The Nile Basin Initiative _NBI_ by yurtgc548


									The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI)

Building a Cooperative Future

         Water Week
        February 2009
The NBI: Building a Cooperative Future

             The Context: The River Nile
             The Nile Basin Initiative
               Overview and Evolution
               Achievements to-date
               Future Directions
              Lessons Learned

      The Nile Basin
  World’s longest river (6,650 km);
global cultural & environmental assets
 Shared by 10 countries
Burundi D.R. Congo Egypt (Eritrea)
Ethiopia Kenya       Rwanda
Sudan    Tanzania    Uganda
 300 m people (600m by 2025)
 Region of Extremes
    Poverty: 5 of 15 poorest in world
    High variability & climate change
    Landscape vulnerability
    Conflict: 7 countries
Very limited infrastructure….
    10% HEP potential developed
    15% population with electricity
    < 10% irrigable land irrigated
          (except Egypt & Sudan)
                                THE RIVER: Hydrologic Challenges

                                  Small flow system-wide (~ 85 bcm/yr)
                                     6% Congo; 17% Niger; 2% Amazon; 12% Yangtze
                                  High rainfall variability across the Basin
                                     Ethiopia: tributaries contribute 86-95% flow at Aswan
                                     High equatorial flows evaporated in Sudd
                                        (White Nile contributes 15%)
                                     Egypt: minimal rain & no flow additions
                                     Sudan: 65% basin and confluence major tribs
                                  High variability intra- & inter-annually (+/- 25 – 30%)
                                  High system ‘losses’ (~ 40% )

Annual Rainfall
Annual Evaporation   Growing populations, increased water demands, climate
                     change …. and continued unilateral development ….
                     likely to exacerbate conditions
THE RIVER: Opportunities for Cooperative Investments
 Hydropower where gradient is high
   especially Ethiopia, Uganda; also S. Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi
 Extensive rainfed/supplementary irrigated agriculture where rainfall is
 high, gradient low parts of all equatorial countries, S. Sudan, Ethiopia
 Irrigated agriculture where rainfall & gradient low
   especially Egypt, Sudan
 Joint management transboundary environmental assets and risks

                                                        …River as catalyst
                                                        for broad benefits
                                                        “ beyond the river”
                    The Nile Basin Initiative:
                           What is it?

                              Guided by a Shared Vision:
                                 To achieve sustainable
                         socio-economic development through
                        equitable utilization of, and benefit from,
                        the common Nile Basin water resources.

                                                    Shared Vision
                        partnership for             Shared
                         cooperative                Vision
                            action                 Program

                                                           Action Prog.

                                                     Action on the    6
Established Feb. 1999
  NBI: What has it accomplished ?
A (transitional) regional institution
  Institution to advance cooperation
  Broad-based network professionals (> 500 NBI & gov’t/national)
  Moving to permanent river basin commission
           Cooperative Framework technical negotiations concluded

Foundation for river basin management
   Multi-sectoral, basin-wide, grant program (SVP)
   Intellectual capital, strategies & technical tools for basin management

Delivering investments for water development
  Sub-basin investment programs promoting development & integration
  Implementing first phase of investments ($700 m) (FY07-09)
    furthering integration & cooperation
  Next phase of investments under identification & preparation  7
NBI Project Portfolio: In Summary
                                     Nile Basin

                                     Nile Basin
                                    Development 8
                       The NBI: An Evolving Process

                       Political Dialogue                      Increasing visibility & broadened dialogue
Development focus

                                                                            Implementation of SVP           One NBI
                                          Preparation of SVP

                                   Institution & Capacity Building

                                  Identifying & preparing investment programs

                                                                            Realizing investments
                                  NBI       ICCON         NBTF                                          NBTF closes
Legal & inst.

                    1995   1997                                                                                       2020
                                   1999    2001            2003    2004   2007                  2010        2013

                                   The Cooperative Framework                               Permanent river basin commission
                                                   NBI Institutional Set-Up

                                                        NILE Council of Ministers
                          Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan   Nile Technical Advisory Committee
   Entebbe                                                  NBI Secretariat

   Burundi, DR Congo, Egypt, Kenya, Rwanda,
            Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda
   The Shared Vision Program:
   Nile Basin River Management
What is it?
     Basin-wide, grant-funded (~$100 m) multi-sectoral TA program

Original Objectives
     Build trust among riparians
     Build skills & capacity (“level playing field”)
     Build an enabling environment for cooperative investments

Evolving context & focus
     Moving towards permanent Nile institution
     Growing needs of SAP investment programs
       Technical foundation for river basin management

                                           Applied Training Project (APT)

        Nile Transboundary Environmental
        Action Project (NTEAP)

                        NBI                             Water Resources Planning and
                   SECRETARIAT                          Management (WRPM)

Confidence Building and
Stakeholder Involvement (CBSI)
                                                  Efficient Water Use for Agricultural
Socio-economic Development and                    Production (EWUAP)
Benefit Sharing (SDBS)

 Shared Vision Program Coordination
 Project (SVP-C)
                                                      Regional Power Trade (RPT)
SVP: A Coordinated Program
Basin-wide enabling
  environment …
                                   Socio-Econ Development
                                          & Benefits
                               •Benefit sharing principles
                               • Network &r research on transboundary issues

         Environment                                              Water Resources
 • Transb diagnostic analysis                                     • Nile Basin DSS
 • Mico grants & env education                                    • Data sharing procedures
 •WQ & wetlands strat/procedures
                                      Investments for
                                                                  • Water policy
    Power Trade                           (SAPs)                       Agriculture
 • Training & power data bank
                                                                     • Regional Studies (Agr water use)
  • Regional power trade studies
                                                                     • Best Practices & guidelines

                 Applied Training
                                                    Confidence Bldg
                • University network
                •Training & curriculum           • Communications & participation strategies
                • Capacity Bldg strategy         • Extensive Stakeholder networks

                                                                                ... And precursor to
                                                                               permanent institution
     SVP Achievements To Date:
     Mid-term review findings

1.    Meeting goals & achieving critical outcomes
        Creating an enabling environment for investments
          • Nile SAPs delivering & fostered regional investment

        Establishing technical foundation for water resources mgmt
          • Information mgmt & modeling system for Nile
          • Suite of basin strategies & practices
          • Cadre of trained ‘regional’ professionals
        Building trust through a Nile basin community of interest
          • Multi-sectoral engagement ministries, utilities, NGOs, univ.

        Strengthening the NBI as a trusted institution
         • Key role in information sharing & notification
         • Technical negotiations for Cooperative Framework concluded

2. However, delivery of individual SVP projects uneven
Current Focus: Completion of SVP (by 2010)
Capturing Benefits to Build a Sustainable Institution

       SVP Building Blocks                      Core NBI Functions
Intellectual capital                          NBI Corporate Management

                                              Knowledge-based Water
Knowledge products & info.
                                              Resource Management
(e.g, best pract, data bases, curriculum)
                                              Water Resource
Strategic frameworks                          Development
(e.g, benefit sharing, water policy, envi.)

Tools & assets                                Stakeholder Involvement
(e.g., DSS, models, GIS, computers)           and Communications
Networks of professionals

                                                      National and
                                               other regional institutions
 NELSAP Investment Program:       DRC
 Facilitating Water Development   Egypt
Unique Characteristics            Tanzania
  Multiple countries              Uganda
  Smaller agrarian-based
  High rainfall and lake-
  based hydrology
  Multiple regional players
  History working together
  (i.e., EAC)… but cross
  border civil strife

NELSAP: Natural Resources Management

Initial focus: Transboundary projects & pre-investment activities
  Transboundary IWRM & D
        Sio-Malaba-Malakisi (Ky/Ug)       $ 4.8m preparation
        Mara (Ky/TZ)                      $ 4.8m
        Kagera (Bu/Rw/Ug/Tz)              $ 8. m
  Lake Albert & Edward Fisheries          $2.5m
  Regional Ag Trade & Productivity $8m
  Investment preparation for Burundi & Rwanda in LVEMP2
  supported through Kagera IWRM project
Scaling Up & Moving to investment: Scale-up ongoing or new
  inter-country & in-country with regional implications
        NEL WRM & D Program
            Targeted project preparation
            Regional multi-sectoral analysis & scoping study
                                   Albert Nile and
                                   Bahr el Jebel & the
Semliki Basin / Lakes              Sudd (Ug/Sd)
George, Albert, Edward
(DRC/Ug)                               Aswa Develp Project

      Scale -up
     LEAF Project                   Lake Kyoga basin
                                       Lake Kyoga +

   Lake Victoria Basin
   (Bu, Rw, Tz, Ug, Ky)              Sio- Kenya
                                     W. Kenya CDD
                                   & NWR projects
 Rusumo Falls MP
    Kagera Basin

                                    Mara – TZ
                                     TZ SWAP
     NELSAP: Power Program

        Power Options & Strategic Social & Environmental Assessment (2007)
        Regional Interconnection projects (4 key lines) $ 296 m
             $ 150 m by AfDB (Ky-Ug, Ug-Rw, Rw-Bu, Bu-DRC-Rw)
               $47 m by WB for Ky-Ug line as part of a larger East Africa Power Market APL

        Regional Rusumo Falls Hydro & Multipurpose ~$ 200m FY07-10
               Multipurpose hydro (~70 MWW)
               Regional transmission (Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania)
               Area development
        Scaling up: supporting the Eastern Afr. Power Market APL & other
        - interconnection (Ky/Tz and Ug/DRC) & generation (Northeast DRC) & PTAs

Downstream                                                                          bridge
Rusumo Falls
NEL Region Proposed Power Interconnections   20
Ethiopia       The Eastern Nile
Sudan      Shared rivers-shared challenges
            Growing population (180 m people)
            Extreme variability (floods, droughts)
            High system losses (40%)
            High upland erosion & vulnerability
            Low access electricity (<15%) & agr productivity
            Poverty & asymmetry ($200 to $1600 GDP)
            …history of dispute

             Risk of unilateral development
                Water limited & at risk
               National development outside basin
               context will result in serious stress

              Imperative of cooperation
               Water savings from cooperative
               development to maximize gains,
               minimize looses & share risks
               Reduce environmental degradation
  Eastern Nile Subsidiary Action Program
Current Investment Projects
• Irrigation & Drainage
     • Egypt West Delta   $213 m Jun07
     • Ethiopia I&D        110 m Jun07
     • Sudan               100 m
•Ethiopia-Sudan Power Interconnection
    • Ethiopia            43 m Dec07
    • Sudan               24 m
• Flood Preparedness & Early Warning
     • FPEW1 (regional)       4 m Jun07
     • FPEW2 (regional/natl) 42 m
• Watershed Management 75 m       Apr09
    • Regional
    • Ethiopia (TBIWDP)
    • Sudan
    • Lake Nassar/Nubia
• Eastern Nile Planning Model 7m Mar09
ENSAP: Regional / Multipurpose

Regional Cooperative Assessments
  Regional Power Trade
  Watershed management
  Irrigation & drainage

Joint Multipurpose Program
“Launch a first phase of identification of a
major program of multipurpose joint
development of the Eastern Nile”
  Identify an initial project within broader
multipurpose program
   Ensure good practice in economic, social &
environmental analysis & consultation
                           ENCOM & Energy Minister 2005
    Regional Studies

  Regional Power Generation Costs
                     Crude STPP
   130               Gasoil CCGT


                     Kajbar / Shereiq


   70     Gas CCGT   Dal                 Gogeb / Aleltu

   60                Coal STTP

   50                                    Genale VI                      Ethiopia hydro:
   40                HPP Barh el Jebel   Border
                                         Karadobi / Genale III          Least cost regional
   30                                    Mandaya / Chemoga Yeda

                                         Halele / Baro / Geba / Gengi   power (2 - 4c / kwh)
          EGYPT       SUDAN               ETHIOPIA
EN Scoping Study:
Key Conclusions

 While the Eastern Nile resources are limited …
 there are opportunities for development ..”room” JMP1
 The Blue Nile system provides the best opportunity for a first set
 of JMP investments
 Water losses are high…and continued unilateral development is
 very risky
 But there are significant water savings opportunities
 Regional cooperation is essential to maximize benefits &
 manage risks…but appropriate institutions will be required
 Enhanced agriculture production in Ethiopia highlands is key to
 reducing erosion and improving livelihoods
EN Next Steps:
JMP1 Identification in Blue-Main Nile
 “ …considering the findings of these studies, particularly regarding
 the significant benefits of cooperation and the serious risks of non-
 cooperation, ENCOM agrees to initiate identification and preparation
 of a first joint multipurpose program of investments in the Blue-Main
 Nile systems…”
                                                           - ENCOM 25, Oct 2008

  Strategic Social & Eniv Assessment                       Regional
                                             JMP1         Institutions
  Analysis & consultation to identify
potential project sites                                                  Floodplain
                                            Dam + Hydro
In the Bank                             Regional Transmission
                                           Watershed Mgmt
  Due diligence for continued           (reservoir + hot spots)
engagement in JMP                                                    Watershed
   AAA “EN Strategic Basin                                            livelihood
Assessment & Assistance Strategy”                    Irrigation

NBI Institutional Strengthening
Moving from a “Program” to Permanent Institution

 Context: Despite remarkable progress,
   NBI lacks institutional depth
   Need to harmonize policies & procedures
   Need clarify linkages with other regional organizations needs
   Purposeful strengthening timely
      SVP concluding and need to mainstream benefits
      Scaling up of SAP investment activities
      Need to prepare for future basin organization

   Institutional strengthening objective
   NBI has strengthened foundation for institutional sustainability,
   enhanced capacity, and harmonized corporate management
   to more effectively deliver programs & projects

   NBI Institutional Strengthening
   3 years; $34 m ($24 m NBTF grant funded)

       Components                         Some Key Activities
    (NBI Core Functions)
1. Strengthen & Harmonize        - Institutional Design Study
Corporate Management             - Harmonize & strengthen admin systems
                                 - Strengthen national & regional linkages

2. Knowledge-based Water         - Establish IWRM ‘function’

Resource Management              - Consolidate information & KM systems
                                 - Initiate suite policies & practices (BSF)
                                 - Mainstream SVP outputs
3. Water Resource Development    - Strengthen project ident & preparation
                                 - Strengthen project mgmt & supervision

4. Stakeholder Involvement and   - Stakeholder participation
Communications                   - Corporate communications
                                 - Social development & communications
NBI Strategic Directions

 Conclude the Cooperative Framework and
 establish permanent institution

 Strengthen & harmonize “One NBI”

 SVP effective completion & migration core
 functions to permanent institution

 Align regional/national agendas for effective
 project financing & delivery

Lessons: Some Success Factors

 Ownership – riparian led, managed & staffed
 Long-term and high level commitment
 Consensus decision making approach
 Multiple track approach
    Political dialogue
    Trust & capacity building
    Delivering tangible results
 Strong partnerships
          Partnerships to support NBI
    Canada*        International Discourse
   Denmark*                                                   Burundi
European Union*   NBI Development Partners
    Finland*                                                  Egypt
                      NBTF Committee
      GEF                                                     (Eritrea)
    Germany                                                   Ethiopia
      Italy                                                   Kenya
     Japan                                                    Rwanda
 Netherlands*                                                 Sudan
  Switzerland                                                 Uganda
United Kingdom*
                  Public-Private Partnership
  World Bank*
     UNDP                                * Denotes NBTF committee member
Lessons: Challenges Ahead

In the Basin
  Move to permanent institution
  Unrealistic expectations
      river management agency vs. basin development agency
  Sustainability, financial and otherwise
  Strategic communications
  Aligning regional perspective with national priorities

In the Bank
  Sustaining management commitment & budgets
  Evolving role (‘no foot print’ facilitator to financier)
  Multisectoral nature     coordination & communication
  Aligning regional perspective with country priorities

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