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Indo-Pakistani War Timeline _1971_

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					                             Indo-Pakistani War 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation War Timeline

Summary:
       India and Pakistan are currently in the spotlight as the two countries threaten to go to war with each other. However, this is
        not the first time the rivals, who both gained independence from Britain in 1947, butted heads.
       The first war between India and Pakistan was fought from 1947 to 1948 and resulted in about 1,500 deaths. This war was over
        control of Kashmir, which, to this day, is disputed territory. Eventually a ceasefire was agreed upon via United Nations
        mediation and the war ended in January 1949 with a promise to Kashmiris that they will choose about their future.
       The second war was also fought over Kashmir and began on Pakistan's eighteenth birthday in 1965. Kahsmiri protests against
        Indian rule broke out following the theft of a sacred relic in Srinagar. In June that year, many Pakistanis entered Kashmir as a
        gesture of support. India branded this action infiltration and Indian army attacked to capture Pakistanis city of Lahore.
        Fighting broke out in early September, but the United Nations called for a ceasefire on September 20, to which both sides
        agreed to two days later. In this war, India suffered about 3,000 casualties and Pakistan about 3,800. After the ceasefire, a
        meeting between the Indian prime minister and the Pakistani president was held in Tashkent in Central Asia to negotiate a
        settlement. Both agreed to return to their original borders but the underlying causes of the Kashmir dispute were never
        resolved.
       The split between East and West Pakistan was the result of the third war between India and Pakistan. After Pakistan held
        nationwide elections in December 1970, the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujiber Rehman won an overwhelming majority in
        East Pakistan, the Pakistan People's Party of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto won in West Pakistan. However, talks to decide how the two
        wings of the country would share power broke down two months later and resulted in East Pakistanis pushing for more
        independence. In response, the Pakistani army cracked down on Dhaka, the capital of East Pakistan, leading to hundreds of
        thousands of refugees flooding into the adjacent Indian State of West Bengal from East Pakistan.
       India supported the separatist movement with arms and then finally attacked East Pakistan defeating Pakistan resulting in the
        creation of Bangladesh.
       Although this was three were the official war between the two countries, there have been other recent instances where India
        and Pakistan have come very close to the same.

Pakistan Period (1947-1971)
1947
     August 15: Partition of British India, Pakistan and India become two independent states.
1948
     March 11: General strike by students protesting the omission of Bangla from official use.
     March 21: Governor-General of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah declares in a civic reception that "Urdu, and only
        Urdu" would remain as the state language.[2]
     March 24: Jinnah reasserts his 'Urdu-only' policy in a speech at Curzon Hall of the University of Dhaka.
     March 28: Jinnah reiterates his language policy on radio.
1949
     June 23: Formation of Awami Muslim League
1952
     February 21: Bengali Language Movement reaches its peak as Police opens fire on protesting students.
1953
     April 17: Awami Muslim League becomes Awami League.
     September: Formation of Krishak Sranik Party by A. K. Fazlul Haque.
1954
     March 8-11: The United Front wins most of the seats in the East Bengal Legislative Assembly.
     May 30: Governor General Ghulam Muhammad strikes down United Front government and establishes
        Governor-rule.
1955
     June 6: The United Front government is reinstated, Awami League does not participate.
     October 14: 'East Bengal' renamed 'East Pakistan'.
1956
     February 29: Bangla becomes one of the state languages of Pakistan.
1958
     October 7: Constitution abrogated and Martial law declared in Pakistan.
1963
     February 21: The language martyr memorial, Shaheed Minar, is inaugurated.
1966
     Six point movement led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
1968
     Agartala Conspiracy Case filed by the government of Pakistan.
1969
     January-February: Mass Uprising of '69 (            গণ-         ) in East Pakistan.
1970
     March 25: Ayub Khan resigns and Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan assumes power under martial law.
     November 12: 1970 Bhola cyclone
     December 7: First general election of Pakistan. Awami League gains majority.
Liberation War (1971)
     Main article: Timeline of Bangladesh Liberation War
     March 7: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman made his historical speech This time the struggle is for our freedom.
     March 25-26: Pakistan Army launches Operation Searchlight at midnight of 25, commencing 1971 Bangladesh
         atrocities. Sheikh Mujib is arrested.
     March 27: Major Ziaur Rahman broadcasts the declaration of independence over the radio.
     March 31: Kushtia resistance begins.
     April 2: Jinjira genocide
     April 10: Formation of a provisional Bangladesh government-in-exile.[3]
     April 12: M. A. G. Osmani takes up the command of Bangladesh Armed Forces.
     April 17: The government-in-exile takes oath at Mujibnagar.
     April 18: Battle of Daruin, Comilla and Battle of Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway, Chittagong Hill Tracts.
     May 5: Gopalpur massacre[4]
     May 20: Chuknagar massacre by Pakistan Army.
     May 24: Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra finds home in Kolkata.
     July 11-17: Sector Commanders Conference 1971.
     August 16: Operation Jackpot, Bangladesh naval commando operation.
     August 20: Flight Lieutenant Matiur Rahman (military pilot)'s attempt to defect by hijacking a fighter.
     September 5: Battle of Goahati, Jessore.
     September 28: Bangladesh Air Force starts functioning.
     October 13: Dhaka guerrillas kill Abdul Monem Khan, governor of East Pakistan.
     October 28: Battle of Dhalai Outpost, Srimongol.
     November 9: Six small ships constitute the first fleet of Bangladesh Navy.
     November 16: Battle of Ajmiriganj, an 18 hour encounter between MB and Pakistan army.
     November 20-21: Battle of Garibpur between India and Pakistan Army.
     November 21: Mitro Bahini, the joint force of Bngladesh and Indian army is formed.
     November 22: Battle of Boyra, involving Pakistani and Indian air force.
     December 3: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 breaks out. Bangladesh Air Force destroys Pakistani oil depots[5].
     December 4: India officially invades East Pakistan.
     December 6: India becomes the first country to recognize Bangladesh. Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra becomes
         Bangladesh Betar.
     December 7: Liberation of Jessore, Sylhet and Moulovi Bazar.
     December 9: Chandpur and Daudkandi liberated.
     December 10: Liberation of Laksham. Two Bangladeshi ships sunk mistakenly by Indian air attack.
     December 11: Liberation of Hilli, Mymenshingh, Kushtia and Noakhali.
     December 14: Selective genocide of nationalist intellectuals, liberation of Bogra.
     December 16: Surrender of Pakistan army and liberation of Dhaka.
     December 22: The provisional government of Bangladesh arrives in Dhaka from exile.

Secondary but the same Timeline
Before the war
     March 1: General Yahya Khan calls off the session of National Council to be held on March 3 in a radio address.
        March 7: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman - leader of Awami League party that had just won a landslide victory in East
         Pakistan in the Federal Elections - announces to a jubilant crowd at the Dhaka Race Course ground, "The struggle
         this time is the struggle for our emancipation! The struggle this time is the struggle for independence!".
     March 9: Workers of Chittagong port refuse to unload weapons from the ship 'Swat'.
     March 10: Expatriate Bengali students demonstrate in front of the United Nations Headquarters and calls for UN
         intervention to put an end to violence on Bengali people.
     March 16: Yahya Khan starts negotiation with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
     March 19: Nearly 50 people die as Pakistan Army opens fire on demonstrators at Jaydevpur.
     March 24: Pakistan Army opens fire on Bengali demonstrators in Syedpur, Rangpur and Chittagong. More than a
         thousand people are killed.
Events of the War
March
     March 25: Pakistan Army starts Operation Searchlight in Dhaka and rest of the country, attacking political
         activists, students, and Bengali members of armed forces and police
     March 26: Independence of Bangladesh is declared by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman shortly before his arrest. This is
         Bangladesh's official Independence Day.
     March 31: Kushtia resistance begins.

April
       April 2: Jinjira massacre.
       April 6: The Blood Telegram
       April 11: Radio address by Tajuddin Ahmad, the Prime Minister.
       April 10: A provisional Bangladesh government-in-exile is formed.
       April 12: M. A. G. Osmani takes up the command of Bangladesh Armed Forces.
       April 17: A provisional government-in-exile took oath in Boiddonathtola (now called Mujibnagar) in Meherpur
        District
       April 18: Battle of Daruin, Comilla and Battle of Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway, Chittagong Hill Tracts.
       April 24: Formation of Bangladesh Action Committee at Coventry, UK by non-resident Bangladeshis.
       April 28: Tajuddin pleas for arms aid to neighbors.
May
      May 5: Gopalpur massacre.
      May 15: Indian army starts aiding Mukti Bahini.
      May 20:The Chuknagar massacre takes place at Khulna where the Pakistan army kills nearly 10 thousand people
      May 24: Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra finds home in Kolkata.
July
      July 11–17: Sector Commanders Conference 1971.
August
      August 1: The Concert for Bangladesh in Madison Square Garden, New York by George Harrison and friends.
      August 16: Operation Jackpot, Bangladesh naval commando operation.
      August 20: Flight Lieutenant Matiur Rahman (military pilot)'s attempt to defect by hijacking a fighter.
      August 30: Pakistan Army crackdown on Dhaka guerrillas.
September
      September 5: Battle of Goahati, Jessore.
      September 28: Bangladesh Air Force starts functioning.
October
      October 13: Dhaka guerrillas kill Abdul Monem Khan, governor of East Pakistan.
      October 28: Battle of Dhalai Outpost, Srimongol.
      October 31 to November 3: Battle of Dhalai: Indian attack from Tripura into East Pakistan to stop Pakistani cross-
        border shelling.
November
      November 9: Six small ships constitute the first fleet of Bangladesh Navy.
      November 16: Battle of Ajmiriganj, an 18 hour encounter between MB and Pakistan army. A famous freedom
        fighter, Jagatyoti Das, is martyred.
      November 20 to November 21: Battle of Garibpur: Indian attack in Boyra salient in East Pakistan
     November 21: Mitro Bahini, the joint force of Bngladesh and Indian army is formed.
     November 22 to December 13, and sporadic fighting to December 16: Battle of Hilli: Indian attack on Bogra in
      East Pakistan.
December (Indo-Pakistan War)
     December 3: Bangladesh Air Force destroys Pakistani oil depots[9].. Pakistani air attacks on India result in India
      declaring war on Pakistan.
     December 4: Battle of Longewala: Indians stop a Pakistani invasion directed at Jaisalmer.
     December 5: Battle of Basantar: Indians attack and take over Pakistani territory opposite Jammu.
     December 6: India becomes the first country to recognize Bangladesh. Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra becomes
      Bangladesh Betar.
     December 7: Liberation of Jessore, Sylhet and Moulovi Bazar.
     December 8: Operation Python: Indian naval attack on Karachi
     December 9: Battle of Kushtia: Indian attack from West Bengal into East Pakistan. Chandpur and Daudkandi
      liberated.
     December 10: Liberation of Laksham. Two Bangladeshi ships sunk mistakenly by Indian air attack.
     December 11: Liberation of Hilli, Mymenshingh, Kushtia and Noakhali. USS Enterprise is deployed by the USA in
      the Bay of Bengal to intimidate Indian Navy.
     December 13: Soviet Navy deploys a group of ships to counter USS Enterprise.
     December 14: Selective genocide of nationalist intellectuals. Liberation of Bogra.
     December 16: Pakistan Army surrenders to Mitro Bahini represented by Jagjit Singh Aurora of the Indian Army
      faction of the military coalition. Freedom of Bangladeshi people.
     December 22: The provisional government of Bangladesh arrives in Dhaka from exile.
Summary:

It was a major war between India and Pakistan, which finally led to the Bangladesh Liberation War or the Pakistani Civil
War. Exact dates are under dispute. The battle in western India from 3rd to 16th December 1971 is termed the Indo-
Pakistani war by both India and Bangladesh. Within two weeks Pakistan suffered a humiliating defeat.

LIBERATION WAR OF BANGLADESH:

The Bangladesh Liberation War was the main cause behind the Indo-Pakistani conflict. The former was an outburst of the
tensions between the dominant West Pakistanis and the majority of Bengalis in East Pakistan. Sparks began to fly with the
victory of the Awami League in the 1970 elections in Pakistan. It won 167 of the 169 seats in East Pakistan thus securing a
simple majority in the 313-seat Lower House of the Pakistani Parliament. Mujibur Rahman, the leader of the Awami
League presented six points and claimed the right to form a government. The leader of Pakistan’s Peoples Party, Bhutto,
refused to allow Mujibur Rahman to become the Prime Minister and President Yahya Khan summoned military action –
the military largely consisting of men from West Pakistan.

Dissidents began to be arrested en masse and East Pakistani soldiers and police personnel began to be disbanded. There
were strikes and non-cooperation movements and soon the military began to take action on Dhaka from the night of 25th
March 1971. The Awami League was declared illegal and several members fled to exile. Mujib was arrested and taken to
West Pakistan. On 27th March 1971, Ziaur Rahman, a Major in the Pakistani army rebelled and declared the independence
of Pakistan on behalf of Mujibur. The exiled Awami League leaders formed a government in exile in April in Badyanathtola
of Meherpur. The East Pakistan Rifles, an elite paramilitary forced, defected and extended support the new government.
The Bangladesh Army took shape with the support of civilian guerillas.

LIBERATION WAR OF BANGLADESH – INDIA’S INVOLVEMENT:

Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India,
extended full support to Bangladesh on 27th
March 1971. Bangladesh-India border came to
be opened. Frightened citizens ran to India for
shelter. The Indian provinces of West Bengal,
Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura opened
border refugee camps. Exiled Bangladeshi
officers and Indian volunteers immediately set
about to recruit and train freedom fighters of
the Mukti Bahini guerillas.

With the intensification of massacres on East
Pakistan, an estimated 10 million refugees fled
to India starting of a chain of economic and
social instability in the host country. The USA,
an old friend and ally, continued to materially
help West Pakistan.
In the middle of 1971 Indira Gandhi began
diplomatic maneuvers by touring Europe. She
was able to win over both UK and France to
block USA in any pro Pakistani moves in the UN.
Gandhi’s trump card was the signature of a 22-
year treaty of friendship and cooperation with
the Soviet Union. A stunned USA saw India
given the assurance that China would not be
involved in the conflict. So far China had been
giving moral support to Pakistan but little in
terms of military aid. China did not move her
troops further into India.
Meanwhile activities of the Mukti Bahini began to tell upon the
Pakistani Army. But the swell of refugees rushing to India turned
into a tide causing immense pressure. India became more
involved by supplying weapons and training to the Mukti Bahini
and began to take part in the shelling of East Pakistani targets.

INDIA’S OFFICIAL ENGAGEMENT WITH PAKISTAN:

By November there was a huge buildup of Indian forces on the
border. War seemed imminent. India was just waiting for the
rains to cease to allow for freer movement. Moreover snow and
ice would close the mountain passes thus stalling Chinese
intervention. On 23rd November Yahya Khan declared
Emergency asking the people to be ready for war.

Sunday 3rd December – in the evening Pakistan attacked eight
air fields in northwest India. The inspiration behind this
operation was Israeli success in the Arab-Israel Six Day War. The
lesson gained was to strike without warning. But in this case the
Indians were ready. The raid proved a failure. In a counter attack
the Indians proved their superiority. In the east India joined
hands with the Mukti Bahini to form the Mitro Bahini (Allied
Forces) and an impressive air, sea and land attack was made on
East Pakistan.

Yahya Khan swiftly tried to capture territory in the western zone so as to be in a bargaining position in the east. For
Pakistan’s very existence as a united country the operation in the western zone was of vital importance. India however
made rapid gains in the west by capturing 5,500 square miles of Pakistani territory. As a gesture of goodwill, by the Simla
Agreement of 1972 India returned to Pakistan the regions she had gained in Pak occupied Kashmir and Pakistan-Punjab.
India’s involvement in the Bangladesh war of liberation gave the deathblow to Pakistan’s existence in the eastern region.

                                                           “The Indian Army merely provided the coup de grace to what
                                                           the people of Bangladesh had commenced–active resistance to
                                                           the Pakistani Government and its Armed Forces on their soil.”

                                                           The Indian Navy proved its superiority in the ocean by
                                                           successfully carrying out Operation Trident – which was an
                                                           assault on the Pakistani seaport of Karachi. Two of Pakistan’s
                                                           Destroyers and one Minesweeper were destroyed in Operation
                                                           Python. The Indian Navy made its presence felt in the Bay of
                                                           Bengal also. The Indian Air Force conducted 4,000 sorties in the
                                                           west but its counterpart in Pakistan could hardly retaliate. This
                                                           was because hitherto the technical personnel had mainly been
                                                           Bengalis. Another reason for defeat was that the PAF, riddled
                                                           with losses because of its eastern operations was in no position
                                                           to further worsen matters. In the east the small air contingent
                                                           of PAF no 14 squadron was easily destroyed giving Indian Air
                                                           Force undisputed mastery of the air space. Within only a
                                                           fortnight Pakistan was brought to its knees. The Pakistani forces
                                                           surrendered on 16th December. On 17th December India
                                                           announced a unilateral cease-fire to which Pakistan agreed.

                                                           INVOLVEMENT OF AMERICA AND SOVIET UNION:

                                                           Pakistan was supported politically and materially by USA.
                                                           Nixon, backed by Kissinger was afraid of Soviet plans towards
                                                           the south and southeast. Pakistan was close to China, with
whom USA was looking for a rapprochement. A visit was scheduled for February 1972. Nixon reasoned that Indian victory
over West Pakistan would lead to total influence of Soviet Union. It would seriously harm the global image of America as
well as its new ally – China. In order to prove its credentials to China, Nixon directly violated the US congress imposed bans
on Pakistan and sent military support via Jordan and Iran. Parallel to this action China was encouraged to supply arms to
Pakistan. The Nixon administration turned a blind eye to reports about genocide in East Pakistan and even ignored the
‘blood telegram.’

When no doubt remained about Pakistan’s defeat Nixon sent a naval ship, USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal on 11th
December 1971. It was interpreted by India to be a nuclear threat. On 6th and 13th December, the Soviet Union
dispatched from Vladivostok, two groups of ships containing nuclear arms as well as a submarine. From 18th December to
7th January 1972 the Soviet ships trailed the US task force.

Bangladesh had won the sympathies of the Soviet Union. The Communist country gave support to the Indian Army as well
as to the Mukti Bahini. Soviet Union had reasoned that the independence of Bangladesh would weaken both USA and
China. Therefore India was assured of Soviet Union’s support in the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty of August 1971.

RESULTS:

The immediate result was the surrender of Pakistan to the Mitro Bahini – joint forces of Bangladesh and India. Secondly
Bangladesh was born as an independent nation – being the third largest Muslim country in the world. Pakistan’s military
became demoralized and Yahya Khan had to resign. Bhutto replaced him. Released from West Pakistani prison, Mijibur
Rahman returned to Dhaka on 10th January 1972. Approximately one to three millon people were killed during the war.
Some however put the toll lower at 300,000.

Faced with imminent and sure defeat, on 14th December the Pakistani army together with local cohorts killed Bengali
doctors, teachers and other intellectuals as part of their programme against Hindu minorities. The latter made up the
majority of urban educated elite. Young men, seen as potential rebels, especially students were also targeted.

A Pakistani stamp was issued showing 90,000 prisoners of war in Indian camps to of globalize the issue. Pakistan had to
pay a heavy price in terms of man and money power. Tariq Ali in ‘Can Pakistan Survive/’ says that the country lost half its
navy, quarter of its air force and a third of its army. India took about 93,000 prisoners of war including Pakistani soldiers
and East Pakistani quislings. Some were family members of the military or Bihari razarkars. Of these 79,676 were
uniformed – the break up being as follows:

    1.   Army – 55,692
    2.   Paramilitary – 16,354
    3.   Police – 5,296
    4.   Navy – 1,000
    5.   Air Force – 800

Since the last World War this was the largest surrender. Initially India wanted to try them for war crimes and brutality in
East Pakistan but ultimately they were released as a goodwill gesture. As part of the hand-shaking mood and desire for
lasting peace, in the Simla Agreement about 13000 square kilometers of territory was returned to Pakistan.

IMPORTANT DATES:

    •    March 7, 1971: Declaration by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman that, “The current struggle is a struggle for
         independence”, in a public meeting attended by almost a million people in Dhaka.
    •    March 25, 1971: Start of Operation Searchlight to eliminate any resistance. In Dhaka thousands are killed in
         student dormitories and police barracks
    •    March 26, 1971: Major Ziaur Rahman declares independence over the radio from Chittagong. Indian radio
         stations relay the message globally.
    •    April 17, 1971: Provisional government formed by exiled Awami League leaders
    •    December 3, 1971: West Pakistan launches a series of preemptive air strikes on Indian airfields. Officially the war
         between the two countries begins.
    •    December 14, 1971: Pakistan army starts systematic extinction of intellectuals and quislings.
    •    December 16, 1971: Lieutenant-General A. A. K. Niazi, supreme commander of Pakistani Army in East Pakistan,
         surrenders to the Allied Forces (Mitro Bahini) represented by Lieutenant General Aurora of Indian Army.
         Bangladesh gains independence.

Summary 2:

1947 - Britain, as part of its pullout from the Indian subcontinent, divides it into secular (but mainly Hindu) India and
Muslim Pakistan on August 15 and 14 respectively. The partition causes one of the largest human migrations ever seen,
and sparks riots and violence across the region.

1947/48 - The first Indo-Pak war over Kashmir is fought, after armed tribesmen (lashkars) from Pakistan's North West
Frontier Province (now called Khyber-Pakthunkhwa) invade the disputed territory in October 1947. The Maharaja, faced
with an internal revolt as well an external invasion, requests the assistance of the Indian armed forces, in return for
acceding to India. He hands over control of his defence, communications and foreign affairs to the Indian government.

Both sides agree that the instrument of accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh be ratified by a referendum, to be held
after hostilities have ceased. Historians on either side of the dispute remain undecided as to whether the Maharaja signed
the document after Indian troops had entered Kashmir (i.e. under duress) or if he did so under no direct military pressure.

Fighting continues through the second half of 1948, with the regular Pakistani army called upon to protect Pakistan's
borders. The war officially ends on January 1, 1949, when the United Nations arranges a ceasefire, with an established
ceasefire line, a UN peacekeeping force and a recommendation that the referendum on the accession of Kashmir to India
be held as agreed earlier. That referendum has yet to be held. Pakistan controls roughly one-third of the state, referring to
it as Azad (free) Jammu and Kashmir. It is semi-autonomous. A larger area, including the former kingdoms of Hunza and
Nagar, is controlled directly by the central Pakistani government. The Indian (eastern) side of the ceasefire line is referred
to as Jammu and Kashmir. Both countries refer to the other side of the ceasefire line as "occupied" territory.

1954 - The accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India is ratified by the state's constituent assembly.

1957 - The Jammu and Kashmir constituent assembly approves a constitution. India, from the point of the 1954
ratification and 1957 constitution, begins to refer to Jammu and Kashmir as an integral part of the Indian union.

1963 - Following the 1962 Sino-Indian war, the foreign ministers of India and Pakistan - Swaran Singh and Zulfiqar Ali
Bhutto - hold talks under the auspices of the British and Americans regarding the Kashmir dispute. The specific contents of
those talks have not yet been declassified, but no agreement was reached. In the talks, "Pakistan signified willingness to
consider approaches other than a plebiscite and India recognised that the status of Kashmir was in dispute and territorial
adjustments might be necessary," according to a declassified US state department memo (dated January 27, 1964).

1964 - Following the failure of the 1963 talks, Pakistan refers the Kashmir case to the UN Security Council.

1965 - India and Pakistan fight their second war. The conflict begins after a clash between border patrols in April in the
Rann of Kutch (in the Indian state of Gujarat), but escalates on August 5, when between 26,000 and 33,000 Pakistani
soldiers cross the ceasefire line dressed as Kashmiri locals, crossing into Indian-administered Kashmir. Infantry, armour
and air force units are involved in the conflict while it remains localised to the Kashmir theatre, but as the war expands,
Indian troops cross the international border at Lahore on September 6. The largest engagement of the war takes place in
the Sialkot sector, where between 400 and 600 tanks square off in an inconclusive battle. By September 22, both sides
agree to a UN mandated ceasefire, ending the war that had by that point reached a stalemate, with both sides holding
some of the other's territory.

1966 - On January 10, 1966, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahdaur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan sign an
agreement at Tashkent (now in Uzbekistan), agreeing to withdraw to pre-August lines and that economic and diplomatic
relations would be restored.

1971 - India and Pakistan go to war a third time, this time over East Pakistan. The conflict begins when the central
Pakistani government in West Pakistan, led by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, refuses to allow Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur
Rahman, a Bengali whose party won the majority of seats in the 1970 parliamentary elections, to assume the premiership.
A Pakistani military crackdown on Dhaka begins in March, but India becomes involved in the conflict in December, after
the Pakistani air force launches a pre-emptive strike on airfields in India's northwest. India then launches a coordinated
land, air and sea assault on East Pakistan. The Pakistani army surrenders at Dhaka, and its army of more than 90,000
become prisoners of war. Hostilities lasted 13 days, making this one of the shortest wars in modern history. East Pakistan
becomes the independent country of Bangladesh on December 6, 1971.



References:
     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_Liberation_War
     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_wars_and_conflicts
     http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/1998/07/26_india-pak-chronology.htm
     http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optional-subjects/group-e-history-subjects/indo-pak-history/11760-indo-
        pakistani-war-1971-a.html
     http://www.indicstudies.us/History/IndoPakChronology.html
     http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/india_pakistan/timeline/1971.stm
     http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/kashmirtheforgottenconflict/2011/06/2011615113058224115.htm
        l
     http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/post-cold-war/india-
        pakistan/History%20of%20India-Pakistan%20Relations/conflict_timeline.html
     http://www.warchat.org/history/history-asia/indo-pakistani-war-of-1971.html
     http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0825128.html
     http://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1900s/yr70/fbangladesh1971.htm
     http://www.bangla2000.com/bangladesh/war.shtm
     http://www.yespakistan.com/kashmir/war_chronology.asp
     http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1971.htm
     http://timelinesdb.com/listevents.php?subjid=68&title=Pakistan

				
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