters. Given that phthalates are short-lived in people,
reducing exposure in pregnant women will effectively reduce the possibility of foetal
exposure to these chemicals. The latest findings are important because it adds more
evidence to the growing human health concerns about these chemicals, especially with
boys. Phthalates have many industrial and commercial applications. Some are commonly
used in plastics to make them soft, flexible and less brittle. Medical tubing, toys, food
containers, flooring and other plastic consumer products can contain them. In addition,
they are added to personal care items such as lipstick, nail polish and shampoo. Although
phthalates do not accumulate in people, exposure to these potentially hormone-mimicking
chemicals occurs every day through food, air or skin. Previous animal studies suggest
prenatal phthalate exposure may influence neurodevelopment and contribute to
hyperactive and impulsive – ADHD-like symptoms – behaviour. Similar conclusions were
drawn from a study with school-aged children. Other studies identify links between
phthalates and social impairments in children. Phthalates may function as anti-androgens.
That is, they block or otherwise thwart male hormones. There is also concern they may
disrupt thyroid hormones and contribute to infant developmental problems. Evidence on
whether they influence infant behaviour is still scarce. During the present study, conducted
between 2006 and 2009, a group of South Korean researchers examined 460 mothers
during pregnancy and their babies six months after birth. They measured the three main
metabolites of DEHP and DBP phthalates – MEOHP, MEHHP and MBP – in the mum’s
urine sample taken during the third trimester. Metabolites form from the original
compounds after chemical changes in the body. They tested infant behaviour development
using the standardised assessment Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The researchers
statistically compared the exposure to phthalates – as measured in the moms’ urine – and
infant behaviour. Further research is required to verify these findings and confirm if the
behaviour patterns persist into childhood.
Environmental Health News, 6 September 2011
Eradicating Dangerous Bacteria May Cause Permanent Harm
Martin Blaser, MD, Frederick H. King Professor of Medicine, professor of Microbiology and
chair of the Department of Medicine at NYU Langone Medical Centre believes that our
eagerness to eliminate dangerous bacteria, is resulting in the permanent killing off of
beneficial bacteria. The new report was published in the journal Nature. Dr. Blaser
sounded the alarm to the medical community and to the general public, that the
widespread use of antibiotics may be having unintended consequences causing
permanent changes in the body’s protective, friendly flora and causing harm to the body’s
natural defence system. This may be even more dangerous to health than the creation of
resistant “superbugs,” which have garnered much attention over the last few years. By the
time a child in the US or other developed countries reaches the age of 18, s/he has
already had on average 10-20 doses of antibiotics. These are in addition to the antibiotics
that may be given to women while they are pregnant, and which may affect the normal
bacteria that mothers transmit to their children. The discovery and use of antibiotics has
helped to increase life expectancy. However they are non-discriminatory and destroy even
friendly bacteria, not just harmful ones. Scientists have found that some of the beneficial
bacteria may never recover and that these extinctions may lead to increased susceptibility
to infections and disease. As a result, antibiotic use could be contributing to the increases
in obesity, allergies and asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes that are
occurring throughout the developed world. Dr. Blaser urges physicians to curtail the use of
these drugs immediately, and recommends that narrow spectrum, and more targeted
drugs be used in their place. To be successful, this shift will require a significant effort to
develop new antibacterials and new diagnostic tests that will permit the use of targeted
agents. “I believe that doctors of the future will be replacing “lost” members of our normal
flora in young children to diminish the risk of development of these important and chronic
diseases,” said Dr. Blaser.
Science Daily, 28 August 2011

Common plasticiser alters an important memory system in male rat brains
A new study by Canadian researchers has reported that male rats exposed to the plastic
softener DEHP formed fewer cells and nerve connections in a memory-related region of
their young brains. An ingredient widely-used to soften plastic containers and toys
changed brain development in growing male rats when exposure occurs during a sensitive
phase. The same exposure did not affect female rats, the researchers wrote in the journal
Neuroscience. The animal study demonstrates that the phthalate DEHP can disrupt the
normal development of the hippocampus in young male rats by reducing the number of
cells and nerve connections that form. The hippocampus is important to learning as it is
involved in the formation of long-term memories. The rat hippocampus matures in the first
few weeks after birth while in people, the hippocampus largely develops before birth during
the third trimester. This is the first research to connect phthalate exposure at a critical time
of development with these cells and nerve effects in the hippocampus. Although not
measured in the study, the brain effects may result in impaired cognitive functioning and
could result in significant behavioural changes throughout life. In people, disruptions in
development of the hippocampus may result in poorer memory, which can impact learning
ability and even IQ. DEHP is a phthalate added to hard plastics – mainly polyvinyl chloride
(PVC) – to make them flexible. It is used to produce and manufacture soft plastics for a
number of uses, including children’s toys, food storage containers and medical tubing and
bags. Prior research shows that infants and children are more exposed than adults to
these contaminants. Youngsters are more exposed because of their increased contact
with DEHP-containing products and house dust and perhaps, because of their higher
metabolic rate. During the study, the researchers injected 16-day-old male and female rats
– the prime development time for some regions of the rat hippocampus – with 10
milligrams per kilogram of DEHP for seven consecutive days. The dose is the lowest
known to affect testosterone hormone production in male rats. Hippocampus tissue from
treated and untreated rats was analysed for cell and nerve development. The researchers
compared exposed to unexposed rats and male to female rats. The region of the male rat
hippocampus – a brain region called CA3 and strongly associated with memory – had
fewer cells and less axonal connections between the nerve cells that were there. This loss
in connections could results in improper or possibly disrupted communication between
cells in the hippocampus. Female rats showed no developmental changes following DEHP
exposure, an effect most likely related to the chemical’s anti-androgen hormone properties.
The finding reveals a distinct difference in the toxic effects of this chemical between male
and female rodents. These striking results are the first found in rats exposed while the
hippocampus cells and nerves are developing. The effects could result in learning and
behaviour changes with age, although this was not measured in the study. The potential
for human impacts will also need further study.
Environmental Health News, 2 September 2011

UV blocker curtails male hormone made in human cells, mice
A UV-blocking chemical added to stabilise personal care products works as an endocrine
disruptor and reduces the production of male reproductive hormones. Researchers show
an ultraviolet (UV) radiation blocker – designated BP2 – found in a variety of cosmetics
and personal care products decreases testosterone hormone production in both cultured
human testes cells and in male mice. This is the first study to report that BP2 exposure
can impact reproductive processes in mammals, including human cells. The new findings
– when combined with results from prior studies – suggest more research is needed to
understand if BP2 poses endocrine-related health risks when used to stabilise personal
care products. Benzophenone (BP) chemicals absorb and thus filter out ultraviolet light.
The one known as BP2 is added to cosmetics and personal care products to prevent
sunlight from breaking down the products. Perfumes, lipstick, hair and skin care products
and plastics for packaging can contain BP2. People can be exposed as BP2 has been
detected in human urine. Previous studies have indicated BP2 can interfere with hormones
important to reproduction, most notably thyroid hormones. The chemical can inactivate a
key enzyme involved in thyroid hormone production, according to human cell line studies.
Of its many functions, thyroid hormone promotes testosterone production in the male
testes and increases levels circulating in the blood of lab animals and humans. Thus, less
thyroid hormone levels could reduce testosterone production. Even so, little research deals
with how BP2 may affect reproductive hormones in people and mammals. Therefore,
researchers investigated if BP2 could disrupt thyroid hormone signals that, in turn, would
alter the testes’ ability to produce testosterone. A two-tiered approach was used. The
researchers exposed human testes cells to BP2 in the lab. In addition, they injected
5-week-old male mice with 50 milligrams/kilogram/body weight of BP2 and sampled their
testes and blood. Both the lab cells and the mice testes were analysed for genetic and
protein markers. Testosterone and progesterone hormones were measured in lab cells
and the mouse testes and blood. The results showed that BP2 does impact testicular
hormone production, leading to reduced levels of the important male reproductive
hormone testosterone. However, BP2 acted in an opposite manner on the levels of steroid
producing enzymes that are controlled by thyroid hormone signalling. It dampened the
genes that thyroid hormone stimulates and stimulated genes that thyroid hormone
dampens. This effect of BP2 was observed even in the absence of thyroid hormone, so
more was occurring than just direct antagonism of thyroid hormone signalling by BP2. In
other words, BP2 decreased male testosterone production in ways not always directly
related to impeding normal thyroid hormone signals. The results suggest a mixed bag.
BP2 has anti-thyroid activity – as prior research shows – but also may interfere with other
types of hormone signals, such as acting as an oestrogen. Further research is required to
determine the exact role BP2 plays as an endocrine disruptor and how its effects lead to
reduced testosterone levels.
Environmental Health News, 7 September 2011

Can carbon dioxide help with nasal allergies?
Researchers have found that a shot of carbon dioxide to the nose may bring some quick,
though short-lived, relief to people with nasal allergies. So-called intranasal carbon dioxide
(CO2) is not yet an approved treatment for nasal allergies. The new study is one of a
number of clinical trials being funded by Capnia, Inc., a Palo Alto, California-based
company that is developing a hand-held device that -- if approved -- would allow people to
administer the CO2 therapy to themselves. In the new study, researchers recruited 348
adults with year-round nasal allergies -- to irritants like dust, mould or pet dander. They
randomly assigned participants to have either one dose of CO2, delivered via a nosepiece
attached to a CO2 cylinder, or a placebo “treatment” where nothing was delivered through
the nosepiece. Those receiving the real treatment were further divided into four groups,
receiving either a lower or higher CO2 dose for either 10 seconds or 30 seconds. About 30
minutes later, one of the CO2 groups -- the one getting the higher dose for 10 seconds --
reported bigger improvements in nasal congestion, itching, sneezing and watery eyes than
those getting the placebo. The advantage lasted about four hours, according to findings
published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The degree of symptom
improvement was similar to what’s typically seen with standard treatments like
antihistamine nasal sprays, according to lead researcher Dr. Thomas B. Casale, a
professor of medicine at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. If approved, intranasal
CO2 could offer an alternative to people with seasonal or year-round nasal allergies,
Casale said. Prescription nasal sprays with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, taken
regularly, are the most effective treatment out there, Casale said. But some people --
including parents of young children with nasal allergies -- are reluctant to use steroids,
even though the low doses in allergy nasal sprays are generally considered safe. “There
are still a lot of people who don’t like to take medication,” Casale said, “and might view this
as a ‘natural’ treatment.” Because the treatment is still experimental, it is not clear how
much it would cost if it makes it to the market. An allergy expert not involved in the study
was unimpressed with the results. Even if the symptom reduction is around what’s seen
with antihistamine nasal sprays, the latter have longer-lasting effects, according to Dr.
Harold Nelson, an allergist at National Jewish Health, a Denver hospital that specialises in
respiratory diseases. One dose is good for 24 hours, Nelson said in an interview, whereas
the benefits of intranasal CO2 wore off after 4 to 6 hours in this study. On top of that, he
added, intranasal CO2 “seems uncomfortable.” Of all CO2 patients in the study, upwards
of 80 percent said they had nasal discomfort during the treatment -- versus just about eight
percent in the placebo group. Around one-quarter became teary-eyed, and 14 percent to
20 percent developed headaches. “I must say, it’s not a very attractive treatment,” Nelson
said. In addition, he pointed to what he saw as a weakness in the study: the placebo.
Instead of comparing CO2 against some other gas, the researchers only gave placebo
patients a nosepiece to insert. That makes it unclear, Nelson said, if CO2 has some
distinct effect, or if it was simply the intranasal pressure that somehow brought some
people relief. But Casale said that in an earlier study -- this one of people with seasonal
allergies -- the researchers did use air in the placebo group, and the CO2-treated patients
had greater symptom improvement. Casale also pointed out that an advantage CO2 may
have over antihistamines (both nasal spray and pill) and corticosteroids is that it works
quickly. So the therapy might best fit into the nasal-allergy armament as an occasional,
“as-needed” fix. But that’s still under study, Casale said. It also remains unclear why
intranasal CO2 would be helpful against allergy symptoms, if that turns out to be the case.
Besides nasal steroids and antihistamines, some other nasal allergy treatments include
nasal washes, which remove allergens from the nostrils, and allergy shots -- which may be
recommended for specific allergies that do not improve with medication.
Reuters Health, 7 September 2011

What was in the World Trade Centre plume?
The smell cannot be forgotten. Any smoky mix of burnt plastic and other smouldering can
instantly bring back memories for locals of the aftermath of the collapse of the two towers
of the World Trade Centre on September 11, 2001. The acrid cloud of 91,000 litres of jet
fuel and the 10,000,000 tons of building materials and contents burning at temperatures
above 1,000 degrees Celsius extended from lower Manhattan across the East River into
Brooklyn and beyond to the sea. So what exactly was in that smoke and dust? For starters,
burning plastic releases dioxins and the North Tower included hundreds of tons of
asbestos as a flame retardant. “It was such a horrific event,” says environmental scientist
Paul Lioy of the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute in New Jersey,
who was contacted by both the federal government and the Port Authority of New York
and New Jersey to collect samples of the pulverised remains of the Twin Towers in the
days following the attack. “What was the contribution of the gases [from combustion]?” The
real answer to that question will never be known as few direct measurements were taken
of the plume that followed the disintegration of the two towers into a blizzard of dust,
though air samples were collected in subsequent weeks and months. Regardless, the then
administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and former governor of New
Jersey Christie Whitman said on September 13, 2001, “EPA is greatly relieved to have
learned that there appears to be no significant levels of asbestos dust in the air in New
York City.” She added: “We will continue to monitor closely.” And five days later, she
announced: “I am glad to reassure the people of New York and Washington, D.C., that
their air is safe to breath [sic].” Asbestos may have been the least of health concerns from
the grey smoke and fluffy, pinkish-grey dust created as the two towers collapsed,
pulverising cement, glass and everything else in the buildings. As a result, the EPA’s
Inspector General concluded in 2003 that the agency “did not have sufficient data and
analyses to make such a blanket statement” about air safety and chided the White House
Council on Environmental Quality and National Security Council for interfering with the
process. And in those dust samples the EPA did collect and analyse in the first week after
the attacks, 25 percent showed asbestos levels above the 1 percent threshold that
indicates “significant risk,” according to the EPA. “Competing considerations, such as
national security concerns and the desire to reopen Wall Street, also played a role in
EPA’s air quality statements,” the Inspector General concluded in a 2003 report. Plus,
inside the two towers were heavy metals, such as lead that helps make electric cables
flexible and poisons the human brain, as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used in
electrical transformers that are toxic on their own and become even more toxic when
burned at high heat, and glass fibres that lodge in the lungs. The levels of dioxin measured
in the air near the smouldering pile “were the highest ambient measurements of dioxin
ever recorded anywhere in the world,” levels at least 100 times higher than those found
downwind of a garbage incinerator, according to an analysis published by EPA scientists
in 2007.
Ten years later, no one knows what was in the cloud of gases released by the combustion
of all that jet fuel and building material but science has revealed what was in the
dust—cement, steel, gypsum from drywall, building materials, cellulose from paper,
synthetic molecules from rugs, glass fibre and human hair from the long decades of the
two towers’ use, among other items. “The [World Trade Centre] dust held everything we
consider near and dear to us,” wrote Lioy, who carried out the first such analysis, in his
book Dust: The Inside Story of Its Role in the September 11th Aftermath (Rowman &
Littlefield Publishers, 2010). And knowing what was in the dust suggests what may have
caused the ailment dubbed “World Trade Centre cough” by the New England Journal of
Medicine, which doctors at Mount Sinai Medical Centre in New York estimate afflicted
nearly half of those who worked at the site. The primary cause of that ubiquitous cough
was the simple fact that the dust was highly basic, an enormous blast of alkalinity from the
drywall and cement that fell onto Lower Manhattan. Rescue workers and those who
survived the Twin Towers’ collapse were bathed in the dust, which contained particles of
sizes ranging from the millimetre scale down to nanometres in width, the right size to
embed deep in the lungs if inhaled. Both gypsum and calcite, found in drywall and cement,
irritate mucus membranes, like those in the eyes, nose and throat. A cleansing rain on
September 14 did reduce the basic nature of the dust from a pH of roughly 11 to 9 but did
nothing to transform the materials in the cloud of dust. “Residual effects would be due to
long glass fibres and cement particles,” notes Lioy, who still uses 10-year-old dust
samples to teach students how to measure toxicants. “There were a lot of irritating
materials in there; everything else will be piling on top of the basic pH.” Equally important,
adequate protection—specifically respirators—were often not used or used incorrectly by
first responders and others at the scene, according to the National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences, even though by September 22, the EPA had supplied
more than 22,000 air purifying respirators to workers at the site. “People weren’t using
them, probably for a variety of reasons,” Lioy recalls, including an inability to communicate
with the bulky face mask in place. Plus, workers at the site received conflicting
messages—on the one hand, air pollution levels were announced to be safe while, on the
other, the EPA urged workers to wear respirators. Ultimately, the EPA determined that the
air around Ground Zero was harmless, despite the agency’s findings concerning levels of
asbestos and dioxin, at least to civilians living and working in the vicinity, if not the rescue
workers. “Except for inhalation exposures that may have occurred on 9/11 and a few days
afterwards, the ambient air concentration data suggest that persons in the general
population were unlikely to suffer short-term or long-term adverse health effects caused by
inhalation exposures,” EPA scientists wrote in their analysis published in 2007. The
reasons for that conclusion are unclear and the EPA declined multiple requests to
comment on its actions in the aftermath of 9/11 or the results of its scientific investigations
into air quality and the constituents of the dust. Ground Zero smouldered until December
19, releasing fumes that researchers collected in air samples. “The debris pile acted like a
chemical factory,” atmospheric scientist Thomas Cahill of the University of California-Davis
explained to the American Chemical Society in 2003, after analysing many of those air
samples. “It cooked together the components of the buildings and their contents, including
enormous numbers of computers, and gave off gases of toxic metals, acids and organics.”
The question is: did all those toxicants—whether dust particles or air pollution—harm
human health? Of course, attributing anything like cancer to being near the World Trade
Centre on that day or working on the pile in the months thereafter is made extremely
difficult by the simple fact that roughly one in four Americans (and New Yorkers) will
develop cancer in some form over the course of their lives. Teasing any extra cancers out
of that number will be scientifically difficult, if not impossible.

In fact, the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) has decided that
“insufficient evidence exists at this time to propose a rule to add cancer” to the list of
diseases that qualify for health care under the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and
Compensation Act passed in 2010, though the NIOSH also adds that such an absence of
evidence “does not indicate evidence of the absence of a causal association.” The EPA,
for its part, deemed the increased risk of cancer from PCBs in the air during the immediate
aftermath of 9/11, for example, “insignificant.” Furthermore, the agency concluded that
exposure levels and thus cancer risk from the 29 “dioxin-like” compounds in the plume
were 50 times lower than levels to which ordinary Americans are exposed to over a
lifetime via their food, according to the 2007 analysis. Other studies found that firefighters
and other rescue workers had elevated levels of chemical toxicants in their blood and urine;
for example, 321 firefighters tested at the end of September 2001 had elevated levels of
the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that result from jet fuel burning and are human
carcinogens. Plus, medical monitoring over the course of the year following the disaster
showed long-term loss of lung capacity in such firefighters, along with increased rates of
asthma and other respiratory ailments. And a study published September 1 in British
medical journal The Lancet found that the nearly 9,000 firefighters surveyed had a cancer
rate 10 percent higher than that of typical American men. While the number of exposed
firefighters is known, the total number of individuals exposed to the toxic aftermath of 9/11
remains unknown, though more than 70,000 people have signed up for the World Trade
Centre Health Registry, which aims to track health outcomes of the exposed population.
“The key is when you arrived, whether you were wearing a respirator or not, how long you
were there and how high the concentrations were there that could lead to effects,” Lioy
says of the rescue personnel. “I think people who wore respirators have a lower probability
of health effects…. People who came early to the site and were not wearing respirators
have a greater probability of having more severe effects.” In future such disasters,
strapping on a respirator may be among the most important safety precautions people can
take. “For the future, we need to make sure people going into harm’s way have respiratory
protection of some degree that also allows them to move freely enough to rescue people,”
Lioy says. Today, more than 12,000 of the 9/11 rescue workers continue to have trouble
breathing, according to a study conducted by the World Trade Centre Medical Monitoring
Program and published April 8, 2010, in the New England Journal of Medicine. But it’s not
just the rescue workers. New York State accountant Jerry Borg, who worked in a building
a few blocks from the World Trade Centre on September 11, 2001, died of an
inflammatory disease of the lungs in December 2010. After an autopsy, he was ruled the
2,753rd official victim of the 9/11 attacks this past June—and the third linked specifically to
exposure to the toxic dust cloud. There may be more to come.
Scientific American, 7 September 2011

Scientists find gene that controls chronic pain
In a new study, British scientists have identified a gene responsible for regulating chronic
pain, called HCN2. The researchers say their discovery should help drug researchers in
their search for more effective, targeted pain-killing medicines. Scientists from Cambridge
University said that if drugs could be designed to block the protein produced by the gene,
they could treat a type of pain known as neuropathic pain, which is linked to nerve damage
and often very difficult to control with currently available drugs. “Individuals suffering from
neuropathic pain often have little or no respite because of the lack of effective
medications,” said Peter McNaughton of Cambridge’s pharmacology department, who led
the study. “Our research lays the groundwork for the development of new drugs to treat
chronic pain by blocking HCN2.” Pain is an enormous health burden worldwide, estimated
to cost more than 200 billion euros ($281 billion) a year in Europe and around $150 billion
a year in the United States. Studies show that around 22 percent of people with chronic
pain become depressed and 25 percent go on to lose their jobs. A 2002/03 survey by a
group called Pain in Europe estimated that as many as one in five Europeans suffers’
chronic pain. Scientists have known about the HCN2 gene, which is found in pain-sensitive
nerve endings, for several years, but had not yet fully understood its role in regulating pain.
Because a related gene called HCN4 plays a critical role in controlling electrical activity in
the heart, McNaughton’s team suspected that HCN2 might have a similar function and
regulate electrical activity in pain-sensitive nerves. During the study, published in the
journal Science, the researchers engineered the removal of the HCN2 gene from
pain-sensitive nerves and then used electrical stimuli on these nerves in lab dishes to find
out how the nerves had been changed by the removal of HCN2. The scientists then
studied genetically modified mice in which the HCN2 gene had been deleted. By
measuring the speed the mice withdrew from different types of painful stimuli, the
scientists were able to show that deleting the HCN2 gene took away neuropathic pain. In
addition, they found that deleting HCN2 appeared to have no effect on normal acute pain
-- such as the type of pain caused by accidentally cutting yourself or biting your own
tongue -- a factor they said was important since this type of pain acts as a useful warning
signal to the body. “What is exciting about the work on the HCN2 gene is that removing it
-- or blocking it pharmacologically -- eliminates neuropathic pain without affecting normal
acute pain,” McNaughton said in a statement about this work. “This finding could be very
valuable clinically because normal pain sensation is essential for avoiding accidental
damage.” Neuropathic pain, which is distinguished from inflammatory pain, is seen in
patients with diabetes -- a condition which affects an estimated 280 million people around
the world -- and as a painful after-effect of shingles and of chemotherapy in cancer
patients. It is also common factor in lower back pain and other chronic painful conditions.
Reuters Health, 8 September 2011

Potatoes Reduce Blood Pressure in People With Obesity and High Blood Pressure
A new study has found that just a couple servings of potato a day reduces blood pressure
almost as much as oatmeal without causing weight gain. Scientists reported on the
research, done on a group of overweight people with high blood pressure, at the 242nd
National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), being held in
Denver the week of 29 August. The research was done with potatoes cooked without oil in
a microwave oven. Although researchers used purple potatoes, they believe that red-skin
potatoes and white potatoes may have similar effects. “The potato, more than perhaps any
other vegetable, has an undeserved bad reputation that has led many health-conscious
people to ban them from their diet,” said Joe Vinson, Ph.D., who headed the research.
“Mention ‘potato’ and people think ‘fattening, high-carbs, empty calories’. In reality, when
prepared without frying and served without butter, margarine or sour cream, one potato
has only 110 calories and dozens of healthful phytochemicals and vitamins. We hope our
research helps to remake the potato’s popular nutritional image.” During the new study, 18
patients who were primarily overweight/obese with high blood pressure ate 6-8 purple
potatoes (each about the size of a golf ball) with skins twice daily for a month. They used
purple potatoes because the pigment, or colouring material, in fruits and vegetables is
especially rich in beneficial phytochemicals. Scientists monitored the patients’ blood
pressure, both systolic and diastolic. The average diastolic blood pressure dropped by 4.3
percent and the systolic pressure decreased by 3.5 percent, said Vinson, who is with the
University of Scranton in Pennsylvania and has done extensive research on healthful
components in foods. The majority of subjects took anti-hypertensive drugs and still had a
reduction in blood pressure. None of the study participants gained weight. Vinson said that
other studies have identified substances in potatoes with effects in the body similar to
those of the well-known ACE-inhibitor medications, a mainstay for treating high blood
pressure. Other phytochemicals in potatoes occur in amounts that rival broccoli, spinach
and Brussels sprouts, and also may be involved, Vinson added. Unfortunately for French
fry and potato chip fans, those high cooking temperatures seem to destroy most of the
healthy substances in a potato, leaving mainly starch, fat and minerals. Potatoes in the
study were simply microwaved, which Vinson said seems to be the best way to preserve
nutrients. The purple potatoes used in the study are becoming more widely available in
supermarkets and especially in specialty food stores and farmers’ markets. Vinson said
that he strongly suspects a future study using white potatoes, now in the planning stages,
will produce similar results.
Science Daily, 8 September 2011

Device Tests Toxic Waters
Detecting toxic water contaminants could become easier thanks to a bioluminescent
sensor being developed by scientists in Israel. The researchers have built a device that
spots and quantifies different types of contaminants--heavy metals, oxidants, or
mutagens--in flowing water. Picking out pollutants from water samples--either routinely in
effluent from an industrial plant or after an industrial accident--usually takes weeks and
requires toting samples to an analytical chemistry laboratory. Researchers hope to use
bioassays based on bacteria to monitor water in situ and quickly. But so far it has proved
difficult to design a device that can distinguish between different pollutants and can be left
in the field to work for long periods. Now, a new study published in the journal
Environmental Science & Technology, has described the development of a disposable
biochip that can last for a couple of weeks or more, and coupled it with a clever detection
system. Building on previous work, Shimshon Belkin of the Hebrew University of
Jerusalem and his team developed a disposable plastic biochip with 48 wells. Each well
holds a strain of genetically altered bacteria immobilised in an agar gel. The bacteria
contain one of three DNA fragments that sense each contaminant. Fused to these DNA
fragments is another containing lux genes, which generate a bioluminescent signal only
when the sensing genes note the presence of a contaminant. In the device, water flows
across the wells while a detector watches for light signals. The detector is a so-called
single photon avalanche detector, in which a single photon triggers an amplification of the
signal, which makes it easier to detect and quantify. Because the wells hold three different
bacterial strains, the researchers can tell what family of contaminant, and how much, is in
the water sample. Using the device, the researchers detected contaminants at levels that
meet the World Health Organisation’s recommendations for maximum safe doses in
drinking water. The device could detect arsenic at 0.01 mg per litre of water, and antimony
at 0.005 mg/L. It also could detect the herbicide paraquat and mutagens including
mitomycin C. Detection took between 30 minutes and 2 ½ hours. Belkin emphasises that
the device is a proof of concept: “It is not the magic solution,” he says. But he adds that the
technical hurdles to making a cheap device that can pick out specific pollutants, rather
than simply identifying types of pollutant, would be easy to overcome given the right
funding and industrial partner. Gerald Thouand, from the University of Nantes, in France,
who works on similar systems, says that this work is important because the device can
pick out contaminants from a mixture in real time and can last for over a week. Thouand
says that one major hurdle is that the bacteria inevitably form a biofilm after a few weeks,
which renders the device useless. But he anticipates that Belkin and others will iron out
these problems. Then, he says, a network of devices like these could act as an early
warning system for industrial areas such as chemical plants or sewage works where water
pollutants could cause widespread damage.
Chemical & Engineering News, 8 September 2011
Scientists Identify Key Protein Linked to Acute Liver Failure: Inhibition of Protein
Protects Liver from Acetaminophen Toxicity in Mice
New research from the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California
(USC) may help prevent damage to the liver caused by drugs like acetaminophen and
other stressors. Acetaminophen, more commonly known as Tylenol, helps relieve pain and
reduce fever. The over-the-counter drug is a major ingredient in many cold and flu
remedies as well as prescription painkillers like Percocet and Vicodin. However,
metabolised by the liver, acetaminophen is the most common cause of drug-induced liver
disease and acute liver failure in the United States and United Kingdom. Tylenol’s maker
announced in July that it was lowering the maximum recommended daily dosage to 3,000
milligrams to help prevent accidental overdoses. Doctors at the Keck School of Medicine
of USC have identified a protein on the mitochondria of liver cells in mice that, when
silenced, protects against liver toxicity usually associated with excess doses of
acetaminophen. They found that the protein Sab, or SH3-domain binding protein 5, binds
with the enzyme JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). JNK regulates cellular metabolism and
survival in response to stress, protecting cells when activated for brief intervals. However,
JNK also kills cells when activated for prolonged periods of time. “Because the short-term
activation of JNK is associated with cell survival, Sab is potentially a better target than
inhibiting JNK, which could have adverse effects,” said Neil Kaplowitz, M.D., the study’s
lead investigator and professor of medicine at the Keck School. Researchers have long
believed that acetaminophen was converted into toxic metabolites that, in excess,
overwhelm liver cells, causing them to die. In a 2008 study, Kaplowitz, who holds the Keck
School’s Thomas H. Brem Chair in Medicine and Veronica P. Budnick Chair in Liver
Disease, and other USC colleagues turned that theory around -- they found that it was not
the metabolite, but rather the sustained activation of JNK that harmed the organ. By
inhibiting JNK activation in mice, injury to the liver caused by large doses of
acetaminophen was avoided. In the current study, published online by the Journal of
Biological Chemistry, the scientists silenced Sab in mice, which did not affect the
metabolism of acetaminophen but successfully prevented liver injury. In addition, they
tested the effect on liver injury caused by apoptosis, or programmed cell death in response
to inflammatory proteins that are implicated in many diseases and tissues -- silencing Sab
protected the liver in that case, too. “We proved that the sustained activation of JNK
targets Sab and is a requirement for the subsequent death of liver cells,” Kaplowitz said.
“We then showed that it is a universal effect. Developing a drug to protect against cell
death, one could argue to target JNK -- but that’s a double-edged sword. This provides a
whole new target: Create a drug that inhibits the interaction between JNK and Sab.”
Science Daily, 7 September 2011

Consumer Electronics Outrank Refrigerators As Contributors To Climate Change
Consumers are hungry for clearer television screens, more powerful laptops, and smarter
phones. However, according to the findings of a new study, because those electronics
require a significant amount of energy to manufacture, and because consumers replace
them frequently, they are greater contributors to climate change than previously
recognised. Since the 1980s, conventional wisdom has held that large appliances, such as
clothes dryers and refrigerators, are the home’s biggest source of greenhouse gases,
aside from heating and lighting. But the proliferation of consumer electronics may have
changed the scenario, guessed Edgar Hertwich, a professor of energy and process
engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. To test the idea,
Hertwich and his colleague Charlotte Roux modelled the greenhouse gases that come
from household electronics and appliances in Norwegian homes in 2008. Using data from
life-cycle assessments, sales reports, and other studies, they calculated the greenhouse
emissions of the devices, considering manufacture, use, and disposal. They found that
freezers and refrigerators accounted for the most emissions: the equivalent of about 1,500
pounds of carbon dioxide per household in 2008. Televisions and computers ranked
second and third, contributing about 1,300 and 1,100 pounds of greenhouse emissions,
respectively. Taken together, entertainment devices–including televisions, computers,
DVD players, audio equipment, phones, and game consoles–produced more greenhouse
gases than the traditional household appliances did combined. For many of the devices,
most of the emissions came during manufacturing. For example, the researchers found
that manufacturing a laptop created about 700 pounds of greenhouse gases. But using
electricity to run a laptop generated only about 18 pounds of emissions in 2008. Hertwich
says that the rapid turnover of electronics increases the importance of manufacturing’s
emissions. Norwegian households purchase a washing machine only once every nine
years, on average, but buy a computer every two years and a television every 3.5 years.
He says that the study also underscores the need for cleaner energy sources in countries
where manufacturing occurs: “We’re importing dirty Chinese or Australian or South African
electricity with these products.” Anders Andrae, a Stockholm-based expert in life-cycle
assessments, says that to reduce emissions, consumers would have to stop buying
electronics so frequently or buy less carbon-intensive products. Maybe, he suggests,
phones and other devices could be upgraded instead of simply replaced.
Chemical & Engineering News, 8 September 2011

Asbestos-cancer hitting home renovators
According to latest research at The University of Western Australia’s School of Population
Health, a ‘third wave’ of asbestos-related cancer has emerged among home renovators.
The study published in the September issue of the Medical Journal of Australia has found
a sharp increase in the number of malignant mesothelioma cases in Western Australia
over the past decade as a result of home renovation/do-it-yourself (DIY) activities involving
building products containing asbestos. The domestic exposures are being described as
part of the ‘third wave’ of asbestos-related diseases, the first being in miners, millers and
transport workers, and the second in workers who used asbestos products. Although
occupational exposures remain the main cause of mesothelioma, in the last five years
home renovation/DIY exposures accounted for about 13 per cent of all cases. Home
renovation activities that lead to asbestos exposure included construction using asbestos
cement sheets, particularly if sawing or drilling the sheets, and the removal or demolition of
these sheets. In some cases, bystanders were also exposed. Lead author Nola Olsen said
while the exposures occurred before asbestos-containing products were banned there is
still a concern due to the large number of homes and buildings that still contain these
products. “Asbestos-containing products such as asbestos cement sheets are still found in
many homes, particularly older homes and fences. A recent survey by our colleagues at
Curtin University found that many people did not take adequate precaution when dealing
with these products. They also found that people, even tradespeople, do not think they can
easily identify asbestos-containing products. Our study shows that exposures in the home,
at a time when people were less aware of the health issues and these asbestos products
were still legally available, have unfortunately had dire consequences for some,” Ms Olsen
said. Due to the widespread distribution of asbestos-containing products in Australian
homes and the amount of home renovation/DIY work that has happened in the past, the
researchers believe it is likely that the number of mesothelioma cases attributed to these
exposures will increase. “We have very little understanding of the number of people who
have been ‘exposed’ during home renovation so it is very difficult to estimate how many
more cases we expect to see,” Ms Olsen said. “It is important to remember that this
disease is still very uncommon and if you have been exposed to asbestos in the home the
risk of mesothelioma remains very low. However, the study highlights the importance of
being extremely careful and following the relevant guidelines if you are renovating or doing
any work that involves asbestos-containing products.” The Occupational Respiratory
Epidemiology research group continues to monitor the incidence of mesothelioma in WA
via the WA Mesothelioma Registry. It will also continue to investigate and report on other
asbestos-related diseases that occur as a result of occupational and environmental
Science Alert, 6 September 2011

Nitric Oxide-Emitting Nanomaterials Kill Microbes
Nanomaterials modified to release nitric oxide, a compound produced by inflammatory
cells to kill invading microbes, might be future therapeutics for fighting antibiotic-resistant
pathogens, according to a research team led by Mark H. Schoenfisch of the University of
North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Building on previous work showing that NO-releasing
nanoparticles kill bacteria more efficiently than small-molecule NO donors, grad student
Yuan Lu and postdoc Bin Sun reported that NO-releasing silica nanorods and
polystyrene-capped dendrimers have even better biocidal activity. The researchers
modified these materials with N-diazeniumdiolate moieties that break down to form NO
when exposed to water. They found that long, thin silica rods (1,100 nm by 100 nm) kill
bacteria at a lower dosage and with less NO than do spherical nanoparticles. “We don’t yet
know whether the rods pierce the bacteria,” Schoenfisch said. But he thinks a greater
contact area between the nanorods and bacteria surfaces leads to better NO delivery. The
researchers also found that hydrophobic, polystyrene-capped dendrimers are more
effective bacteria killers than are hydrophilic dendrimers, likely because the hydrophobic
compounds interact with the bacteria better to locally transfer cargo, he added.
Chemical & Engineering News, 5 September 2011

Arsenic, Uranium and Other Trace Elements a Potential Concern in Private Drinking
Approximately 20 percent of untreated water samples from public, private, and monitoring
wells across the nation contain concentrations of at least one trace element, such as
arsenic, manganese and uranium, at levels of potential health concern, according to a new
study by the U.S. Geological Survey. “In public wells these contaminants are regulated by
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and contaminants are removed from the water
before people drink it,” said Joe Ayotte, USGS hydrologist and lead author on the study.
“However, trace elements could be present in water from private wells at levels that are
considered to pose a risk to human health, because they aren’t subject to regulations. In
many cases people might not even know that they have an issue.” Trace elements in
groundwater exceed human health benchmarks at a rate that far outpaces most other
groundwater contaminants, such as nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds
(VOCs). Most trace elements, including manganese and arsenic, get into the water
through the natural process of rock weathering. Radon, derived from naturally occurring
uranium in aquifers, also occurs frequently at high levels in groundwater. Human activities
like mining, waste disposal, and construction also can contribute to trace elements in
groundwater. Arsenic, uranium, and manganese, were the trace elements in groundwater
that most frequently exceeded USEPA human-health benchmarks. Arsenic was found
above the USEPA human health benchmark in 7 percent of wells. Uranium was found in 4
percent above the human health benchmark, and manganese was found in 12 percent.
Long-term exposure to arsenic can lead to several types of cancer, and high levels of
uranium can cause kidney disease. In doses similar to some of those found in this study,
manganese can adversely affect child intellectual function and, in large doses, acts as a
neurotoxin, causing symptoms similar to those experienced by sufferers of Parkinson’s
disease. Radon, a product of the decay of natural uranium, also exceeded its proposed
EPA maximum contaminant level in 65 percent of wells tested (300 Picocuries per liter).
Climate and land use are important factors in trace element distribution. Differences in the
concentration of trace elements are related to the climatic conditions and land use of the
area. Drier areas of the United States saw higher concentrations of trace elements in
groundwater than humid regions.

Meanwhile, wells in agricultural areas more often contained trace elements than those in
urban areas. However, wells in urban areas contained concentrations of trace elements
that more often exceeded human health benchmarks. Basic geology and geochemistry of
water samples helps to predict occurrence of trace elements in groundwater. Redox
conditions (related to dissolved oxygen) and pH seem to affect which trace elements
persist in groundwater. For example, aluminum and manganese occurred more often in
samples that were characterised as anoxic and had slightly acidic pH. Anoxic and slightly
alkaline samples commonly contained arsenic and molybdenum. Uranium in groundwater
occurred over a wide range of pH and redox conditions because of its association with
other compounds. Additionally, samples from glacial and non-glacial sand and gravel
aquifers consistently had more occurrences of trace elements in groundwater than
samples from other aquifers. The effects of mixtures of trace elements are poorly
understood and could cause further health concerns. Further analysis of the data showed
that about one-fifth of wells had exceedances of human health benchmarks and that, of
those, about 10 percent actually contained two or more trace elements exceeding human
health benchmarks. This raises additional concerns because contaminants can act
together to be more toxic than each individual contaminant. These findings are based on
more than 5,000 samples collected primarily from public and private wells nationwide. This
study is part of efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment
Program to monitor the quality of the nation’s groundwater and surface water. Details can
be found online. Human health benchmarks used in this study include U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for regulated contaminants and Health
Based Screening Levels (HBSLs) for unregulated contaminants. HBSLs are unenforceable
contaminant threshold guidelines developed by the USGS in collaboration with EPA, and
the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. and Oregon Health Sciences
University. Treated drinking water from public wells is regulated under the Safe Drinking
Water Act. Water utilities, however, are not required to treat water for unregulated
contaminants. The EPA uses USGS information on the occurrence of unregulated
contaminants to identify contaminants that may require drinking-water regulation in the
Environmental Protection News, 6 September 2011

Radiolytic decomposition of pesticide carbendazim in waters and wastes for
environmental protection
The radiolytic degradation of widely used fungicide, carbendazim, in synthetic aqueous
solutions and industrial waste water was investigated employing γ-irradiation. This study
investigated the effect of the absorbed dose, initial concentration and pH of irradiated
solution on the effectiveness of carbendazim decomposition. Decomposition of
carbendazim in 100 µM concentration in synthetic aqueous solutions required irradiation
with 600 Gy dose. The aqueous solutions of carbendazim have been irradiated in different
conditions, where particular active radical species from water radiolysis predominate. Data
have been compared with the kinetic modelling. The reversed phase high-performance
liquid chromatography was used for the detection of carbendazim and its radiolytic
decomposition products in irradiated solutions. The changes of toxicity of irradiated
solutions were examined with different test organisms and human leukaemia cells.
Authors: Bojanowska-Czajka, A.; Nichipor, H.; Drzewicz, P.; Szostek, B.; Galezowska, A.;
Meczynska, S.; Kruszewski, M.; Zimek, Z.; Nalecz-Jawecki, G.; Trojanowicz, M.
Full Source: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 2011, 289(2), 303-314

Anthropogenic Chemical Carbon Cycle for a Sustainable Future
Nature’s photosynthesis uses the sun’s energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to
recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time,
millions of years, can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. The burning of our diminishing
fossil fuel reserves is accompanied by large anthropogenic CO2 release, which is
outpacing nature’s CO2 recycling capability, causing significant environmental harm. To
supplement the natural carbon cycle, this study has proposed and developed a feasible
anthropogenic chemical recycling of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is captured by
absorption technologies from any natural or industrial source, from human activities, or
even from the air itself and then be converted by feasible chemical transformations into
fuels such as methanol, di-Methyl ether, and varied products including synthetic
hydrocarbons and even proteins for animal feed, thus supplementing our food chain. This
concept of broad scope and framework is the basis of the Methanol Economy. The needed
renewable starting materials, water and CO2, are available anywhere on Earth. The
required energy for the synthetic carbon cycle can come from any alternative energy
source such as solar, wind, geothermal, and even safe nuclear energy. The anthropogenic
carbon dioxide cycle offers a way of assuring a sustainable future for human kind when
fossil fuels become scarce. While bio-sources can play a limited role in supplementing
future energy needs, they increasingly interfere with the essentials of the food chain. In the
present study authors extended the discussion of the innovative and feasible
anthropogenic carbon cycle, which can be the basis of progressively liberating human kind
from its dependence on diminishing fossil fuel reserves while also controlling harmful CO2
emissions to the atmosphere. The authors also discussed more details of the essential
stages and the significant aspects of carbon capture and subsequent recycling. Their
ability to develop a feasible anthropogenic chemical carbon cycle supplementing nature’s
photosynthesis also offers a new solution to one of the major challenges facing human
Authors: Olah, George A.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Goeppert, Alain
Full Source: Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011

Development of sensor cells using NF-κB pathway activation for detection of
nanoparticle-induced inflammation
The increasing use of nano-materials in consumer and industrial products has aroused
concerns regarding their fate in biological systems. An effective detection method to
evaluate the safety of bio-nanomaterials is therefore very important. Titanium dioxide
(TiO2), which is manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of
applications, including pigment and cosmetic manufacturing, was once thought to be an
inert material, but recently, more and more studies have indicated that TiO2 nano-particles
(TiO2 NPs) can cause inflammation and be harmful to humans by causing lung and brain
problems. In order to evaluate the safety of TiO2 NPs for the environment and for humans,
sensor cells for inflammation detection were developed, and these were transfected with
the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene and Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-kB) reporter gene.
NF-kB as a primary cause of inflammation has received a lot of attention, and it can be
activated by a wide variety of external stimuli. In this study, authors have shown that TiO2
NPs-induced inflammation can be detected by their sensor cells through NF-kB pathway
activation. This may lead to their sensor cells being used for bio-nanomaterial safety
Authors: Chen, Peng; Migita, Satoshi; Kanehira, Koki; Sonezaki, Shuji; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi
Full Source: Sensors 2011, 11, 7219-7230 (English)

Serum Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) Genotype and Exposure to Organophosphorous
Insectides -Is There a High-Risk Population?
The Health Studies Branch (HSB) is responsible for responding to domestic and
international requests for assistance with suspected and known environmental-associated
public health threats as well as pursuing original environmental research. The HSB
employs personnel with a wide variety of educational backgrounds and professional
training including epidemiological, medicine, toxicological, statistics, and other
environmental public health-related disciplines. This wide range of expertise is necessary
to address the broad scope of potential environmental health threats. HSB scientists
conduct studies on environmental exposures. Recent examples included the following:
mercury exposure in children living in large urban areas, exposure to brevetoxins and
microcystins arising from harmful algal blooms, and occupational exposures to pesticides.
This study has presented a brief description of an ongoing study of insecticide exposure
and paraoxonase- 1 (PON-1) genotype in banana plantation workers in Chinandega,
Nicaragua. The authors then discussed the enzyme PON-1 and its potential role in
organophosphate insecticide metabolism and toxicity.
Authors: Matthews, Andre R.; Sutter, Mark E.; Rentz, Danielle E.
Full Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology 2011, 7(3), 243-247 (English)

Gestational Cadmium Exposure-Induced Ovotoxicity Delays Puberty through
Oxidative Stress and Impaired Steroid Hormone Levels
Cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant, has been shown to be highly toxic to both
humans and animals. Its widespread industrial use has led to its accumulation in the
environment. Cadmium has been shown to target multiple organs following acute
intoxication, causing nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity.
Cd can cross the placental barrier and cause a wide range of defects during foetal
development. This study aimed to assess the effect of Cd on the female reproductive
system. Female rats were exposed to Cd [50/200 ppm] from embryonic day 9 to 21
through drinking water. Serum steroid hormone concentrations, haematological
parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels, and ovarian histopathology were described. Water
consumption, gravid uterine/body weight decreased in both the doses of Cd-treated dams.
Analysed haematological parameters in rat pups showed a significant reduction in both
doses of Cd studied, while haemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant reduction in 200 ppm
Cd treatment alone. MCHC levels did not show any variation in 50 ppm Cd treatment,
whereas 200 ppm Cd treatment significantly increased. Specific activities of superoxide
dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase,
glutathione-S-transferase, and serum testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were
significantly decreased. Also levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were
increased in 50 and 200 ppm Cd-treated rats. These changes were accompanied with
disrupted ovarian histoarchitecture, an extended oestrous cycle, and delayed pubertal
onset in Cd-treated rats. The authors described the data generated from the present study
as that gestational Cd treatment induces ovarian toxicity and reproductive dysfunction
through increased oxidative stress.
Authors: Samuel, Jawahar B.; Stanley, Jone A.; Princess, Rajendran A.; Shanthi, Paulraj;
Sebastian, Maria S.
Full Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology 2011, 7(3), 195-204 (English)

In-vitro cell exposure studies for the assessment of nano-particle toxicity in the
lung-A dialog between aerosol science and biology
The introduction of engineered nano-structured materials into a rapidly increasing number
of industrial and consumer products will result in enhanced exposure to engineered
nano-particles. Workplace exposure has been identified as the most likely source of
uncontrolled inhalation of engineered aerosolised nano-particles, but release of
engineered nano-particles may occur at any stage of the life cycle of (consumer) products.
The dynamic development of nano-materials with possibly unknown toxicological effects
poses a challenge for the assessment of nano-particle induced toxicity and safety. This
consensus document from a workshop on in-vitro cell systems for nano-particle toxicity
testing investigated the main issues concerning exposure to airborne nano-particles, lung
physiology, biological mechanisms of (adverse) action, in-vitro cell exposure systems,
realistic tissue doses, risk assessment and social aspects of nano-technology. The
workshop participants recognised the large potential of in-vitro cell exposure systems for
reliable, high-throughput screening of nano-particle toxicity. To investigate lung toxicity, a
strong preference was expressed for air-liquid interface (ALI) cell exposure systems
(rather than submerged cell exposure systems) as they more closely resemble in-vivo
conditions in the lungs and allowed for unaltered and dosimetrically accurate delivery of
aerosolised nano-particles to the cells. An important aspect, which is frequently overlooked,
was the comparison of typically used in-vitro dose levels with realistic in-vivo nano-particle
doses in the lung. Considering average ambient urban exposure and occupational
exposure at 5 mg/m3 (maximum level allowed by Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA)) as the boundaries of human exposure, the corresponding
upper-limit range of nano-particle flux delivered to the lung tissue is 3 x 10-5-5 x 10-3
µg/h/cm2 of lung tissue and 2-300 particles/h/(epithelial) cell. The range can be easily
matched and even exceeded by almost all currently available cell exposure systems. The
consensus statement included a set of recommendations for conducting in-vitro cell
exposure studies with pulmonary cell systems and identifies urgent needs for future
development. Because these issues are crucial for the introduction of safe nano-materials
into the marketplace and the living environment, they deserve more attention and more
interaction between biologists and aerosol scientists. The members of the workshop
believed that further advances in in-vitro cell exposure studies would be greatly facilitated
by a more active role of the aerosol scientists. The technical know-how for developing and
running ALI in-vitro exposure systems is available in the aerosol community and at the
same time biologists/toxicologists are required for proper assessment of the biological
impact of nano-particles.
Authors: Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Cassee, Flemming R.; Teeguarden, Justin; Fissan, Heinz;
Diabate, Silvia; Aufderheide, Michaela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Haenninen, Otto; Kasper,
Gerhard; Riediker, Michael; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Schmid, Otmar
Full Source: Journal of Aerosol Science 2011, 42(10), 668-692 (English)

Testosterone therapy: treatment of metabolic disturbances in heart failure
Heart failure (HF) is a complex progressive multi system disease state with significant
morbidity and mortality, which is not solely defined by pathology of the cardiovascular
system but also is influenced by neurohormonal regulatory adjustments, peripheral
cytokines, as well as hormonal and musculo skeletal dysfunction. Recent attention to the
catabolic state found in patients with chronic heart failure has sparked interest in new
potential targets for medical therapy. In particular, as many as 26% to 37% of men
affected with HF have been found to be testosterone deficient. The severity of androgen
deficiency has been shown to correlate with symptoms, functional class, and prognosis in
patients with heart failure. Testosterone supplementation has been an accepted therapy in
hypogonadal men with fatigue, muscle wasting, and sexual dysfunction for some time.
Patients with severe HF showed a similar constellation of symptoms and hypothetically
would benefit from androgen replacement. Recent clinical studies have confirmed that
functional, biochemical, and cardiopulmonary status in patients with HF have significant
improvements when treated with testosterone supplementation. Symptomatic
improvements may be obtainable in hypogonadal patients with HF who received
supplemental testosterone. In this review authors were seek to outline the cardiovascular
and peripheral effects of testosterone supplementation in patients with chronic HF.
Authors: Naghi, Jesse J.; Philip, Kiran J.; Di Libero, Deanna; Willix, Robert; Schwarz, Ernst
Full Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2011, 16(1), 14-23

Occupational exposures and risk of acoustic neuroma
Acoustic neuroma is a benign tumour accounting for approximately 6-10% of all
intracranial tumours and occurs mainly in patients aged g50 years. In this study, the
authors investigated a wide range of occupational exposures, individual occupational titles
and socioeconomic status (SES) as potential risk factors for acoustic neuroma. A
population-based case-control study was undertaken. Seven hundred and ninety-three
acoustic neuroma cases identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry and 101 762
randomly selected controls. Information on SES and occupation was obtained from
censuses and linked to job-exposure matrixes. Logistic regression was used to estimate
ORs and calculate 95% Cls. The results showed an increased OR for mercury exposure
<10 years before the reference year (OR 2.9; 95% Cl 1.2 to 6.8), and a more modest
association for benzene exposure (OR 1.8; 95% Cl: 1.0 to 3.2) g10 years before the
reference year. A threefold increased risk for females working as tailors and dressmakers
g10 years before the reference year was observed, and a more than threefold significantly
elevated OR for those working as truck and conveyor operators <10 years before the
reference year. No evidence was found that SES is related to disease development. The
authors concluded that based on the findings from this study; there is an increased risk of
acoustic neuroma associated with occupational exposure to mercury, benzene and textile
dust. Men working as truck and conveyor operators <10 years before the reference year
had the highest increased risk of acoustic neuroma, but it is unclear what in those
occupations might contribute to disease development. In addition, the study suggested an
association between acoustic neuroma and being a class teacher or policeman. However,
these findings should be further investigated to exclude the possibility of detection bias.
Authors: Prochazka, Michaela; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Edwards, Colin G.; Nise,
Gun; Plato, Nils; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Forssen, Ulla M.
Full Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2010, 67(11), 766-771 (Eng)
Exposure to metal welding fume particles and risk for cardiovascular disease in
Denmark: a prospective cohort study
In this study, the authors examined welding fume particles in relation to cardiovascular
diseases. In 1986, 10 059 male metal workers in 75 welding companies were sent a
questionnaire about their welding experience and lifestyle (83.3% response rate). Of these,
5866 were available for analysis and had ever welded at baseline. Information on
exposure to welding fumes after 1986 was obtained by individual linkage to the National
Pension Fund. Lifelong exposure to welding fume particles was estimated from a
job-exposure matrix based on more than 1000 welding-specific measures of fume particles.
Hospital contacts for cardiovascular disease were obtained from the Danish National
Patient Registry by individual linkage. The nine disease outcomes considered were acute
myocardial infarct (AMI), angina pectoris, other acute ischemic heart diseases, chronic
ischemic heart disease (CHD), cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, heart failure, cerebral
infarct, arterial embolism and thrombosis. The cohort was followed up from baseline until
the end of 2006. The results showed that when the incidence of each of the nine
cardiovascular outcomes among welders was compared with 5-yr age- and calendar
year-specific male national rates, the number of observed cases significantly exceeded
that expected for AMI (standardised incidence ratio, 95% Cl) (1.12, 1.01 to 1.24), angina
pectoris (1.11, 1.01 to 1.22), CHD (1.17, 1.05 to 1.31) and cerebral infarct (1.24, 1.06 to
1.44). Internal comparisons of the cohort with adjustment for tobacco smoking, alcohol and
hypertension medicines showed a significantly increasing hazard rate ratio for CHD and
non-significant increases for AMI, angina pectoris and cerebral infarct with increasing
exposure to particles. The authors concluded that the findings from this study support the
hypothesis that exposure to welding processed particles increases the risk for
cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Ibfelt, Else; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni
Full Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2010, 67(11),
772-777 (Eng)

Symptoms of psychological distress and suicidal ideation among banana workers
with a history of poisoning by organophosphate or n-methyl carbamate pesticides
Neuropsychiatric disorders and increased suicide rates have been associated with
exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting organophosphates. This study examined symptoms
of psychological distress, including suicidal ideation, among banana workers in Costa Rica
previously exposed to a cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide. Seventy-eight workers who
had received medical attention 1-3 years previously for occupational pesticide poisoning
were recruited: 54 had been exposed to organophosphate, 24 to carbamate, and 43 and
35, respectively, had single and multiple poisoning episodes with a cholinesterase inhibitor.
Referents were 130 non-poisoned workers randomly selected from company payrolls.
Psychological distress symptoms during the month prior to interview were obtained using
the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), which has a general severity index and nine subscale
scores. Differences in abnormal BSI scores (T scoreg63) were assessed through
multivariate logistic regression for all poisoned and for subcategories of poisoned as
compared to non-poisoned workers. Organophosphate poisoned workers reported
significantly more symptoms than non-poisoned on all but one symptom dimension.
Significant trends of increasing symptoms with increasing number of previous poisonings
were seen for somatisation, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity,
depression and anxiety. Carbamate poisoned workers only had increased scores for
somatisation. The ORs for suicidal thoughts were: all poisoned 3.58 (95% Cl 1.45 to 8.84);
organophosphate poisoned 3.72 (1.41 to 9.81); carbamate poisoned 2.57 (0.73 to 9.81);
and 2.65 and 4.98, respectively for 1 and g2 poisonings (trend p)0.01). The authors
concluded that the results of this study showed a relationship between acute occupational
poisoning with organophosphates and psychological distress including suicidal ideation.
Stronger designs are needed to address causality.
Authors: Wesseling, Catharina; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Keifer, Matthew; London,
Leslie; Mergler, Donna; Stallones, Lorann
Full Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2010, 67(11), 778-784 (Eng)

Reduced lung cancer mortality and exposure to synthetic fluids and biocide in the
auto manufacturing industry
Water-based soluble and synthetic metalworking fluids (MWF) used in auto manufacturing
may be contaminated by endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, a possible
anticarcinogen via increased immuno-surveillance. The effectiveness of biocide, generally
added to limit bacterial growth is unknown. During the present study, the authors
examined whether an inverse relationship between lung cancer and synthetic MWF and
biocide - as surrogates of endotoxin exposure – persisted in an extended follow-up of
autoworkers. A nested case-control analysis was conducted within a retrospective cohort
study of 46 399 auto manufacturing workers. Follow-up began in 1941 and was extended
from 1985-1995. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated in Cox regression models for
lung cancer as discrete and smoothed functions of cumulative exposure to synthetic MWF
(mg/m3 per yr) and years exposed to biocide with both synthetic and soluble MWF. In
addition, the analysis was restricted to the subcohort hired on or after 1941 and stratified
by follow-up period. The splines suggested a nonlinear inverse exposure-response for lung
cancer mortality with increasing endotoxin exposure. Overall, the greatest reduction in
mortality was observed among those with the highest exposure [MRR 0.63, 95%
confidence interval (95% CI) 0.39-0.98] at the 99th percentile of exposure (15.8 mg/m3 per
yr). Evidence for an inverse effect was limited to the earlier follow-up period. Effect
modification by biocide was marginally significant (P)0.07); the protective effect of
synthetic MWF was observed only for those who were co-exposed. The authors concluded
that the protective effect of synthetic MWF against lung cancer mortality persisted through
the extended period of follow-up, although attenuated, and was observed only among
workers with co-exposure to biocide and synthetic MWF.
Authors: Mehta, Amar J.; Malloy, Elizabeth J.; Applebaum, Katie M.; Schwartz, Joel;
Christiani, David C.; Eisen, Ellen A.
Full Source: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 2010, 36(6), 499-508

Comparison of occupational exposure assessment methods in a case-control study
of lead, genetic susceptibility and risk of adult brain tumours
There is great interest in evaluating gene/environment interactions with chemical exposure,
but exposure assessment poses a unique challenge in case-control studies. Expert
assessment of detailed work history data is usually considered the best approach, but it is
a laborious, time-consuming process. In the current study, the authors detected a less
intensive method of exposure assessment (job exposure matrix [JEM]) would produce
similar results to a previous analysis, which found evidence of effect modification of the
association between expert-assessed Pb exposure and brain tumour risk by a single
nucleotide polymorphism in the ALAD gene (rs1800435). Data from a study of 355 patients
with glioma, 151 patients with meningioma, and 505 controls were used. Logistic
regression models examined associations between brain tumour risk and Pb exposure and
effect modification by genotype. Cohen κ, sensitivity, and specificity for the JEM were
evaluated versus expert-assessed exposure metrics. Although effect estimates were
imprecise and driven by a small number of cases, there was evidence of effect
modification between Pb exposure and ALAD genotype when using expert-, but not
JEM-derived, Pb exposure estimates; κ values indicated only modest agreement (<0.5) for
the exposure metrics and JEM indicated high specificity (~0.9) but poor sensitivity (~0.5).
Disagreement between the 2 methods was generally due to having additional information
in the detailed work history. The authors concluded that the findings provided preliminary
evidence suggesting high quality exposure data are likely to improve the ability to detect
genetic effect modification.
Authors: Bhatti, Parveen; Stewart, Patricia A.; Linet, Martha S.; Blair, Aaron; Inskip, Peter
D.; Rajaraman, Preetha
Full Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011 (Pub. 2010), 68(1), 4-9 (Eng)

Assessment of hair trace elements level in 34 deaf children at high altitude
In this study, the authors discussed the relationship between auditory function and hair
trace elements in deaf-mute children at high altitude. Thirty-four deaf-mute children from
Qinghai area (altitude of 2260 m- 3200 m) were recruited in this study, and 34 healthy
children from the same altitude served as the controls. Their hair samples were collected
and examined for level of 17 trace elements using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
The results showed that the level of selenium and tin elements were higher in deaf
children’s hair samples than those of healthy children (P < 0.05), and level of zinc, iron,
cobalt, manganese, strontium, vanadium, lead, nickel, chromium, titanium and barium was
lower than healthy children (P < 0.05). There was no a significant difference in level of
copper, silver, cadmium and bismuth between deaf and healthy children (P > 0.05). The
authors concluded that there is difference in level of trace elements of hair between deaf
children and healthy children at high altitude. This result suggests that trace elements
could associate with difference of auditory function in children. And the future study will be
Authors: Ma, Xinchun; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ying
Full Source: Gaoyuan Yixue Zazhi 2010, 20(3), 11-14 (Ch)

Variability over 1 week in the urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl
phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate among eight adults: an observational study
Phthalates are metabolised and eliminated in urine within hours after exposure. Several
reports suggest that concentrations of phthalate metabolites in a spot urine sample can
provide a reliable estimation of exposure to phthalates for up to several months. During
this study, the authors examined inter- and intraperson and inter- and intraday variability in
the concentrations of monoethyl phthalate (MEP), the major metabolite of di-Et phthalate,
commonly used in personal care products, and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate
(MEHHP), a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a polyvinyl chloride
plasticiser of which diet is the principal exposure source, among eight adults who collected
all urine voids (average, 7.6 samples/person/day) for 1 wk. The authors analysed the urine
samples using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high-performance
liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that regardless of
the type of void (spot, first morning, 24-h collection), for MEP, interperson variability in
concentrations accounted for > 75% of the total variance. By contrast, for MEHHP,
within-person variability was the main contributor (69-83%) of the total variance.
Furthermore, the authors observed considerable intraday variability in the concentrations
of spot samples for MEHHP (51%) and MEP (21%). The authors concluded that MEP and
MEHHP urinary concentrations varied considerably during 1 wk, but the main contributors
to the total variance differed (interday variability, MEHHP; interperson variability, MEP)
regardless of the sampling strategy (spot, first morning, 24-h collection). The nature of the
exposure (diet versus other lifestyle factors) and timing of urine sampling to evaluate
exposure to phthalates should be considered. For DEHP and phthalates to which people
are mostly exposed through diet, collecting 24-h voids for only 1 day may not be
advantageous compared with multiple spot collections. When collecting multiple spot urine
samples, changing the time of collection may provide the most complete approach to
assess exposure to diverse phthalates.
Authors: Preau, James L., Jr.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Silva, Manori J.; Needham, Larry L.;
Calafat, Antonia M.
Full Source: Environmental Health Perspectives 2010, 118(12), 1748-1754 (Eng)

Association between lead and cadmium and reproductive hormones in peripubertal
U.S. girls
Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are known reproductive toxicants thought to disrupt hormone
production throughout sensitive developmental windows, although this has not been
previously examined in nationally representative peripubertal children. In this study, the
authors examined the association between blood Pb and urinary Cd concentrations and
the reproductive hormones inhibin B and LH (LH) in girls 6-11 years of age who
participated in the cross-sectional Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES III) (1988-1994). Methods: Pb (micrograms per dL) was measured in whole
blood, and Cd was measured in urine (nanograms per mL). Inhibin B (picograms per mL)
and LH (milli-IU per mL) were measured in residual sera for 705 girls. Survey logistic
regression was used to estimate associations with pubertal onset based on inhibin B
concentration > 35 pg/mL or LH concentration > 0.4 mIU/mL, and multinomial logistic
regression was used to estimate the association between Pb and increasing categories of
hormone concentrations. The results indicated that high Pb (g 5 íg/dL) was inversely
associated with inhibin B > 35 pg/mL [odds ratio (OR) ) 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI),
0.11- 0.60; compared with Pb < 1 íg/dL]. At 10 and 11 years of age, girls with low Pb (< 1
íg/dL) had significantly higher inhibin B than did girls with moderate (1-4.99 íg/dL) or high
Pb (g 5 íg/dL). In the subsample of 260 girls with levels of inhibin B above the level of
detection and using survey regression modelling, inhibin B levels were lower among girls
with both high Pb and high Cd (â ) -0.52; 95% CI, -0.09 to -1.04) than among girls with
high Pb alone (â ) -0.35; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.57), relative to girls with low Pb and low Cd.
The authors concluded that higher Pb was inversely associated with inhibin B, a marker of
follicular development, and estimated effects suggestive of pubertal delays appeared to be
stronger in the context of higher Cd concentrations. These data underscore the importance
of Pb and Cd as reproductive toxicants for young girls.
Authors: Gollenberg, Audra L.; Hediger, Mary L.; Lee, Peter A.; Himes, John H.; Louis,
Germaine M. Buck
Full Source: Environmental Health Perspectives 2010, 118(12), 1782-1787 (Eng)

Aerosolised red tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma: Continued health effects after
1 hour beach exposure
Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce potent neurotoxins in marine
aerosols. Recent studies have demonstrated acute changes in both symptoms and
pulmonary function in asthmatics after only 1 hour of beach exposure to these aerosols.
The present study investigated if there were latent and/or sustained effects in asthmatics
in the days following the initial beach exposure during periods with and without an active
Florida red tide. Symptom data and spirometry data were collected before and after 1 hour
of beach exposure. Subjects kept daily symptom diaries and measured their peak flow
each morning for 5 days following beach exposure. During non-exposure periods, there
were no significant changes in symptoms or pulmonary function either acutely or over 5
days of follow-up. After the beach exposure during an active Florida red tide, subjects had
elevated mean symptoms which did not return to the pre-exposure baseline for at least 4
days. The peak flow measurements decreased after the initial beach exposure, decreased
further within 24 h, and continued to be suppressed even after 5 days. Asthmatics may
continue to have increased symptoms and delayed respiratory function suppression for
several days after 1 hour of exposure to the Florida red tide toxin aerosols.
Authors: Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E.; Bean, Judy A.; Nierenberg, Kate; Backer,
Lorraine C.; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Reich, Andrew; Naar, Jerome; Wanner,
Adam; Abraham, William M.; Zhou, Yue; Hollenbeck, Julie; Baden, Daniel G.
Full Source: Harmful Algae 2011, 10(2), 138-143 (Eng)

The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Peking duck: Relevance to
food safety assessment
Peking duck is one of the most well-known Chinese dishes. GC-MS analysis revealed that,
either benzo(a)pyrene alone, or the total amount of major PAHs with carcinogenic potential
for humans, reached levels of 8.7 and 54.7 íg/kg, respectively. These levels greatly
exceeded those found in grilled poultry in European countries. However, the intake of
benzo(a)pyrene from a Peking duck meal (about 0.65 íg) was not higher than that from the
daily intake (for residents in the same area) from vegetables alone (about 2 íg/day). The
authors concluded that since Peking duck is still not a plebeian meat in this country,
people would not consume it very often.
Authors: Lin, Guo-fang; Weigel, Stefan; Tang, Billy; Schulz, Claudia; Shen, Jian-hua
Full Source: Food Chemistry [online computer file] 2011, 129(2), 524-527 (Eng)

Towards a method to calculate risks of underground pipelines transporting
hazardous substances
The Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) has
announced new legislation concerning pipelines transporting dangerous substances. This
legislation deals with the spatial reservation of (new) pipelines and its effect on spatial
planning. For pipelines transporting natural gas or flammable liquids risk methodologies
were revised to reflect new understandings in risk scenarios, failure frequencies, and
consequences. These methodologies were applied in Dutch risk calculations. The generic
risk methodology for pipelines transporting hazardous substances other than natural gas
or flammable liquids is currently drawn up and these pipelines have a total length of about
3000 km and 18 different chemicals such as ethylene, hydrogen, chlorine, and carbon
dioxide. As far as possible the experience from the already developed methods for
pipelines with natural gas or flammable liquids is used. In this paper authors described the
development of the risk method for underground pipelines transporting hazardous
substances other than natural gas or flammable liquids subject of special interest is the
detection of failure frequencies as for these pipelines only few failure data is available.
Authors: Spoelstra, M. B.; Laheij, G. M. H.
Full Source: Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series
2011, 156, 254-260 (English)

Preparation of impregnated carbon for protecting against acid and base toxic agent
The preparation comprises: (1) Solution 1 prepared by dissolving sodium phosphate
7.0-10 Kg and KOH 2.5-4.0 Kg in water, stirring, adding ammonia-solution. Ag
nitrate-water solution 78-85 g and mixing, preparing KOH-water solution 2, preparing
solution 3 by dissolving phosphoric acid in water, adding ammonia-solution Ag nitrate
water solution 78-85 g and mixing, and (2) Three parts of high-quality activated carbon 50
Kg were impregnated in the solution 1, 2, and 3 for 10minutes, respectively, calcining them
in > 110°C hot air flow and then calcining at 110°C for 30 minutes, respectively,
discharging, screening to remove particles with grain size < 0.7 mm and > 1.25 mm, and
mixing the screened three parts at a ratio 1/3:1/3:1/3. The product can’t release ammonia
when used, has catalysis for toxic agents such as ammonia and SO2, but also can adsorb
benzene, etc. and remove harmful gases.
Authors: Zhang, Luping; Li, Yuanqing; Li, Huaizhu; Yin, Zhaodong; Zhang, Chongjie; Liu,
Li, Faming Zhuanli Shenqing
Full Source: Application 10,569,118, 2 Dec 2010; 8pp. (Chinese)

Method for rapidly and efficiently draining coal bed gas
A method to rapidly, efficiently drain coal bed gas consists of: drilling at least 1 horizontal
well from the ground to the seam roof, where each horizontal well has a drainage section
in the seam roof; fracturing the drainage section of each horizontal well forming fractures
which penetrate the seam roof in a downward direction and which extend into the coal bed;
and draining coal bed gas through these fractures. This low cost method reduces coal bed
gas pressure, improves coal mine operational safety, and reduces labour and material
Authors: Xian, Baoan; Cao, Daigong; Wang, Degui; Mao, Zhixin; Deng, Junyao; Peng,
Hongzhao; Bi, Yansen; Ji, Yuan; Wu, Peiyang
Full Source: Application 10,009,793, 17 Jan 2011; 9pp. (Chinese)

Development of standards for assessment of fire effluent toxicity and their
application to cable installations
Over the past 5 years there has been considerable progress within ISO TC92, SC3 the
subcommittee dealing with fire threat to people and the environment. Methods of
quantifying the yield of product fire effluents have been defined and interpretive documents
to aid the use of this data established. ISO 13571:2007 describes the calculation of safe
escape time using concentrations of asphyxiant and irritant gases for performance based
design, which will cause incapacitation and thus prevent escape. This extends the earlier
ISO 13344 by including heat, smoke and irritants into account together with toxicity which
estimated the concentrations resulting in death. Within Europe the lead by the cable
industry to include acidity testing into de facto cable application standards has been
recognised by the European Union and these requirements will now form an optional
additional classification under the Construction Products Directive (CPD).
Authors: Hull, Richard T.; Stec, Anna A.; Robinson, James
Full Source: Proceedings of International Wire and Cable Symposium
2008, 57th, 103-111 (English)

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