WORKCARE: Social Quality and the Changing Relationship Between by NIQe3C

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									                  Family Policy and
                  Welfare Regimes


                Anders Ejrnæs & Thomas P. Boje
             Department of Society and Globalisation
                 Roskilde University, Denmark
                 ejrnaes@ruc.dk & boje@ruc.dk

      WORKCARE: Social Quality and the Changing Relationship
                  Between Work, care and Welfare in Europe
             Scotland House , Brussels, Tuesday 16th of June 2009
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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes


 Develop a classification of family policy
  regimes for all EU Member States
 Variables measuring different strategies
  pursued by European household in balancing
  work-family responsibilities
 The relationship between family policies and
  family praxis
 Provision of care for small children

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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes

Prevailing welfare typologies are
  problematic, because
 The welfare regimes are not coherent
 Based on North-Western European
  data
 Include only state and market as
  welfare providers
 Exclude the family and its internal
  dynamics
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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes

A new approach for analysing Family Policy
  Regimes needs to include
 The breadwinner system- the family
  structure and gender relations
 Familialisation / defamilialisation – how
  the provision of care is organisation
  (inside or outside the family)
 Social Citizenship rights – the right to
  receive care and the right to provide care

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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes

Different Work-Family typologies:
 The breadwinner model (Lewis 1992)
 Welfare provision and labour market
  (Gornick, Meyers and Ross 1997)
 Social citizenship rights – right to care
  (Knijn & Kremer 1997 and Kremer 2007)
 Organisation of care in the households
  (Bettio and Plantenga 2004)
 Leave arrangement and gender division
  (Moss & o’Brien 2006 and Wall 2007)
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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes


A growing attention among the EU member States
  for family-friendly policies due to women’s
  increasing rate of labour market participation and
  changing family formations.
This paper deals with three policy areas:

   Family policy and working time
   Parental leave schemes –> family home care
   Child care systems –> womens’s take up of
    employment

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 Central variables in the cluster analysis –
    defining the Family Policy Regimes
 Childcare take up among children aged 0-
  3 in percentage of the total number of
  children in this age-group
 Effective parental leave in weeks.
 Female part-time employment rate
  according to the EUROSTAT definition –
  self-declared part-time
 Total spending on family policy in
  percentage of GDP

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                         Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
                                The Cluster Analysis
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * H I E R A R C H I C A L   C L U S T E R   A N A L Y S I S * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *



 Dendrogram using Ward Method

                                                                Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine

                     C A S E                          0         5        10        15        20        25
  Label                                         Num   +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+

  Germany (including ex-GDR from 1991)            4    -+
  Austria                                        15    -+---------------+
  Luxembourg (Grand-Duché)                       12    -+               |
  Netherlands                                    14    ---+---------+   +-------------------------------+
  United Kingdom                                 21    ---+         |   |                               |
  France                                          8    -+-+         +---+                               |
  Sweden                                         20    -+ |         |                                   |
  Denmark                                         3    ---+---------+                                   |
  Belgium                                         1    ---+                                             |
  Estonia                                         5    -+-+                                             |
  Slovenia                                       18    -+ +---------------+                             |
  Spain                                           7    -+ |               |                             |
  Latvia                                         10    -+-+               |                             |
  Italy                                           9    -+                 +-----------------------------+
  Portugal                                       17    -+                 |
  Greece                                          6    -+                 |
  Hungary                                        13    -+---+             |
  Finland                                        19    -+   +-------------+
  Czech Republic                                  2    -+   |
  Poland                                         16    -+---+
  Lithuania                                      11    -+




 09-12-2011                                              WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje                                                       8
             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
                        Five Clusters
 Cluster        1: Long-Leave Part-time
  model
 Cluster        2: Short-leave Part-time
  Model
 Cluster        3: Extensive Family Policy
  Model
 Cluster        4: Family Care Model
 Cluster        5: Extended Parental Leave
  Model
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          Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
         Cluster 1: Long-leave, Part-time Model
This cluster includes Germany, Austria and
  Luxembourg. These countries have:
 Long parental leave, which is relatively well paid.
 For the majority of mothers on parental leave
  follow by a longer period outside the labour
  market caring for the children.
 High level of Part-time employment when
  mothers take up gainful employment after caring.
 It is part-time employment in unstable jobs with
  few weekly working hours.
 High level of spending on family policy due to
  generous paid parental leave for a long period.
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          Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
        Cluster 2: Short-leave, Part-time Model

This cluster includes the United Kingdom and the
  Netherlands. In these countries we find:
 Parental leave is short and badly paid.
 Modest level of childcare take up for children
  aged 0-3 and the childcare facilities have often
  only short opening hours.
 The childcare take-up is often combined with
  women working part-time.
 A large majority of women who work part-time
  jobs are on short hours.

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        Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
      Cluster 3: Extensive Family Policy Model
This cluster includes Denmark, Sweden,
  France, and Belgium. In these countries
  we find:
 Comprehensive rights to parental leave
  with generous payment during most of the
  parental leave period
 High level of childcare take up among
  children aged 0-3 years
 High rates of employment for mothers
 Spending on family policy is high.

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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
               Cluster 4:Family Care Model
This cluster includes all the Southern European
  countries and two Baltic countries. Here we find:
 The period of parental leave varies but in all
  countries the parental leave is badly paid forcing
  most mothers to rely on a male breadwinner.
 Provision of child care institution is low and when
  they are available it is normally on short opening
  hours and they are typically expensive.
 A low proportion of women in gainful
  employment and consequently few women in
  part-time jobs.
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        Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
     Cluster 5:Extended Parental Leave Model
This cluster includes Hungary, Poland and Czech
  Republic plus Lithuania and Finland.
  Characterized by
 Very long periods of parental leave up to three
  years per child.
 Except Finland all countries have low level of take
  up of childcare and few women on part-time.
 After parental leave the children is care for
  primarily through family arrangements or
  privately organised childcare.


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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
             Main provider for the youngest child?

                                 Child’s              No care
                               Grandparent            needed,
                                              Formal someone
                                               Care  at home Other Total
              Extensive
              Family Policy        16            39           26   20   100
              Short-leave,
              Part-time            26            19           41   15   100
              Long-leave.
              Part-time            30            18           34   18   100
              Family care
              model                32            16           32   20   100
              Extensive
              parental leave       33            14           29   24   100
              Total                27            22           32   20   100



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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
  Household practice in the different Family Policy Models I

Type of family policy model affects mothers care
  praxis and the strategies pursued by the
  households in reconciling paid work, unpaid work
  and caring obligation:
 Long-leave, Part-time Model mothers stay at
  home on long parental leave - up to three years
  per child - and if they return into employment it
  is typically contingent part-time basis on short
  hours and to extremely low wages
 Short-leave, Part-time Model period of leave is
  restricted and the lack of affordable child care
  facilities often forces mothers to take up part
  time jobs on short hours or leaving the labour
  market completely.
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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
  Household practice in the different Family Policy Models II


   Extensive Family Policy Model mothers regain employment
    after 6 months-one year parental leave and rely on public
    institutions for child care

   Family care model we find a polarisation between mothers
    who return to the labour market after a short leave relying
    on help from grandparents and mothers who are not
    participating in the labour market at all.

   Extended leave model mothers stay at home on long
    parental leave, but typically they take up full-time
    employment when the children are 3 years old. Children are
    cared for by grandparents

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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
              Policy and Household Strategies
In the paper we have made a classification of the EU Member
    States based on:
1.  the ambitions put forward by the Member State in
    pursuing a family-friendly policy towards the work-life
    balance.
2.  the household strategies followed in reconciling
    obligations in the work life and family life

Most EU-initiated proposals promoting equal opportunities
   between men and women focus on access to work and in
   removing the barriers for women into gainful employment
   – and not equality in family relations and household
   praxis.
‘Non of the EU Member States has put women on equal terms with
    men because the family-friendly policies have addressed part of
    the system rather than the whole.

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             Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
                 Policy Recommondations

To give parents more choices in combining work
  and care all EU Member States have to:
 Introduce parental leave periods for both
  mothers and fathers,
 Invest in more public and affordable childcare
  facilities on full-time,
 Increase the possibility for taking part-time leave
  giving parents more option in combining work
  and caring responsibilities
 Have a protected right to return to their previous
  job after end leave period.
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