Academic Word Processing by fALBJEh

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									             Design for All: Word 2003
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How to make your Word documents accessible
Follow these steps and your Word documents will be accessible to
everyone, including partially sighted readers and people with
Dyslexia.

Best practice is described with examples and links to “How To”
guides, which are at the back of the document. There is document
check list on the back page to use when creating Word documents.

For more information on designing accessible Print documents, PDFs
Word 2007 documents and PowerPoint’s see the ITS web pages at
www.bbk.ac.uk/its/services/dis_support/staff
Designing for All: Word 2003


                               Table of Contents
How to make your Word documents accessible                            1

Step 1. Before You Start Writing                                      3
   1.1 Choose an easy to read Font Size and Font                      3
   1.2 Ensure Lines are well spaced                                   3
   1. 3 Align text to the left and avoid justifying                   4
   1.4 Choose your colours carefully                                  4
Step 2: Writing Do’s and Don’ts                                       5
   Do                                                                 5
   Don’t or Avoid                                                     5
Step 3: Adding Structure to your document                             6
   3.1 Use Headings and styles                                        6
   3.2 Add a Table of Contents and page numbers                       7
   3.3 Add an overview or summary                                     7
   3.4 Cross reference links within the document                      7
Step 4: Handling Images                                               8
   4.1 Locate images on the right hand side of text or on their own   8
   4.2 Ensure the image is explained in the document text             8
   4.3 Don’t insert text as an image, or put text over images         9
5. How to…                                                            10
   5.1 How to change the font and font size                           10
   5.2 How to: Change line spacing                                    11
   5.3 How to change text alignment                                   13
   5.4 How to change text and background colours                      13
   5.5 How to use borders and shading                                 15
   5.6 How to create accessible columns                               16
   5.7 How to use headings                                            18
   5.8 How to change heading styles (and normal style)                19
   5.8 How to insert page numbers                                     21
   5.9 How to create a table of contents                              22
   5.10 How to cross reference within a document                      24
   5.11 How to add a caption to an image                              26
Check List for Producing Accessible Print                             28




Birkbeck College ITServices                                            2
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Step 1. Before You Start Writing
Ensure your text is accessible before your start writing, saving time on editing
later.

1.1 Choose an easy to read Font Size and Font
Use 12 point minimum for body text (16 point for large print)

Examples:
8 point is newspaper print, 10 point is also used in newspapers
12 point is the minimum for Clear Print
14 point is recommended for Clear Print
16 point to 22 point is large print
Use a sans serif font (such as Arial or Tahoma). Serifs are the little tails attached
to end of a character that confuse partially sighted readers by disguising the
shape of the character.

Examples:

This is Arial (12 point) – a clear non-serif font which is easy to read.
This is Times New Roman (12 point) - a font with serifs. Difficult to read.
This is a stylised font - Edwardian Script IT (12 point). Difficult to read.

How to change the font and font size see p.10

1.2 Ensure Lines are well spaced
Line spacing should be sufficient for the lines to have white space between them,
and not to appear crowded. The default line spacing in Word is good and doesn’t
need to be changed.

Example:

This is good line spacing
This is good line spacing

This line spacing is too tight
This line spacing is too tight

How to: Change line spacing see p.11




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                      3
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1. 3 Align text to the left and avoid justifying
Use text justified to the left. This the Word default.

Example:

This text is justified to the left and right hand side of the page so that all of the
characters and spaces are stretched to make neat margins. This makes it difficult
for a partially sighted person to read (12 point).

     This text is justified to the right margin and has a jagged left hand margin. It is
      difficult for partially sighted people to read, because they can’t easily find the
                                            beginning of the next line of text (12 point).

This text is centred. This is acceptable for headings, but is not easy to read when
                         used for paragraphs etc (12 point).

This text is justified to the left side and is easy to read because the gap between
words is constant, and each new line is easy to find on the left hand margin (12
point).

How to change text alignment p.13

1.4 Choose your colours carefully

       Avoid pale colours on coloured backgrounds or colours which are
        indistinguishable by people with colour blindness (e.g. red on green).
       Try printing in greyscale, if the result is hard to read then chances are
        some people will find the coloured version hard to read.

Example:

These are examples of pale colours on coloured backgrounds. These colours
are hard to read.
This would not be visible to someone with red/green colour blindness (the most
common)This text would not be visible to someone with red/green colour
blindness
.
How to change text and background colours p.13




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                         4
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Step 2: Writing Do’s and Don’ts
Do
       Avoid jargon
       Use short sentences that are clear and concise
       Use bullet points rather than long sentences
       Use numbered bullet points for instructions
       Use tables for data


Don’t or Avoid

       Don’t use text boxes. People using screen readers will find it very difficult
        to read a text box. They cannot be accessed using the keyboard. The
        same visual effect can be achieved using borders and shading

       Avoid using text columns like      If text columns are to be used try to
        these. Tables for data are fine    limit to 2 columns; use the column
        provided they aren’t too large     feature in Word to create them and
        and complex.                       include a gutter between them.

       Avoid using all capitals, underline or italics, use bold for emphasis instead.
        Capitals, underline and italics disguise the shape of the character:

Examples
CAPS ARE HARD TO READ BECAUSE the text is all the same height – in lower
case some characters (g for example) have loops hanging below the line of text,
and some characters are raised above the line of text (h for example) which help
visually impaired people to recognise words.

Underline because any tails below the line are hidden

italics because the characters run together.

How to use borders and shading see p.15
How to create accessible columns see p. 16




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                        5
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Step 3: Adding Structure to your document
Creating a document structure that is easy to navigate will help all of your readers
and will also allow you or others to quickly create accessible alternatives e.g.
accessible PDFs, Braille and large print.


3.1 Use Headings and styles
For easy and consistent formatting Word provides “Styles”. A style is a
combination of the Font (e.g. Arial or Times New Roman) and the Font Size.
Bold, italics or underline may also be added to a style for emphasis.

Styles are given different names by Word – “Normal”, which is the main body
text, and Headings – starting with “Heading 1” which has the largest font and may
have some other enhancements (e.g. Bold).

The style is shown on the formatting toolbar at the top of the screen:




Clicking on the down arrow at the side of the style box shows the range of styles
that are available.

A well structured document uses headings and styles consistently. For example:

             o Heading 1 for the title of the document
             o Heading 2 for the main sections
             o Heading 3 for sub-sections

These can be numbered if it helps document navigation.




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Advantages of using headings
       Headings always have the same formatting e.g. all Heading 2’s look alike
        which makes the document look professional, and makes it easier for
        someone with dyslexia or partial sight to navigate.
       Blind readers can scan read the document by using their screen reader to
        jump from heading to heading
       A Word document with headings can produce an accessible PDF and also
        converts more easily to large print and to Braille
       A Table of Contents can be produced automatically.

The default headings in Word contain a serif font and include Italics which are not
easy to read. It is important to change the heading styles in your template so that
they are always accessible.

How to use headings p.18
How to change heading styles p.19

3.2 Add a Table of Contents and page numbers

       Make sure all documents have page numbering.
       For longer documents add a Table of Contents. If you use Headings, Word
        will automatically create a table of contents with page numbers.

Advantages of a Table of Contents
       The content and structure of the document is clear
       The reader can select an item in the table of contents and go directly to
        that section within the document (with either the mouse or the keyboard).

How to insert page numbers p. 21
How to create a table of contents p.21

3.3 Add an overview or summary
       For longer documents include an overview or summary of the document at
        the beginning.

3.4 Cross reference links within the document
       In longer documents it is helpful to provide cross referencing, for example
        in this document there is a cross reference from advice on what to do to
        the relevant how to guide at the end of this document.

See how to cross reference within a document p.24




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Step 4: Handling Images

Advantages of Images
       Images add variety to text
       Images can help illustrate ideas and support learning
       Images can be particularly helpful for learners with strong visual learning
        styles or with print related difficulties
       Images can be helpful for users for whom English is a second language
        e.g. British Sign Language users.




4.1 Locate images on the right hand side of
text or on their own

       Don’t put illustrations, photos, tables etc in the middle of text
        or to the left of text as some visually impaired readers will
        not see the text to the right of the image. Position an image
        on the right of the text, as in this example, or on its own.

       This illustrates how                                images, photos, tables etc
        placed in the middle of text                        should not be used as
        visually impaired readers                           may not see the text to
        the right of the image. Text                        should not be broken up
        by an image, table or                               photo.




4.2 Ensure the image is explained in the document
text

       Do not use images in isolation to convey information. Describe the image,
        or the purpose of the image in the document text. Where necessary use a
        caption. Here is an image of birds landing on a tree used as an example of
        a captioned image. This caption will be read by screen readers.




     birds alighting on
           trees 1




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                      8
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TIP: It is easier to understand captioned text read out by a screen reader if the
image is on its own on the line – not set to the right of text.

How to add a caption to an image p.26

4.3 Don’t insert text as an image, or put text over
images

       Don’t put text over the top of an image, or make text an image as this
        cannot be read, for example, by screen readers, and can be difficult for
        everyone to read. E.g. Don’t use Word art to create text, as in the image
        below where word art text has been set diagonally over an image – this
        cannot be read by screen readers and the contrast is so poor that the text
        cannot be read visually.




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                    9
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5. How to…
In this guide bullet points are instructions that need to be followed
Words in bold are the words on menus

5.1 How to change the font and font size
Ensure that the formatting toolbar is visible:




If the toolbar is not visible:

       Select the View menu
       Select Toolbars
       Select Formatting




To change the font size for a new document:

       Click on the drop down arrow to the right of the Font size box
       Move to the font size required
       Select, using mouse left click




Birkbeck College ITServices                                              10
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To change the font style for a new document:

       Click on the drop down arrow to the right of the Font box
       Move to the font required
       Select using mouse left click




5.2 How to change line spacing
The default line spacing in Word is good, so you shouldn’t need to change it for
new documents. If you want to change line spacing:

       Select the text in the document that you want to change
       Select the Format menu
       Select Paragraph…




       Make sure the Indents and Spacing Tab is on top.




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                  11
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       Drop down the Line spacing list
       Select Single or 1.5 lines
       Preview your change in the preview panel




       When you are happy with your selection Click the OK button, or press
        ENTER.


Using the line spacing toolbar button

If the Line Spacing Icon is on your formatting toolbar:




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                12
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       To apply a new setting, click the arrow at the side of the Icon, and then
        select the number that you want.
       To apply the most recently used setting, click the button.

Quick key commands for line spacing

Single space lines: Ctrl +1
Double space lines: Ctrl + 2
1.5 space lines: Ctrl + 5


5.3 How to change text alignment
At the beginning of a new document:

       Ensure the Align left toolbar button is selected




This should be the default in Word.

To left align text that is already in a document:

       Select the text
       Click on the left align button on the formatting toolbar.

5.4 How to change text and background colours

       Select the text that you wish to make a colour change to.

    To change the background colour:

       Click on the down arrow to the right of the highlight button on the
        formatting toolbar




The colour panel appears




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                    13
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       Click on the background colour required, or None to take background
        colour away.

The background colour of the selected text will change.

To change foreground colours:

       Select the text that you wish to change the foreground colour of
       Click on the Font Colour button on the formatting toolbar

The colour panel appears




       Click on the colour that you want the text to be, or Automatic to change it
        back to the text colour of your document. TIP: If the exact colour you want
        Is not in the panel click on More Colours…
       Click back in the document

The text colour of your selected text will change.

TIP: you can also change the background colour of the entire document.

       Select the format menu
       Select background
       Select the colour for the document background.




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                   14
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             o More colours leads a larger colour pallet
             o Fill effects creates shading effects – these are not recommended
               under text as they can make it more difficult to read.
             o Printed watermark prints a large but faint image over the
               background e.g. the words Draft. This is not recommended as it
               can make the text more difficult to read.

5.5 How to use borders and shading

Use borders and shading to create the effect of a text box, but that is fully
accessible.

       Select the text that the border will surround
       Select the format menu
       Select Borders and Shading

The borders and Shading dialogue box appears.

       Select Box




       Go to the Shading Tab
       Select a fill colour
       Ensure that the Apply to: button is set to paragraph




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                     15
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       Select the OK button

You should now have text that is surrounded by a border, with a different fill
colour, which is accessible.


5.6 How to create accessible columns
Before you start writing your columns:

       Select the Format menu
       Select Columns




The column dialogue box appears

       Select the Preset for Two columns


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       Drop down the Apply to: list and select either Whole document (which
        will reformat any text already in your document as well as new text), or
        This point forward (to create columns only for new text added after the
        current cursor positions)
       Select the OK button




       Start typing. The text will appear in the left hand column.

When you reach the bottom of the page the text will automatically wrap to the
second column on the right hand side of the page.

If you don’t want your columns to fill an entire page, and you want to start typing
in the right hand column before the end of the page:

       Select the Format menu
       Select Columns

The columns dialogue box opens.

       Ensure Apply to: is set to This point forward
       Tick the Start new column check box
       Select OK




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                    17
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You can now type in the right hand column. Once the right hand column has text
in it text can be added to either column by clicking in the column.

To turn columns off:

       Select the Format menu
       Select Columns

The columns dialogue will appear

       Select the Preset for One column
       Ensure that the Apply to: is set to This point forward
       Select OK.

5.7 How to use headings
Headings can be applied either before or after typing the text.

To apply a Heading after typing:

       Either select the heading text, or ensure the cursor is in the heading
       Drop down the Style list on the formatting toolbar
       Highlight the Heading that you want (usually 1 for document title, 2 for
        document headings, 3 for sub-headings), and select it by a left click
       The Heading style should be applied to your text.




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                    18
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5.8 How to change heading styles (and normal style)

       Select the Format menu
       Select Styles and Formatting




This opens the Formatting panel on the right hand side of the document.

       Ensure the “Normal” style is selected




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       Move the mouse over the name to see that style’s details in a popup
       Click on the drop down menu for “Normal”
       Select modify




The Modify Style box appears

       Make the changes required to the font, size, etc and check in the preview
        window

This only changes the default font for this document. To make this font the default
for all new documents from now onwards it must be added to the template.

       Check the check box Add to template
       Click the OK button




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When you quit the programme Word may ask if you want to save changes to the
template – click Yes to preserve the changes you have made.

       Repeat this process for Heading 1, Heading 2 etc until you are happy with
        all of your Styles, and have added them all to the template.

5.8 How to insert page numbers

       Select the Insert menu
       Select Page Numbers




The Page Numbers dialogue box appears

       Select the Position and Alignment for the page number
       Decide if the page number should appear on the first page and tick the
        check box accordingly.
       Select the OK button




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                 21
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5.9 How to create a table of contents
A table of contents can be automatically generated if the document has been
structured using Word Styles to create headings (see 5.7).

Position the cursor where the table of contents is going to be within the
document.

       Select the Insert menu
       Select Reference
       Select Index and Tables




The Index and Tables dialogue box appears.

       Select the Table of Contents Tab (Index is usually on top by default)




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       Ensure Show page numbers checkbox is checked
       If you want the page numbers on the right hand side of the contents page
        check Right align page numbers
       Ensure that the Formats: drop down list is set to From template (this
        means it will use the styles used within the document, which have been
        chosen to be accessible and will not include Italics for example).
        In Show Levels select the number of heading levels that you want the
        Contents to include e.g. choosing 2 will include all Heading 1 and all
        Heading 2s in your Contents.
       Select OK button




The Table of Contents will be inserted. Check the formatting and heading levels
are satisfactory.

How to update the Table of Contents

If the document contents are changed then it is necessary to update the table of
contents.

       Right Click anywhere in the Table of Contents
       Select Update Field


Birkbeck College ITServices                                                 23
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       Select Update entire table
       Select OK




This will put in any new headings, and will re order page numbers to take account
of any additions or deletions.

TIP: If you make changes in the Table of Contents they will not be reflected in
the document text. Always make changes in the document, then update the
Table of Contents.

5.10 How to cross reference within a document
Cross referencing is used to create a link between one part of your document and
another. It is used in this factsheet to connect the advice on what to do to the
How To guides.

       Position your cursor after the text that you want to create a reference from.
        This will then refer to text appearing later in your document.
       Insert a letter p. as a page number will be automatically inserted after this
        text.
       Select the Insert menu
       Select Reference
       Select Cross-reference




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                    24
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The cross-reference dialogue box appears.

       Drop down the Reference type list box, and select Heading (cross
        referencing in this example relies on you structuring your document with
        headings using Word Styles (see 5.7 above))

    A list of all of your heading will appear in the for which heading dialogue box.




       Select the heading that your reference will be referring to (the one later on
        in your document)




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                     25
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       Drop down the Insert reference to: list box, and select Page number
        (this will insert the page number for the page you are referencing later in
        your document)
       Ensure Insert as hyperlink is checked (this will make the page number a
        link to the page later in your document – it can then be clicked on to jump
        to the reference)
       Select Insert.

A page number will now be inserted into your document which is also a hyperlink.

TIP: Using page number (in the insert reference to:) will enable the cross
reference to be used when the document is printed, as well as in its electronic
form.

5.11 How to add a caption to an image

       Click on the image in the document so it is selected
       Select the Insert menu
       Select Reference
       Select Caption

The Caption Dialogue box appears.

If you make no changes to the Caption dialogue box the image will be captioned
with Figure 1. To make the caption more accessible add additional text that
describes the image, or its function:

       Type text in the Caption box after the Figure 1
       Click OK button


Birkbeck College ITServices                                                   26
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Even if you caption diagrams in the incorrect order in the document Word will
reorganise the order appropriately.




Birkbeck College ITServices                                                 27
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Check List for Producing Accessible Print
                                                                   Tick
What to Check                                                      when
                                                                   done
Font size 12 and above
Using a San Serif Font e.g. Arial
Space between lines is adequate with sufficient white space
Text is Left Aligned
Colours with good contrast, and not red or green text
No jargon
Use short sentences and bullet points
Tables only used for data, not for formatting content
No large blocks of CAP; no underline; no italics
No text boxes (use borders and shading instead)
No columns (2 columns with a gutter are acceptable if essential)
Document layout consistent and logical, implemented using
headings and styles
Table of Contents for long documents
Pages numbered
Overview or summary for long documents
Cross referenced using links within the document (long
documents)
Images are on the right hand side of text, or alone – not
surrounded by text or to the left of text.
No information is presented solely through images, diagrams or
colour.
Captioning on images if necessary.


No text over the top of pictures, or included as an image.


We would like to thank RNIB See It Right Clear Print guide lines which have been
used to compile this document:
http://www.rnib.org.uk/xpedio/groups/public/documents/publicwebsite/public_seei
tright.hcsp



Birkbeck College ITServices                                               28

								
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