Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant by j1jnZ0D

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									 Migration trends in Lithuania:
issues of monitoring and migrant
           integration

                                        Karolis Žibas
                                Centre of Ethnic Studies
      Institute for Social Research (Vilnius, Lithuania)
                                              www.ces.lt


                                             2008 04 24
              Migration trends in Lithuania:
          issues of monitoring and migrant integration


I. Migration trends: statistics, tendencies and sectoral
    analysis of labour immigration;

II. Social actors and process of migration policy formation;

III. Migrant integration: overview and comparison of
     integration measures of labour migrants and refugees.
I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS
(Source: Migration Department under the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania and Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour
                                             Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)
In 2006, 7745 persons immigrated to Lithuania, which is by almost a thousand more than in 2005.
In comparison with total immigration netto it is noticeable that labour immigration is becoming progressively intense:

                                            Immigration in Republic of Lithuania (1990-2006)

           16000
           14000        14744
           12000                11828
           10000
            8000                                                                                                                 6789 7754
                                      6640                                                                5110 4728 5553
            6000                                                                                     4694
            4000                            2850                   3025 2536 2706 2679
                                                    1664 2020                               1510
            2000
               0




                                                                                                     *
                  90

                         91

                                92

                                       93

                                               94

                                                       95

                                                              96

                                                                      97

                                                                             98

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                                             Work permits issued for foreigners 1999-2007

           6000
                                                                                                                                5686
           5000
           4000
                                                                                                                   2982
           3000
           2000        1214                                                                              1565
                                     701            599         477          609          877
           1000
               0
                       1999          2000           2001        2002         2003          2004           2005          2006         2007
I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS
         (Source: Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)



 Gender and migration: a comparison of total and labour immigration by sex in 2006




     Total immigration in 2006: gender                                  Labour immigration in 2006: gender
                dimension                                                          dimension
                                                                            2%



     43,6%                               Male                                                                Males
                   56,4%                 Female                                                              Females
                                                                                98%
I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS
           (Source: Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)



                                             Immigration by nationality

In 2006 most persons (5.5 thousand, or 71.1 percent) who arrived to Lithuania were citizens of
      the Republic of Lithuania. Almost 70 per cent of returning citizens of the Republic of
      Lithuania were aged under 35. The main countries of immigration are Belarus, Russia
      and Ukraine:

                         Immigrants by nationality (%) 2001-2006
                                                                                                               Nationality 2006
        84,8      84,2
   90                                                                                                          Lithuania    5508
   80                                            69,3      71,1                                                Belarus      647
   70                          72,2 61,2                                                                       Russian      396
   60                                                                         Citizens of the Republic         Federation
   50                                                                         of Lithuania                     Ukraine      294
                                       38,8
   40                                             30,7      28,9              Foreigners                       Germany      84
   30                          27,8                                                                            Latvia       69
   20                                                                                                          Poland       57
           15,2      15,8
   10                                                                                                          Others       699
    0                                                                                                          Total        7754
        2001      2002      2003      2004      2005      2006
I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS
                  (Source: Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)

The main countries of labour immigration remain Belarus and Ukraine:
                                                  Labour immigration by states
                                                          2000-2006 m.

                         1200
                         1000
                          800
                          600                                                              Belarus
                          400                                                              Ukraine
                          200                                                              Russia
                            0                                                              China
                                  2000     2001     2002   2003   2004    2005   2006

                        Belarus    43       50       50     35     189    456    1104
                        Ukraine   128       69       38     158    279    486    959
                        Russia     49       51       57     120    108    178    124
                        China      72      103      131     103     98    112    117



                                         Foreigners in Lithuania with work permits
                                                      in 2006 by state
                                                                                        Belarus 1104
                             1%
                       4%         5% 3%                                                 Ukraine 959
                  4%                                                                    Romania 431
                                                           37%                          Russian Federation 124
                       14%
                                                                                        China 117
                                             32%                                        United States 16
                                                                                        Other
                                                                                        Other CIS
                    SECTORAL ANALYSIS OF LABOUR IMMIGRATION
                       (Source: Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)

                                                 Foreigners in Lithuania with work
                                                     permits in 2006 by sector

                                                    Education
                              Construction
                                                       1%
                                 20%                                             Manufacturing
                                                                                    36%
                                                                                                  Manufacturing
                          Facilities                                                              Transport
                            9%                                                                    Facilities
                                                                                                  Construction
                                             Transport
                                               34%                                                Education




                          Foreigners in Lithuania with work permits by profession 2004-2006

1200
             1011
1000
800                                                                                                                           2004
600                                                                                                                           2005
                             338                                                                                              2006
400
          241          282                 268
                    202                 160                229         131 158              150   109 120 107
200
        43                         84              13 88          57                 5 32                         68 89 91
   0
       International Assemblers    Welders of     Bricklayers Welders with     Ship                  Cooks        Engineers
       long-distance  of ships     ship hulls                  electricity metalworkers
          drivers
      REFUGEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA
(Source: Migration Department under the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania)




                  Geneva convention             Humanitarian
 Year                                                                    Negative
                     status granted              status granted

1997                         6                          -                     53

1998                        28                          -                    116

1999                        11                          -                    171

2000                        15                           80                  113

2001                         3                         266                    58

2002                         1                         287                    37

2003                         3                         485                    56

2004                        12                         407                    50

2005                        15                         328                    30

2006                        12                        385                     29

Total:                    106                       2238                    713
  II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

                       Main documents regulating migration policy

I. Law on the Legal Status of Aliens (last amendment – on February 2008) regulates:
      1. Issues concerning the arrival and departure of foreigners;
      2. Temporary and permanent residence, work, legal responsibilities, and other issues
      concerning the legal status of aliens in the Republic of Lithuania;
      3. Defines the status of refugees or persons that are given other forms of protection;
      4. Defines the issues of family reunification, etc.

II. Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration (2007)

Main objectives:
      1. To formulate long-term regulation measures of economic migration;
      2. To regulate factors, which stimulate economic migration in order to assure match
      between labour force demand and supply;
      3. To invoke workers from third countries with taking into consideration remigration
      process and giving priority to EU citizens;
      4. To maintain close relations with Lithuanians (economic migrants) and Lithuanian
      communities living abroad;
      5. To ensure effective institutional cooperation regarding issues of economic
      migration.
II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

              Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration (2007)

Main social actors:

1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
2. Ministry of Social Security and Labour;
3. Ministry of Interior;
4. Ministry of Finances;

5. Social partners:
       *International Organization for Migration (Section in Vilnius);
       *Trade-unions;
       *Employers;
       *Academics;
       *Companies, which activities are concerned in bringing foreign labour force from
third countries
       *etc.
II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION
                                Mass emigration
                                       +
                               Population ageing
                                       +
                       One of the biggest death-rate in EU



                      Complex of demographic problems
                                        +
      Big impact on the structure of labour market (labour force shortage)




Corporate sector’s pressure (or demands) for liberal laws allowing labour migrants
            from third countries to work in the Republic of Lithuania
                                         ↓
 Influence on the structure of Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration and
                           other policy implementations
                                         ↓
  Immigration flows / integration measures / selectively open migration policy
  II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

Result of corporate pressure to liberalize labour force import from third countries:

1. The administrative process to employ foreign workers from third countries was facilitated.

Considering recent debates and suggestions for economic migration policy, there should
     be more amendments allowing third countries nationals to enter the Republic of
     Lithuania more easily. Among them:

1. Amendment of the Law on Legal status of Aliens: family reunion;

2. Integration tax, which could be paid by employers;

3. Restructuring of conditions for the issue of work permits for foreigners.
II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION
                           Societal attitudes
        (Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2007)

               Which of the groups you would not like to have as your
                                 neighbours? (%)


     Lithuanians        0,4
      Europeans         1,6
        Russians          3,7
     Ukrainians             5,2
      Americans               7,1
           Polish               9,7
          Tartars                 12,2
    The Chinese                          18
            Jews                         18,3
           Turks                             23,3
          Blacks                                     30,3
        Refugees                                                          51
   Homosexuals                                                                  58,3
        Chechens                                                                 59,2
         Muslims                                                                 59,5
           Roma                                                                         68,2
                    0        10          20     30          40       50        60       70
  II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION
                           Societal attitudes
                (Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2008)



Equal rights for foreigners
and citizens of Lithuania in                          80,7                                         13,3     6
labour relations




Considering labour shortage
we should let labour                             60,6                                 32,8                 6,6
migrants fulfill labour market
demands




Labour migrants benefit
Lithuanian economy                               56,6                               36,1                  7,2


                               0%          20%               40%              60%            80%            100%


                 Agree                           Disagree, tend to disagree            Disagree
  II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION
                           Societal attitudes
                (Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2008)




It is enough foreign
workers in Lithuania and
we do not need any more                       46,9                               42,6              10,5




Migrant workers can
trigger social disorder                        62,1                                30,5                  7,5




                            0%          20%                 40%            60%            80%             100%




     Agree, tend to agree                     Disagree, tend to disagree                Has no opinion
  II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

                                    Media response

Headlines design single-sided (negative) attitude towards labour migrants and
     immigration in general.

      For instance:

         “Flood of migrants”;

         “Migrants overflow”;

         “Immigration – a bomb of delayed-action”;

         “Lithuanians are becoming minority”, etc.
                       III. MIGRANT INTEGRATION

                Measures and policies of minority integration


1. Minority integration programmes (Sunday schools, non-governmental organisations
of corresponding communities, etc.);

2. Education for children and adults: equalizing courses (special grades (or classes) for
pupils and adults who come from different backgrounds and need certain time to
adjust);

3. Schools with minority languages (network of secondary schools where teaching is
carried out in minority languages – Russian and Polish);

4. The infrastructure of refugee social integration (language courses, vocational
training, courses on Lithuanian culture and traditions as well as well developed
infrastructure on implementing refugee social integration).
                             III. MIGRANT INTEGRATION

                     The infrastructure of refugee social integration

   In 2005 Lithuania received more than 1,9 millions LTL from European Refugee Fund for
   Refugee Social Integration Programme

   Main elements of social integration:
   1. Language courses;
   2. Vocational training;
   3. Courses on Lithuanian culture and traditions, etc.

   Partners and production of social integration:
   1. At least 23 institutions (governmental and NGOs);
   2. Range of various projects and researches on integration issue every year and a lot
   more.

   Financial recourses:
   1. EU;
   2. Government.

The resources as well as whole infrastructure of refugee social integration is not being
   used for labour migrant integration.
Thank you

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