The Mentorship Relationship by ypDjdwJ

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									The Mentorship Relationship
          John Chae, M.D.
Association of Academic Physiatrists
        Anaheim, CA 2008
                        Overview
•   Why mentors?
•   What to expect from mentors
•   Criteria for selection of mentors
•   What a mentor expects from a trainee
•   Negotiating the details of mentorship relationship
•   Supplementing the mentorship relationship
•   Are you ready to mentor
      Core of Academics: Teaching
• Common thread to all academic life
• Objective: Effectively impart
  *Knowledge
  *Wisdom, perspective, values…life
• Motivating force behind teaching:
  *Caring for and respecting trainees
  *Wanting them to succeed
  *Advancement of the field
             Promotion and Tenure
•   National reputation
•   Research
•   Teaching
•   Service
      Timeline for National Reputation
                                   Year:   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
•Professional Activity
•Journal Articles
•Join national organizations
•Local & regional meeting
presentations
•National meeting presentations
•Committee in national
organizations
•Review articles
•Book chapters
•Text books
•Positions at other institutions
As you launch your academic career...
•   Focus to achieve success
•   Set goals and evaluate them annually
•   Do not expect too much from yourself too soon
•   Understand that career development takes time
•   You cannot do it alone - identify mentors
        Mentors: What Do They Do?
•   Provide cultural guidance
•   Advocate for trainee
•   Identify strengths and weaknesses
•   Train mentoree
•   …for Independence
    Mentors Provide Cultural Guidance
•   Culture of the scientific community
•   Culture of NIH, NIDRR, NSF, private foundations
•   Introduction to key personnel in the field
•   Culture of scientific inquiry
              Mentors Advocate
• A good mentor has sincere interest and commitment to
  your success
• A good mentor delights in your success
• Your mentor must have your best interest in mind
      A Devastating Grant Review…
Sandy is a post-doctorate fellow who just received her study section
  review of her training grant application. She was totally
  devastated. Sandy’s initial reading of the review suggested that
  she did not know how to formulate testable hypotheses, do a
  literature review, conduct research, or present a research plan.

What should she do?
            A Devastating Review…
Sandy was so embarrassed that she would not have shown Dr. Smith
  the review, but Dr. Smith asked whether Sandy had received the
  review. Dr. Smith’s interpretation of the review was totally
  different from Sandy’s. Dr. Smith pointed out that the reviewers
  suggested only the restructuring of Sandy’s specific aims, the
  addition of one citation to her literature review, a possible second
  interpretation of one of Sandy’s preliminary results, and two
  additional methods under the second specific aim. Dr. Smith noted
  that each of these suggestions was constructive, and advised that
  Sandy incorporate them into the amended application and include
  her additional preliminary results.
     Mentors Identify Strengths and
              Weaknesses
• Mentoree must recognize strengths and weakness to be
  successful
• Assist in understanding and addressing problem areas
• Provide insights in how to develop strengths
• Provides insight into “national reputation”
• Provides objective evaluation of your grant reviews
                Identifying a Mentor
Chris was thrilled to be selected to join the most sought-after group in
  his training program. The word in the program was that this
  advisor was on the way to winning the most coveted prize in the
  discipline. However, when he joined the group, Chris was
  assigned to do a very repetitive task that was a small part of the
  very large operation. There was no independent project for Chris
  to develop or to take with him when he left; there was no
  opportunity to develop writing, teaching, or other skills. Chris’
  mentor did win the prize, but when it was time for Chris to apply
  for academic positions, his advisor was too busy being celebrated
  to send letters of reference or speak to colleagues about Chris. In
  preparing his CV, Chris found very little to add from his training.
             Identifying a Mentor
• What mistake did Chris make?
 -He selected a mentor based on the mentor’s professional standing
 -He equated professional standing with ability to mentor
Mentors Train You for Independence
• Trainees often select a mentor based on mentor’s
  professional standing
• However, “Success” does not simply “rub off”
• Trainee requires training and supervision
• Goal: Not to be “dependent” after completion of training
Mentors Train You for Independence
• Training program must be structured to produce
  independent product:
  *Grant proposals
  *Publications
  *Presentations
• “Currency” of subsequent academic life
• Break the umbilical cord
       Breaking Up is Hard to Do…
Kim chose a mentor who was very prolific, publishing frequently
  with trainees and numerous collaborators included as authors. Kim
  knew that publishing is key to success in academics and felt that
  this mentor would provide a jumpstart to her career. Things went
  along very well as she was given multiple opportunities to publish
  with her mentor. Eventually, Kim finished her training and
  secured a faculty position in another institution. At the new
  institution, Kim elected to pursue a project related to post-
  doctorate work, but outside the area of her previous mentor’s work.
  The mentor was furious…
          Breaking Up is Hard to Do…
• Was Kim’s choice of a different project a good idea?
  -Utilizes previously learned skills, but allows for development into an independent investigator

• Why might the previous mentor be so furious?
  -Genuine concern that that his previous trainee would fail
  -Want previous trainee’s lab to be a satellite site for his own lab

• What does this tell you about this mentor?
  -Does not have trainees best interest in mind

• How can you prevent getting into a similar situation?
  -Speak to past/present trainees
        Breaking Up is Hard to Do…
As Kim was preparing to accept her new faculty position, she
  received “hints” that she was expected to continue her project
  under her mentor’s guidance and to publish with her mentor.
  Speaking with other former trainees from the same group
  confirmed her impression that moving to a different institution
  would mean that she was simply serving as a satellite for the
  mentor. Fortunately, Kim spoke to a senior professor at her new
  institution who suggested that she shift to a new project in order
  establish independence.
    Characteristics of the Successful
                 Mentor
• Encourage excellence in scientific inquiry
• Sensitive to your needs
• Teach principles, judgment, and perspective, in addition
  to research skills
• Introduce you to other colleagues in the field
• Identify and address weaknesses and strengths
• Recognize and adapt to institutional realities
• Provide opportunities to develop independence
    Criteria for Selecting Your Mentor
•   Interest in developing your career
•   Ability to provide support and training in your field
•   Modeling of a successful academic career
•   Commitment to help trainees make the next career move
•   Success of current and former students in academia
•   Personal integrity
       What a Mentor Expects from a
               Mentoree?
•   Commitment to an academic career
•   Teachable
•   Available
•   Diligent
•   Responsible
•   Patient
•   Personal integrity
         Negotiating the Details of a
          Mentorship Relationship
•   How often will we meet?
•   Will you review my grants and papers?
•   Will there be an annual review?
•   How will independence be achieved? - timeline
•   Relationship in evolution
          Supplementing Mentorship
                Relationship
•   To obtain other skills
•   To receive input outside field of primary mentor
•   Different specialty
•   Different institution
•   Different nationality
       Are You Ready to Mentor?
• Why mentor? –What are the benefits?
• What does it mean to mentor? –What are the
  costs? “Turning the table around”
• When and who?
               Why Mentor? Benefits
For the good of mankind              Utilitarian
• Contribute to the research “gene   • Amplifies your productivity
  pool”                              • Advances one’s own career
• Most effective way to ensure       • Advances the reputation of the
  perpetuation of knowledge and        department/institution
  skills                             • Ensures the future of the
• Investment in the future             specialty (i.e. job security)
• Investment in the field
• For the love of teaching
                               The Costs
Characteristics of the Successful          Criteria for Selecting Your
Mentor                                     Mentor
• Encourage excellence in scientific       • Interest in developing your career
  inquiry
• Sensitive to mentee’s needs              • Ability to provide support and training
• Teach principles, judgment, and            in your field
  perspective, in addition to research     • Modeling of a successful academic
  skills                                     career
• Introduce mentee’s to other colleagues   • Commitment to help trainees make the
  in the field
• Identify and address mentee                next career move
  weaknesses and strengths                 • Success of current and former students
• Recognize and adapt to institutional       in academia
  realities                                • Personal integrity
• Provide mentee opportunities to
  develop independence
                  Other Costs
•   Time
•   Money
•   Emotional energy
•   Grace and truth
             When and Who?
• You can only teach what you know… but how
  much more must you know?
• Medical students
• Residents
• Junior faculty
                        Summary
•   Why mentors?
•   What to expect from mentors
•   Criteria for selection of mentors
•   What a mentor expects from a trainee
•   Negotiating the details of mentorship relationship
•   Supplementing the mentorship relationship
•   Are you ready to mentor?

								
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