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World World War II

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					World War II

  1939-1945
Part I: The Road to War,
        1919-1939
             Describe the 1920s-1930s.
• In the 1920s the world was troubled following
  World War I.
• The Peace Treaty of Versailles (1919) failed:
    – Germany was punished;
    – It and the Soviet Union were isolated; and
    – Democracies were weak.
•   Italy turned to Fascism
•   Then the Great Depression (1929) hit.
•   It heightened Fear of Communism
•   The United States turned to isolationism
   Describe life in the 1920s and 1930s.
• Troubles grew after the Great Depression began.
• The League of Nations failed to keep the peace when:
   – Japan invaded Manchuria (1931).
   – Hitler rose to power (1933). His goals included:
      • a Third Reich, or larger German-speaking nation with Lebensraum from
        Poland;
      • Rearmament; and
      • To exterminate all Jewish people.
   – Italy attacked Ethiopia (1936): and a Rome-Berlin axis
     formed.
   – The Spanish Civil War began (1936-1939): Fascists ignored
     democratic election results and led an army against the
     Republic. This war was training ground for the alliances and
     tactics used in World War II.
• Instead nations reacted with appeasement.
        Guernika by Pablo Picasso




• A training ground for World War II: Aerial
  bombardment was used against civilians.
• Bonus: Watch Pan’s Labyrinth.
 What were the causes of World War II?
• What does appeasement mean? To give in to a bully to
  try to make them stop.
• Appeasement policies:
   – Hitler took over Austria through the Anschluss union (1938).
   – Hitler occupied the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia (1938).
   – The world does nothing.
   – At the Munich Conference (1938) Hitler stated “I have no
     more territorial demands to make in Europe.” Allied leaders let
     him keep the land he had taken over, saying they had achieved
     “peace in our time.”
   – Within months Hitler occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia
     (March 1939).
 What were the causes of World War II?
• Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (August 1939): Secret
  provisions for division of Poland and the Baltic states
  between Germany and Russia.
What were World War II’s main events?

                  • War Begins: Blitzkrieg
                    and the fall of Poland
                    (September 1, 1939):
                     – Lightning warfare,
                       swiftly fought by
                       German army tanks and
                       troops backed by
                       Luftwaffe, led to the fall
                       of Poland within hours.
What were World War II’s main events?

  • The calm before the storm: Sitzkrieg, or the
    phony war (September 1939-Spring 1940):
     – After Poland fell the western front of the war
       remained quiet until spring.
What were World War II’s main events?
 • Hitler invades Denmark,
   Norway, Belgium, the
   Netherlands and
   Luxembourg (Spring
   1940):
   – This removes the buffer
     between Germany and
     France.
   – British and French troops
     in Belgium fled to the
     English channel.
What were World War II’s main events?
                  • Failure of the Maginot line
                    (1940):
                     – The Maginot line was built by
                       the French to protect the
                       Franco-German border.
                     – It was an imaginary line that
                       ran from Switzerland to the
                       Belgian frontier.
                     – It was exposed on the left
                       flank when Hitler
                       remilitarized; Hitler’s march
                       through Belgium avoided
                       French defense.
 What were World War II’s main events?
• The Fall of France and the
  Vichy Regime (1940-1944):
   – France fell due to German
     invasion from the east and
     Italian invasion in the south.
   – Less than a week later, France
     asked for an armistice.
   – The Vichy government that
     followed Germany’s
     aggression was a source of
     national controversy.
   – It encouraged an intense
     nationalism and anti-
     Semitism.
  What were World War II’s main events?
• French resistance (1940-
  1944):
   – Internal resistance to the
     Vichy regime developed in
     1942, but did not become
     large scale until 1944.
   – General Charles de Gaulle,
     who had fled to Britain, urged
     French people to resist Nazi
     collaboration.
  What were World War II’s main events?
• Prime Minister Winston
  Churchill ends Britain’s
  appeasement policy (1940):
   – After the fall of France, Britain
     was isolated.
   – Churchill ended appeasement
     and went to war against Hitler.
   – He bonded with American
     President Franklin D.
     Roosevelt, and the U.S. aided
     Britain before it entered the
     war, as evidenced by the
     Atlantic Charter (August 1941),
     when FDR and Churchill met at
     sea and outlined the peace that
     they would seek when the war
     ended.
What were World War II’s main events?
• The Battle of
  Dunkirk (1940):
  – British and French
    forces evacuated
    continental Europe to
    Britain from the
    beaches of Dunkirk.
  – The retreat across the
    English Channel
    saved thousands of
    life and allowed
    British-led Allied
    forces to fight Hitler
    later in the 1940s.
The Battle of Britain
What were World War II’s main events?
• The Battle of Britain (1940):
   – Hitler attempted to invade Britain in 1940, aerially bombing
     London with his Luftwaffe and destroying much of the city.
     British morale grew during this time and united the nation
     against Hitler. On the domestic front Britain’s government and
     people organized for victory and eventually succeeded.
What were World War II’s main events?
• Operation Barbarossa (May 1941):
   – Hitler overturned the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact and turned toward
     the eastern front next, hoping that a Blitzkrieg victory against Russia would
     demoralize the Allies. War was supposed to begin May 15 and intended to
     subdue Russia before winter.
   – Yet Italy, Germany’s ally, felt jealous and attacked Britain in Egypt.
     Despite initial Italian successes, soon after Allies pushed back and Hitler
     was forced to redirect his attention to Africa.
   – This moved Barbarossa back by six weeks. Although Germany was
     extremely successful in Russia through the summer, in August Hitler
     paused outside Moscow. This cost him the eastern front--Russian winter
     decimated Hitler’s army.
   – Russians view WWII as the great patriotic war--they suffered most. 16
     million died, cities and villages were destroyed and Russia lost half its
     transportation and industry. Its totalitarian leader, Stalin, used the war to
     consolidate power further.
What were World War II’s main events?
                   • Pearl Harbor (December 7,
                     1941):
                      – The Americans joined the war
                        after Japan, an Axis member,
                        bombed the U.S. naval base at
                        Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
                      – This changed the U.S.’s
                        previous isolationist policy.
                      – The next day, the U.S. and
                        Britain declared war on Japan;
                        three days later Germany
                        declared war on the U.S.
                      – By January 1942 the U.S.,
                        Britain and Russia allied to
                        fight the Hitlerreich, Italy and
                        Japan-- and to form a United
                        Nations afterward.
What were World War II’s main events?
• Island Hopping: Allied Landings in Africa, Sicily,
  Italy and the Pacific
   – In 1942 and 1943, the Allies fought campaigns in North
     Africa and in the Pacific.
   – After gaining initial footholds in North Africa and the
     Pacific, Allied forces began island hopping closer to Italy
     and Japan.
   – In 1942 Allies gained control of the Mediterranean Sea,
     and in 1943 they conquered German-controlled Italy,
     gaining the new leader of the government as an ally against
     Germany.
What were World War II’s main events?
                 • The Battle of Stalingrad
                   (1942):
                    – In the battle of Stalingrad,
                      the Russians lost more
                      soldiers than the United
                      States did during the entire
                      war, but they prevailed
                      against Germany and
                      Hitler’s army was
                      destroyed.
                    – Allied forces began to
                      aggressively bomb German
                      cities (strategic bombing).
What were World War II’s main events?




  • D-Day (June 6, 1944):
    – On D-Day, British, Canadian and American
      troops landed on the German-occupied French
      coast at Normandy and penetrated the German
      defense. France was liberated by September.
What were World War II’s main events?

                  • Battle of the Bulge
                    (December 1944):
                     – Although the battle
                       resulted in heavy Allied
                       losses, the Allies pushed
                       on and crushed German
                       resistance.
                     – This battle allowed
                       Allied forces to push into
                       Germany toward the
                       capital, Berlin.
What were World War II’s main events?
                   • Yalta (1945):
                      – In this February 1945
                        conference, the Big
                        Three (Churchill of
                        Britain, FDR of the
                        United States, and Stalin
                        of Russia) planned for
                        Europe’s future after the
                        eminent German defeat.
           Strategic bombing:
• Meanwhile Allies
  conducted a campaign of
  strategic bombing against
  German military and
  industrial targets, further
  disabling their military
  power.
• Psychologically this led to
  many Germans realization
  that contrary to the
  Hitlerreich’s message they
  were losing the war.
• Dresden was hurt most.
What were World War II’s main events?
                   • The Fall of Berlin (May
                     1945):
                      – By May 1, 1945, the
                        German resistance was
                        completely defeated and
                        Berlin was occupied by
                        Allied troops.
                      – Hitler and his cronies
                        committed suicide.
                      – Germany surrendered and
                        victory was declared in
                        Europe on May 8, 1945.
                      – Denazification,
                        disarmament and division
                        by the Allies followed.
What were World War II’s main events?
• The Potsdam Conference (July
  1945):
   – The last conference of the war by
     the Big Three (Stalin, Truman
     and Attlee), Potsdam resolved
     how to divide Germany and
     Central Europe between the
     Allied Powers – leading to the
     Cold War.
   – During this meeting Truman was
     made aware of the atomic bomb.
   – The Big Three disagreed on
     numerous issues and eastern
     European nations were also
     dissatisfied with the peace--
     foreshadowing the Cold War to
     come.
  What were World War II’s main events?
• Meanwhile in the Pacific
  Allied forces continued
  to recapture Pacific
  islands and move toward
  Japan. Despite
  devastating battles like
  Iwo Jima and Okinawa,
  Japan refused to
  surrender.
• Hiroshima (August 6,
  1945):
   – The United States’s war
     planes dropped an atomic
     bomb on the Japanese
     city of Hiroshima, killing
     a third of its residents.
What were World War II’s main events?
• Nagasaki and the Fall of
  Imperial Japan (August 8
  and 14, 1945):
   – Two days later the United
     States dropped a second
     atomic bomb on the
     Japanese city of Nagasaki.
   – The Japanese government
     under Emperor Hirohito
     surrendered on August 14,
     1945.
   – Victory in Japan was
     declared on August 15,
     1945. World War II was
     over.

				
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posted:12/9/2011
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