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					Computer-Aided Instruction




  Department of Computer Science
         Xavier University
     Week 6




Distance Learning
 Week 6 Outline

  Introduction  to DL
  Costs of Implementing DL
  Technological Options
  Computer Applications for DL
  Instructional Methodologies
  Web Development Procedure


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction   cs92_w06: 3
 Distance Learning

  takes place when a teacher and
   student(s) are separated by physical
   distance and technology (e.g. voice,
   video, data)
  a.k.a. Distance Education (DE)
  common profile of a distant student:
       – professionals and isolated

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction     cs92_w06: 4
 Distance Learning

    Success is dependent on:
       – creativity and skill of the course developer
       – bandwidth
       – hardware capabilities




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction              cs92_w06: 5
 Distance Learning

    Why is DL not popular?
       – computer networks are costly to develop
       – technology is changing rapidly
       – high requirement for motivation and
         proficiency in computer operation for
         successful function in a computer-based
         distance learning environment


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w06: 6
 Distance Learning

    Costs of Implementing DL
       – Technology
       – Transmission
       – Maintenance
       – Infrastructure
       – Production
       – Support
       – Personnel

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction   cs92_w06: 7
 Distance Learning

    How is distance learning delivered?
       – technological options:
            • Voice
            • Video
            • Data
            • Print




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction      cs92_w06: 8
 Distance Learning

    Technological Option: Voice
       – includes the interactive technologies of
         telephone, audio-conferencing, and short-
         wave radio
       – Passive (i.e., one-way) audio tools include
         tapes and radio




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction             cs92_w06: 9
 Distance Learning

    Technological Option: Video
       – includes still images such as slides, pre-
         produced moving images (e.g., film,
         videotape), and real-time moving images
         combined with audio-conferencing (one-
         way or two-way video with two-way audio)




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w06: 10
 Distance Learning

    Technological Option: Data
       – computers send and receive information
         electronically
       – for this reason, the term "data" is used to
         describe this broad category of
         instructional tools




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction             cs92_w06: 11
 Distance Learning

    Technological Option: Data
       – computer applications for distance
         education are varied and include:
            • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
            • Computer-managed instruction (CMI)
            • Computer-mediated education (CME)




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction             cs92_w06: 12
 Distance Learning

    Technological Option: Print
       – is a foundational element of distance
         education programs & the basis from which
         all other delivery systems have evolved
       – print formats: textbooks, study guides,
         workbooks, course syllabi, and case
         studies


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction         cs92_w06: 13
 Distance Learning

    Computer applications for DL fall into
     four categories
       – Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
       – Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)
       – Computer Mediated Communication
         (CMC)
       – Computer-based Multimedia


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction         cs92_w06: 14
 Distance Learning

    Computer Assisted Instruction
       – uses the computer as a self-contained
         teaching machine to present discrete
         lessons to achieve specific but limited
         educational objectives
       – modes: drill and practice, tutorial,
         simulations, and games


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w06: 15
 Distance Learning

    Computer Managed Instruction
       – uses the computer’s branching, storage,
         and retrieval capabilities to organize
         instruction and track student records and
         progress
       – need not be delivered via computer




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w06: 16
 Distance Learning

    Computer Mediated Communication
       – describes computer applications that
         facilitate communication
       – examples: electronic mail, computer
         conferencing, and electronic bulletin
         boards




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w06: 17
 Distance Learning

    Computer-Based Multimedia
       – hypermedia
       – integrate various voice, video, and
         computer technologies into a single, easily
         accessible delivery system




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w06: 18
 Distance Learning

    The Internet & Distance Learning
       – electronic mail (e-mail)
       – electronic bulletin boards
       – world wide web (www)




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction       cs92_w06: 19
 Distance Learning

    Instructional Possibilities of the Internet
       – using e-mail for informal one-to-one
         correspondence
       – establishing a classroom bulletin board




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w06: 20
 Distance Learning

    Instructional Possibilities of the Internet
     (cont)
       – engaging students in dialogue with other
         students, faculty, and researchers by
         encouraging them to join a bulletin board
       – developing a classroom home page



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w06: 21
 Distance Learning

    Teaching Considerations
       – access to the internet
       – computer hardware and software
         literacy/proficiency
       – Internet application proficiency (e.g. email,
         electronic bulletin board, etc.)



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction              cs92_w06: 22
 Distance Learning

       Web Development Procedure
       1. Determine the type of product and
          platform
       2. Assemble components.
       3. Conduct reviews.
       4. Implement the site.



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction             cs92_w06: 23
 Distance Learning

    Web Development Procedure
       1.Determine the type of product and platform
            – 1.1 Determine which of two major types
              of content structure
                  – Asynchronous: analogous to computer-based
                    courseware delivered to the desktop on
                    demand (the entire content is resident on a
                    LAN or WAN.
                  – Synchronous: all students are online, taking
                    training at the same time.


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                       cs92_w06: 24
 Distance Learning

    Web Development Procedure
       1.Determine the type of product and platform
            – 1.2 Choose the development platform,
              language, editor, or software appropriate
              to your technical specifications




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction              cs92_w06: 25
 Distance Learning

       Web Development Procedure
       2. Assemble components.
            – Create storyboards and assemble and
              link web pages according to the map
       3. Conduct Reviews
            – Perform QA reviews, debug, and test
              the web pages for adherence to the
              map


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w06: 26
 Distance Learning

       Web Development Procedure
       4. Implement the Site
            – put the site online using a web server
              software (e.g. Apache) and a dedicated
              server




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w06: 27
 Distance Learning

    Improving Distant Learning
       – "Becoming and staying responsible for
         themselves"
       – "Owning one’s strengths, desires, skills,
         needs"
       – "Maintaining and increasing self-esteem"



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w06: 28
 Distance Learning

    Improving Distant Learning (cont)
       – "Relating to others"
       – "Clarifying what is learned"
       – "Redefining what legitimate knowledge is".
       – "Dealing with content"




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w06: 29

				
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