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Learning Objectives

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									                                                                Learning Objectives

                                         OBJECTIVES

LANGUAGE                                                         ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
CUEING SYSTEMS                                                                STRANDS
AND
CONVENTIONS

                                 ASSESSING and EVALUATING



Pragmatic                                                                                  Listening

Textual                                                                                    Speaking

Syntactical                                                                                 Reading

Semantic/Lexical/                       Before / During / After                               Writing
Morphological
                                                                                             Viewing
Graphophonic
                                                                                     Representing
Other




                                           REPORTING




For learners, the more openly and clearly objectives are expressed, the better they understand what is
expected of them. Objectives do not remain hidden in a teacher’s plan book. They are talked about and
listed in language the students can understand (M. Lewis, in Courtland & Gambell, 1994, p.60).




                                                                                                     29
30
Objectives                                               Language Arts Strands
Objectives are statements of the desired outcomes.       Foundational objectives describe the general
They describe what students should achieve from          learning outcomes to be achieved over the course of
their involvement in a particular subject area over a    a year or level. The foundational objectives for
specified time frame (e.g., Grades 6-9). The             Grades 6-9 English language arts strands are as
objectives listed on the following pages direct          follows.
teachers to the most important understandings and
abilities to be developed in English language arts.      Listening
They also provide guidance for course, unit, and
lesson planning.                                         Middle Level students will extend their abilities to:

Language Concepts                                           listen effectively in a variety of situations for a
                                                            variety of purposes
Language study is an integral part of an English            practise the behaviours of effective, active
language arts program. In addition to learning the          listeners
skills and strategies associated with listening,            assess strengths in listening and set goals for
speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and                    future growth.
representing, Middle level students need to learn
about the language cueing systems and conventions        Speaking
and how they work together to communicate
meaning.                                                 Middle Level students will extend their abilities to:

Pragmatic cues and conventions refer to the style of        speak fluently in a variety of situations for a
language that is used in a given context and take           variety of purposes and audiences
into consideration the purpose, situation, and              practise the behaviours of effective speakers
audience.                                                   assess strengths in speaking and set goals for
                                                            future growth.
Textual cues and conventions refer to the type or
kind of text and the features that are associated with   Reading
it and its organization.
                                                         Middle Level students will extend their abilities to:
Syntactical cues and conventions refer to the
structure of sentences.
                                                            read fluently and confidently a variety of texts for
                                                            a variety of purposes
Semantic, lexical, and morphological cues and
conventions refer to the meaning and structure of           practise the behaviours of effective, strategic
words.                                                      readers
                                                            assess strengths in reading and set goals for
Graphophonic cues and conventions refer to how              future growth.
words are pronounced and spelled.
                                                         Writing
Other cues and conventions associated with
communication include handwriting, fonts, graphics,      Middle Level students will extend their abilities to:
illustrations, and layout.
                                                            write fluently and confidently for a variety of
Each grade level provides a focus for language              purposes and audiences, employing appropriate
study.                                                      formats
                                                            practise the behaviours of effective writers
   Grade 6 emphasizes communicating ideas with              assess strengths in writing and set goals for
   clarity.                                                 future growth.
   Grade 7 emphasizes communicating with clarity
   and correctness.                                      Viewing
   Grade 8 emphasizes communicating with clarity,
   correctness, and variety.                             Middle Level students will extend their abilities to:
   Grade 9 emphasizes communicating with clarity,
   correctness, and emphasis.                               view effectively a variety of texts for a variety of
                                                            purposes
Specific language concepts are outlined on the              practise the behaviours of effective, strategic
following pages.                                            viewers
                                                                                                                31
     assess strengths in viewing and set goals for
     future growth.

Representing
Middle Level students will extend their abilities to:

     represent fluently and confidently for a variety of
     purposes and audiences, employing appropriate
     formats
     practise the behaviours of effective representers
     assess strengths in representing and set goals
     for future growth.

Learning objectives describe specific learning
outcomes that, if achieved, will support student
achievement of broader foundational objectives.
The following pages list specific objectives for each
area of language study and for each of the six
language strands.

Notes on Language Concepts and
Objectives
Some important aspects of language concepts and
objectives to keep in mind follow:

     A focus and a set of language concepts is
     identified for each grade level. Students should
     understand all the language study concepts
     identified for their grade level.

     An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a
     specific learning objective for listening, speaking,
     reading, writing, viewing, and representing
     indicates that this is a new objective for this
     grade level.

     Although some learning objectives under a
     foundational objective have been listed under the
     headings before, during, or after, these objectives
     may also occur in the other phases (e.g.,
     students may draw conclusions during and after
     listening, reading, or viewing).

     Teachers are urged to note the parallel nature of
     the objectives. Many of the same strategies
     before, during, and after listening, for example,
     are also used in reading and viewing. Many of
     the strategies for speaking parallel those for
     writing and representing.




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                               Grade 6 Objectives at a Glance
Focus: Communicating Ideas and Experiences with Clarity

Foundational Objective 1: Students will extend abilities to listen, speak, read, write, view, and represent
effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes.

    Listen to, read, and view and comprehend a range of contemporary and traditional grade-level texts in a
    variety of forms (including conversations, discussions, directions, demonstrations, print fiction and non-fiction,
    poetry, plays, television programs, video programs) and from a variety of cultural traditions for a variety of
    purposes including for learning and for enjoyment.
    Speak, write, and represent to describe (a place), to narrate (an incident from own experience; a friendly
    letter), to explain and inform (multi-step directions and a short report explaining a problem and giving a
    solution), and to persuade (to support viewpoint or stand) and recognize speaking, writing, and representing
    as useful tools for clarifying thinking, communicating, and learning.
    Experiment with a variety of text forms (peer interview, presentation at an assembly, poems, letter to parents,
    short review, poster, tableaux, graphic organizers) and techniques (e.g., surprise ending).

Foundational Objective 2: Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active
listeners, speakers, readers, writers, viewers, and representers.

    Select and use the appropriate strategies and language cueing systems to construct meaning before, during,
    and after listening, reading, and viewing.
    Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to communicate
    meaning before, during, and after speaking, writing, and representing.
    Understand and apply the language cues and conventions (pragmatic, textual, syntactical,
    lexical/semantic/morphological, graphophonic, and others) as they listen, speak, read, write, view, and
    represent.

Foundational Objective 3: Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in listening, speaking,
reading, writing, viewing, and representing and set goals for future growth.

    Consider which listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing strategies work best for each
    task and situation.
    Appraise own listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing skills and strategies
    Appraise own and others’ work for clarity.

Note: For specific learning objectives that express the breadth and depth of each foundational objective within
each strand, refer to the following pages.




                                                                                                                    33
                  English Language Arts Objectives for Grade 6
Language study is an integral part of an English language arts program. Students in Grade 6 are expected to
understand the following concepts about the language cues and conventions. As students listen, speak, read,
write, view, and represent, they are expected to apply the concepts when constructing and communicating
meaning in English language arts lessons and daily communication.

Focus for Grade 6 Language Study: Communicating Ideas With Clarity
Grade 6 students will understand that:

 Pragmatic Cues and Conventions
         Considering audience, purpose, and situation is important when using language clearly and acceptably
         and in order to understand what is heard, read, or viewed.
         Language usage should demonstrate respect for others.
         Body language should complement the message.
         Participation in public events, occasions, and traditions requires the use of appropriate language.
         Standard Canadian English follows widely accepted rules of usage and mechanics.
 Textual Cues and Conventions
         Ideas are organized in a variety of ways in oral, written, and visual texts.
         Non-fiction texts usually have a beginning (topic sentence), middle (several supporting sentences), and
         an end (concluding sentence).
         Key details, examples, or reasons are always included in effective communication.
         Considering the 5Ws + H (who, what, when, where, why, and how) can ensure essential ideas and
         information are communicated.
         Several paragraphs about a topic may have to be composed to explain a topic completely.
         Note: Students should understand and use a range of standard forms for texts including descriptive
         (e.g., a place), narrative (e.g., an incident ), expository (e.g., directions), and persuasive (e.g., a stand)
         paragraphs and multi-paragraph compositions.
 Syntactical Cues and Conventions
         Ideas should be communicated in clear sentence structures that contain a verb and its subject (subject
         + verb [SV], subject + verb + object [SVO], subject + linking verb + completer [SLVC]).
         Verbs are important elements in any sentence. Without a verb, a sentence does not exist.
         A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought (and has a verb).
         Closely related ideas can be combined into a compound structure using a conjunction or joining word.
         This structure should not be overused.
         Sentence beginnings should vary.
         Verbs should agree with their subjects.
         Verbs should be of the same tense throughout a communication.
         Correct verb forms should be used (e.g., “I have seen …”).
         Correct pronoun reference should be used.
         Effective punctuation helps to communicate meaning clearly.
         Periods, commas, quotation marks, and colons (before lists, separating hours and minutes, after
         salutations) assist comprehension of written texts.
 Semantic/Lexical/Morphological Cues and Conventions
         Effective communicators choose and use words that capture a particular aspect of meaning and that are
         appropriate for audience, purpose, and context.
         Some words can be overused and misused (e.g., “really good”).
         Considering the context, the sound, and the different meanings of words can help determine their
         appropriateness.
         Common homonyms (e.g., new/knew) and commonly confused words (e.g., well/good) require careful
         attention.
         Figures of speech (e.g., similes, metaphors) can clarify and enhance meaning.
         Reference tools such as dictionaries, handbooks, and spelling references can confirm the spellings or
         locate the meanings of words.
 Graphophonic Cues and Conventions
         Words should be clearly enunciated and carefully and correctly pronounced.
         Correct spelling is important for effective communication.

34
        A variety of strategies and resources can be used to determine and to learn the correct spelling of
        common words and their exceptions.
        Proofreading own and others’ work for commonly misspelled words allows one to use meaning,
        function, and context of words as well as mnemonic devices and spelling generalizations.
 Other Cues and Conventions
        Communication can be enhanced with illustrations, photographs, diagrams, maps, graphs, music, or
        drama.
        Using print (e.g., for labels on a map) or cursive writing (e.g., for writing a report) depends on purpose.
        Writing legibly requires practice and appropriate speed and control.

Grade 6 Objectives for Language Strands

 Listening (Grade 6)
 Students will extend abilities to listen effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         Participate in conversation and in small group and whole group discussion, showing an understanding
         of when to speak and when to listen (*)
         Listen to a range of texts (e.g., directions, demonstrations, presentations, radio programs, television
         programs, video programs) for a variety of purposes including to gather information, to follow
         directions, to participate in a discussion, to form an opinion, to understand information, and to enjoy
         and appreciate
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active listeners
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after listening to grade appropriate texts, including:
        Before
         Prepare to listen (*)
         Consider what they know and need to know about topic (*)
         Formulate questions before listening
         Set purpose(s) for each type of listening situation
        During
         Show interest in what is said (*)
         Anticipate and predict the speaker’s message and meaning (*)
         Associate what is being said with personal experiences and make connections (i.e., relate text to self,
         text to other texts, and text to world)
         Follow the sequence of ideas expressed by identifying the speaker’s key idea
         Make jot notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed by the speaker
         Create visual images
         Make inferences based on text and prior knowledge
         Draw conclusions based on evidence in presentation (*)
         Identify ideas expressed as true or false, real or imaginary (*)
         Recognize speaker’s use of language (formal, informal, slang)(*)
         Determine the difference between fact and opinion in speaker’s viewpoint
         Use pragmatic (e.g., speaker’s purpose), textual (e.g., speaker’s sequence), syntactic (e.g., the word
         order and emphasis on particular words), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., specific word
         meanings, choices, common prefixes), graphophonic (e.g., sound-symbol patterns), and other cues
         (e.g., the speaker’s nonverbal cues) to construct and confirm meaning (*)
        After
         Recall and summarize main points and supporting detail
         Relate what was heard to personal experiences or needs (*)
         Analyze and evaluate what was heard (*)
         Draw conclusions about speaker’s stance and values following a listening activity (*)
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed (*)
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in listening and set goals for future growth
         Consider which listening strategies work best for each task and situation (*)
         Appraise own listening skills and strategies (*)

An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             35
            Appraise own and others’ work for clarity (*)
 Speaking (Grade 6)
 Students will extend abilities to speak fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Use talk to express and to share feelings, ideas, and opinions in one-to-one, small group, and large
         group discussions
             share ideas/knowledge in a clear manner (*)
             encourage the contributions of others (*)
             disagree courteously/sensitively (*)
             take turns speaking
             answer others’ questions clearly and politely (*)
             give reasons for opinions (*)
         Speak to describe (e.g., a place) (*)
         Speak to narrate (e.g., an incident from experience) (*)
         Speak to explain, report, inquire, and inform (e.g., give multi-step directions in accurate sequence) (*)
         Speak to influence and to persuade (e.g., speak to support viewpoint) (*)
         Read aloud a short poem or prose passage with enthusiasm, expression, and fluency and speak to
         share and to entertain (e.g., choral readings)
         Experiment with speaking in formal situations (e.g., peer and other interviews, presentation at
         assembly) (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective speakers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after speaking to promote understanding of ideas, including:
        Before
         Identify purpose for speaking (*)
         Identify personal and audience knowledge (*)
         Use a variety of tools to access information and ideas relevant to presentation (*)
         Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in presentation ( *)
         Choose appropriate format (e.g., an explanation or a report) for purpose and audience
         Organize ideas in appropriate format in preparation for sharing or presenting orally (e.g., demonstrate
         an ordered sense of an incident)
         Rehearse and consider ways to enhance clarity of presentation (*)
         Consider appropriate technology to communicate and to enhance presentation (*)
        During
         Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow (*)
         Explain personal viewpoints in clear, meaningful ways
         Use volume appropriate to the purpose, audience, and situation
         Use level of language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
         Use gestures, facial expressions, and visual aids to enhance meaning of talk
         Acknowledge sources (*)
        After
         Review feedback and questions asked by audience (*)
         Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of presentation (*)
         Restate, in own words, one or two points made by others during discussions (*)
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in speaking and set goals for future growth
         Consider which speaking strategies work best for each task and situation (*)
         Appraise own speaking skills and strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity (*)
 Reading (Grade 6)
 Students will extend abilities to read effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         Read for a variety of purposes including to gather information, to follow directions, to give a response,
         to form an opinion, to understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate

An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
36
         Read a range of contemporary and classical texts appropriate to interests and learning needs
         Read texts from a variety of genres and cultural traditions (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active readers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after reading, including:
        Before
         Prepare to read (*)
         Preview the text and anticipate the author’s message
         Consider what they know and need to know about the topic
         Formulate questions before reading
         Set purpose(s) for each reading task
        During
         Match reading rate (e.g., skimming, scanning, careful reading) to specific purpose and difficulty of
         material when reading aloud and silently (*)
         Predict, confirm, and adjust predictions
         Associate what is being read with personal experiences and make connections (i.e., relate text to self,
         text to other texts, and text to world)
         Ask questions (e.g., Who? What? Where? When? How? How do I feel about what I am reading? If I
         were this character, what would I do? What does the author really mean by this?)(*)
         Follow the sequence of ideas expressed by identifying the author’s key idea
         Make jot notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed by the author
         Create visual images
         Make inferences based on text and prior knowledge
         Draw conclusions based on evidence in text
         Use pragmatic (e.g., author’s purpose), textual (e.g., author’s format), syntactic (e.g., word order),
         semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., figurative language and specific word meanings including
         homonyms, antonyms, synonyms, and common affixes), graphophonic (e.g., sound-symbol patterns),
         and other cues (e.g., diagrams and illustrations) to construct and to confirm meaning (*)
         Identify ideas expressed as true or false, real or imaginary (*)
         Recognize the author’s use of language (formal, informal, slang) and techniques (e.g., foreshadowing)
         ( *)
         Determine whether fact or opinion is being presented (*)
         Show understanding that the author’s experience, background, and culture influence the treatment of
         theme (*)
         Identify with and develop an understanding of the characters the author has created from what they
         say and do, and from what other characters and the narrator say about them
         Identify point of view in narrative (i.e., first-person, second-person, third-person) (*)
         Identify stereotyping in what is read and begin to recognize its negative impact on individuals and
         society (*)
        After
         Reread to clarify understanding when necessary (*)
         Recall and relate in own words, major ideas and their supporting details
         Relate what was read to personal experiences or needs
         Analyze and evaluate what was read (*)
         Identify significant elements and techniques in text (e.g., foreshadowing) (*)
         Draw conclusions about author’s message, values, and craft or techniques(*)
         Discuss own and others’ understanding of various community and cultural traditions in various times
         and places as portrayed in texts (*)
         Consider others’ responses in reshaping and extending own response (*)
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in reading and set goals for future growth
         Consider which reading strategies work best for each task and situation (*)
         Appraise own reading skills and strategies (*)

An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             37
            Appraise own and others’ work for clarity (*)
 Writing (Grade 6)
 Students will extend abilities to write fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Write to describe (e.g., a place)
         Write to create personal and fictional narratives (e.g., an incident from own experience)
         Write to explain, to report, and to inform (e.g., give multi-step directions and instructions in accurate
         sequence, short report)
         Write to convince and to persuade (e.g., support a position on a topic) (*)
         Write to experiment with a variety of forms (e.g., poems, a letter to parents, a short review) and
         techniques (e.g., surprise ending) (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective writers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after writing to ensure communication of ideas, including:
        Before
         Identify purpose and audience for writing (*)
         Identify personal and audience knowledge about the topic
         Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in writing by brainstorming,
         clustering, discussing, dramatizing, reading/listening/viewing, experiencing, and representing
         Use inquiry or research processes to gather additional ideas and information for specific purpose (*)
         Identify, evaluate, select, and acknowledge relevant ideas and information from two or three sources
         ( *)
         Choose appropriate format (e.g., a paragraph) for purpose and audience
         Organize ideas to fit format (e.g., to create a sense of story or of importance)
        During
         Shape and develop pre-writing into written drafts using the chosen format
         Organize and sequence relevant ideas appropriately within identified formats
         Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
         Experiment with different points of view (i.e., first-person as well as third-person) (*)
         Use appropriate technology with increasing proficiency in writing (*)
         Acknowledge sources (*)
         Share writing-in-progress in various ways (e.g., author’s circle, peer response) (*)
        After
         Revise writing for clarity of meaning and appropriate detail by adding, rearranging, replacing, or
         deleting ideas
         Revise final drafts to ensure that each paragraph has a topic sentence, a body, and a concluding
         sentence when working with a standard prose form
         Revise final drafts to ensure that there is an effective beginning or introduction (e.g., topic sentence or
         narrative hook) and an effective ending or conclusion (e.g., concluding sentence or unexpected
         ending)
         Revise final drafts to enhance artistry of text (e.g., choose language to enhance emphasis of key
         ideas) (*)
         Proofread final drafts for language conventions including:
              paragraphing
              sentence structures (e.g., ensure that they are complete, interesting, and on topic; that some
              simple sentences are compounded for variety and interest; that the subjects and verbs agree; and
              that the sentences use appropriate verb tense and correct pronoun reference)
              word choices (e.g., ensure that word choices are vivid, effective, and appropriate; that they
              accurately convey the intended meaning; and that they are used correctly)
              spelling (e.g., correct and conventional Canadian spellings)
              mechanics (e.g., ensure that the periods, question marks, exclamation marks, apostrophes,
              commas, and quotation marks as well as capitalization are correctly used)



An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
38
         Polish final drafts to enhance legibility and formatting including printing and cursive writing appropriate
         for purpose (e.g., printing for labels on diagram; writing for reports)
         Use personal word lists (e.g., frequently misspelled words in own writing and new vocabulary
         encountered through listening, reading, and viewing) and a variety of strategies to learn conventional
         spelling (e.g., relating sounds of unknown words to known words and spelling using phonetic patterns
         and generalizations; taking risks and attempting unknown spelling; consulting resources such as
         dictionaries)
         Use cursive writing with increasing speed and control
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in writing and set goals for future growth
         Consider which writing strategies work best for each task and situation (*)
         Appraise own writing skills and strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity (*)
 Viewing (Grade 6)
 Students will extend abilities to view effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         View attentively and analytically
         View for a variety of purposes including to understand and gather information, to form an opinion, to
         understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active viewers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after viewing, including:
        Before
         Prepare to view (*)
         Consider what they know and need to know about the topic
         Formulate questions before viewing
         Set purpose(s) for each type of viewing situation
        During
         Anticipate and predict the presentation’s message and meaning
         Associate what is being said with personal experiences and make connections (i.e., relate text to self,
         text to other texts, and text to world)
         Identify the key idea or main point
         Make notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed or the point of the visual (*)
         Make inferences based on visual presentation and prior knowledge
         Draw conclusions based on evidence in visual text (*)
         Determine the difference between fact and underlying message portrayed in visuals and between real
         or imaginary images (*)
         Use pragmatic (e.g., purpose of presentation), textual (e.g., the medium or structure employed), and
         other cues (e.g., the visual elements and techniques used) employed to construct and to confirm
         meaning (*)
        After
         Recall and summarize main points, important details, and techniques employed (*)
         Relate what was seen to personal experiences or needs (*)
         Analyze and evaluate what was seen (including elements, techniques, and overall effect) (e.g.,
         critique a video or drama review) (*)
         Draw conclusions about the perspectives and values portrayed in what was seen (*)
         Express and support personal reactions to and opinions of the visual (*)
         Identify the strategies used to influence an audience (e.g., exaggeration, one-sided view of a group,
         jolts)
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired (*)
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in viewing and set goals for future growth
         Consider which viewing strategies work best for each task and situation (*)
         Appraise own viewing skills and strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity (*)




An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             39
 Representing (Grade 6)
 Students will extend abilities to represent fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Use oral, print, and other media (e.g., poster, tableau, graphic organizer, chart) to explore ideas and to
         express understanding (*)
         Use oral, print, and other media (e.g., illustration, diorama, dance, role play) to express and to share
         feelings, ideas, and opinions
         Integrate a variety of media (e.g., music, mime, graph, picture) into oral and written presentations to
         enhance the message
         Experiment with representing in a variety of forms (e.g., photographs, models, collages) (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective representers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after representing to promote understanding of ideas (or aesthetic appeal), including:
        Before
         Identify purpose for representing (*)
         Identify personal and audience knowledge (*)
         Use a variety of tools to access information and relevant ideas (*)
         Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in representation using
         strategies such as brainstorming, questioning, storyboarding, clustering, drawing, and reflecting (*)
         Choose appropriate media and format
         Organize ideas in appropriate format (i.e., layout) in preparation for sharing or presenting
         Draft and design representation (*)
         Rehearse, field test, and consider ways to enhance clarity of representation (*)
         Consider appropriate technology to communicate or to enhance representation (*)
        During
         Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow (*)
         Use volume and presentation techniques appropriate to the purpose, audience, and situation
         Use level of language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
         Use visuals and other techniques that portray key understandings
         Acknowledge sources (*)
        After
         Review feedback and questions asked by audience (*)
         Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of representation (*)
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in representing and set goals for future growth
         Consider which representing strategies work best for each task and situation (*)
         Appraise own representing skills and strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity (*)




An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
40
Key Objectives for _________________________________ Unit
Listening




Speaking




Reading




Writing




Viewing




Representing




Language Study




Other Initiatives




                                                            41
                                Grade 7 Objectives at a Glance

Focus: Communicating Ideas and Experiences with Clarity and Correctness

Foundational Objective 1: Students will extend abilities to listen, speak, read, write, view, and represent
effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes.

     Listen to, read, and view a range of contemporary and traditional grade-level texts in a variety of forms
     (including gathering information, following directions, participating in discussions, contemporary and
     traditional print fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and plays, magazines, newspapers, television programs) and from
     a variety of cultural traditions for a variety of purposes including for learning and for enjoyment.
     Speak, write, and represent to describe (a person), to narrate (an imaginary incident or story), to explain and
     inform (a news story, a factual account, an explanation, a business letter), and to persuade (a persuasive
     letter, an interpretation of a text) and recognize speaking, writing, and representing as useful tools for
     clarifying thinking, communicating, and learning.
     Experiment with a variety of text forms (meeting, presentation to adults, descriptive poem, opinion piece, a
     review, front page of a newspaper, short script) and techniques (e.g., dialogue, figurative language).

Foundational Objective 2: Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active
listeners, speakers, readers, writers, viewers, and representers.

     Select and use the appropriate strategies and language cueing systems to construct meaning before, during,
     and after listening, reading, and viewing.
     Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to communicate
     meaning before, during, and after speaking, writing, and representing.
     Understand and apply the language cues and conventions (pragmatic, textual, syntactical,
     lexical/semantic/morphological, graphophonic, and others) as they listen, speak, read, write, view, and
     represent.

Foundational Objective 3: Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in listening, speaking,
reading, writing, viewing, and representing and set goals for future growth

     Set goals to improve listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing strategies.
     Appraise own and others’ work for clarity and correctness.


Note: For specific learning objectives that express the breadth and depth of each foundational objective within
each strand, refer to the following pages.




42
                 English Language Arts Objectives for Grade 7
Language study is an integral part of an English language arts program. Students in Grade 7 are expected to
understand the following concepts about the language cues and conventions. As students listen, speak, read,
write, view, and represent, they are expected to apply the concepts when constructing and communicating
meaning in English language arts lessons and daily communication.

Focus for Grade 7 Language Study: Communicating With Clarity and Correctness
Grade 7 students will understand that:

 Pragmatic Cues and Conventions
          Identifying audience, role, purpose, and situation is important when considering the appropriate and
          correct language to use and in order to understand what is heard, read, or viewed.
          Language register, tone, and usage should demonstrate respect for others and for diverse ideas,
          cultures, and traditions.
          Marking and celebrating special events and accomplishments requires the selection and use of
          appropriate language.
          Standard Canadian English follows widely accepted rules of usage and conventions.
 Textual Cues and Conventions
          Texts may describe, explain, narrate, or persuade.
          Sufficient ideas should be included in a text to communicate and explain the main idea adequately.
          Ideas should be adequately developed with relevant supporting details.
          Ideas within texts can be organized in different ways (e.g., chronological, enumerative, problem/solution,
          cause/effect, comparison/contrast).
          Transition words (e.g., in contrast, finally, moreover) signal organization patterns within texts.
          Unnecessary repetition of ideas and words should be eliminated.
          Note: Students should understand and use a range of standard forms for texts including paragraphs,
          multi-paragraph compositions, description (e.g., a person), narration (e.g., an imaginary incident or
          story), exposition (e.g., an explanation), persuasion (e.g., a persuasive letter), poetry (e.g., a
          descriptive poem), and script (e.g., writing dialogue).
 Syntactical Cues and Conventions
          Ideas should be communicated in sentence patterns that are built around the verb and its subject
          (subject + verb [SV], subject + verb + object [SVO], subject + linking verb + completer [SLVC]).
          Complete thoughts are expressed in complete sentences (versus fragments) with a verb and subject
          (stated or understood).
          Double subjects (e.g., “Bill, he …”) and double negatives with verbs (e.g., “I don’t have nothing.”)
          should be avoided
          Sentences use qualifiers to tell more about the verb and subject.
          Adverb qualifiers (i.e., “where?”, “when?”, “how?”, and “why?” words) describe the verb and other
          words and adjective qualifiers (i.e., “which one?” and “how many?” words) qualify the subject, object,
          or completing word/complement.
          Qualifiers should not be misplaced (i.e., they should go with the word they qualify).
          Closely related ideas can be combined into compound structures using a conjunction. This structure
          should not be overused (e.g., “ands” and “buts”) nor should “so” be used as a coordinate conjunction.
          An incorrectly built compound sentence is called a run-on sentence (i.e., it has too many unrelated
          ideas in one sentence, a missing conjunction, or a comma where there should be a period).
          The subject and verb should agree in sentences with compound subjects.
          The effective punctuation of sentences helps to communicate meaning clearly and correctly.
          Periods, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks (for direct speech and designation of titles of short
          works), and colons assist comprehension of written texts.
 Semantic/Lexical/Morphological Cues and Conventions
          Effective communicators choose and use words that are concise and appropriate for purpose and
          audience.
          Avoiding slang, clichés, and vulgarity in most communication is important.
          Considering the audience, purpose and context as well as the meanings and sound of words can help in
          determining their appropriateness.


                                                                                                                  43
         Common homonyms (e.g., their/they’re/there; its/it’s; too/to/two) and commonly confused words (e.g.,
         who/whom) require careful attention.
         Reference tools such as dictionaries and handbooks can confirm the spellings or meanings of unfamiliar
         words.
 Graphophonic Cues and Conventions
         Words should be clearly enunciated and carefully and correctly pronounced.
         Correct spelling is important for effective communication.
         A variety of strategies and resources can be used to determine and learn the correct spelling of
         common words and their exceptions.
         Proofreading own and others’ work for commonly misspelled words allows one to use meaning,
         function, and context of words as well as mnemonic devices and spelling generalizations.
 Other Cues and Conventions
         Communication can be enhanced with illustrations, models, graphic organizers, charts, timelines,
         maps, sound effects, and drama.
         A cover page, a list of references, and the appropriate layout and spacing enhance a report or
         presentation.
         Using print (e.g., for labels on a map) or cursive writing (e.g., for writing a report) depends on
         purpose.
         Writing legibly requires practice and appropriate speed and control.

Grade 7 Objectives for Language Strands

 Listening (Grade 7)
 Students will extend abilities to listen effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         Participate in conversation and in small group and whole group discussion, showing an understanding
         of when to speak and when to listen
         Listen for a variety of purposes including to gather information, to follow directions, to participate in a
         discussion, to form an opinion, to understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
         Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of oral texts (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active listeners
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after listening to grade appropriate texts, including:
        Before
         Prepare to listen
         Draw on prior knowledge and experience by considering what they know and need to know about the
         topic
         Formulate questions before listening
         Set purpose(s) for listening in a variety of situations
        During
         Concentrate on the message of the speaker and respond with interest (*)
         Anticipate and predict the speaker’s message and meaning
         Separate own ideas and opinions from speaker’s ideas and opinions (*)
         Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other text, and
         text to world)
         Recognize the main ideas and supporting details (*)
         Recognize the presenter’s organizational structure and follow the sequence of ideas expressed (*)
         Note how examples, illustrations, and visual aids support or take away from the key message (*)
         Determine literal and implied meaning of message (*)
         Make jot notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed by the speaker
         Create visual images
         Make inferences based on text and prior knowledge
         Draw conclusions based on evidence in presentation
         Recognize speaker’s use of language (formal, informal, slang)
         Determine whether fact or opinion is expressed in speaker’s viewpoint



An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
44
         Use pragmatic (e.g., speaker’s purpose and point of view), textual (e.g., speaker’s organization of
         ideas), syntactic (e.g., main and subordinate ideas), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., specific
         word meanings by context and reason for particular word choices, common affixes), graphophonic
         (e.g., word patterns), and other cues (e.g., the speaker’s nonverbal cues) to construct and confirm
         meaning (*)
        After
         Recall and summarize main points and supporting detail
         Relate what was heard to personal experiences or needs
         Analyze and evaluate what was heard
         Draw conclusions based on evidence presented
         Draw conclusions about speaker’s values
         Consider and respect ideas from speaker’s point of view (*)
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in listening and set goals for future growth
         Set goals to improve listening strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity and correctness (*)
 Speaking (Grade 7)
 Students will extend abilities to speak fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Use talk to express and to share feelings, ideas, and opinions in one-to-one, small group, and large
         group discussions
             share ideas/knowledge clearly and logically (*)
             encourage others to contribute
             disagree courteously/sensitively
             take turns speaking
             answer others’ questions clearly and politely
             give reasons for opinions
             add to others’ ideas(*)
             repeat points for clarification(*)
             restate points already made for emphasis and reconsideration (*)
         Speak to describe (e.g., a person) and to narrate (e.g., an imaginary incident or story)
         Speak to explain, report, and inform (e.g., give multi-step instructions, give short report)
         Speak to influence and to persuade (e.g., speak to support an interpretation of text)
         Read aloud with enthusiasm, expression, and fluency and speak to share and to entertain (e.g., recite
         poems; participate in improvisations)
         Experiment with speaking in formal situations (e.g., meetings, presentations to adults)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective speakers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after speaking to promote understanding of ideas, including:
        Before
         Identify purpose for speaking
         Identify personal and audience knowledge
         Access information and ideas from a variety of sources
         Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in presentation
         Choose appropriate format (e.g., a report)
         Organize ideas in appropriate format in preparation for sharing or presenting orally (e.g., demonstrate
         logical order in a how-to-explanation)
         Support key points with evidence and examples (*)
         Rehearse and consider ways to enhance clarity of presentation
         Consider appropriate technology to communicate and to enhance presentation
        During
         Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow
         Summarize personal viewpoint in clear and meaningful ways (*)


An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             45
         Use volume appropriate to the purpose, audience, and situation and modulate voice for effect (*)
         Use level of language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
         Use gestures, facial expressions, and visual aids to enhance meaning of talk
         Respond to questions and comments concisely, clearly, and appropriately (*)
         Acknowledge sources
        After
         Review feedback and questions asked by audience
         Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of presentation
         Summarize ideas discussed and state own view in light of discussion (*)
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in speaking and set goals for future growth
         Set goals to improve speaking strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity and correctness (*)
 Reading (Grade 7)
 Students will extend abilities to read effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         Read for a variety of purposes including to gather information, to follow directions, to give a response,
         to form an opinion, to understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
         Read a range of contemporary and classical texts appropriate to interests and learning needs
         Read texts from a variety of genres and cultural traditions
         Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of written texts (*)
         Read independently (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active readers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after reading grade appropriate texts, including:
        Before
         Prepare to read
         Draw on prior knowledge and experiences by considering what they know and need to know about the
         topic
         Preview the text and anticipate author’s message
         Ask questions
         Set purpose(s) for each reading task
        During
         Read with purpose in mind (*)
         Match reading rate (e.g., skimming, scanning, careful reading) to specific purpose and difficulty of
         material when reading aloud and silently
         Make and confirm or correct predictions (*)
         Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other texts, and
         text to world) (*)
         Recognize author’s main ideas and important supporting details (*)
         Recognize author’s overall organization of ideas (*)
         Make jot notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed by the author
         Create visual images
         Make inferences based on text and prior knowledge
         Draw conclusions based on evidence in text
         Use pragmatic (e.g., author’s purpose and point of view), textual (e.g., how author organized text),
         syntactic (e.g., main and subordinate ideas), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., figurative language
         and specific word meanings by their context and allusions), graphophonic (e.g., word patterns), and
         other cues (e.g., headings, charts, and diagrams) to construct and to confirm meaning (*)
         Identify ideas expressed as true or false, real or imaginary
         Recognize the author’s use of language (formal, informal, slang) and techniques (e.g., foreshadowing)
         Recognize author’s point of view and reasons for choosing it (*)
         Determine whether fact or opinion is being portrayed
         Show understanding that the author’s experience, background, and culture influence the treatment of
         theme


An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
46
         Identify with and develop an understanding of the characters the author has created from what they
         say and do, and from what other characters and the narrator say about them
         Identify stereotyping in what is read and begin to recognize its negative impact on individuals and
         society
        After
         Reread to clarify understanding when necessary
         Recall and relate in own words, major ideas and their supporting details
         Summarize major ideas (*)
         Relate what was read to personal experience or needs
         Analyze and evaluate what was read
         Draw conclusions about author’s message, values, point of view, and craft or techniques (*)
         Identify significant elements and techniques in text and how they interact to create effects (*)
         Consider how text has contributed to understanding of self and others (*)
         Compare own with others’ understanding of people, cultural traditions, and values portrayed in texts
         ( *)
         Reflect on and support personal and critical responses with reference to text ( *)
         Consider others’ responses in reshaping and extending own response
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in reading and set goals for future growth
         Set goals to improve reading strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity and correctness (*)
 Writing (Grade 7)
 Students will extend abilities to write fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Write to describe (e.g., a character or person)
         Write to create personal and fictional narratives (e.g., an imaginary incident)
         Write to explain, to report, and to inform (e.g., a news story, factual account, explanation, business
         letter)
         Write to convince and to persuade (e.g., persuasive letter)
         Write to experiment with a variety of forms (e.g., a descriptive poem, a short dialogue, opinion piece,
         review) and techniques (e.g., dialogue, figurative language)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective writers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after writing to ensure communication of ideas, including:
        Before
         Identify purpose and audience for writing
         Identify personal and audience knowledge
         Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in writing by brainstorming,
         clustering, discussing, dramatizing, reading/listening/viewing, experiencing, and representing
         Use inquiry or research processes to gather additional ideas and information for specific purpose
         Identify, evaluate, select, and acknowledge relevant ideas and information from two or three sources

           Choose appropriate format (e.g., news story) for purpose and audience
           Plan (e.g., using chart or outline) and organize ideas to fit format (e.g., chronological, enumerative,
           problem/solution, cause/effect, comparison/contrast) (*)
           During
           Shape and develop pre-writing into written draft using the chosen format and keeping purpose in mind
           ( *)
           Organize and sequence relevant ideas appropriately within identified formats
           Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
           Use appropriate point of view (including third-person) when writing for particular audience and
           purpose (*)
           Experiment with different points of view (e.g., first-person as well as third-person)


An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             47
            Use transition words (e.g., first, then, next, before, after, however) to signal organizational pattern
            within compositions (*)
            Use appropriate technology with increasing proficiency in writing
            Enhance compositions with illustrations, charts, and other graphics when appropriate (*)
         Acknowledge sources
         Share writing-in-progress and final drafts in various ways (e.g., author’s circle, peer response)
        After
         Revise final drafts for clarity of meaning and appropriate detail by adding, rearranging, or deleting
         ideas
         Revise final drafts to eliminate unnecessary repetition of ideas and words (*)
         Revise final drafts to ensure that each paragraph has a topic sentence, a body, and a concluding
         sentence
         Revise final drafts to ensure that there is an effective beginning or introduction (e.g., topic sentence or
         narrative hook) and an effective ending or conclusion (e.g., concluding sentence or unexpected
         ending)
         Revise final drafts to ensure language is appropriate for audience and purpose
         Revise final drafts to enhance artistry of text (e.g., choose language to enhance emphasis of key
         ideas)
         Proofread final drafts for language conventions including:
              paragraphing
              sentence structures (e.g., ensure that they are complete, interesting, and on topic; combine
              sentences to form compound and complex sentences for variety, interest, and effect; ensure that
              the subjects and verbs agree; ensure that the sentences use appropriate verb tense and correct
              pronoun reference; ensure that qualifiers are not misplaced)
              word choices (e.g., ensure that word choices are vivid, effective, and appropriate; that they
              accurately convey the intended meaning; that they are used correctly; and that slang and clichés
              are avoided)
              spelling (e.g., ensure that words use correct and conventional Canadian spellings, and that
              common homonyms are correctly spelled)
              mechanics (e.g., ensure that the periods, question marks, exclamation marks, apostrophes,
              commas, and quotation marks as well as capitalization marks are correctly used)
         Polish final drafts to ensure legibility and correct formatting including printing and cursive writing
         appropriate for purpose (e.g., printing for labels on diagram, writing for reports; include a cover page
         and list of references; use appropriate spacing and layouts) (*)
         Use personal word lists (e.g., frequently misspelled words in own writing and new vocabulary
         encountered through listening, reading, and viewing) and a variety of strategies to learn conventional
         spelling (e.g., relating sounds of unknown words to known words and spelling using phonetic patterns
         and generalizations; taking risks and attempting unknown spelling, consulting resources such as
         dictionaries)
         Use cursive writing with increasing speed and control
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in writing and set goals for future growth
         Set goals to improve writing strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity and correctness (*)
 Viewing (Grade 7)
 Students will extend abilities to view effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         View for a variety of purposes including to understand and gather information, to form an opinion, to
         understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
         Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of visual works (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active viewers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after viewing grade appropriate texts, including:
        Before
         Prepare to view



An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
48
         Draw on prior knowledge and experience by considering what they know and need to know about the
         topic
         Formulate questions before viewing
         Set purpose(s) for each type of viewing situation
        During
         View attentively
         Predict and confirm the presentation’s message and meaning
         Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other texts, and
         text to world)
         Recognize the main ideas, underlying messages and values, and relevant supporting details (*)
         Recognize the overall organization of ideas (*)
         Make notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed or the point of the visual
         Make inferences based on visual presentation and prior knowledge
         Draw conclusions based on evidence in visual text
         Determine the difference between fact and underlying message portrayed in visuals and between real
         or imaginary images
         Use pragmatic (e.g., purpose and point of view of presentation), textual (e.g., the medium, the
         organizational structure employed, and the key visual techniques used), and other cues (e.g., the
         visual elements) to construct and to confirm meaning (*)
        After
         Recall and summarize main points, important details, and techniques employed
         Reflect and re-view in light of purpose (*)
         Relate what was seen to personal experiences or needs
         Analyze and evaluate what was seen (including elements, techniques, and overall effect) (e.g.,
         critique a video or review a dramatization) and identify how it was constructed, shaped, and produced
         (*)
         Draw conclusions about the perspectives and values portrayed in what was seen
         Respond personally and critically with reference to text
         Express and support personal reactions to and opinions of the visual
         Identify the strategies used to influence an audience (e.g., exaggeration, one-sided view of a group,
         colour)
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in viewing and set goals for future growth
         Set goals to improve viewing strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity and correctness (*)
 Representing (Grade 7)
 Students will extend abilities to represent fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Use oral, print, and other media (e.g., timelines, models, video news items) to explore ideas and to
         express understanding
         Use oral, print, and other media (e.g., magazine cover, role play) to express and to share feelings,
         ideas, and opinions
         Integrate a variety of media (e.g., music, mime, computer graphic, graph, picture) into oral and written
         representations to enhance the message
         Experiment with representing in a variety of forms (e.g., front page of newspaper, short TV script and
         show, multimedia presentation)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective representers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after representing to promote understanding of ideas, including:
        Before
         Identify purpose for representing
         Identify personal and audience knowledge
         Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in representation using
         strategies such as brainstorming, questioning, storyboarding, clustering, drawing, and reflecting
         Access information and ideas from a variety of sources


An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             49
         Determine key ideas, messages, or information to be expressed (*)
         Choose appropriate media and format for purpose, audience, and situation (*)
         Organize ideas in appropriate format (layout) in preparation for sharing or presenting
         Recognize and use the strategies in the representing process including planning and focusing,
         scripting and layout, and revising (*)
         Rehearse, field test, and consider ways to enhance clarity of representation
         Consider appropriate technology to communicate and to enhance representation
        During
          Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow
          Use volume and presentation techniques appropriate to the purpose, audience, and situation
          Use level of language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
          Use visuals and other techniques that portray key understandings
          Acknowledge sources
        After
          Review feedback and questions asked by audience
          Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of representation
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in representing and set goals for future growth
         Set goals to improve listening strategies (*)
         Appraise own and others’ work for clarity and correctness (*)




An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
50
Key Objectives for __________________________________________ Unit
Listening




Speaking




Reading




Writing




Viewing




Representing




Language Study




Other Initiatives




                                                                     51
                               Grade 8 Objectives at a Glance

Focus: Communicating Ideas and Experiences with Clarity, Correctness, and Variety

Foundational Objective 1: Students will extend abilities to listen, speak, read, write, view, and represent
effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes.

     Listen to, read, and view and comprehend a range of contemporary and traditional texts in a variety of forms
     (including discussions, informational presentations dramatic presentations, Reader’s Theatre, mini-debates,
     print fiction, non-fiction, poetry, plays, television programs, websites, news programs) and from a variety of
     cultural traditions for a variety of purposes including for learning and for enjoyment.
     Speak, write, and represent to describe (a landscape scene), to narrate (a personal story or anecdote, a
     historical narrative), to explain and inform (a presentation of findings, a biography, a documented research
     report, a résumé and covering letter), and to persuade (a mini-debate, a review) and recognize speaking,
     writing, and representing as useful tools for clarifying thinking, communicating, and learning.
     Experiment with a variety of text forms (Reader’s Theatre, role play, humorous instructions, a PowerPoint
     presentation, a dramatization) and techniques (e.g., imagery, music, graphics and statistics in a multimedia
     presentation).

Foundational Objective 2: Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active
listeners, speakers, readers, writers, viewers, and representers.

     Select and use the appropriate strategies and language cueing systems to construct meaning before, during,
     and after listening, reading, and viewing.
     Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to communicate
     meaning before, during, and after speaking, writing, and representing.
     Understand and apply the language cues and conventions (pragmatic, textual, syntactical,
     lexical/semantic/morphological, graphophonic, and others) as they listen, speak, read, write, view, and
     represent.

Foundational Objective 3: Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in listening, speaking,
reading, writing, viewing, and representing and set goals for future growth.
   Use information gathered in self-assessment and teacher’s assessment to set and maintain goals for
   improving listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing.
   Appraise own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and variety.


Note: For specific learning objectives that express the breadth and depth of each foundational objective within
each strand, refer to the following pages.




52
                 English Language Arts Objectives for Grade 8
Language study is an integral part of an English language arts program. Students in Grade 8 are expected to
understand the following concepts about the language cues and conventions. As students listen, speak, read,
write, view, and represent, they are expected to apply the concepts which constructing and communicating
meaning in English language arts lessons and in daily communication.

Focus for Grade 8 Language Study: Communicating With Clarity, Correctness, and
Variety
Grade 8 students will understand that:

 Pragmatic Cues and Conventions
         Identifying audience, role, purpose, and situation is important when considering the appropriate tone
         and level of language to be used (e.g., formal, informal, colloquial) and in order to understand what is
         heard, read, or viewed.
         Jargon, slang, clichés, contractions, and the personal “I/you” should be avoided in formal
         communication.
         Language register, tone, and usage should demonstrate respect for others and for people of different
         ages, abilities, genders, cultures, and races.
         Organizing and participating in special public events requires the use of appropriate language and
         tone.
         Standard Canadian English follows widely accepted rules of usage and conventions.
 Textual Cues and Conventions
         All ideas or information included in a text should serve a purpose.
         A single controlling idea and an appropriate sequence can ensure unity and coherence in a text.
         Non-fiction texts may present the main idea first or lead up to the main idea.
         Texts can employ features of narration, description, explanation, or persuasion.
         Narrative texts often include details such as description and dialogue that show rather than tell what
         happened.
         Narrative can be told by the person taking part or by an outside observer-narrator telling about others.
         The point of view in a text should be consistent throughout the text.
         Description focuses on creating a dominant impression of a person, place, or feeling.
         Exposition involves using supporting ideas to explain a main idea.
         Persuasion aims to move someone to support a point of view or to act in support of an idea or cause.
         Note: Students should understand and use a range of standard forms for texts including paragraphs,
         multi-paragraph compositions, description (e.g., landscape scene), narration (e.g., personal stories and
         anecdotes), exposition (e.g., biography), persuasion (e.g., a review), letters (e.g., format for the
         business letter), poetry (e.g., a lyrical or narrative poem), and script (e.g., a short scene or dialogue
         between two characters).
 Syntactical Cues and Conventions
         Ideas should be communicated in sentence patterns that are built around the verb and its subject
         (subject + verb [SV], subject + verb + object [SVO], subject + linking verb + completer [SLVC]).
         Complete thoughts are expressed in complete sentences (versus fragments) with a verb and subject
         (stated or understood).
         Some ideas can be subordinated to show more precisely the relationship between ideas (because,
         although, when) and to avoid a string of compound sentences.
         Some sentences can be made more precise by reducing a main idea (clause) to a subordinate idea
         (clause); a subordinate clause can, in turn, be reduced to a phrase or single word.
         Effective communicators use a variety of sentence types (e.g., statements and questions; simple,
         compound, and complex) and lengths.
         All sentences should serve a purpose.
         The recognition and correction of sentence errors ensures effective communication.
         Pronouns can act as subjects or objects and their subjective and objective forms should be used
         correctly (e.g., “Him and his brother …”)
         The effective punctuation of sentences helps to communicate meaning clearly and correctly.
         Periods, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, colons, semicolons, dashes, and hyphens assist
         comprehension of written texts.

                                                                                                                 53
 Semantic/Lexical/Morphological Cues and Conventions
        Effective communicators choose and use words that are appropriate and specific.
        Using a variety of synonyms appropriately can give variety to communication.
        Considering the audience, purpose and context as well as the meanings, associations, visual images,
        and sounds of words can help in determining their appropriateness.
        Common homonyms (e.g., whose/who’s) and commonly confused words (e.g., lend/borrow) require
        careful attention.
        History, social trends, and geographic regions influence word choice.
        Reference tools such as dictionaries, thesauri, and handbooks can be used to find words and their
        meanings, check spelling, and verify usage.
 Graphophonic Cues and Conventions
        Words should be clearly enunciated and accurately pronounced with proper emphasis.
        Correct spelling is important for effective communication.
        Developing a systematic and effective approach to studying and remembering the correct spelling of
        common words and words needed in language tasks is important.
        Knowledge of a wide range of spelling patterns and rules helps to identify, analyze, and correct spelling
        errors.
        Proofreading carefully and using knowledge of spelling generalizations and how words are formed is
        important in writing.
        Identifying the use of spelling variants in print and other media texts helps one determine the
        appropriateness of variant spellings for specific audiences and purposes.
 Other Cues and Conventions
        Communication and understanding can be enhanced with graphic organizers, storyboards, videos,
        dramatizations, flow charts, sound effects, and visual aids.
        Along with language, effective communicators consider the arrangement and balance of words and
        visuals, as well as fonts (typefaces/print) in order to send a clear message to specific audiences.
        Using print (e.g., for labels on a map) or cursive writing (e.g., for writing a report) depends on purpose.
        Writing legibly requires practice and appropriate speed and control.

Grade 8 Objectives for Language Strands

 Listening (Grade 8)
 Students will extend abilities to listen effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
        Participate in conversation and in small group and whole group discussion, showing an understanding
        of when to speak and when to listen
        Listen for a variety of purposes including to gather information, to follow directions, to participate in a
        discussion, to form an opinion, to understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
        Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of oral texts
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active listeners
        Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
        construct meaning before, during, and after listening to grade-level appropriate texts, including:
        Before
        Prepare to listen
        Draw on prior knowledge and experience by considering what they know and need to know about the
        topic
        Formulate questions for listening
        Identify purpose(s) for listening in a variety of situations
        During
        Adapt listening and focus to purpose and situation (*)
        Keep an open mind and consider ideas that differ from own (*)
        Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other texts, and
        text to world)
        Recognize the main ideas and supporting details
        Recognize the presenter’s organizational structure and follow the sequence of ideas expressed
        Note how examples, illustrations, and visual aids support or take away from key message
        Determine literal and implied meaning of message

An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
54
        Determine the congruency between the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal cues (*)
        Make jot notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed by the speaker
        Create visual images
        Make inferences based on text and prior knowledge
        Draw conclusions based on evidence in presentation
        Recognize speaker’s use of language (formal, informal, colloquial)
        Determine whether fact or opinion to expressed in speaker’s viewpoint and recognize generalizations
        ( *)
        Interact appropriately with speaker and seek clarification when meaning is not clear (*)
        Use pragmatic (e.g., speaker’s purpose and appeals), textual (e.g., speaker’s plan), syntactic (e.g., use
        of the rhetorical question and emphasis on particular words in a sentence), semantic/lexical/
        morphological (e.g., specific word meanings and emotional appeals, common affixes and roots),
        graphophonic (e.g., word patterns), and other cues (e.g., the speaker’s nonverbal cues and visual aids)
        to construct and confirm meaning (*)
         After
        Recall and summarize main points and supporting detail
        Relate what was heard to personal experiences or needs
        Analyze and evaluate what was heard
        Draw conclusions about speaker’s values
        Consider and respect ideas from speaker’s point of view
        Compare own values with those identified in speaker’s message (*)
        Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in listening and set goals for future growth
        Use information gathered in self-assessment and teacher’s assessment to set and maintain goals for
        improving listening (*)
        Appraise own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and variety (*)
 Speaking (Grade 8)
 Students will extend abilities to speak fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
        Initiate conversation about a range of topics and respond appropriately when others initiate
        conversation (*)
        Use talk to express and to share feelings, ideas, opinions, and aesthetic responses in one-to-one,
        small group, and large group discussions
             share ideas/knowledge clearly and logically
             encourage others to contribute
             disagree courteously/sensitively
             take turns speaking
             answer others’ questions clearly and politely
             give reasons for opinions and point of view (*)
             add to others’ ideas
             repeat points for clarification
             restate points already made for emphasis and reconsideration
             summarize main ideas discussed and conclusions drawn(*)
        Speak to describe (e.g., a landscape scene) and to narrate (e.g., personal stories and anecdotes to
        illustrate a point)
        Speak to explain, report, and inform (e.g., give reports and presentations of findings)
        Speak to influence and to persuade (e.g., speak to debate a point)
        Read aloud with enthusiasm, expression, and fluency and speak to share and to entertain (e.g., give a
        dramatic reading of a poem or play excerpt; participate in Reader’s Theatre)
        Experiment with speaking in formal situations (e.g., mini-debates, meetings)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective speakers
        Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
        during, and after speaking to promote understanding of ideas, including:




An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             55
         Before
        Identify purpose for speaking
        Identify personal and audience knowledge
        Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in presentation
        Access information and ideas from a variety of sources
        Choose appropriate format
        Organize ideas in appropriate format in preparation for sharing or presenting orally (e.g., demonstrate
        logical order in a how-to explanation)
        Support key points with evidence and examples
        Rehearse and consider ways to enhance clarity of presentation
        Consider appropriate technology to communicate and to enhance presentation
        Set and manage deadlines (*)
         During
        Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow
        Explain personal viewpoint clearly
        Use volume appropriate to the purpose, audience, and situation and modulate voice for effect
        Use level of language and tone to suit audience, purpose, and situation (*)
        Use gestures, facial expressions, and visual aids to enhance meaning of talk
        Respond to questions and comments concisely, clearly, and appropriately
        Summarize key ideas (*)
        Justify and support opinions (*)
        Acknowledge sources
         After
        Review feedback and questions asked by audience
        Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of presentation
        Summarize ideas discussed and state own view in light of discussion
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in speaking and set goals for future growth
        Use information gathered in self-assessment and teacher’s assessment to set and maintain goals for
        improving speaking (*)
        Appraise own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and variety (*)
 Reading (Grade 8)
 Students will extend abilities to read effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
        Read for a variety of purposes including to gather information, to follow directions, to give a response,
        to form an opinion, to understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
        Select texts appropriate to interests and learning needs
        Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of written texts
        Read a range of contemporary and classical texts from a variety of genres and cultural traditions
        Read independently for self-identified purposes (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active readers
        Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
        construct meaning before, during, and after reading grade-level appropriate texts, including:
        Before
        Prepare to read
        Draw on prior knowledge and experiences by considering what they know and need to know about the
        topic
        Preview text and anticipate author’s message
        Ask questions
        Set purpose(s) appropriate for each reading task
        During
        Read with purpose in mind
        Match reading rate (e.g., skimming, scanning, careful reading) to specific purpose and difficulty of
        material when reading aloud and silently
        Make and confirm or correct predictions
        Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other texts, and
        text to world)

An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
56
        Recognize author’s main ideas and relevant supporting details (*)
        Recognize author’s overall organization of ideas and patterns within that organization (*)
        Make jot notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed by the author
        Create visual images
        Make inferences based on text and prior knowledge
        Draw conclusions based on evidence in text
        Use pragmatic (e.g., author’s purpose, intended audience, point of view, and tone), textual (e.g., how
        author organized text to achieve unity and coherence), syntactic (e.g., main and subordinate ideas and
        variety of sentence structures), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., imagery, figurative language,
        specific word meanings by their context and allusions), graphophonic (e.g., word patterns), and other
        cues (e.g., layout and accompanying graphics) to construct and to confirm meaning (*)
        Identify ideas expressed as true or false, real or imaginary
        Recognize the author’s use of language (formal, informal, slang) and techniques (e.g., foreshadowing)
        Consider author’s reasons for choosing point of view (*)
        Determine whether fact or opinion is being portrayed
        Show understanding that the author’s experience, background, and culture influence the treatment of
        theme
        Identify with and develop an understanding of the characters the author has created from what they say
        and do, and from what other characters and the narrator say about them
        Identify stereotyping in what is read and begin to recognize its negative impact on individuals and
        society
         After
        Reread to clarify understanding when necessary
        Recall and relate in own words, major ideas and their supporting details
        Summarize major ideas
        Relate what was read to personal experiences or needs
        Analyze and evaluate what was read
        Identify techniques used to create particular effects or portray various people and cultures (*)
        Draw conclusions about author’s message, values, point of view, and craft
        Consider how text has contributed to understanding of self and others (e.g., cultural groups) (*)
        Compare values expressed in texts through characters to own values (*)
        Discuss how similar ideas, people, experiences, and traditions are conveyed in texts (*)
        Recognize how particular elements (e.g., setting, word choice, figurative language) work to create
        mood or tone (*)
        Recognize any underlying biases, stereotypes, or prejudices in texts (*)
        Reflect on and support personal and critical responses with reference to text
        Consider others’ responses in reshaping and extending own response
        Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in reading and set goals for future growth
        Use information gathered in self-assessment and teacher’s assessment to set and maintain goals for
        improving reading (*)
        Appraise own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and variety (*)
 Writing (Grade 8)
 Students will extend abilities to write fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
        Write to describe (e.g., multi-paragraph description of a landscape)
        Write to create personal and fictional narratives (e.g., multi-paragraph personal, imaginary, or historical
        narrative)
        Write to explain, to report, and to inform (e.g., multi-paragraph researched report, news story, and
        biography)
        Write to convince and to persuade (e.g., multi-paragraph opinion piece or review)
        Write to experiment with a variety of forms (e.g., lyrical and narrative poems, letters, scripts,
        humourous instructions) and techniques (e.g., imagery, dialogue, figurative language)



An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             57
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective writers
        Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
        during, and after writing to ensure communication of ideas, including:
        Before
        Identify purpose and audience for writing
        Identify personal and audience knowledge
        Generate and explore ideas by brainstorming, clustering, discussing, dramatizing, representing,
        reading/listening/viewing, and experiencing
        Consider appropriate ideas and information to include in writing
        Use inquiry or research processes to gather additional ideas and information for specific purpose
        Identify, evaluate, select, and acknowledge relevant ideas and information from two or three sources
        Choose appropriate format for purpose and audience
        Plan, organize, and sequence ideas to fit purpose, point of view, and format (e.g., chronological,
        enumerative, problem/solution, cause/effect, comparison/contrast) (*)
        Set and manage deadlines (*)
        During
        Shape and develop pre-writing into written drafts using the chosen format and keeping purpose in mind
        Organize and sequence relevant ideas appropriately within identified formats
        Use level of language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
        Use appropriate point of view (including third person) when writing for particular audience and purpose
        Experiment with point of view and develop reasons for final choice (*)
        Use transition words to signal organizational pattern within compositions
        Use appropriate technology with increasing proficiency in writing
        Enhance compositions with illustrations, charts, and other graphics when appropriate
        Acknowledge sources
        Share writing-in-progress and final drafts in various ways (e.g., author’s circle, peer response) and
        respond sensitively and constructively during conferences (*)
        After
        Revise final drafts for clarity of meaning and appropriate detail by adding, rearranging, or deleting ideas
        Revise final drafts to eliminate unnecessary repetition of ideas and words
        Revise final drafts to ensure that each paragraph has a topic sentence, a body, and a concluding
        sentence
        Revise final drafts to ensure that there is an effective beginning or introduction (e.g., topic sentence or
        narrative hook) and an effective ending or conclusion (e.g., concluding sentence or unexpected ending)
        Revise final drafts to ensure that the format and patterns within that format contribute to the
        effectiveness of the composition (*)
        Revise final drafts to ensure language is appropriate for audience and purpose
        Revise final drafts to enhance artistry of text (e.g., choose language to enhance emphasis of key ideas)
        Proofread final drafts for language conventions including:
            paragraphing
            sentence structures (e.g., ensure that they are complete, interesting, on topic, and connected to
            each other; combine sentences to form compound and complex sentences for variety, interest, and
            effect; ensure that the subjects and verbs agree; ensure that the sentences use appropriate verb
            tense and correct pronoun reference; ensure that qualifiers are not misplaced)
            word choices (e.g., ensure that word choices are vivid, effective, and appropriate; that they
            accurately convey the intended meaning; that they are used correctly; and that colloquialisms and
            clichés are avoided)
            spelling (e.g., ensure that words use correct and conventional Canadian spellings and that
            common homonyms are correctly spelled )
            mechanics (e.g., ensure that the periods, question marks, exclamation marks, apostrophes,
            commas, and quotation marks as well as capitalization marks are correctly used)
        Polish final drafts to ensure legibility and correct formatting including printing and cursive writing
        appropriate for purpose (e.g., printing for labels on diagram, writing for reports; include a cover page
        and list of references; use appropriate spacing and layout)




An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
58
        Use personal word lists (e.g., frequently misspelled words in own writing and new vocabulary
        encountered through listening, reading, and viewing) and a variety of strategies to learn conventional
        spelling (e.g., relating sounds of unknown words to known words and spelling using phonetic patterns
        and generalizations; taking risks and attempting unknown spelling; consulting resources such as
        dictionaries)
        Use cursive writing with increasing speed and control
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in writing and set goals for future growth
        Use information gathered in self-assessment and teacher’s assessment to set and maintain goals for
        improving writing (*)
        Appraise own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and variety (*)
 Viewing (Grade 8)
 Students will extend abilities to view effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
        View for a variety of purposes including to understand and gather information, to form an opinion, to
        understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
        Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of visual works (e.g., a television show, a website on the Internet,
        a news program) (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active viewers
        Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
        construct meaning before, during, and after viewing grade-level appropriate texts, including:
         Before
        Prepare to view
        Draw on prior knowledge and experience by considering what they know and need to know about the
        topic
        Formulate questions before viewing
        Set purpose(s) for each type of viewing situation
         During
        View attentively
        Predict and confirm the presentation’s message and meaning
        Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other texts, and
        text to world)
        Recognize the main ideas, underlying messages and values, and relevant supporting details
        Recognize the overall organization of ideas
        Make notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed or the point of the visual
        Make inferences based on visual presentation and prior knowledge
        Draw conclusions based on evidence in visual text
        Determine the difference between fact and underlying message portrayed in visuals and between real
        or imaginary images
        Recognize how images or other elements capture and hold viewer’s attention (*)
        Identify the different techniques used in different media work to impact viewers (*)
        Use pragmatic (e.g., purpose, intended audience, point of view, and tone of presentation), textual (e.g.,
        the medium, the organizational structure employed, and the key visual techniques used to create
        overall effect), and other cues (e.g., the layout and visual elements) to construct and to confirm
        meaning (*)
         After
        Recall and summarize main points, important details, and techniques employed
        Reflect and re-view in light of purpose and intended audience (*)
        Relate what was seen to personal experience or needs
        Analyze and evaluate what was seen (including elements, techniques, and overall effect) (e.g., critique
        a news program or documentary) and identify how it was constructed, shaped, and produced (*)
        Draw conclusions about the perspective and values portrayed in what was seen
        Respond personally and critically with reference to text
        Express and support personal reactions to and opinions of the visual
        Identify the strategies used to influence an audience (e.g., exaggeration, one-sided view of a group,
        jolts)
        Evaluate the effectiveness and overall impact of the medium to deliver the message intended (*)


An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             59
        Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in viewing and set goals for future growth
        Use information gathered in self-assessment and teacher’s assessment to set and maintain goals for
        improving listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing (*)
        Appraise own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and variety (*)

 Representing (Grade 8)
 Students will extend abilities to represent fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
        Use oral, print, and other media (e.g., storyboard, audio tape, website, illustrated report) to explore
        ideas and to express understanding
        Use oral, print, and other media (e.g., role play that ends with a tableau, illustrated report) to express
        and to share feelings, ideas, and opinions
        Integrate a variety of media (e.g., music, graphic, photograph) into oral and written representations to
        enhance the message
        Experiment with representing in a variety of familiar and unfamiliar forms (e.g., PowerPoint,
        dramatization) (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective representers
        Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
        during, and after representing to promote understanding of ideas, including:
         Before
        Identify purpose for representing
        Identify personal and audience knowledge
        Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in representation using
        strategies such as brainstorming, questioning, storyboarding, clustering, drawing, and reflecting
        Access information and ideas from a variety of sources
        Determine key ideas, messages, or information to be expressed
        Choose appropriate media to fully explore and extend ideas (*)
        Choose appropriate media and format for purpose, audience, and situation
        Organize ideas in appropriate format (layout) in preparation for sharing or presenting
        Recognize and use the strategies in the representing process including planning and focusing, scripting
        and layout, and revising
        Rehearse, field test, and consider ways to enhance clarity of representation
        Consider appropriate technology to communicate and to enhance representation
        Set and manage deadlines
         During
        Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow
        Use volume and presentation techniques appropriate to the purpose, audience, and situation
        Use level of language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
        Use visuals and other techniques that portray key understandings
        Acknowledge sources
         After
        Review feedback and questions asked by audience
        Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of representation
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in representing and set goals for future growth
        Use information gathered in self-assessment and teacher’s assessment to set and maintain goals for
        improving representing (*)
        Appraise own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and variety (*)




An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
60
Key Objectives for ___________________________ Unit
Listening




Speaking




Reading




Writing




Viewing




Representing




Language Study




Other Initiatives




                                                      61
                                 Grade 9 Objectives at a Glance
Focus: Communicating Ideas and Experiences with Clarity, Correctness, and Effect (Emphasis)


Foundation Objective 1: Students will extend abilities to listen, speak, read, write, view, and represent
effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes.

     Listen to, read, and view a range of contemporary and classical texts in a variety of forms (including
     discussions, presentations, dramatic readings, print fiction and non-fiction, poetry, and plays, multimedia
     presentations, videos, dramatizations, advertisements) and from a variety of cultural traditions for a variety of
     purposes including for learning and for enjoyment.
     Speak, write, and represent to describe (a multi-paragraph profile, an analysis of a character), to narrate (a
     personal narrative), to explain and inform (a research report, letters), and to persuade (a persuasive essay,
     letters) and recognize speaking, writing, and representing as useful tools for clarifying thinking,
     communicating, and learning.
     Experiment with a variety of text forms (e.g. debates, meetings, presentations to unfamiliar audiences, poetry,
     précis, short script advice column, video documentary, comic strip) and techniques (e.g., tone, persona, point
     of view, imagery, dialogue, figurative language).

Foundational Objective 2: Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active
listeners, speakers, readers, writers, viewers, and representers.

     Select and use the appropriate strategies and language cueing systems to construct meaning before, during,
     and after listening, reading, and viewing.
     Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to communicate
     meaning before, during, and after speaking, writing, and representing.
     Understand and apply the language cues and conventions (pragmatic, textual, syntactical,
     lexical/semantic/morphological, graphophonic, and others) as they listen, speak, read, write, view, and
     represent.

Foundational Objective 3: Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in listening, speaking,
reading, writing, viewing, and representing and set goals for future growth.

     Assess personal strengths and needs as a listener, speaker, reader, writer, viewer, and representer and
     contributions to the community of learners.
     Assess own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and impact.


Note: For specific learning objectives that express the breadth and depth of each foundational objective within
each strand, refer to the following pages.




62
                 English Language Arts Objectives for Grade 9
Language study is an integral part of an English language arts program. Students in Grade 9 are expected to
understand the following concepts about the language cues and conventions. As students listen, speak, read,
write, view, and represent, they are expected to apply the concepts while constructing and communicating
meaning in English language arts lessons and in daily communication.

Focus for Grade 9 Language Study: Communicating With Clarity, Correctness, and
Effect (Emphasis)
Grade 9 students will understand that:

 Pragmatic Cues and Conventions
          Identifying audience, role, purpose, and situation is important when considering the appropriate tone
          and level of language that can be used to communicate with and influence others, and in order to
          understand what is heard, read, or viewed.
          Language register, usage, and tone should demonstrate respect for others and for people of different
          opinions, perspectives, communities, and cultures.
          Honouring and celebrating events and different people across cultures, age groups, and genders
          requires careful attention to language choices.
          Standard Canadian English follows widely accepted rules of usage and conventions.
 Textual Cues and Conventions
          Effective texts assert one main controlling idea (or thesis) and all the parts support that idea.
          Ideas related to the main idea or thesis should be adequately developed.
          A variety of organizational patterns and sequences can be used to present main ideas and supporting
          details logically and coherently.
          Narrative texts usually include a beginning that arouses interest, a middle that leads to a major event,
          and an ending that completes the incident. Longer narratives employ techniques or devices such as
          foreshadowing, unexpected endings, or flashbacks within the text.
          Descriptive texts focus on creating a dominant impression of a person, place, feeling, or idea.
          Explanatory texts present facts to specific audiences and are organized in a variety of ways to ensure
          clarity. Secondary sources of information are acknowledged.
          Persuasive texts usually state a view or opinion with conviction, consider carefully the arguments to
          support that view, and present the strongest argument last.
          Note: Students should understand and use a range of standard forms for texts including paragraphs,
          multi-paragraph compositions, description (e.g., a character profile), narration (e.g., personal
          narrative), explanation (e.g., a research report), persuasion (e.g., advertisement), poetry (e.g., lyrical
          and narrative), letters (e.g., friendly and business), and script (e.g., episode for television or radio).
 Syntactical Cues and Conventions
          Ideas should be communicated in simple, compound, and complex sentence patterns that are built
          around the verb and its subject (subject + verb [SV], subject + verb + object [SVO], subject + linking
          verb + completer [SLVC]).
          The effective coordination, subordination, and apposition of ideas can make sentences clear and
          varied.
          A compound sentence is made up of two simple sentences that are equal in value; a complex
          sentence is made up of two ideas that are not equal in importance.
          Parallel ideas can be placed in parallel structure or in balanced sentences.
          Usually, it is preferable to have the subject “do” rather than receive the action (i.e., be active versus
          passive).
          Sentences can be varied to create effect (e.g., build suspense).
          The recognition and correction of sentence errors ensures effective communication.
          Punctuation can be adapted for special requirements of scripts, dialogues, and poetry.
          The correct use of periods, commas, quotation marks, dashes, colons, semicolons, and hyphens
          assist comprehension for the readers of written text.
 Semantic/Lexical/Morphological Cues and Conventions
          Effective communicators choose and use words for their denotative and connotative value and effect.
          Precise, vivid diction helps achieve emphasis; wordiness, mixed metaphors, and the use of “fancy”
          words can impede effectiveness.


                                                                                                                   63
         Considering the audience, purpose, and context as well as the meanings, associations, visual images,
         and sounds of words can help in determining their appropriateness and effectiveness.
         Considering and experimenting with the literal and figurative value of words can enhance
         communication.
         Using imagery and figurative language (such as personification and alliteration) can enhance and clarify
         meaning.
         Common homonyms (e.g., through/threw; hear/here; affect/effect), commonly confused words (e.g.,
         site/cite/sight), and “abusages” (e.g., irregardless, anyways, among/between) require careful attention.
         Word usage is influenced by regional dialect.
         Reference tools such as dictionaries, thesauri, handbooks, and technology can be used to find words
         and their meanings, check spelling, and verify usage.
 Graphophonic Cues and Conventions
         Words should be clearly enunciated and accurately pronounced in a tone of voice suitable for the
         audience and purpose.
         Correct spelling is important for effective communication.
         Using a systematic and effective approach to studying and remembering the correct spelling of
         common words and words needed for a range of language tasks is important.
         Deliberate, conscientious, and independent application of a variety of proofreading strategies to
         confirm spellings in own communication is important.
         Identifying and using variant spelling for particular effects depends on audience, purpose, content,
         and context.
 Other Cues and Conventions
         Communication and understanding can be enhanced with graphic organizers, audio and visual aids,
         dramatizations, flow charts, illustrations, maps, charts, graphs, and multimedia strategies.
         Effective communicators consider design features such as layout and spacing, fonts (typefaces),
         colour, visual images, and graphic organizers in tailoring a message with impact for a specific
         audience.
         Using print (e.g., for labels on a map) or cursive writing (e.g., for writing a report) depends on
         purpose.
         Writing legibly requires practice and appropriate speed and control.

Grade 9 Objectives for Language Strands

 Listening (Grade 9)
 Students will extend abilities to listen effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         Participate in conversation and in small group and whole group discussion, showing an understanding
         of when to speak and when to listen
         Listen for a variety of purposes including to gather information, to follow directions, to participate in a
         discussion, to form an opinion, to learn, and to enjoy and appreciate
         Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of oral texts
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active listeners
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after listening to grade-level appropriate texts, including:
        Before
         Prepare to listen
         Draw on prior knowledge and experience by considering what they know and need to know about the
         topic
         Formulate questions before listening
         Identify purpose(s) for listening in a variety of situations
        During
         Listen with clearly identified purpose in mind and adapt listening and focus to purpose and situation(*)
         Keep an open mind and consider ideas that differ from own
         Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other text, and
         text to world)
         Recognize the main ideas and supporting details



An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
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         Recognize the presenter’s organizational structure and identify the transitional words that assist in
         following the sequence of ideas expressed (*)
         Note how examples, illustrations, and visual aids support or take away from key message
         Determine literal and implied meaning of message
         Determine the congruency between the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal cues
         Make jot notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) and supporting details expressed by the speaker(*)
         Create visual images
         Make inferences based on text and prior knowledge
         Draw conclusions based on evidence in presentation
         Recognize speaker’s use of language (formal, informal, colloquial)
         Determine whether fact or opinion is expressed in speaker’s viewpoint and recognize biases,
         stereotyping, and propaganda in speaker’s message (*)
         Interact appropriately with speaker and seek clarification when meaning is not clear
         Use pragmatic (e.g., speaker’s purpose and appeals), textual (e.g., speaker’s plan), syntactic (e.g.,
         use of the rhetorical question and emphasis on particular words in a sentence), semantic/lexical/
         morphological (e.g., specific word meanings and emotional appeals), graphophonic (e.g., common
         sound-symbol patterns and emphasis for effect), and other cues (e.g., the speaker’s nonverbal cues
         and visual aids) to construct and confirm meaning
        After
         Recall and summarize main points and supporting detail
         Relate what was heard to personal experiences or needs
         Analyze and evaluate what was heard and the techniques that were used (*)
         Draw conclusions about speaker’s values
         Consider and respect ideas from speaker’s point of view
         Compare own values with those identified in speaker’s message
         Identify biases, stereotypes, and propaganda in the speaker’s message (*)
         Analyze speaker’s viewpoint and arguments for validity and supporting evidence (*)
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in listening and set goals for future growth
         Assess personal strengths and needs as a listener and contributions to the community of learners (*)
         Assess own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and impact (*)
 Speaking (Grade 9)
 Students will extend abilities to speak fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Recognize that talk is an important tool for communicating, for clarifying thinking, and for learning
         Use talk to explore own and others’ ideas and to express understanding (*)
         Initiate conversation about a range of topics and respond appropriately when others initiate
         conversation
         Use talk to express and to share feelings, ideas, and opinions in one-to-one, small group, and large
         group discussions
              share ideas/knowledge clearly and logically
              encourage others to contribute
              disagree courteously/sensitively
              take turns speaking
              answer others’ questions clearly and politely
              give reasons for opinions and point of view
              add to others’ ideas
              repeat points for clarification
              restate points already made for emphasis and reconsideration
              summarize main ideas discussed and conclusions drawn
              analyze statements made by self and others (*)
              generalize from several comments and points made (*)
         Speak to describe (e.g., a memorable character or a vivid scene) and to narrate (e.g., retell stories
         and memorable experiences)
         Speak to explain, report, and inform (e.g., reports, summaries, and presentations)

An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             65
         Speak to influence and to persuade (e.g., speak to convince someone of a position or action)
         Read aloud with enthusiasm, expression, and fluency and speak to share and to entertain (e.g., read
         aloud short prose passages to support a point, participate in dramatic speaking experiences such as
         role plays and dramatic readings)
         Experiment with speaking in formal situations (e.g., debates, meetings, presentation to an unfamiliar
         audience)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective speakers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after speaking to promote understanding of ideas including:
        Before
         Identify purpose for speaking
         Identify personal and audience knowledge
         Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in presentation
         Access information and ideas from a variety of sources
         Choose appropriate format
         Organize ideas in appropriate format and sequence ideas and information clearly and logically ( *)
         Support key points with evidence and examples
         Rehearse and consider ways to enhance clarity of presentation
         Consider appropriate technology to communicate and to enhance presentation
         Set and manage deadlines
        During
         Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow
         Move smoothly and logically from one point to another (*)
         Use volume appropriate to the purpose, audience, and situation and modulate voice for effect
         Adjust level of language and tone to suit audience, purpose, and situation (*)
         Adjust volume, tone, pitch, and pace of speech to create effect and enhance communication ( *)
         Use gestures, facial expressions, visual aids, and other nonverbal cues effectively to enhance
         meaning of talk (*)
         Hold audience’s attention (*)
         Respond to questions and comments concisely, clearly, and appropriately
         Summarize key ideas
         Justify and support opinions
         Acknowledge sources
        After
         Review feedback and questions asked by audience
         Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of presentation
         Summarize ideas discussed and state own view in light of discussion
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in speaking and set goals for future growth
         Assess personal strengths and needs as a listener, speaker, reader, writer, viewer, and representer
         and contributions to the community of learners (*)
         Assess own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and impact (*)
 Reading (Grade 9)
 Students will extend abilities to read effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         Read for a variety of purposes including to gather information, to follow directions, to extend thinking,
         to give a response, to form an opinion, to understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
         Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of written texts
         Read independently for self-initiated and assigned purposes (*)
         Read a range of contemporary and classical texts from a variety of genres and cultural traditions
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active readers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after reading grade-level appropriate texts, including:
        Before
         Prepare to read
         Preview text and anticipate author’s message


An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
66
           Draw on prior knowledge and experiences by considering what they know and need to know about the
           topic
           Ask questions
           Set purpose(s) appropriate for each reading task
           During
           Read with purpose in mind
           Adjust reading rate (e.g., skimming, scanning, careful reading) to specific purpose and difficulty of
           material when reading aloud and silently) (*)
           Make and confirm or correct predictions
           Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other texts, and
           text to world)
           Recognize author’s main ideas and relevant supporting details
           Recognize author’s overall organization of ideas and patterns within that organization
           Make jot notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed by the author
           Create visual images
           Make inferences based on text and prior knowledge
           Draw conclusions based on evidence in text
           Use pragmatic (e.g., author’s purpose, intended audience, point of view, use of language to achieve
           purpose, and tone), textual (e.g., author’s thesis or main idea, how author organized text to achieve
           unity coherence and effect), syntactic (e.g., main and subordinate ideas, parallel structures, and
           variety of sentence structures), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., connotation and denotation,
           imagery, figurative language, allusions, specific word meanings by their context), graphophonic (e.g.,
           common spellings and variants for effect or dialect), and other cues (e.g., fonts, colour, layout and
           accompanying graphics) to construct and to confirm meaning (*)
           Identify ideas expressed as true or false, real or imaginary
           Recognize the author’s use of language (formal, informal, slang) and techniques (e.g., foreshadowing)
           Recognize the narrator’s and author’s points of view (*)
           Determine whether fact or opinion is being portrayed
           Show understanding that the author’s experience, background, and culture influence the treatment of
           theme
           Identify with and develop an understanding of the characters that the author has created from what
           they say and do and from what other characters and the narrator say about them
           Identify stereotyping in what is read and begin to recognize its negative impact on individuals and
           society
           After
           Reread to clarify understanding when necessary
           Recall and relate in own words, major ideas and their supporting details
           Paraphrase and summarize major ideas (*)
           Relate what was read to personal experience or needs
           Analyze and evaluate the ideas presented and the social, moral, and intellectual development of
           characters in texts (*)
           Examine the use of a variety of techniques to portray people, gender, cultures, and socio-economic
           groups in text (*)
           Draw and support conclusions and opinions about author’s message, values, point of view, and craft
           ( *)
           Examine how personal experiences, community traditions, and Canadian perspectives are presented
           in texts (*)
           Recognize how text contributed to own understanding of self, roles in society, and relationships with
           others (*)
           Compare values expressed in texts through characters to own values
           Recognize how particular elements (e.g., setting, word choice, figurative language) work to create
           mood or tone
           Recognize any underlying biases, stereotypes, or prejudices in texts
           Reflect on and support personal and critical responses with reference to text
           Consider others’ responses in reshaping and extending own response


An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             67
         Consider more complex and alternate interpretations (*)
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in reading and set goals for future growth
         Assess personal strengths and needs as a reader and contributions to the community of learners (*)
         Assess own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and impact (*)
 Writing (Grade 9)
 Students will extend abilities to write fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Write to describe (e.g., multi-paragraph profile of a character or a description of a scene)
         Write to create personal and fictional narratives (e.g., multi-paragraph story, personal narrative,
         personal essay)
         Write to explain, to report, and to inform (e.g., multi-paragraph explanation, report)
         Write to convince and to persuade (e.g., multi-paragraph review, letter to the editor)
         Write to experiment with a variety of forms (e.g., poetry, letters, short scripts, advice column) and
         techniques (e.g., tone, point of view, imagery, dialogue, figurative language)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective writers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after writing to ensure communication of ideas, including:
        Before
         Identify purpose and audience for writing
         Identify personal and audience knowledge
         Consider and value own observations, experiences, ideas, and opinions as sources for authentic
         writing (*)
         Generate and explore ideas by brainstorming, clustering, discussing, dramatizing, representing,
         reading/listening/viewing, and experiencing
         Consider appropriate ideas and information to include in writing
         Use inquiry or research processes to gather additional ideas and information for specific purpose
         Identify, evaluate, select, and acknowledge relevant ideas and information from two or three sources
         Choose appropriate format for purpose and audience
         Plan, organize, and sequence ideas to fit purpose, point of view, and format (e.g., chronological,
         enumerative, problem/solution, cause/effect, comparison/contrast)
         Create and follow a pre-writing plan
         Set and manage deadlines
        During
         Shape and develop pre-writing into written drafts using the appropriate format and keeping purpose
         and audience in mind (*)
         Organize and sequence relevant ideas appropriately within identified formats
         Use level of language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
         Use appropriate point of view (including third-person) when writing for particular audience and
         purpose
         Experiment with a variety of points of view and author stances (e.g., omniscient, semi-omniscient) (*)
         Use transition words to signal organizational pattern within compositions
         Use appropriate technology with increasing proficiency in writing
         Enhance compositions with illustrations, charts, and other graphics when appropriate
         Acknowledge sources
         Seek out teachers, peers, and others with specific strengths for writing conferences (*)
         Share writing-in-progress and final drafts in various ways (e.g., author’s circle, peer response) and
         respond sensitively and constructively during conferences
         Identify relevant comments and suggestions that will direct revision (*)
        After
         Revise final drafts for clarity of meaning and appropriate detail by adding, rearranging, or deleting
         ideas
         Revise final drafts to ensure that compositions assert one main idea or thesis and that all parts
         support that main idea or thesis (*)


An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
68
         Revise final drafts to ensure that compositions have effective beginning, adequately developed
         middles, and appropriate conclusions (*)
         Revise final drafts to ensure language is appropriate for audience and purpose
         Revise final drafts to ensure a consistent and appropriate viewpoint and tone (*)
         Revise final drafts to enhance artistry of text (e.g., choose language to enhance emphasis of key
         ideas)
         Revise and polish final drafts using pre-established criteria appropriate to chosen task, purpose, and
         format (*)
         Proofread own and others’ writing for language conventions including:
            paragraphing
            sentence structures (e.g., ensure that they are complete, interesting, on topic, and connected to
            each other; combine sentences to form compound and complex sentences for variety, interest, and
            effect; put parallel ideas in parallel structures; ensure that the subjects and verbs agree; ensure
            that the sentences use appropriate verb tense and correct pronoun reference; ensure that
            qualifiers are not misplaced)
            word choices (e.g., ensure that word choices are vivid, effective, and appropriate; that they
            accurately convey the intended meaning; that they are used correctly and that colloquialisms and
            clichés are avoided)
            spelling (e.g., ensure that words use correct and conventional Canadian spellings and that
            common homonyms are correctly spelled)
            mechanics (e.g., ensure that the periods, question marks, exclamation marks, apostrophes,
            commas, and quotation marks as well as capitalization marks are correctly used)
         Polish final drafts to ensure legibility and correct formatting including printing and cursive writing
         appropriate for purpose (e.g., printing for labels on diagram, writing for reports; include a cover page
         and list of references; use appropriate spacing and layout)
         Use personal word lists (e.g., frequently misspelled words in own writing and new vocabulary
         encountered through listening, reading, and viewing) and use systematically effective strategies to
         learn conventional spelling (e.g., relating sounds of unknown words to known words and spelling using
         phonetic patterns and generalizations, taking risks and attempting unknown spelling, consulting
         resources such as dictionaries)
         Use cursive writing with increasing speed and control
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in writing and set goals for future growth
         Assess personal strengths and needs as a writer, and contributions to the community of learners (*)
         Assess own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and impact (*)
 Viewing (Grade 9)
 Students will extend abilities to view effectively in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes
         View for a variety of purposes including to understand and gather information, to form an opinion, to
         understand information, and to enjoy and appreciate
         Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of visual works (e.g., a photograph, a video, a website)
         Recognize that images, symbols, and other visual effects play a role in shaping understanding of
         various texts (*)
         Evaluate common approaches used in visuals (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective, active viewers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions to
         construct meaning before, during, and after viewing grade-level appropriate texts, including:
        Before
         Prepare to view
         Draw on prior knowledge and experience by considering what they know and need to know about the
         topic
         Formulate questions before viewing
         Set purpose(s) for each type of viewing situation
        During
         View attentively and with a clearly defined purpose in mind (*)
         Predict and confirm the presentation’s message and meaning
         Make connections to prior knowledge and experiences (i.e., relate text to self, text to other text, and
         text to world)

An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             69
         Recognize the main ideas, underlying messages and values, and relevant supporting details
         Recognize the overall organization of ideas
         Make notes to assist recall of the main idea(s) expressed or the point of the visual
         Make inferences based on visual presentation and prior knowledge
         Draw conclusions based on evidence in visual text
         Determine the difference between fact and underlying message portrayed in visuals and between real
         or imaginary images
         Recognize how images or other elements capture and hold viewer’s attention
         Identify the different techniques used in different media work to impact viewers
         Identify the different explicit and implicit message in visual texts (*)
         Use pragmatic (e.g., purpose, intended audience, point of view, and tone of presentation), textual
         (e.g., the medium, the organizational structure employed), and the key visual techniques used to
         create overall effect visual images and other cues (e.g., the layout and visual elements) to construct
         and to confirm meaning
        After
         Recall and summarize main points, important details, and techniques employed
         Reflect and re-view in light of purpose and intended audience
         Relate what was seen to personal experience or needs
         Analyze and evaluate what was seen (including elements, techniques, and overall effect) (e.g.,
         critique a news program or documentary) and identify how it was constructed, shaped, and produced
         Draw conclusions about the perspectives and values portrayed in what was seen
         Respond personally and critically with reference to text
         Express and support personal reactions to and opinions of the visual
         Identify and evaluate how elements (e.g., use of space, size and placement, camera angles) and
         other strategies were used in various texts to influence an audience and communicate the message
         (*)
         Evaluate the effectiveness and overall impact of the medium to deliver the message intended
         Identify the use of bias, stereotyping, emotional persuasion, and propaganda in visual (*)
         Seek additional information from other sources as needed or desired
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in viewing and set goals for future growth
         Assess personal strengths and needs as a viewer, and contributions to the community of learners (*)
         Assess own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and impact (*)
 Representing (Grade 9)
 Students will extend abilities to represent fluently in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and
 audiences
         Use oral, print, and other media (e.g., storyboarding, scripting, mapping) to explore ideas and to
         express understanding
         Use oral, print, and other media (e.g., pamphlet, billboards, advertisement, multimedia presentation,
         dramatization) to express and to share feelings, ideas, and opinions
         Integrate a variety of media (e.g., sound, affect, mime, graphic, short video clip) into oral and written
         representations to enhance the message
         Experiment with representing in a variety of familiar and unfamiliar forms (e.g., video documentary on
         social issue, comic strip) and adapt a print work to another medium (e.g., design a book jacket to sell
         the same novel to children, teens, adults) (*)
 Students will extend abilities by practising the behaviours of effective representers
         Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language cueing systems and conventions before,
         during, and after representing to promote understanding of ideas
        Before
         Identify purpose for representing
         Identify personal and audience knowledge
         Generate ideas and consider appropriate ideas and information to include in representation using
         strategies such as brainstorming, questioning, storyboarding, clustering, drawing, and reflecting
         Access information and ideas from a variety of sources
         Determine key ideas, messages, or information to be expressed
         Choose appropriate media to fully explore and extend ideas
         Choose appropriate media and format for purpose, audience, and situation

An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
70
         Organize ideas in appropriate format (layout) in preparation for sharing or presenting
         Recognize and use the strategies in the representing process including planning and focusing,
         scripting and layout, and revising and post-production strategies (*)
         Rehearse, field test, and consider ways to enhance clarity of representation
         Consider appropriate technology and techniques to communicate and to enhance the appeal,
         accuracy, and persuasiveness of representations (*)
         Set and manage deadlines
        During
         Present ideas clearly and at a rate that enables others to follow
         Use volume and presentation techniques appropriate to the purpose, audience, and situation
         Use level of language and vocabulary appropriate to audience and purpose
         Use visuals and other techniques that portray key understandings
         Acknowledge sources
        After
         Review feedback and questions asked by audience
         Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of representation
 Students will extend abilities to assess strengths in representing and set goals for future growth
         Assess personal strengths and needs as a representer and contributions to the community of learners
         (*)
         Assess own and others’ work for clarity, correctness, and impact (*)




An asterisk in parentheses (*) following a learning objective indicates that this is a new objective for this grade level.
                                                                                                                             71
Key Objectives for ___________________________ Unit
Listening




Speaking




Reading




Writing




Viewing




Representing




Language Study




Other Initiatives




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