Mountain- an elevated landform
characterized by steep slopes; it is usually
part of a chain of mountains.
Mountains form in different ways-
Strong movements in the earth under the
ground form mountains. The force of these
movements pushes rock layers upward and
this forms mountains and mountain ranges.
Hill- Moderately high landform whose slopes
follow a gentle incline.
Cliff- A steep and fairly smooth slope.
Peak- mountain whose summit forms a cone
or point. (triangle-like)
Summit- The highest point on the mountain.
Ridge- Long narrow section at the highest
point on a mountain.
Older Mountains- lowers, more flattened,
Newer Mountains- higher, rigid, rocky
Why do you think you can see a difference
between older and newer mountains?
The reason is because of erosion and
weathering. Overtime the older mountains
have been worked down, and slowly become
flat and/or smooth.
Which mountain is older? Why?
Mountains can be found through out the United
There are a total of 75 mountains in the United
There are TWO main mountain ranges:
1)The Rocky Mountains which run from the
Western United States through Canada.
2) The Appalachian Range which runs from the
Southeast U.S. and northward to Canada.
Does anyone know if Alabama has a mountain? If
there is one, do you know the name of it?
A view from Mt. Cheaha
Alabama in located at the very beginning of the Appalachian Range.
Rocky Mountains Appalachian Range
The Appalachian Range runs through
Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky,
Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, South
Carolina, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania.
Activity- each student is given a copy of a
U.S. map, with each state name shown and
outlined. The students will color in the states
the Appalachian range runs through in red.
The Rocky Mountains span over 8 states: Arizona,
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico,
Utah, and Wyoming.
Rocky Mountain Activity- each students is given a
map of the united states and they will color in
the Rocky Mountain States. In blue.
Mt. Rushmore is located in South Dakota. Locate
South Dakota on your map. Now label it with the
During the early 1900’s, the U.S. was growing
very fast. People were traveling from the East
Coast to the West coast. Many were passing by
North and South Dakota, not stopping.
The people in South Dakota wanted a tourist
attraction that would bring in more tourists that
were passing through the state.
The South Dakota Historical Society decided they
should build a huge memorial carved from rock
and it would bring more visitors to the area. The
increased number of visitors would bring in more
Mt. Rushmore is made out of a type of rock
called granite. Granite is especially good for
The carver Gutzon Borglum decided to carve
president’s faces onto the side of the
mountain. He decided that George
Washinton, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham
Lincoln, and Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt
should be carved on the mountain.
George Washington- 1st president & leader of
Thomas Jefferson- purchased land from
France, which doubled the size of the U.S.
Abraham Lincoln- he led the country during
the Civil War.
Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt- he had the U.S.
build a waterway in Central America, the
waterway is called the Panama Canal. He
also was from South Dakota.
Teddy Roosevelt Abraham
As a review of what we just learned about
the presidents, can someone raise their hand
and tell me if the presidents were good
citizens? Also give me an example of why.
How can we be good citizens? Raise your
hand and give me an example.
Do you remember that we said weathering
and erosion caused mountains to become
more smooth and to flatten out? What can
we do as “good citizens” to make sure Mt.
Rushmore isn’t damaged? How can we
protect Mt. Rushmore?
Each year Mt. Rushmore is cleaned and
checked for cracks or damage. Rock wears
away over time from weathering and erosion.
Also some people leave trash around the
mountain or spray paint it.
Do you think these are examples of showing
good citizenship or bad citizenship?