Americans with Disabilities by USCensus

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 3

									BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

Americans With Disabilities
Due to a variety of physical, mental, and emotional conditions, an estimated 49 million noninstitu tionalized Americans (about 1 in 5) have a disability. Of these persons, 24 million have a severe" disability. The first section of this Brief describes the disability status of persons aged 15 years and older; the last section details children's disabilities. The box on the back defines severe" disabilities. This Brief examines the number of persons with specific types of disabilities, their demographic characteristics, the impact of having a disability on employment status and health insurance coverage, and more. The data were collected in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) between October 1991 and January 1992. Difficulty with a functional activity is the most common type of disability for adults. Functional activities include lifting and carrying a weight as heavy as 10 pounds, walking 3 city blocks, seeing the words and letters in ordinary newsprint, hearing what is said in normal conversation with another person, having one's speech understood, and climbing a flight of stairs. Thirty four million adults aged 15 and older had a functional disability difficulty performing at least one of these tasks; for 15 million of them, the disability was severe they were unable to perform one or more activities. The latter figure includes 1.6 mil lion who could not see words or letters in ordinary newsprint and 900,000 who were completely unable to hear what was said in normal conversation. Fewer adults have trouble with ADL's and IADL's than with functional activities. Activities of Daily Living (ADL's) consist of getting in or out of a bed or a chair, bathing, getting around inside the home, dress ing, using the toilet, and eating. About 8 million adults had difficul ty with at least one of these tasks; 3.9 million of them required the

Physical Conditions That Cause Disabilities

Conditions most frequently cited by persons 15 years old and over with a functional, ADL, or IADL limitation as a cause of the limitation(s): 1991 92 Condition Number with condition (millions) Arthritis or rheumatism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Back or spine problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Heart trouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Lung or respiratory trouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 High blood pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Stiffness or deformity of extremity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.0 Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Blindness or vision problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5

With Increasing Age Comes A Greater Likelihood of Having a Disability

Percent of persons with a disability and percent with a severe disability, by age group: 1991 92
Percent with a disability Percent with a severe disability 84% 64% 45% 29% 25% 15% 5% 18-44 45-64 65-74 75-84 85+ 42% 68%

SB/94 1 Issued January 1994

6%

14% 1%

U.S. Department of Commerce
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

Economics and Statistics Administration

Less than 18

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS assistance of another person, making the disability severe. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL's) include going out side the home to shop or visit a doctor's office, doing light house work (such as washing dishes), preparing meals, keeping track of money and bills, and using the telephone. Twelve million adults had trouble with one or more of these activities; nine million need ed assistance. Not only were adults with func tional, ADL, and IADL limitations considered to have a disability, but so too were those who H Used a wheelchair (1.5 million did so). H Used a cane, crutches, or a walker for 6 months or longer (4 million). H Had a mental or an emotional disability, such as Alzheimer's disease or mental retardation (6.9 million). H Had a condition that limited the kind or amount of work they could do at a job (19.5 million aged 16 to 67). H Had a condition that made it difficult to do housework (18.1 million aged 16 and over). The elderly comprise a disproportionate share of persons with disabilities. As the graph on the front illus trates, the chances of having a disability increased with age; most persons aged 75 or older had a disability. In fact, those aged 65 or more comprised a far larger share of those with disabilities (34 percent) than of the total population (12 percent); they constituted an even greater percentage (43 percent) of per sons with severe disabilities. Disability rates are higher among those with low levels of education. Adults with a disability comprised a much larger share of persons without a high school diploma than of persons with higher levels

STATISTICAL BRIEF What is a Severe Disability?

January 1994

Adults aged 15 and over were classified as having a severe disability if they used a wheelchair or had used another special aid for 6 months or longer, were unable to perform one or more functional activities or needed assistance with an ADL or IADL, were prevented from working at a job or doing housework, or had a selected condi tion including autism, cerebral palsy, Alzheimer's disease, senility or dementia, or mental retardation.

Disability and Health Insurance Coverage
Health insurance coverage patterns for persons 15 64 years old, by disability status: 1991 92 No disability 80% 5% 15%

Private insurance Government insurance No coverage

Non severe disability 74% 7% 19%

Severe disability 48% 36% 16%

of education. For example, 23 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 who had not completed high school had a severe disability; for persons who were high school and college graduates, the re spective figures were 9 percent and 3 percent. Severe disabilities reduce employment chances. Those with disabilities constituted 13 percent of all employed per sons; those with a severe disabil ity comprised 3 percent. Although having a less than severe disabil ity does not have a large effect on one's chance of being employed, having a severe disability does. Among persons 21 64 years old, 81 percent without a disability and 76 percent with a disability that was not severe were employed. However, just 23 per cent with a severe disability worked. Data show that persons with a disability particularly a severe one earn less than those without one. Disabilities affect 3 million children under age 15. Disability rates were 2 percent among children under 3 years old, 5 percent among those aged 3 5, and 6 percent among chil dren aged 6 to 14.

The definition of disability was dif ferent for children than for adults. For those under age 6, a limita tion in the usual kinds of activities done by most children that age and the receipt of services or therapy for developmental needs were considered disabilities. Chil dren 3 14 limited in their ability to walk, run, or use stairs were cate gorized as disabled, as were 6 to 14 year olds whose ability to do regular school work was limited. More information: Americans With Disabilities: 1991 92. Current Population Reports, Series P70 33. Contact Customer Services (301 763 4100) for ordering in formation. Contacts: Persons with disabilities John McNeil 301 763 8300 Statistical Briefs Robert Bernstein 301 763 1584 This Brief is one of a series that pre sents information of current policy interest. It may include data from businesses, house holds, or other sources. All statis tics are subject to sampling vari ability, as well as survey design flaws, respondent classification errors, and data processing mis

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS takes. The Census Bureau has taken steps to minimize errors, and analytical statements have been tested and meet statistical standards. However, because of methodological differences, use caution when comparing these data with data from other sources.

STATISTICAL BRIEF

February 1993


								
To top